The Rice Powder ridge cultivating method
The present invention relates to the tillage cultivation method of crops, is the tillage cultivation method of a kind of paddy rice specifically.
Paddy rice is one of most important cereal crops of people, for thousands of years, human plantation to paddy rice has had the ripe methods of cultivation of a cover, from whole ground, seed selection, grow seedlings, rice transplanting, intertill and clean tillage, fertilising is to harvesting, theory and practice has a lot of Experiences, as if no longer include necessity of research, ancient books literature record from the successive dynasties, people have been familiar with the wet rice cultivation method very early has very important must a relation to the good quality and high output of its growth, for example the Dai Tianfa that comes into one's own of Middle West Han Dynasty and Qu Tianfa adapt to the soil one crop system and the cropping pattern that produces, recovery for the ease of soil fertility, change the original casual system of removing for field system, play the ridge culture ditch between fields in the farmland, the ditch of Crop Species under the ridge is in the ditch between fields, the ditch between fields reciprocity of Second Year ridge, soil fertility obtain local rest and reorganization.Open premodern agriculture textbook and Agricultural Periodicals, we also know present wet rice cultivation method deep ploughing, shallow plowing, the method that no-tillage and several farming combine, traditional rice transplantation by hand also becomes rice transplanting gradually, live, before modern mechanical dissolves now, owing to being limited to the tool of production, peasants use hoe, shovel, plough, rake, farming is a kind of effort and arduous work, therefore shallow plowing and no-tillage be Main Means, its shortcoming performance has the following aspects: 1, with manpower or animal power farming, general tilling depth only has 10 to 15 centimetres, continue to use manpower or animal power ploughs throughout the year, between plow layer and real soil layer, just formed the approximately tillage pan that hardens more than 5 centimetres of one deck, the root growth of crop is subject to certain restrictions.The permeability of soil is bad, is unfavorable for the growth of crop root, lower bundle; 2, irrigation of paddy fields mostly is flood irrigation, string is filled with, and fertilizer efficiency easily runs off and volatilizees; 3, soil shallow, water retention property is relatively poor, and the surface runoff loss of water is large, and efficiency of water application is not high; 4, because soil shallow, dry field easily hardens, and permeability is poor, and difficult growth of rice root and causing yields poorly, poor quality, and farmers' income just reduces.Although in recent years, the artificial farming such as hoe, shovel, plough, rake has become tractor or other farm machinery farming gradually, plough deeply and also be increased to 20 centimetres by 10 to 15 centimetres, but deep ploughing only only limits to mellow soil layer, multi-purpose plough is smashed earth after turning over, if earth viscosity is difficult to more greatly smash; In addition, even ridging also is simple furrow, so that technology is ploughed deeply in present soil is unfavorable to the growth of paddy rice, can not satisfy the demand of rice root.
From as seen above-mentioned, suitably deep ploughing is paddy rice and the innovation of other crops tillage cultivation method and the important measures that are conducive to crop yield, but, the subsoiling of how deep ploughing, a lot of agricultural experts are also studying, and also do not form unified standard, therefore on the basis by practice and further investigation, find a kind of technology of the subsoiling of deep ploughing according to Different Crop, will bring a larger promotion to agricultural from now on.
The inventor carried out some researchs to the deep ploughing subsoiling of proportion of crop planting, for example applied in 2009 " method for planting dryland crops by crashing soil ", application number: 2010010125942.4 Chinese patent, summary, the tillage cultivation method of this dry land crop adopts rotary tillage screw type mechanical deep pine ditch, silt, plow layer and tillage pan is loosened the soil pulverize and the soil moved in to improve the original floating of part tillage pan becomes the ridge naturally with the soil mixing of plow layer, after machine ditch silt becomes the ridge, can sow or plant.Can determine to adopt different line-spacing and ditch depth specification according to Different Crop plantation demand.Adopt this inventive method, the soil cultivation holostrome is rarefaction, and played the soil moved in to improve the original effect of improving the soil in the zanjon rotary tillage, preserve moisture and fertility ability and the permeability of soil have been improved, be conducive to the dark utilization of pricking liquid manure of crop root, disease is relative with weeds to be reduced, and crop yield increases substantially, generally can increase production more than 20%, high reaches more than 100%.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of paddy rice deep ploughing subsoiling and the tillage cultivation method of random soil layer not, can overcome existing shallow plowing process to cause land quality day by day to degenerate, soil compaction is serious, and the problem that permeability descends improves the output of paddy rice.
Technical scheme of the present invention is achieved in that
The Rice Powder ridge cultivating method comprises whole ground, chooses seeds, grows seedlings, rice transplanting, intertill and clean tillage, fertilising and harvesting, and it is characterized in that: concrete steps are as follows:
(1) ridging (railway carriage or compartment) is on paddy field, when paddy soil humidity is low, adopt the tractor linkage spiral drill bit machinery vertical turnery soil natural that buries to become railway carriage or compartment Cheng Long, 20-30 centimetre of the turnery degree of depth of burying guarantees to be screwed into raw soil layer, and makes soil powder ridge in small, broken bits, hack floats approximately 5-10 centimetre naturally, subsoiling and not random soil layer, the railway carriage or compartment face width is looked powder ridge mechanical drill device can divide 60-300 centimetre, between railway carriage or compartment and railway carriage or compartment the row's of filling ditch, the no-tillage 20-30 of bottom of trench centimetre, become 15-25 centimetre of furrow width.
(2) after sowing, silt become the ridge to become the railway carriage or compartment, directly sowing after paddy rice vernalization; Perhaps wait for the soil natural of pouring water molten mashed after, carry out rice transplanting or rice transplanting.
(3) water management, the solid root of shallow water is adopted in the management of turning green behind rice transplanting or rice transplanting, and very seedling is turned green; Tillering early stage, shallow wet short root, low water level is tillered; Tillering the Sheng phase, suitable deep water, ditch-water is supported root, makes every effort to promote the seedling number; Tillering the later stage, control seedling control tiller reveals the ditch depth root, and dry field is strengthened bar; Before fast heading, backwater is moistening, strong stalk nourishing the fetus; When heading is solid, moistening guarantor's root, Wang Genbaoye.
Rice Powder of the present invention ridge cultivation, whole ground, powder ridge most importantly, ditch is established between (railway carriage or compartment) in the ridge, and the furrow irrigation regulating the qi flowing in the channels is transferred fertile; Next is field moisture, notes alternation of wetting and drying.It is well developed root systems that maximum characteristics are cultivated on the Rice Powder ridge, in management, to embody take the theory of root as this, the cultivation of Rice Powder ridge half direct-sowing dry, seeding stage adopts non-irrigated seedling management method, tillering stage and middle and later periods employing are poured water or are utilized natural rainfall, carry out the alternation of wetting and drying management; Rice Powder ridge throwing-seedling cultivation, Rice Powder ridge rice transplanting cultivation, cultivate early stage on the basis of strong seedling, behind slotting (throwing) seedling, shallow water is tillered, and after this employing is poured water or is utilized natural rainfall, carries out the alternation of wetting and drying management.
(4) fertilizing management, the cultivation of Rice Powder ridge has the feature of the light seedling of repeated root in early stage, can use base manure in conjunction with the powder ridge wholely, spreads fertilizer over the fields base manure at the field face and by the turnery drill bit fertilizer is incorporated in the soil, utilizes in order to plant growth is omnidistance, looks seedling during the paddy growth and topdresses; If basal dressing does not note suitably enriching fertilizer early stage behind Rice Cropping; Middle and later periods suitably topdresses according to seedlings of cereal crops growing way and carries out the prevention and control of disease worm.
(5) weeding management, since Rice Powder ridge deep ploughing subsoiling, part raw soil layer turnery floating, and weeds are relatively less, after planting the herbicide spraying management of weeds.
(6) other field management.On plantation normalization, standardized basis, can carry out Routine Management by different rice varieties growth and development characteristicses, such as early rice, late rice, conventional rice, hybrid rice etc., other field management is all identical.But ditch is established on cultivation ridge, powder of the present invention ridge (railway carriage or compartment), with ditch water transfer regulating the qi flowing in the channels, and ridge face rational close planting, management is relatively easy.
(7) crop rotation, the soil of Rice Powder of the present invention ridge cultivation, deep ploughing subsoiling degree is better, but rear do zero tillage paddy rice, but also crop rotation corn, peanut, fruit sugarcane, soybean or other economic crops.
(8) use, the cultivation of Rice Powder of the present invention ridge can be applied to paddy rice nonirrigated farmland direct sowing culture, semiarid land direct sowing culture, backwater weak soil throwing-seedling cultivation or rice transplanting cultivation, and northern south can adapt to.
Adopted Rice Powder ridge cultivating method of the present invention that following outstanding substantive distinguishing features and significant progressive is arranged:
1, plant in the past upland rice, employing be the whole ground of plow harrow or plow harrow field, soil layer is relatively shallow, easily causes soil compaction, permeability is poor, and the shallow easy lodging of root system, can not satisfy the rice high yield demand.After adopting the present invention, deep ploughing subsoiling and not random soil layer, soil thickness is many at 20-25 centimetre, thicken about 8 centimetres than routine, because soil plough horizon deepens to have increased active soil stratum, and be rarefaction, improved the permeability of soil, strengthen Tibetan water water retention capacity, alleviated the surface runoff loss of water, thereby improved efficiency of water application, and improved the Root growth condition, be conducive to prick under the root system and absorb deep soil moisture and nutrient, be conducive to the growth of rice root, lower bundle and improving activity of root system and improve, root system is many and bright white.
2, Rice Powder ridge cultivation, ridge (railway carriage or compartment) is no-tillage alternate with pavement (irrigation and drainage ditch), after solarization is revealed in the rice field, the field face does not generally ftracture, and soil is spongy, and preserve moisture and fertility performance spy is good, be conducive to the paddy fields soil moisture conservation, be conducive to again ventilatedly, also can increase limit row advantage.
3, the oxygenation gain of heat because the present invention economizes on water, foster root mulch, plant strain growth is relatively coordinated, blade thickness and straight and upright, the stem strain is sturdy and hale and hearty, and the leaf look dark green and glossy, and growth fraction is more sane, life is broken out not, and (plant of conventional cultivation is then relatively soft for fertilizer deficiency, blade falls in masses, and leaf look removing jaundice has presented the fertilizer deficiency phenomenon).
4, the farming of the inventive method and traditional paddy rice difference is: the vertical turnery deep ploughing subsoiling of mechanization and not random soil layer, and the silt ridging is that location, field, fixed point are carried out, arable land, field tillage operation face reduces relatively; Dry ground powder ridge does not need to harrow a field, behind the backwater natural weak soil can throw, rice transplanting; It is spongy that paddy soil is, and penetrating gas is good, and the preserve moisture and fertility ability is strong.
5, base manure can spread fertilizer over the fields in paddy fields before whole ground, powder ridge, and fertilizer can be deposited with soil is mixed, and utilization rate of fertilizer is high; The general degree of depth in whole ground, powder ridge is about 25 centimetres, but a small amount of tillage pan soil of turnery plays the effect of improving the soil of certain soil moved in to improve the original, minimizing weeds and disease;
6, adopt the tractor interlock vertical spin drill bit machinery turnery soil that buries, can not use the farm machinery such as independent plough, rake, rotovator, the agricultural machinery tillage operation of easy realization standard, reduce Work machine kind and certain energy consumption, can reduce artificial, enhance productivity and benefit, and make things convenient for the organizational standard equalization, contract grower's work more light.
7, Rice Powder ridge cultivation is possible so that agricultural tillage is standardized into.The powder ridge become the ridge become the railway carriage or compartment can normalization, standardized work and plantation, standardized production will play good impetus to agricultural after setting up.
Above-described paddy rice deep ploughing subsoiling and the tillage cultivation method of random soil layer not, topmost employing vertical spin turnery drill bit machinery carries out whole ground, powder ridge, carry out dry ground powder ridge, a small amount of immature soil can be routed up ground in the time of silt, mix with mellow soil, so require the vertical spin turnery drill bit machinery of employing, this machinery also has the rotary cultivator attachment of certain angle, ditch is established between (railway carriage or compartment) in the ridge on powder ridge, and the furrow irrigation regulating the qi flowing in the channels is transferred fertile; Next is field moisture, notes alternation of wetting and drying.It is well developed root systems that maximum characteristics are cultivated on the Rice Powder ridge, in management, to embody take the theory of root as this, the cultivation of Rice Powder ridge half direct-sowing dry, seeding stage adopts non-irrigated seedling management method, tillering stage and middle and later periods employing are poured water or are utilized natural rainfall, carry out the alternation of wetting and drying management; Rice Powder ridge throwing-seedling cultivation, Rice Powder ridge rice transplanting cultivation, cultivate early stage on the basis of strong seedling, behind slotting (throwing) seedling, shallow water is tillered, and after this employing is poured water or is utilized natural rainfall, carries out the alternation of wetting and drying management.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 be Rice Powder ridge cultivating method of the present invention sowing in the time of 14 days with the seedlings of cereal crops root system comparison diagram of identical region conventional cultivation method;
Fig. 2 be Rice Powder ridge cultivating method of the present invention rice transplanting after 26 days with the seedlings of cereal crops root system comparison diagram of identical region conventional cultivation method;
Fig. 3 be Rice Powder ridge cultivating method of the present invention rice transplanting after 26 days with the seedlings of cereal crops comparison diagram of identical region conventional cultivation method.
The Rice Powder ridge cultivation of Fig. 3, the cultivation of inventor's called after super hybridization rice powder ridge.
Inventor's Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences economic crops Wei Benhui researcher of research institute, according to the technology of the present invention demand, adopt powder ridge rotary tillage machine, (paddy rice rotary tillage screw type machinery provides in " rotary-grinding type multifunctional machine for deep tillage of powder ridge " patent of inventor's application in 2010, application number: 201010270614.3 applyings date: 2010.09.03 open (bulletin) number: CN101971723A open (bulletin) day: 2011.02.16, application (patent right) people: Wei Benhui, address: No. 174 Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Nanning City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region university East Road, namely: paddy rice rotary tillage screw type machinery has hack mechanism and defeated native mechanism, its effect is with the following certain depth in earth's surface, the soil layer of certain section configuration is broken, is beneficial to the soil bits of defeated native mechanism after with fragmentation and is delivered to the earth's surface; The effect of defeated native mechanism is that the soil bits of fragmentation are loose.) carry out field trial and research and obtain corresponding test data.
On August 6th, 2010, the inventor is in Wuming County Ningwu, Guangxi town, utilize vertical spin turnery drill bit machinery powder ridge wholely with the whole ground of tractor rotary tillage (contrast), test, August 6 was sowed, kind is No. 3, osmanthus drought, investigation on August 20, the result shows, the Plant Height of Rice increase by 0.3% of powder ridge plantation, root is long to increase by 61.77%, and the number of blade increases by 3.93%.This test shows, the paddy rice of powder ridge cultivation, and root system is flourishing especially, and fibrous root is many, robust plant, upright blade (seeing Fig. 1).
Before and after on April 10th, 2011, the inventor transplants super hybridization rice in test rice field, Xin Cang village, new bridge town, the continuous district of Yulin City of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous good fortune, and kind is Y two excellent No. 1.May 9, we invite several experts of Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences to go to investigation, see intuitively, and at powder ridge piece kind super hybridization rice, growing way obviously is better than the field on the common whole ground of tractor.The cultivation of super hybridization rice powder ridge is thrown 26 days mu tillered nursery plants of (inserting) seedling number and is just reached about 360,000, and root system 2 as shown in Figure 2.The expert thinks that the cultivation performance of super hybridization rice powder ridge has several characteristics: 1, root system continues to keep prosperous length and Bai Genduo.2, after solarization was revealed in the rice field, plow layer chesson thickness was many at 20-25 centimetre, thickens about 8 centimetres than routine; The field face does not ftracture, and soil is spongy, and preserve moisture and fertility performance spy is good.3, plant strain growth is relatively coordinated, and blade thickness is and straight and upright, and the stem strain is sturdy and hale and hearty, and the leaf look dark green and glossy.4, plant strain growth is more sane, the life not fertilizer deficiency (plant of conventional cultivation is then relatively soft, and blade falls in masses, and leaf look removing jaundice has presented the fertilizer deficiency phenomenon) of breaking out.
On May 4th, 2011, the inventor is still in super hybridization rice experiment and demonstration base, the continuous district of Yulin City good fortune, (with the field next door of embodiment 1) adopts the augers machinery vertical turnery soil natural that buries to become railway carriage or compartment Cheng Long, about 25 centimetres of the turnery degree of depth of burying, assurance is screwed into raw soil layer, and make soil powder ridge in small, broken bits, subsoiling and not random soil layer, hack floats approximately 5-7 centimetre naturally, the railway carriage or compartment face width is looked powder ridge mechanical drill device and how much is divided into 60-300 centimetre, between railway carriage or compartment and railway carriage or compartment fill with row's ditch, the no-tillage 20-30 of bottom of trench centimetre, become 15-25 centimetre of furrow width, direct sowing culture railway carriage or compartment face fertilising and with native mixing after directly broadcast sowing rudiment seed rice, slightly swipe with thin bamboo rake and show soil and allow earth covering seed rice, the certain humidity of front soil conservation of emerging, emerge rear man-made irrigation or utilize natural rainfall notes using weed killer herbicide; The direct backwater of inserting the cultivation of (throwings) seedling soaks that 2-3 days soil naturals are molten inserts (throwings) seedling after mashed, early stage shallow irrigation, the middle and later periods alternation of wetting and drying is managed and is also suitably topdressed and sick worm prevention and control.Under observation find, in one week of open field, the super hybridization rice of powder ridge cultivation is tillered vigorous, grow fine, and powder ridge rice transplanting 30 days, every mu of tillered nursery plant number has reached 36-37 ten thousand seedlings.In the situation that tiller number is substantially up to standard, still continue to tiller, for the control seedling has proposed new problem.For this reason, through having carried out crime scene discussion with the expert who together observes, determine to take by measures such as draining, control fertilizer to realize effectively controlling seedling.
Test site, Beiliu City, Guangxi, in February, 2011 the powder ridge, March 6 sowing, 12-13 day in April transplants, kind is Y two excellent No. 1.Subsoiling 20-30 centimetre, the row's of filling ditch is set between railway carriage or compartment (ridge), according to the cultivation strategy of " do powder ridge, field; subsoiling native (the suitable tillage pan of protecting) alive, ditch is established in a minute railway carriage or compartment, and water saving is irrigated through furrow; alternation of wetting and drying, and the oxygenation of breathing freely is conducted heat with gas; support the root mulch, realizes increasing " source " expansion " storehouse ", and strong bar increases production " and the cultivation theory of " outstanding take root as this; as to educate root and support the root mulch; root is strengthened body by force, promotes production with root ", implement.Transplant after 30 days, find that powder ridge cultivation well developed root system and powder ridge soil still keep graininess after soaked, do not harden.The plant strain growth situation as shown in Figure 3.
The inventor draws following cognition through the experiment of two Rice Powder ridge cultivations in season:
Rice seedling transplanting and throwing plantation behind the slurry rake that will pass through plough, harrows or turn over of tradition rice cropping, the paddy rice of powder ridge cultivation, then adopt disposable vertical turnery to pulverize, subsoiling and not random soil layer, topsoil thickens with soil structure and improves, and water saving economizes fertile, the breeding good method, to educate the strong root of root as basic, can realize minimal tilling abridged edition, saving of labor energy-conservation, break through normal purpose of producing.
By test and perfect, reform existing traditional rice cropping pattern, make the cultivation of Rice Powder ridge drive transformation and the optimization of rice field tillage method, cropping system, thicken paddy field plow layer, reduce the mechanical work number of times and realize energy-saving and emission-reduction, necessary water saving is irrigated and efficiency cultivation technology for high, improve paddy field water either resource and utilization rate of fertilizer, improve the planting benefit of rice field integrated production capacity and crop thereof, shift and Ensuring Food Safety for adapting to China rural laborer, explore the crop yield new approach such as paddy rice.
The direction of exploring: the one, by the cultivation of powder ridge, thicken paddy field plow layer and improve ecological environment of soil, for paddy rice and other plant growths provide new good soil condition, realize the fertile abridged edition high yield of water saving joint.The 2nd, by powder ridge cultivation, can try early the crops such as season powder ridge cultivation super hybridization rice+season in evening no-tillage cultivation paddy rice+autumn and winter cultivation no-tillage cultivation potato, rape; Powder ridge plantation in winter potato+season morning no-tillage cultivation super hybridization rice+season in evening rice of no-tillage; Utilization season morning powder ridge cultivation super hybridization rice well developed root system and the stronger advantage of vigor, the development ratoon rice is results ahead of time, and then the circulation tillage method such as development autumn and winter cultivation crop and reduce the mechanical work number of times, realize driving the optimization of multiple tillage method and cropping system and efficient with the cultivation of powder ridge.The 3rd, by the cultivation of super hybridization rice powder ridge, exploration whole field, powder ridge, fertilising, sowing, weeding are equal to machine integrated operation, realize increasing substantially of mechanization production efficient, and the labor amount significantly reduces.
The inventor thinks, the cultivation of Rice Powder ridge is different from planting dryland crops by crashing soil, is a kind of brand-new rice cultivating technique.Powder application ridge machine was disposable when it referred to the rice field dry ground pulverizes and naturally suspends into railway carriage or compartment (ridge) with the vertical turnery of topsoil, the row's of filling ditch is set between railway carriage or compartment (ridge), subsoiling and not random soil layer are in the planting season of rice cultivation and keep powder ridge soil structure, the water saving oxygenation gain of heat, support the culture technique that root mulch etc. matches on the face of railway carriage or compartment (ridge).
The cultivation method that the inventor proposes has three kinds of Rice Powder ridge planting patternss: under (1) wet condition, directly sow the powder ridge direct sowing culture of plantation on the face of railway carriage or compartment, powder ridge.(2) throwing-seedling cultivation behind rice field, the powder ridge backwater immersion weak soil; (3) rice transplanting was cultivated after rice field, powder ridge backwater soaked weak soil.
The basic principle of Rice Powder ridge cultivation is: take full advantage of paddy field plow layer and the long-term deposition of following part " decrepit and behind the times soil " and natural rainfall, realize subsoiling (more than 20 centimetre) soil moved in to improve the original and not random soil layer, naturally soft and do not starch knot after backwater soaks, Zang Shui and do not affect ventilative (soil is spongy); Water saving furrow irrigation regulation and control realize the oxygenation gain of heat, improve water and fertilizer utilization, grow and have created the ecological environment of soil of " soil, water, fertilizer, gas, heat, bacterium etc. are completely newly coordinated " for satisfying super hybridization rice.
This technology, fundamentally solve and overcome the traditional cultivation paddy rice will through plough, harrow or the slurry rake of turning over could throw the soil layer shallow (mostly being 15 centimetres) that exists in the mode such as (inserting) seedling, fall to doing easily harden, long-time flood irrigation string filling easily causes clay fertilizer water seriously to run off, the waterflooding anaerobism easily causes root system few and mostly be sepia and peculiar smell is arranged for a long time, is difficult to the significant drawback of increasing production again.
The cultivation of Rice Powder ridge is different from traditional rice cropping fully, and its basic principle is: outstanding take root as this, and to educate root and support the root mulch, the strong stalk of strong root is promoted production with root.
The cultivation of Rice Powder ridge has broken through traditional rice cropping pattern, and its elementary tactics is: do powder ridge, field, subsoiling is lived native (the suitable tillage pan of protecting), ditch is established in minute railway carriage or compartment, water saving furrow irrigation, alternation of wetting and drying, ventilative oxygenation, conduct heat with gas, support the root mulch, realize increasing " source " expansion " storehouse ", strong bar volume increase.
According to above-described embodiment, the technical essential that the inventor sums up the cultivation of Rice Powder ridge is:
1, whole field, powder ridge: ditch (waiting to plant) is established on dry ground powder ridge, a minute railway carriage or compartment;
2, transplant cultivation: the backwater weak soil, shallow water is thrown (inserting) seedling; (direct sowing culture: moistening live, alternation of wetting and drying)
3, the management of turning green: the solid root of shallow water, very seedling is turned green;
4, tiller early stage: shallow wet short root, low position tiller;
5, tiller the Sheng phase: ditch-water is supported root, makes every effort to promote the seedling number;
6, control seedling control tiller: reveal the ditch depth root, make up colony;
7, the strong bar of dry field: hondo oxygenation, the strong bar of strong root;
8, strong stalk nourishing the fetus: backwater is moistening, the strong tire of the root of living;
9, heading is solid: moistening guarantor's root, Wang Genbaoye.