CN102252634B - Laser multiple degrees of freedom precision measurement system based on telescope system - Google Patents

Laser multiple degrees of freedom precision measurement system based on telescope system Download PDF

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CN102252634B
CN102252634B CN2011101613381A CN201110161338A CN102252634B CN 102252634 B CN102252634 B CN 102252634B CN 2011101613381 A CN2011101613381 A CN 2011101613381A CN 201110161338 A CN201110161338 A CN 201110161338A CN 102252634 B CN102252634 B CN 102252634B
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mechanism
distance
looking
3rd
measure
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CN2011101613381A
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CN102252634A (en
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王克逸
闫佩正
吴朔
郝鹏
曹兆楼
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中国科学技术大学
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Abstract

The invention relates to a laser multiple degrees of freedom precision measurement system based on a telescope system. The system comprises a moving mechanism and a fixed mechanism, and the moving mechanism generates three beams of parallel light; the fixed mechanism comprises a first measurement telescope mechanism, a second measurement telescope mechanism and a third measurement telescope mechanism which are arrayed in parallel; entrance ports of the three measurement telescope mechanisms respectively correspond to the three beams of parallel light which are emitted by the moving mechanism; exit ports are correspondingly provided with photoelectric receivers; and two reflectors and a lens are sequentially arranged between the exit port and the photoelectric receiver of the second measurement telescope mechanism. The system provided by the invention is used for measuring two straightness errors and three angle errors which are vertical to the proceed direction, and the light path adjustment is simple; less optical devices are used in the system, the system has the advantages of simple structures and small size is convenient for installation and adjustment, and the rapid measurement with high accuracy can be obtained; and the system can also finish six-degree-of-freedom full posture measurement together with length measuring technology such as a laser interferometer.

Description

Laser multiple degrees of freedom precision measurement system based on telescopic system

Technical field

The invention belongs to object and its multiple degrees of freedom error of moving or athletic posture carried out when line slideway moves the technical field of high-acruracy survey, be specifically related to a kind of laser multiple degrees of freedom precision measurement system based on telescopic system.

Background technology

In a lot of fields such as machine-building, machining, measurement, control, line slideway or one dimension translation stage all are widely used.Line slideway has six errors, and except that positioning error, all the other five is geometric error, is respectively the angle of pitch, deflection angle, roll angle and perpendicular to two linearitys of direct of travel.Along with the raising and the development of technical merit, increasingly high to the demand of guide precision, the detection to guide rail multiple degrees of freedom error requires also increasingly high thereupon.Because environmental restraint in the scientific experiment process, the attention that convenient and swift and high-precision multi-degree of freedom measurement system obtains engineering, experimenter is day by day developed in the science that error is traced to the source and the requirements such as high efficiency of experimentation.

Domestic and international modal multi-degree of freedom measurement method is to use laser interferometer now, such as HP5529A dynamic calibration appearance.But parameter of the each measurement of this type systematic all need be readjusted instrument; And measuring process need be used dissimilar measurement annexes; Not only measuring period is very loaded down with trivial details and very long; Waste when causing great amount of manpower and machine, and measuring accuracy receives survey crew and measurement environment variable effect bigger.Therefore, developing the laser system of measuring the multiple degrees of freedom geometric error simultaneously is the major issue that generally faces at present.Association area is studied above problem both at home and abroad; Developed applicating laser technology and measured multivariant several method simultaneously, summarized and get up to be divided into following several types: like [Sun Changku, Zhou Fuqiang; Liu Yue; The leaf good reputation. six degree of freedom test macro [J]. Chinese journal of scientific instrument, 1998, (04)]; " based on the six degree of freedom Design of Measurement System method of cooperation target " [Kim J.-A.; Bae E.W.; Kim S.H.; Kwak Y.K. Design methods for six-degree-of-freedom displacement measurement systems using cooperative targets (2002) Precision Engineering, 26 (1), pp. 99-104.].Technology: as [Liu Yongdong, Wang Jia, Liang Jinwen. the full attitude laser tracking measurement of dynamic object [J]. laser and infrared, 1999, (03)]; " six degree of freedom measuring equipment and method " [Device and method for measuring six degrees of freedom, U.S. Patent Publication number: US2010/0128259A1,2010]; " based on the coordinate measurment instrument and the method for laser " [Laser-based coordinate measuring device and laser-based method for measuring coordinates, U.S. Patent number: US7800758B1,2010].This method has commercial product, like the laser tracker of U.S. API company.This method measurement range is big, and speed is high, be fit to the measurement of macro-scale, and five geometric errors of line slideway all belongs to small quantity, so can not give full play to its performance.Like " in magnetic suspension system, using real-time measuring position of CCD camera and attitude " [Lin Chin E.; Hou Ann-San Real-time position and attitude sensing using CCD cameras in magnetic suspension system applications (1995) IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement; 44 (1); Pp. 8-13.]; This system need demarcate a plurality of CCD, and to vibration sensing, other errors of rolling angle measurement ratio of precision are low; " the target six degree of freedom based on video camera and use rotating mirror is measured and is followed the tracks of "; [Camera based six degree of freedom target measuring and target tracking device with rotatable mirror; U.S. Patent number US7576847B2; 2009], this method also need be done accurate demarcation to camera.As [Kuang Cuifang, Feng Qibo, Zhang Bin, Zhang Zhi peak, Chen Shiqian. the sextuple simultaneously-measured mathematical model of parameter [J] of laser. Chinese journal of scientific instrument, 2006, (04)]; " based on the line slideway six degree of freedom geometric error high-acruracy survey of laser " [Liu C.-H.; Jywe W.-Y.; Hsu C.-C.; Hsu T.-H. Development of a laser-based high-precision six-degrees-of-freedom motion errors measuring system for linear stage (2005) Review of Scientific Instruments, 76 (5), art. no. 055110]; " six degree of freedom sensor " [Six degree of freedom sensor, U.S. Patent number 5883803,1999]; " motion platform linearity measurer " [Straightness measuring apparatus for moving stage, U.S. Patent number US6559955B2,2003]; " through the device of thrihedral reflector measurement rigid body six degree of freedom error " [Apparatus for measuring 6-degree-of-freedom motions of rigid body by using three-facet mirror; U.S. Patent number: US6678059B2,2004]; [a kind of laser six degree of freedom is measurement mechanism simultaneously, the patent No. 200520147401.6,2007].These class methods have commercial product, like " five-axis/six-axis measuring system " [five-axis/six-axis laser measuring system, U.S. Patent number: 6049377,2000] of U.S. API company, and form certain market.These methods are used non-contact measurement, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) is little, compact conformation, and measuring accuracy is higher, still the enlargement ratio of multiple degrees of freedom error is received the restriction of principle, is difficult to obtain bigger raising.

Up to the present, simultaneously-measured technology of multiple multiple degrees of freedom and device have occurred, these technology have obtained certain application, but also have some problems.So the invention optical texture is simple, volume is little, at a high speed, more high-precision multi-degree of freedom measurement System and method for is the development trend in this field.

Summary of the invention

In order to realize the move deflection angle of object when line slideway moves, the angle of pitch, roll angle and to measure perpendicular to two straightness errors of direct of travel the time; Cooperating laser interferometer or other to survey when long technology realizes positioning error measures; Promptly realize the six degree of freedom measurement, the present invention provides a kind of laser multiple degrees of freedom precision measurement system based on telescopic system.

The technical solution that realizes above-mentioned purpose is such.

Laser multiple degrees of freedom precision measurement system based on telescopic system comprises travel mechanism 1, is made up of laser instrument, more than one beam splitter and reverberator, produces the three beams directional light;

Also comprise fixed mechanism 7, said fixed mechanism 7 comprises that first of arrangement arranged side by side measures the mechanism 15, second of looking in the distance and measure the mechanism the 16, the 3rd of looking in the distance and measure the mechanism 9 of looking in the distance, and the entrance port of light beam all is positioned at the same side, and exit portal all is positioned at opposite side; First measure the mechanism 15 of looking in the distance corresponding position, the exit portal outside be provided with first photelectric receiver 14; Second measure the mechanism 16 of looking in the distance exit portal outside correspondence be provided with first reverberator 13; The reflex port outside correspondence of first reverberator 13 is provided with second reverberator 12; The reflex port outside correspondence of second reverberator 12 is provided with lens 11, and the exit portal correspondence of lens 11 is provided with second photelectric receiver 8; The 3rd measure the mechanism 9 of looking in the distance exit portal outside correspondence be provided with the 3rd photelectric receiver 10;

Said first measures the mechanism 15, second of looking in the distance measures the mechanism 16 and the 3rd of looking in the distance and measure the mechanism 9 of looking in the distance and be telescopic system: wherein first measure the look in the distance entrance port of mechanism 9 of look in the distance mechanism 15 and the 3rd measurement and be eyepiece, exit portal is object lens; Second measure the mechanism 16 of looking in the distance the entrance port be object lens, exit portal is an eyepiece.

Described first measures the mechanism 15, second of looking in the distance measures the mechanism 16 and the 3rd of looking in the distance to measure the mechanism 9 of looking in the distance is keplerian telescope system or Galileo formula telescopic system.

Described first photelectric receiver 14, second photelectric receiver 8, the 3rd photelectric receiver 10 are photoelectrical position sensor (PSD) or quadrant detector or charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) (CMOS) imageing sensor.

Described lens 11 are simple lens or compound lens.

Described first reverberator 13 and second reverberator 12 are the catoptron or the prism of turning back.

The present invention compares the useful technique effect that is had with background technology:

One of which, travel mechanism send the three beams parallel beam, are used for measuring vertical two straightness errors and three angular errors in direct of travel, and optical device is few, and the light path adjustment is simple;

Two, the sensitivity of the common decision systems measurement of the visual amplification of telescopic system and the focal length of lens under the situation that does not change light channel structure, is chosen the telescopic system of different multiplying and the lens of different focal and can be realized different sensitivity;

Three, this apparatus structure is simple, volume is little, installation is easy to adjust, can obtain high precision and measure fast;

Four, this device can also be accomplished the measurement of the full attitude of six degree of freedom with the long technology of surveys such as laser interferometer.

When lens 11 focal lengths are 10mm; First measures the mechanism 15, second of looking in the distance measures the mechanism 16 and the 3rd of looking in the distance and measures mechanism's 9 visual amplifications of looking in the distance and be 10; First to measure look in the distance mechanism 15 and the 3rd measurement mechanism's 9 optical axis distances of looking in the distance be 10mm; When the position detection accuracy of first photelectric receiver 14, second photelectric receiver 8 and the 3rd photelectric receiver 10 is 1 μ m; The measuring precision is: two measuring straightness error precision are 0.1 μ m, and the angle of pitch and deflection angle error measure precision are 2 ", roll angle error measure precision is 2 ".Change to measure the parameters such as visual amplification and the focal length of lens of the mechanism of looking in the distance, measuring accuracy improves thereupon.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is a structural representation of the present invention.

Fig. 2 is the principle schematic that the telescopic system angle error of the second light beam incident is amplified.

Fig. 3 is the principle schematic that the telescopic system of first light beam or the 3rd light beam incident amplifies displacement error.

Fig. 4 is a laser multi-degree of freedom measurement systematic survey roll angle error by principle synoptic diagram.

Among the above-mentioned figure: travel mechanism 1, laser instrument 2, first beam splitter 3, second beam splitter 4, laser alignment telescope 5, the 3rd reverberator 6, fixed mechanism 7, second photelectric receiver the 8, the 3rd are measured the mechanism 9 of looking in the distance, the 3rd photelectric receiver 10, lens 11, second reverberator 12, first reverberator 13, first photelectric receiver 14, first and are measured the mechanism 15, second of looking in the distance and measure the mechanism 16 of looking in the distance, the 3rd laser beam 17, second laser beam 18, first laser beam 19.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is done to describe further through embodiment.

Embodiment 1:

Referring to Fig. 1, comprise fixed mechanism and travel mechanism based on the laser multiple degrees of freedom precision measurement system of telescopic system.Travel mechanism 1 is fixed on the guide rail movement pair, moves along line slideway with kinematic pair, and fixed mechanism 7 is fixed on measures guide rail one end.

Travel mechanism 1 comprises successively the corresponding laser instrument of arranging 2, first beam splitter 3, second beam splitter 4 and the 3rd reverberator 6; The transmission mouth of first beam splitter 3 is corresponding with the entrance port of second beam splitter 4, and the transmission mouth of second beam splitter 4 is corresponding with the 3rd reverberator 6 entrance ports; The corresponding laser alignment telescope 5 that is provided with the reflex port of second beam splitter 4.First beam splitter 3 and second beam splitter 4 all are divided into reflected light and transmitted light two-way light beam with incident beam.Travel mechanism 1 produces the three beams directional light, i.e. first laser beam 19, second laser beam 18 and the 3rd laser beam 17.

Fixed mechanism 7 comprises that first of arrangement arranged side by side measures the mechanism 15, second of looking in the distance and measure the mechanism the 16, the 3rd of looking in the distance and measure the mechanism 9 of looking in the distance; First to measure the entrance port of the mechanism 15 of looking in the distance corresponding with the reflex port of first beam splitter 3, and first measurement is looked in the distance, and the corresponding position is provided with first photelectric receiver 14 outside the exit portal of mechanism 15; Second to measure the entrance port of the mechanism 16 of looking in the distance corresponding with the exit portal of laser alignment telescope 5; Second measure the mechanism 16 of looking in the distance exit portal outside correspondence be provided with first reverberator 13; The reflex port outside correspondence of first reverberator 13 is provided with second reverberator 12; The reflex port outside correspondence of second reverberator 12 is provided with lens 11, and the exit portal correspondence of lens 11 is provided with second photelectric receiver 8; The 3rd to measure the entrance port of the mechanism 9 of looking in the distance corresponding with the 3rd reverberator 6 exit portals, and the 3rd measurement is looked in the distance, and correspondence is provided with the 3rd photelectric receiver 10 outside the exit portal of mechanism 9.First measures the mechanism 15, second of looking in the distance measures the mechanism 16 and the 3rd of looking in the distance and measure the mechanism 9 of looking in the distance and be the keplerian telescope system: wherein first measure the look in the distance entrance port of mechanism 9 of look in the distance mechanism 15 and the 3rd measurement and be eyepiece, exit portal is object lens; Second measure the mechanism 16 of looking in the distance the entrance port be object lens, exit portal is an eyepiece.First photelectric receiver 14, second photelectric receiver 8 and the 3rd photelectric receiver 10 all adopt photoelectrical position sensor (PSD) (also can adopt quadrant detector or charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) (CMOS) imageing sensor); Lens 11 adopt simple lens; First reverberator 13, second reverberator 12 and the 3rd reverberator 6 adopt catoptrons.

Embodiment 2:

Different with embodiment 1 is, first measures the mechanism 15, second of looking in the distance measures the mechanism 16 and the 3rd of looking in the distance and measure the mechanism 9 of looking in the distance and be Galileo formula telescopic system; Lens 11 adopt compound lens.

All the other structures are with embodiment 1.

Embodiment 3:

Different with embodiment 1 is, first photelectric receiver 14, second photelectric receiver 8 and the 3rd photelectric receiver 10 adopt charge-coupled device (CCD)s, and first reverberator 13, second reverberator 12 and the 3rd reverberator 6 adopt the prism of turning back.

All the other structures are with embodiment 1.

Referring to Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4, five degree of freedom error by principle and the method measured is described:

Suppose when initial that the attitude of line slideway motion parts makes win laser beam 19, second laser beam 18 and the 3rd laser beam 17 measure the mechanism 15, second of looking in the distance and measure the mechanism 16 and the 3rd of looking in the distance and measure the optical axis coincidence of the mechanism 9 of looking in the distance with first respectively.

High stable laser beam that laser instrument 2 sends incides second again and measures the mechanism 16 of looking in the distance through first beam splitter 3, obtain second laser beam 18 by 4 beam splitting of second beam splitter behind laser alignment telescope 5, by object lens incident, and the eyepiece outgoing.When second laser beam 18 has certain angle of pitch and deflection angle to change with the line slideway kinematic pair; Before 18 incidents of second laser beam with respect to second measure the mechanism 16 of looking in the distance optical axis have certain angle to change; Second laser beam 18 is after mechanism's 16 outgoing are looked in the distance in second measurement; With the angle of optical axis by corresponding amplification, reflecting the back successively and focusing on second photelectric receiver 8 through first reverberator 13, second reverberator 12 by lens 11.

As shown in Figure 2; If second laser beam 18 with respect to second measure the mechanism 16 of looking in the distance optical axis included angle is ; Second laser beam 18 through second measure mechanism's 16 outgoing of looking in the distance after, with the angle of optical axis be .Magnification formula by telescopic system can be known:

(1)

If the track pitch angle and moving parts yaw angles are changing and after.Light spot position is on second photelectric receiver 8:

(2)

(3)

In the formula With Be the light spot position coordinate on second photelectric receiver 8, With Be respectively the angle of pitch and deflection angle variable quantity that the line slideway geometric error causes, fBe the focal length of lens 11, LBe second to measure the visual amplification of the mechanism 16 of looking in the distance.

Therefore pass through to detect second laser beam 18 luminous point change in location on second photelectric receiver 8, can be through signal Processing in the hope of the angle of pitch and deflection angle error.

The light beam that laser instrument sends obtains first laser beam 19 and the 3rd laser beam 17 behind beam splitter and reverberator, as the datum ray of measuring two straightness errors and roll angle.First laser beam 19 and the 3rd laser beam 17 are measured the mechanism 15 and the 3rd of looking in the distance through first respectively and are measured the mechanism 9 of looking in the distance, and by the outgoing of eyepiece incident object lens, are received by first photelectric receiver 14 and the 3rd photelectric receiver 10 respectively then.When guide rail movement secondary because when changing perpendicular to two straightness errors of direct of travel and roll angle; Can cause first laser beam 19 or the 3rd laser beam 17 to incide first measures the mechanism 15 or the 3rd of looking in the distance and measures departing from respect to its optical axis before the mechanism 9 of looking in the distance; Light beam is after the telescopic system outgoing, and this departs from and is exaggerated.

As shown in Figure 3; If first laser beam 19 or the 3rd laser beam 17 are measured the optical axis that the mechanism 15 or the 3rd of looking in the distance measures the mechanism 9 of looking in the distance with respect to first side-play amount is arranged; First laser beam 19 or the 3rd laser beam 17 are measured after the mechanism 15 or the 3rd of looking in the distance measures mechanism's 9 outgoing of looking in the distance through first, are to the side-play amount of optical axis.Magnification formula by telescopic system can be known:

(4)

When if the kinematic pair of line slideway has size to be beating of x and y respectively at x axle and y axle; Cause that first laser beam 19, the 3rd laser beam 17 measure the side-play amount that optical axis that the mechanism the 15, the 3rd of looking in the distance measures the mechanism 9 of looking in the distance has corresponding size with respect to first, then light spot position is respectively on the 3rd photelectric receiver 10 and first photelectric receiver 14:

(5)

(6)

As shown in Figure 4; When the movable part of guide rail has roll angle ; With causing first laser beam 19, the 3rd laser beam 17 to measure the optical axis that the mechanism the 15, the 3rd of looking in the distance measures the mechanism 9 of looking in the distance additional side-play amount and are arranged with respect to first; Consider this additional offset, light spot position is on the 3rd photelectric receiver 10:

(7)

(8)

The luminous point change in location is on first photelectric receiver 14:

(9)

(10)

In the formula , Be the light spot position coordinate on the 3rd photelectric receiver 10, , Be the light spot position coordinate on first photelectric receiver 14, , Be the line bounce amount of guide rail both direction, Be the roll angle error of guide rail, dBe the 3rd to measure the distance between the optical axis that the mechanism 9 and second of looking in the distance measures the mechanism 15 of looking in the distance.

Formula 5-10 is an approximate formula, because the light spot position on the 3rd photelectric receiver 10 and first photelectric receiver 14 also receives the influence of the angle of pitch and deflection angle, this influence reduces with the visual amplification increase of telescopic system, can eliminate fully through signal Processing.According to the light spot position on the 3rd photelectric receiver 10 and first photelectric receiver 14, can try to achieve two straightness error and the roll angle error of testee to the angle of pitch and deflection angle de perpendicular to direct of travel through signal Processing.

Because the supposition of initial position, in formula 5-10, the multiple degrees of freedom error of line slideway all is relatively and the telescopic system optical axis.In the actual use of system; This supposition is not satisfied usually; At this moment only need get differential respectively, can obtain light spot position on the 3rd photelectric receiver 10, second photelectric receiver 8, first photelectric receiver 14 and change the relational expression with line slideway multiple degrees of freedom error formula 5-10 both members.Because line slideway multiple degrees of freedom margin of error magnitude is all very little, so this differentiating in engineering error allowed band.

Claims (5)

1. based on the laser multiple degrees of freedom precision measurement system of telescopic system; Comprise travel mechanism (1); Travel mechanism (1) comprises corresponding successively laser instrument (2), first beam splitter (3), second beam splitter (4) and the 3rd reverberator of arranging (6); The transmission mouth of first beam splitter (3) is corresponding with the entrance port of second beam splitter (4), and the transmission mouth of second beam splitter (4) is corresponding with the 3rd reverberator (6) entrance port; The corresponding laser alignment telescope (5) that is provided with the reflex port of second beam splitter (4); Travel mechanism (1) produces the three beams directional light; It is characterized in that: also comprise fixed mechanism (7); Said fixed mechanism (7) comprises that first of arrangement arranged side by side measures the mechanism (15) of looking in the distance, second and measure the mechanism (16) of looking in the distance, the 3rd and measure the mechanism (9) of looking in the distance; And the entrance port of light beam all is positioned at the same side, and exit portal all is positioned at opposite side; First measure the mechanism (15) of looking in the distance corresponding position, the exit portal outside be provided with first photelectric receiver (14); Second measure the mechanism (16) of looking in the distance exit portal outside correspondence be provided with first reverberator (13); The reflex port outside correspondence of first reverberator (13) is provided with second reverberator (12); The reflex port outside correspondence of second reverberator (12) is provided with lens (11), and the exit portal correspondence of lens (11) is provided with second photelectric receiver (8); The 3rd measure the mechanism (9) of looking in the distance exit portal outside correspondence be provided with the 3rd photelectric receiver (10);
Said first measures the mechanism (15) of looking in the distance, second measures the mechanism (16) and the 3rd of looking in the distance and measure the mechanism (9) of looking in the distance and be telescopic system: wherein first measure the look in the distance entrance port of mechanism (9) of look in the distance mechanism (15) and the 3rd measurement and be eyepiece, exit portal is object lens; Second measure the mechanism (16) of looking in the distance the entrance port be object lens, exit portal is an eyepiece.
2. the laser multiple degrees of freedom precision measurement system based on telescopic system according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described first measures the mechanism (15) of looking in the distance, second, and to measure look in the distance mechanism (16) and the 3rd measurement mechanism (9) of looking in the distance be keplerian telescope system or Galileo formula telescopic system.
3. the laser multiple degrees of freedom precision measurement system based on telescopic system according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described first photelectric receiver (14), second photelectric receiver (8), the 3rd photelectric receiver (10) are photoelectrical position sensor (PSD) or quadrant detector or charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) (CMOS) imageing sensor.
4. the laser multiple degrees of freedom precision measurement system based on telescopic system according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described lens (11) are simple lens or compound lens.
5. the laser multiple degrees of freedom precision measurement system based on telescopic system according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described first reverberator (13) and second reverberator (12) are the catoptron or the prism of turning back.
CN2011101613381A 2011-06-16 2011-06-16 Laser multiple degrees of freedom precision measurement system based on telescope system CN102252634B (en)

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CN107121073B (en) * 2017-06-09 2019-07-05 中国科学院光电技术研究所 A kind of high-precision Three Degree Of Freedom method for real-time measurement and device based on laser interferometer

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