CN102243286B - Apparatus for detecting and displaying grounding state of equipment or socket - Google Patents

Apparatus for detecting and displaying grounding state of equipment or socket Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102243286B
CN102243286B CN 201110126984 CN201110126984A CN102243286B CN 102243286 B CN102243286 B CN 102243286B CN 201110126984 CN201110126984 CN 201110126984 CN 201110126984 A CN201110126984 A CN 201110126984A CN 102243286 B CN102243286 B CN 102243286B
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China
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test
resistance
switch
line
ground
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CN 201110126984
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102243286A (en
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李英岱
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李英岱
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Abstract

The invention discloses an apparatus for detecting and displaying a grounding state of equipment or a socket. The apparatus comprises a test interface, wherein the test interface is internally provided with a test phase line, a test zero line and a test ground line. The apparatus is characterized by comprising a switch K1 connected with the phase line and the zero line selectively, a switch K2 connected with the zero line and the ground line selectively and a detection circuit, wherein the detection circuit comprises a signal acquisition circuit and at least one test branch, wherein the signal acquisition circuit consists of a resistor and a transformer connected serially, the test branch comprises a resistor and a switch connected serially, a display gauge head is connected to the outputend of the transformer after processed by a processing circuit; and an adjustable resistor W1 is serially connected to the test ground line between a connecting point of the test branch and the ground line and the test interface. The invention realizes measurement on the grounding state and the grounding resistance, and also realizes detection on the working state and the leakage current of a leakage protector. Through indication of a light-emitting diode and a neon lamp, the phase line, the ground line and the zero line can be recognized.

Description

The instrument of a kind of detection and display device or outlet ground state

Technical field

The present invention relates to the instrument of a kind of detection and display device or outlet ground state, in particular, relate in particular to a kind of can the detection the ground state of test line also and can measure the detection of grounding resistance size and the instrument of display device or outlet ground state.

Background technology

The electrical equipment protective ground is the foundation stone of Electrical Safety.Even but the stake resistance of earthing pole meets the requirements, and may not be certain to guarantee that the ground connection of electrical equipment is reliable.The ground wire of the electrical equipment of office building and premises particularly, again to earthing pole, there are many contacts the centre from ground connection branch line, ground connection main line, a bit connects unreliable or fracture as long as have, or the Earth pile-head loose contact of socket, all can cause ground connection unreliable.The temporary electricity of building ground for another example, owing to there is the viewpoint of temporary electricity to exist, protective ground or the stake resistance in some building sites are defective, or the connection of protective ground circuit is unreliable, therefore can not guarantee that electrical equipment ground connection is definitely reliable.Particularly present a lot of transformation project has a lot of interference to existing buildings and ground protection, the annual just repetition measurement of the stake resistance of earthing device once, to the inspection of ground connection connecting line also seldom.In addition, can correctly select in the rural area to use the client of protective ground few.And after earth leakage protective device had been installed, many people had more thinked little of protective ground.Earth leakage protective device is that a kind of person that prevents gets an electric shock and prevents because electric leakage causes the auxiliary protection device of calamity mutually, but also has many situations not protect, and also has a lot of reasons can cause it to refuse to jump, so earth leakage protective device is not protector.Therefore be necessary protective ground is carried out frequent test-based examination or shown the size of its on off operating mode and resistance in real time, so as to strengthening this basic measure of ground protection, with the reliability of further raising protective ground and the safety of people's lives and properties.

The demonstration of protective ground circuit state now, mostly be phase, between connect a current-limiting resistance, adopt LED luminotron or neon bulb to show.The main function of these methods is the break-make that shows or judge the protective ground circuit, for the then difficult resolution of size of stake resistance.And utilize some other accurate measurement instrument such as earth resistance tester or multifunctional tester to carry out regular detection, some inconvenient parts are all arranged.Play the auxiliary earth rod as needs, perhaps can not show in real time, perhaps can not on-line testing etc.Therefore, it is all not too convenient to carry out regular test and online real-time demonstration and measurement with these instrument.

Summary of the invention

The present invention provides a kind of can the detection the ground state of test line also can measure the detection of grounding resistance size and the instrument of display device or outlet ground state in order to overcome the shortcoming of above-mentioned technical matters.

The instrument of detection of the present invention and display device or outlet ground state, comprise the test interface that matches with phase line, zero line and ground wire in the circuit under test, the circuit that is connected with phase line to be measured, zero line and ground wire in the test interface is respectively test phase line, test zero line and test ground wire; Its special feature is: also comprise the K switch 1 that is connected with test phase line and test zero line selectivity, with test zero line and test K switch 2 and the testing circuit that the ground wire selectivity is connected; Described testing circuit comprises that the signal acquisition circuit received after the series connection of resistance R 7 and step-down transformer on K switch 1 and the K switch 2 and at least one receive test branch road on test phase line and the test ground wire respectively by resistance and the switch two ends, back that are in series, and are connected with display gauge head after the treated processing of circuit of the output terminal of described step-down transformer; Tie point at test branch road and ground wire is in series with adjustable resistance W1 to the test ground wire between the test interface.Described phase line and zero line namely are respectively live wire and the neutral line.Adopt testing tool of the present invention when socket or electrical equipment are detected, be used for to guarantee that the connection of phase line and the neutral line is necessarily correct, be provided with after the K switch 1, be conducive between test phase line and test zero line, transfer.The resistance R 7 that is in series with step-down transformer plays metering function, and step-down transformer is used for isolating and being coupled out the less electric signal of numerical value, realizes the measurement to voltage and resistance signal, and carries out the correlation values demonstration by display gauge head.The test branch road cooperates adjustable resistance W1 to be used for the verification of instrument.

The instrument of detection of the present invention and display device or outlet ground state, also comprise the phase test circuit for test phase line, zero line and state of ground wire, receive after described phase test circuit comprises resistance R 1 and light emitting diode connect test phase line and test on the zero line zero test circuit, resistance R 2 mutually and receive the phase ground test circuit at the two ends on test phase line and the test ground wire after first neon lamp connect and resistance R 3 is tested zero line and tested zero ground test circuit on the ground wire with receiving after second neon lamp is connected.Light emitting diode, first neon lamp and second neon lamp are used for the state indication, and resistance R 1, R2 and R3 play metering function; Whether according to the state of light emitting diode, can judge has voltage to exist between phase line and the zero line, and whether according to the state of first neon lamp, can judge has voltage to exist between phase line and the ground wire; Whether according to the state of second neon lamp, can judge has voltage to exist between ground wire and the zero line.In the process of using, the different conditions by in conjunction with light emitting diode, two neon lamps reflects the state that phase place is different.

The instrument of detection of the present invention and display device or outlet ground state, the resistance of described resistance R 1, R2 and R3 is respectively 110K Ω, 220K Ω and 220K Ω.When phase place was correct, resistance R 1, R2 and R3 adopted above-mentioned resistance value, and this electric current with regard to feasible flow through light emitting diode, first neon lamp and second neon lamp is respectively 2mA, 1mA and 0mA.If when phase line and zero line reversal connection, the electric current of the light emitting diode of flowing through, first neon lamp and second neon lamp is respectively 2mA, 0mA and 1mA.

The instrument of detection of the present invention and display device or outlet ground state, described test branch road comprise that resistance R 4 back two of connecting with switch AN1 terminates to the first test branch road, resistance R 5 on K switch 1 and the test ground wire and connect with switch AN2 and two terminate to K switch 1 and test the 3rd on the ground wire and test branch roads after back two terminates to the second test branch road on K switch 1 and the test ground wire and resistance R 6 and connects with switch AN3; The resistance of described resistance R 4, R5 and R6 reduces successively.Resistance R 4, R5 adopt different resistance values with R6, when the switch in the related circuit is closure state, can make the current value difference of related circuit of flowing through.

The instrument of detection of the present invention and display device or outlet ground state, the resistance of described resistance R 4, R5 and R6 is respectively 19.1K Ω, 9.53K Ω and 7.15K Ω.Resistance R 4, R5 and R6 adopt above-mentioned resistance, and after the switch in the corresponding test branch road was pressed, the electric current in the respective branch of flowing through was respectively 11.5mA, 23mA and 31mA.The test branch road at resistance R 4 and resistance R 5 places can be realized the measurement of different accuracy to stake resistance; When detecting grounding resistance, if the rated residual operating current of the earth leakage protective device that arranges in the circuit under test is 15mA, so just carry out the measurement of grounding resistance by the first test branch road, the second test branch road detects earth leakage protective device.If the rated residual operating current of earth leakage protective device is 30mA, so just carry out the measurement of grounding resistance by the second test branch road, and the second test branch road is more accurate to the measurement of grounding resistance; The 3rd test branch road detects earth leakage protective device.

The instrument of detection of the present invention and display device or outlet ground state, the resistance of described resistance R 7 are 150K Ω, and the maximum value of described adjustable resistance W1 is 2K Ω; The voltage of the input and output side of described step-down transformer is respectively 220V, 5V.

The instrument of detection of the present invention and display device or outlet ground state is provided with in the loop at described display gauge head place for the adjustable resistance W2 that display gauge head is demarcated; Described display gauge head is that range is that microampere meter or the range of 500 μ A is the digital voltmeter of 200mV.The maximum value of adjustable resistance W2 is 1K Ω, and adjustable resistance W1 and W2 are used for display gauge head shown voltage and resistance value are demarcated, and shows in order to realize accurate values.

The instrument of detection of the present invention and display device or outlet ground state, the signal input part of described digital voltmeter is connected with the data output end of single-chip microcomputer; The resistance of described adjustable resistance W2 is 1K Ω.When adopting the numerical value voltage table, the collection of its data and processing realize by single-chip microcomputer.

The instrument of detection of the present invention and display device or outlet ground state, comprise for the signal processing circuit that the output signal of step-down transformer is handled, be used for controlling and the single-chip microcomputer of data operation and the host computer that can communicate with single-chip microcomputer that described signal acquisition circuit is connected by A/D converter with single-chip microcomputer.Ground state detecting instrument of the present invention can be used for the ground state of socket and electric equipment is detected; Also can be connected in the existing electrical equipment by the principle wiring, carry out real-time ground state and detect, can also be used for telemechanical in this case.

The instrument of detection of the present invention and display device or outlet ground state, test phase line in the described test interface, test zero line and test ground wire are received on the respective terminal on the terminal block in the existing electrical equipment, and described display gauge head is installed on the panel of existing electrical equipment.

The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: the present invention is by being provided for showing the display gauge head of stake resistance, voltage registration, and the test branch road that is provided with different resistance values, not only realized the measurement to ground state in the test line and grounding resistance, but also realized having or not the detection of leakage current in earth leakage protective device duty and the circuit; Can be in the K switch 1 of phase line and zero line and switching and the K switch 2 that can between zero line and ground wire, transfer by arranging, the wrong circuit of the line order that also can achieve a butt joint is measured fast; The present invention has realized the identification of phase line, ground wire and zero line has been made things convenient for use by light emitting diode and the neon lamp of indicative function have been set between phase line and zero line, zero line and ground wire and phase line and ground wire.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is measuring principle figure of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is circuit theory diagrams of the present invention;

Fig. 3 is the circuit theory diagrams of the present invention that are provided with host computer;

Fig. 4 is the schematic diagram in the present invention the is arranged on existing electrical equipment.

Among the figure: 1 test interface, 2 K switch, 1,3 K switch 2,4 step-down transformers, 5 display gauge heads, 6 adjustable resistance W2,7 adjustable resistance W1,8 first test branch roads, 9 second test branch roads, 10 the 3rd test branch roads, 11 first neon lamps, 12 second neon lamps, 13 signal acquisition circuits, 14 A/D converters, 15 single-chip microcomputers, 16 host computers, 17 fuses.

Embodiment

The invention will be further described below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment.

As shown in Figure 1, provided measuring principle figure of the present invention, shown L, N, PE represent phase line, zero line and ground wire respectively; If the contact resistance of the tie point between stake resistance, earth lead resistance and the ground wire is respectively Rjd, Rdx and Rjc, Rz is the total reactance of ground connection, and the electric current of establishing in the grounding circuit is I, makes Rz=(Rjd+Rdx+Rjc); Then Vd=V-Ve, i.e. Vd=V-I*Rz; Wherein V is phase voltage, and Vd is the voltage between phase line and the ground wire, and Ve is the voltage-to-ground of PE terminal in the socket, that is the current potential of the PE line terminals of socket.Formula Vd=V-I*Rz all is suitable for for TT, TN-C, TN-S, TN-C-S system and single-point grounding and multiple spot multiple grounding, and only during multipoint earthing, Rz is value in parallel.No matter be the sort of mode of connection, if stake resistance is qualified, the voltage Vd that measures should equal 220V or approach to equal 220V, so just can by phase voltage and phase ground voltage size relatively come tentatively judge whether ground connection qualified, but such judgement remains rough, can accurately not judge the size of grounding resistance.

As shown in Figure 2, provided circuit theory diagrams of the present invention, it comprises test interface 1, K switch 1(2), K switch 2(3), step-down transformer 4, display gauge head 5, adjustable resistance W2(6), adjustable resistance W1(7), the first test branch road 8, the second test branch road 9, the 3rd test branch road 10, first neon lamp 11, second neon lamp 12; Shown test interface 1 matches with socket to be measured or the power lead on the electrical equipment, is provided with respectively the test phase line, test zero line and the test ground wire that are connected with phase line, zero line and ground wire to be measured in the test interface 1.The test phase line is provided with fuse FU(0.125A), K switch 1(2) is connected with test zero line selectivity with the test phase line, K switch 2(3) is connected with test ground wire selectivity with the test zero line, resistance R 7 is received respectively on K switch 1 and the K switch 2 with the two ends after step-down transformer 4 is connected, the resistance of resistance R 7 adopts 150K Ω, in order to play metering function, step-down transformer 4 adopts 220V/5V micro power transformer, the signal of step-down transformer 4 output terminals is received on the display gauge head 5 after overcommutation is handled, for the ease of display gauge head is demarcated, also be in series with adjustable resistance W2(6 in its loop).It is that microampere meter or the range of 500 μ A is the digital voltmeter of 200mV that display gauge head 5 can adopt range.

The first test branch road 8 is in series with pushbutton switch AN1 by resistance R 4 and constitutes, and two of series connection back circuit terminates on K switch 1 and the test ground wire; The second test branch road 9 is in series with pushbutton switch AN2 by resistance R 5 and constitutes, and two of series connection back circuit terminates on K switch 1 and the test ground wire; The 3rd test branch road 10 is in series with pushbutton switch AN3 by resistance R 6 and constitutes, and two of series connection back circuit terminates on K switch 1 and the test ground wire.In order to make the electric current in the first test branch road 8 of flowing through, the second test branch road 9 and the 3rd test branch road 10 different, the resistance of resistance R 4, R5 and R6 is respectively 19.1K Ω, 9.53K Ω and 7.15K Ω; Like this, the electric current of three branch roads of flowing through is respectively 11.5mA, 23mA and 31mA, in order to be grounded the measurement of resistance sizes and to the measurement of earth leakage protective device serviceability.The rated residual operating current of the earth leakage protective device that arranges in the circuit under test is 15mA, so just carries out the measurement of grounding resistance by the first test branch road, and the second test branch road detects earth leakage protective device.If the rated residual operating current of earth leakage protective device is 30mA, so just carry out the measurement of grounding resistance by the second test branch road, the 3rd test branch road detects earth leakage protective device.

On the test ground wire, also be provided with adjustable resistance W1(7), whether be used for the verification detecting instrument normal.Resistance R 1 with receive test phase line and test zero line after light emitting diode is connected on, constituted zero test circuit mutually; Resistance R 2 with receive after first neon lamp 11 is connected between test phase line and the test ground wire, constituted test circuit mutually; Resistance R 3 with receive after second neon lamp 12 is connected between test zero line and the test ground wire, constituted zero ground test circuit.The resistance of resistance R 1, R2 and R3 is respectively 110K Ω, 220K Ω and 220K Ω.In the process of using, by the state in conjunction with light emitting diode, first neon lamp and second neon lamp, can judge the state of phase line, zero line and ground wire.

Below in conjunction with Fig. 2 using method of the present invention is described, if attaching plug is measured, at first test interface 1 is inserted in the supply socket of AC220V/50HZ and turns on the power switch, if LED lamp and first neon lamp 11 are bright, and second neon lamp 12 does not work, and illustrates that phase place is normal.Then, turn on the power switch K1, open K2 again, check whether the voltage V of display gauge head 5 is normal, no abnormally then forward K2 to ground wire, display gauge head 5 namely indicates the voltage V1 between phase line and the ground wire.At this moment just can judge tentatively by the size that compares V1 and V whether the anti-resistance of ground connection is normal.V1 was more than or equal to V when ground connection was qualified, otherwise stake resistance is defective.For further whether the test impedance ground is normal, adjust adjustable resistance W1(7) to 1K, press AN1, the registration of display gauge head 5 or pointer show the resistance value of 1K all the time, illustrate that the detection loop is normal.Then with adjustable resistance W1(7) return zero, this moment is push switch AN1 again, and is motionless as pointer, illustrates that impedance ground is qualified.If the beat of pointer, the then size that can judge impedance ground according to size and the reading of the beat of pointer.If the rated residual operating current of earth leakage protective device is 30mA, push switch AN2 tests again, to improve precision, further examines ground state.

In above-mentioned experimental technique, in order to test the working condition of electric leakage and earth leakage protective device, with adjustable resistance W1(7) return zero, if the rated residual operating current of earth leakage protective device is 15mA, this moment, the flow through electric current of this switch of push switch AN1(was 11.5mA), if earth leakage protective device does not trip, the ground loop leakproof is described; If earth leakage protective device tripping operation during push switch AN1 illustrates there is electric leakage in the circuit-under-test that should search reason this moment, fixes a breakdown; The electric current of this switch is 23mA if Push switch AN2(flows through), the earth leakage protective device tripping operation illustrates that the earth leakage protective device trip(ping) circuit is normal.

Be under 30 milliamperes the situation at the rated residual operating current of earth leakage protective device, the flow through electric current of this switch of push switch AN1(is 11.5mA), if the earth leakage protective device tripping operation illustrate that circuit or equipment leak electricity near 20mA; The flow through electric current of this switch of push switch AN2(is 23mA), if the earth leakage protective device tripping operation illustrates that circuit has slight electric leakage or earth leakage protective device inaccurate; All should search reason under the both of these case, rerun after fixing a breakdown.If earth leakage protective device does not trip when pressing switch AN2, and earth leakage protective device tripping operation during push switch AN3, illustrate circuit do not exist leak electricity and earth leakage protective device working properly.,

In the process of experiment, be inserted into test interface 1 on the socket after, if LED lamp and second neon lamp are bright, phase line and zero wrong be describeds, at this moment, K switch 1 reverse opening is got final product; If light emitting diode and two neon lamps all do not work, illustrate that power supply does not have; If have only the LED lamp bright, illustrate to lack ground wire; If have only first neon lamp bright, illustrate to lack zero line; If have only neon lamp 2 lamps bright, phase line and zero line misconnection and scarce zero line are described, or the wrong and scarce ground wire in phase ground.Can realize between phase line and the zero line respectively and the switching between ground wire and the zero line by K switch 1 and K switch 2, and then realize the effect that is convenient for measuring.

Display gauge head 5 can be selected 4 digital voltmeter gauge outfit for use, can carry out greatest measure and is 9999 numerical value and show, during operation it is adjusted to 9000,100 words of every reduction, and stake resistance approximately increases by 25 ohm.Precision is less than 1 ohm.

As shown in Figure 3, Intelligent Digital voltage table and the circuit theory diagrams of the present invention that are provided with host computer have been provided; After the output signal of falling transformer 4 in the shown circuit is passed through the processing of signal acquisition circuit 13 and A/D converter 14 successively, receive on the input port of single-chip microcomputer 15, signal acquisition circuit 13 can adopt transmitter or Hall element; The present invention who is provided with single-chip microcomputer can carry out intelligence test and show the ground connection resulting impedance accurately according to program, and precision can be controlled within 1 Ω.7,8 contacts of 5,6 contacts of switch AN1 and switch ANA2 are connected on the node of monolithic processor controlled output relay and get final product.Single-chip microcomputer 15 is realized and the communicating by letter of host computer 16 by communication module, can realize that host computer is arranged on telemechanical control and the measurement of the ground state measuring process in the existing electrical equipment to the present invention, this mode is convenient and practical to remote centralized measurement control, can be grounded centralization, telemechanization and the robotization of measurement.

As shown in Figure 4, provided the present invention has been arranged on schematic diagram in the existing electrical equipment, at this moment, test interface 1 does not just adopt the form of plug, directly receive on the respective terminal on the terminal block in the existing electrical equipment but will test phase line, test zero line and test ground wire, and display panel directly is installed on the monitoring panel of equipment the ground state of display monitoring equipment in real time then.Thereby strengthened the detection of electrical equipment ground integrity.

Claims (8)

1. one kind is detected the also instrument of display device ground state, comprise with Devices to test in phase line to be measured, zero line to be measured and treat the test interface (1) that geodesic line matches, in the described test interface (1) with phase line to be measured, zero line to be measured with treat that circuit that geodesic line is connected is respectively test phase line, test zero line and test ground wire; It is characterized in that: also comprise the K switch 1(2 that is connected with test phase line and test zero line selectivity), with test zero line and test the K switch 2(3 that the ground wire selectivity is connected) and testing circuit; Described testing circuit comprises that the signal acquisition circuit received after the series connection of resistance R 7 and step-down transformer (4) on K switch 1 and the K switch 2 and at least one receive test branch road on test phase line and the test ground wire respectively by resistance and the switch two ends, back that are in series, and are connected with display gauge head (5) after the treated processing of circuit of output terminal of described step-down transformer (4); Tie point at test branch road and test ground wire is in series with adjustable resistance W1(7 to the test ground wire between the test interface); The resistance of described resistance R 7 is 150K Ω, described adjustable resistance W1(7) maximum value be 2K Ω; The voltage of the input and output side of described step-down transformer (4) is respectively 220V, 5V.
2. the instrument of detection according to claim 1 and display device ground state, it is characterized in that: also comprise for test phase line to be measured, the phase test circuit of zero line to be measured and state of ground wire to be measured is received zero test circuit mutually on test phase line and the test zero line after described phase test circuit comprises resistance R 1 and light emitting diode is connected, resistance R 2 with receive test phase line and test ground wire after first neon lamp (11) is connected on the phase ground test circuit at two ends and resistance R 3 and the zero ground test circuit of receiving after second neon lamp (12) connect on test zero line and the test ground wire.
3. the instrument of detection according to claim 2 and display device ground state, it is characterized in that: the resistance of described resistance R 1, R2 and R3 is respectively 110K Ω, 220K Ω and 220K Ω.
4. the instrument of detection according to claim 1 and 2 and display device ground state is characterized in that: described test branch road comprises that resistance R 4 back two of connecting with switch AN1 terminates to the first test branch road (8), resistance R 5 on K switch 1 and the test ground wire and connect with switch AN2 and two terminate to K switch 1 and test the 3rd on the ground wire and test branch roads (10) after back two terminates to the second test branch road (9) on K switch 1 and the test ground wire and resistance R 6 and connect with switch AN3; The resistance of described resistance R 4, R5 and R6 reduces successively.
5. the instrument of detection according to claim 4 and display device ground state, it is characterized in that: the resistance of described resistance R 4, R5 and R6 is respectively 19.1 K Ω, 9.53 K Ω and 7.15 K Ω.
6. the instrument of detection according to claim 1 and 2 and display device ground state is characterized in that: be provided with for the adjustable resistance W2(6 that display gauge head is demarcated in the loop at described display gauge head (5) place); Described display gauge head (5) is that microampere meter or the range of 500 μ A is the digital voltmeter of 200mV for range.
7. the instrument of detection according to claim 6 and display device ground state, it is characterized in that: the signal input part of described digital voltmeter is connected with the data output end of single-chip microcomputer; The resistance of described adjustable resistance W2 is 1K Ω.
8. the instrument of detection according to claim 1 and display device ground state, it is characterized in that: the test phase line in the described test interface (1), test zero line and test ground wire are received on the respective terminal on the terminal block in the existing electrical equipment, and described display gauge head (5) is installed on the panel of existing electrical equipment.
CN 201110126984 2011-05-17 2011-05-17 Apparatus for detecting and displaying grounding state of equipment or socket CN102243286B (en)

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CN102243286B true CN102243286B (en) 2013-10-09

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CN103969542A (en) * 2013-12-17 2014-08-06 成都国蓉科技有限公司 Socket detector
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