CN102242939B - Prefilming three-stage pre-mixing and pre-evaporating low-pollution combustor - Google Patents

Prefilming three-stage pre-mixing and pre-evaporating low-pollution combustor Download PDF

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CN102242939B
CN102242939B CN2011102145957A CN201110214595A CN102242939B CN 102242939 B CN102242939 B CN 102242939B CN 2011102145957 A CN2011102145957 A CN 2011102145957A CN 201110214595 A CN201110214595 A CN 201110214595A CN 102242939 B CN102242939 B CN 102242939B
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combustion
stage
grade
nozzle
main combustion
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CN102242939A (en
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林宇震
曹文宇
许全宏
张弛
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Beihang University
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Beihang University
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Abstract

The invention provides a prefilming three-stage pre-mixing and pre-evaporating low-pollution combustor which comprises a diffuser, an outer combustor case, an inner combustor case, a flame cylinder outer wall, a flame cylinder inner wall and a combustor head, wherein all the air for combustion enters a flame cylinder from the combustor head; the combustor head adopts a multi-stage combustion scheme which includes one precombustion stage and two main combustion stages; a premixed combustion mode is used for the main combustion stages; and a diffusion combustion mode with stable cyclone is used for the precombustion stage. The main combustion stage is structurally divided into two stages, thus avoiding the increase of pollutant emissions caused by poor main-stage oil and gas mixing during stage transfer under the condition of one main combustion stage, and simultaneously reducing the pollutant emissions by 30% in the working condition without affecting combustion stability; and a prefilming nozzle is used for the second main combustion stage, thus ensuring fuel oil to be distributed more uniformly and further reducing the pollutants in the large working condition in comparison with a discrete nozzle. Thus, pollutant emissions generated in the whole landing and take-off cycle of the aero-engine combustor is reduced without affecting combustion stability.

Description

A kind of pre-membrane type divides the low pollution combustor of three grades of premix and pre-evaporations
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of aero-gas turbine low pollution combustor that utilizes the premix and pre-evaporation combustion technology.Adopt the pattern of fractional combustion, main combustion stage adopts the mode of premixed combustion, is mainly used in reducing the disposal of pollutants under large operating mode; Pre-combustion grade adopts the mode of diffusion combustion, is guaranteeing combustion chamber smooth combustion, and main combustion stage adopts the mode of the premix and pre-evaporation burning of minute two-stage, reduces the disposal of pollutants of the whole LTO circulation of aero-engine.
Background technology
The key property of modern aeroengine combustion chamber and structure distribution have reached quite high level, but for the modern aeroengine combustion chamber, still have a large amount of difficult problems and challenge, the development and application of new material, new technology, new construction, new ideas is only and guarantees that it continues progressive source.
The Main Trends of The Development of modern civil aviation engine chamber is combustion with reduced pollutants.The civil aviation engine chamber must meet the aero-engine emission standard of increasingly stringent.The CAEP6(Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection adopted at present) standard is very strict to the regulation of pollutant effulent, particularly to the NOx emission requirement; And up-to-date CAEP8 standard has proposed to reduce by 15% on the discharge standard that is emitted on CAEP6 of NOx, along with the fast development of aircraft industry and improving constantly of people's environmental consciousness, following to the higher requirement of gas-turbine combustion chamber disposal of pollutants meeting proposition.
Two GE of leading company of US Airways engine and PW set about research already to low pollution combustor, at first GE has researched and developed dicyclo chamber combustion with reduced pollutants DAC(for GE90 and CFM56), PW company has adopted RQL(fuel-rich combustion-extinguishing-poor oil firing, Rich burn-Quench-Lean burn, be called for short RQL) low pollution combustor TALON II(is for PW4000 and 6000 series).Aspect low pollution combustor of future generation, GE company adopts LDM(Lean Direct Mixing Combustion, oil-poor direct hybrid combustor) the technology TAPS(Twin Annular Premixing Swirler that is its GEnx reseach of engine) low pollution combustor.This combustion chamber is in stand loopful verification experimental verification, and the NOx disposal of pollutants has reduced by 50% than CAEP2 discharge standard.GE company has applied for multinomial United States Patent (USP): application number 6363726,6389815,6354072,6418726,0178732,6381964 and 6389815, all these patents are all that to adopt diffusion combustion, main combustion stage to adopt the combustion method of premixed combustion, purpose be the NOx discharge reduced under the large operating mode of emission index maximum to pre-combustion grade.It is TALON X that PW company has continued to adopt the RQL mode to propose the low pollution combustor that reduces the NOx disposal of pollutants, the head type adopted is the air atomizer spray nozzle of PW development of company, combustion chamber is the monocycle chamber, and the result of the test on V2500 engine fan type test section has reduced by 50% than CAEP2 standard.It is ANTLE that Rolls-Royce company adopts the low pollution combustor of LDM technical development, and this combustion chamber is fractional combustion chamber, a monocycle chamber, and its NOx disposal of pollutants has reduced by 50% than CAEP2 standard, for its engine rapids of new generation, reaches 1000.
The BJ University of Aeronautics & Astronautics of China has also applied for 200910238793.X to low pollution combustor, 201010101574.X, 201010034141.7, 201010277014.X etc. multinomial patent, the scheme adopted is that pre-combustion grade adopts diffusion combustion mode, main combustion stage adopts the premixed combustion mode, main combustion stage is loop configuration, fuel feeding axially or radially, adopt multi-point injection or pre-film atomizing type, purpose is the NOx discharge reduced under large operating mode, thereby the discharge of the NOx of whole LTO circulation is reduced, but the emission level difficulty of NOx that will further reduce whole LTO circulation is larger.
Above-described patent, all at large operating mode decline low pollution emission, and according to (the International Civil Aviation Organization of International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO) the emission index under a standard cycle of regulation, express this parameter with LTO Emission, be calculated as follows formula:
LTOEmission ( g / kN ) = D p F oo = Σ i N EI m , i m · mf , i T m , i F oo
From above formula, LTO Emission is relevant with the NOx discharge capacity under four operating modes, both relevant with the NOx discharge under large operating mode, also relevant with the NOx discharge under little operating mode.
Operational mode in standard LTO circulation, thrust and the running time under each operational mode, as shown in the table.
Operational mode and time in the LTO circulation of table 1ICAO regulation
Operational mode Thrust arranges Running time (min)
(Take-off) takes off 100%F oo 0.7
(Climb) climbs 85%F oo 2.2
(Approach) marches into the arena 30%F oo 4.0
Slide/ground idle speed (Taxi/ground idle) 7%F oo 0
The thrust of routine or active service is discharged as following table, data from ICAO Emission data bank at the NOx of the CFM56-5B/3 of 140KN engine.
The NOx emission level of table 2CFM56-5B/3
Parameter Unit Slow train March into the arena Climb Take off
Emission index (EI) g/(kgf) 4.45 9.28 19.77 26.18
Fuel flow kg/s 0.112 0.448 1.086 1.325
Running time g 1560 240 132 42
Discharge capacity g/kN 777.5 997.8 2834.1 1456.9
Combustion chamber adopts fractional combustion, and pre-combustion grade is diffusion combustion mode, and main combustion stage is the premixed combustion mode, has reduced the NOx discharge under large operating mode, and the NOx that can reach discharge is as shown in the table:
The NOx emission level that table 3 main combustion stage adopts premixed combustion to reach
Parameter Unit Slow train March into the arena Climb Take off
NOx emission index (EI) g/(kgf) 4.45 9.28 4 4.1
Fuel flow kg/s 0.112 0.448 1.086 1.325
Running time g 1560 240 132 42
Discharge capacity g/kN 777.5 997.8 594 228
Under little operating mode (ground idle speed, march into the arena), although the NOx emission index is lower, according to the running time under the known little operating mode of table 1 far away higher than other large operating modes, known according to table 3, when main combustion stage adopts the premixed combustion mode, can make the NOx emission index under large operating mode obtain decrease, the proportion maximum that now the NOx total emission volumn of pre-combustion grade accounts in the disposal of pollutants discharge of whole LTO circulation, therefore want further to reduce the NOx discharge of whole LTO circulation, just need to consider to reduce the NOx discharge of pre-combustion grade.
And no matter be which kind of advanced person's low pollution combustor, its key technology reduces the NOx(nitrogen oxide exactly), the CO(carbon monoxide), the UHC(unburned hydrocarbons) and the combustion technology of smoldering, key problem is to reduce the temperature of combustion zone, make the combustion zone temperature field even simultaneously, the equivalent proportion that is whole and part is controlled, and the uniformity of primary zone equivalent proportion depends primarily on the uniformity of fuel-oil atmozation and oil gas blending.
The present invention be directed to the new method of aero-engine combustion with reduced pollutants.Known according to mechanism and the result of the test of NOx and CO generation: the NOx that the primary zone equivalent proportion of combustion chamber produces in 0.6~0.8 scope and the discharge rule of CO(UHC and CO are similar) seldom.Based on this principle, take into account the discharge capacity of NOx and CO, UHC all in the low value scope, should consider two factors: the average equivalent ratio in first primary zone, it two is uniformities of primary zone average equivalent ratio, and all should be like this under the working condition of all aero-engines.And the uniformity of primary zone equivalent proportion depends primarily on the uniformity of fuel-oil atmozation and oil gas blending.This depends primarily on two aspects: the one, and the uniformity that the fuel particles diameter distributes, the i.e. distributing homogeneity of SMD; Second be the uniformity that the fuel oil oil mist concentration distributes.From combustion system, should adopt uniform premixed combustion, reach primary zone equivalent proportion uniformity requirement to reduce disposal of pollutants.
Current conventional combustion mode can't reduce NOx, CO and UHC.Reason is that the method for designing of current combustion chamber determines.For the conventional combustion chamber, when large state, owing to adopting liquid mist diffusion combustion mode, the local equivalent proportion in combustion zone is always near 1, far away surpass the required equivalent proportion area requirement of above-mentioned combustion with reduced pollutants, although now the discharge of CO and UHC is low, it is maximum that the discharge of NOx reaches.When little state, the combustion zone equivalent proportion is very low again, and far below the required equivalent proportion of above-mentioned combustion with reduced pollutants interval, although now NOx discharge is low, CO and UHC discharge are very high again.In addition, because the conventional combustion chamber generally adopts diffusion combustion mode, local equivalent proportion is inhomogeneous, therefore for the conventional combustion chamber, can't meet the low pollution requirement in whole engine operation scope.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is: overcome the prior art deficiency, use the premix and pre-evaporation combustion technology, provide a kind of pre-membrane type to divide the low pollution combustor of three grades of premix and pre-evaporations, the main combustion stage of this combustion chamber adopts the premixed combustion mode, can more than 30% operating mode, keep lower disposal of pollutants; Pre-combustion grade adopts the mode of diffusion combustion, under little operating mode, can guarantee the engine steady operation, thereby has reduced the disposal of pollutants in whole LTO circulation.
The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is: pre-combustion grade adopts the mode of diffusion combustion, and main combustion stage adopts the mode of minute two-stage premixed combustion.Described combustion chamber adopts the monocycle cavity configuration, and it forms its outline by casing in outer combustion case and combustion chamber, outside air enters by diffuser, burner inner liner outer wall, burner inner liner inwall and head of combustion chamber form combustion zone, combustion air all enters burner inner liner by head of combustion chamber, and dilution air is injected by the outer blending hole on the burner inner liner outer wall and the interior blending hole on the burner inner liner inwall, described head of combustion chamber adopts the fractional combustion scheme, is divided into main combustion stage and pre-combustion grade, and the main combustion stage outer shroud is connected and fixed with burner inner liner outer wall and burner inner liner inwall by the whole end wall of head, and the interior ring cavity of main combustion stage and fuel nozzle are integrated, pre-combustion grade connects with main combustion stage by the pre-combustion grade head end wall, and concentric with main combustion stage, described pre-combustion grade comprises pre-combustion grade swirler assembly, pre-combustion grade nozzle, pre-combustion grade head end wall, the pre-combustion grade utilization enters by the pre-combustion grade swirler assembly low speed recirculating zone that the rotational flow air of combustion chamber produces and stabilizes the flame, and the pre-combustion grade swirler assembly is connected with encircling in main combustion stage premix and pre-evaporation section by the pre-combustion grade head end wall, the pre-combustion grade nozzle is positioned at the pre-combustion grade swirler assembly, and coaxial with the pre-combustion grade swirler assembly, the pre-combustion grade head end wall is connected on the interior ring of main combustion stage premix evaporator section and the outer endless tube of pre-combustion grade, wherein the pre-combustion grade cyclone comprises the outer endless tube of pre-combustion grade, pre-combustion grade Venturi tube, pre-combustion grade swirler blades, described main combustion stage is by the premix and pre-evaporation outer shroud, ring in the premix and pre-evaporation ring, main combustion stage fuel oil ring, ring in pre-membrane type nozzle, pre-membrane type nozzle outer shroud, the outer cyclone of main combustion stage, main combustion stage inward eddy device and pre-membrane type nozzle inward eddy device form, wherein main combustion stage inward eddy device encircles with pre-membrane type nozzle is interior, in the premix and pre-evaporation ring, boxing is connected together, formed ring cavity in main combustion stage, the outer cyclone of main combustion stage forms the main combustion stage outer shroud together with premix and pre-evaporation ring outer shroud, formed the outer ring cavity of main combustion stage with pre-membrane type nozzle outer shroud, the inside and outside ring cavity of main is merged into the premix section after pre-membrane type nozzle, described fuel nozzle is supplied with all fuel oils to combustion chamber, fuel nozzle comprises pre-combustion grade nozzle, main combustion stage inner nozzle and pre-membrane type nozzle, and fuel nozzle directly inserts the main combustion stage outer shroud from the upstream of head of combustion chamber, wherein the pre-combustion grade nozzle is single-nozzle, directly be inserted in the internal channel of pre-combustion grade nozzle locating ring downstream, fuel oil through the pre-combustion grade fuel pipe forms the pre-combustion grade mist of oil by the pre-combustion grade nozzle, the pre-combustion grade mist of oil is beaten on pre-combustion grade cyclone Venturi tube internal face and is formed oil film, carry out atomization under the incoming flow effect through the pre-combustion grade internal channel, in the pre-combustion grade outlet, carry out diffusion combustion, the main combustion stage inner nozzle is comprised of direct projection spray orifice in fuel gallery in main combustion stage and main combustion stage, and main combustion stage internal combustion oil ring forms main combustion stage fuel oil internal channel together with ring in the premix and pre-evaporation ring, is a loop configuration, in the premix and pre-evaporation ring, ring is upper along circumferentially evenly having the interior direct projection spray orifice of a plurality of main combustion stages, and fuel oil enters the main combustion stage fuel gallery by fuel pipe in main combustion stage, then through direct projection spray orifice in main combustion stage, forms ring spray mist in the multiply main combustion stage, to the premix section, sprays, in main combustion stage, the ring mist of oil evaporates and the premix blending under the effect of main combustion stage inward eddy, in shorter physical dimension, realize the fuel oil rapid evaporation and with the even blending of air, then enter the main combustion stage outlet through the premix section and carry out premixed combustion, guarantee lower disposal of pollutants, pre-membrane type nozzle is comprised of ring, pre-membrane type nozzle outer shroud and pre-membrane type cyclone in pre-membrane type nozzle, fuel oil, by pre-membrane type nozzle, forms the even main combustion stage oil film of one deck through pre-membrane type cyclone and sprays to the premix section, under the effect of main combustion stage oil film eddy flow inside and outside main combustion stage, evaporate and the premix blending, in shorter physical dimension, realize the fuel oil rapid evaporation and with the even blending of air, then enter the main combustion stage outlet through the premix section and carry out premixed combustion, guarantee lower disposal of pollutants.
Principle of the present invention is as follows: by equivalent proportion and the uniformity of controlling aeroengine combustor buring Indoor Combustion district, reach the purpose that reduces disposal of pollutants.Combustion air all enters burner inner liner from head of combustion chamber, makes to enter the burner inner liner burning after most fuel oil and air blending evenly again, control combustion district equivalent proportion is reduced to disposal of pollutants favourable.Adopt the fractional combustion scheme, under little operating mode, only have the work of pre-combustion grade fuel feeding, under middle operating mode, the common fuel feeding work of main combustion stage one-level and pre-combustion grade, under large operating mode, the common fuel feeding work of main combustion stage and pre-combustion grade.Under little operating mode, only have the work of pre-combustion grade fuel feeding, the pre-combustion grade fuel oil in the burning of pre-combustion grade exit, is diffusion combustion mode through the pre-combustion grade nozzle; Because the pre-combustion grade outlet is stronger recirculating zone, the pre-combustion grade fuel oil of diffusion combustion, in this strong inverse flow district internal combustion, has therefore guaranteed the stability of burning; Under middle operating mode, main combustion stage and pre-combustion grade be fuel feeding work simultaneously, main combustion stage one-level fuel oil enters the air flow channel of cyclone through emple hole, under cyclonic action, evaporate in advance and with the air blending, participate in burning in the main combustion stage exit, for the premixed combustion mode, operating mode atomization and mixing variation in the middle of the main combustion stage flow number caused due to the large operating mode for the treatment of while avoiding not classification of main combustion stage causes too greatly, the disposal of pollutants of operating mode in the middle of assurance.Under large operating mode, main combustion stage and pre-combustion grade be fuel feeding work simultaneously, and the fuel flow of main combustion stage accounts for major part, pollutant emission is controlled by main combustion stage mainly, and the even fuel-air mixture premixed combustion that main combustion stage adopts, make in scope that the equivalent proportion of combustion zone is lower in disposal of pollutants, thereby controlled the disposal of pollutants under large operating mode.Therefore, this type combustion chamber has guaranteed that aero-engine has low pollution emission in wide working range, thereby has further reduced the NOx discharge under whole LTO circulation, has guaranteed combustion stability simultaneously.
The advantage that the present invention compared with prior art had is as follows:
(1) pre-combustion grade of the present invention adopts the combustion system that diffusion combustion and premixed combustion combine, by fuel oil being divided the mode of three grades reach the purpose that two kinds of combustion systems coexist, when not affecting the combustion chamber job stability, reduced the disposal of pollutants under full operating mode.
(2) main combustion stage is divided into two-stage, avoided in the situation of main combustion stage one-level, the increase of the disposal of pollutants that while turning grade, main air-fuel mixture variation causes, can by under large operating mode and the disposal of pollutants under little operating mode reduce simultaneously, thereby further reduced the disposal of pollutants of whole LTO circulation.
(3) the main combustion stage second level adopts pre-membrane type nozzle, makes fuel distribution more even, further reduces pollutant emission.
(4) the present invention adopts monocycle cavity combustion chamber structure, and combustion air is all fed by head, only has blending hole and necessary Cooling Holes on burner inner liner, has modular characteristics, has simplified chamber structure, and main combustion stage and pre-combustion grade structure are simpler, is easy to processing.
The accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the engine structure schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 is chamber structure cutaway view of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is head of combustion chamber structure cutaway view of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is pre-combustion grade structure cutaway view of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is head construction cutaway view of the present invention (not comprising jet stem);
Fig. 6 is fuel nozzle structure cutaway view of the present invention;
Fig. 7 is main combustion stage outer shroud cutaway view of the present invention;
Fig. 8 is the cutaway view of crossing direct projection orifice center cross section (A-A cross section) in main combustion stage of the present invention;
Wherein 1 is low-pressure compressor, the 2nd, high-pressure compressor, the 3rd, combustion chamber, the 4th, high-pressure turbine, the 5th, low-pressure turbine, the 6th, outer combustion case, the 7th, casing in combustion chamber, the 8th, the burner inner liner outer wall, the 9th, the burner inner liner inwall, the 10th, diffuser, the 11st, burner inner liner outer wall blending hole, the 12nd, burner inner liner inwall blending hole, the 13rd, head of combustion chamber, the 14th, main combustion stage, the 15th, pre-combustion grade, the 16th, fuel nozzle, the 17th, the pre-combustion grade mist of oil, the 18th, ring mist of oil in main combustion stage, the 19th, the main combustion stage oil film, the 20th, the pre-combustion grade swirler assembly, the 21st, the pre-combustion grade nozzle, the 22nd, the pre-combustion grade head end wall, the 23rd, the outer endless tube of pre-combustion grade, the 24th, the pre-combustion grade Venturi tube, the 25th, the pre-combustion grade swirler blades, the 26th, pre-combustion grade nozzle locating ring, the 27th, the pre-combustion grade internal channel, the 28th, the pre-combustion grade fuel pipe, the 29th, pre-combustion grade Venturi tube internal face, the 30th, the pre-combustion grade outlet, the 31st, premix and pre-evaporation ring outer shroud, the 32nd, pre-membrane type nozzle cyclone, the 33rd, ring in the premix and pre-evaporation ring, the 34th, the outer cyclone of main combustion stage, the 35th, main combustion stage inward eddy device, the 36th, the outer ring cavity of main combustion stage, the 37th, ring cavity in main combustion stage, the 38th, the premix section, the 39th, the pre-combustion grade nozzle, the 40th, the main combustion stage inner nozzle, the 41st, pre-membrane type nozzle, the 42nd, ring in pre-membrane type nozzle, the 43rd, pre-membrane type nozzle outer shroud, the 44th, the main combustion stage outer shroud, the 45th, main combustion stage fuel oil internal channel, the 46th, fuel pipe in main combustion stage, the 47th, the outer fuel pipe of main combustion stage, the 48th, main combustion stage internal combustion oil ring, the 49th, the main combustion stage outlet, the 50th, spray orifice in main combustion stage, the 51st, the whole end wall of head.
The specific embodiment
Fig. 1 is the engine structure schematic diagram, comprises low-pressure compressor 1, high-pressure compressor 2, combustion chamber 3, high-pressure turbine 4 and low-pressure turbine 5.During engine operation, air is after low-pressure compressor 1 compression, enter high-pressure compressor 2, pressure-air enters in combustion chamber 3 and oil inflame again, the high-temperature high-pressure fuel gas formed after burning enters into high-pressure turbine 4 and low-pressure turbine 5, by turbine, does work and drives respectively high-pressure compressor 2 and low-pressure compressor 1.
As shown in Figure 2, combustion chamber 3 adopts the monocycle cavity configuration, and in outer combustion case 6 and combustion chamber, casing 7 has formed the outline of combustion chamber, and is connected with high-pressure turbine 4 with the high-pressure compressor 2 of front and back.The incoming flow air of high-pressure compressor 2 enters combustion chamber from diffuser 10 after the reduction of speed diffusion, in the space surrounded at burner inner liner outer wall 8, burner inner liner inwall 9 and head of combustion chamber 13, with fuel oil, completes burning.Zone before blending hole 11 and interior blending hole 12 is combustion zone outside, and dilution air enters burner inner liner from blending hole, and the high-temperature fuel gas blending with combustion zone, make outlet temperature reach designing requirement.Head of combustion chamber 13 comprises main combustion stage 14, pre-combustion grade 15 and fuel nozzle 16, main combustion stage 14 is welded and fixed with burner inner liner outer wall 8 and burner inner liner inwall 9 by the whole end wall 51 of head, pre-combustion grade 15 is fixedly connected by pre-combustion grade head end wall 22 and main combustion stage 14, and fuel nozzle 16 is supplied with whole fuel oils.Described head of combustion chamber 13 is along circumferentially being evenly arranged, number is 10~60, the air capacity of head of combustion chamber 13 accounts for 20%~80% of combustion chamber total air, and wherein main combustion stage 14 accounts for 60%~90% of head air capacity, and pre-combustion grade 15 accounts for 10%~40% of head air capacity.
Fig. 3 is the cutaway view of a head of combustion chamber structure, can clearly find out that main combustion stage 14 and pre-combustion grade 15 are arranged together according to concentric mode.Fig. 4 is pre-combustion grade structure cutaway view, and as can see from Figure 4, pre-combustion grade 15 is comprised of pre-combustion grade cyclone 20.From Fig. 4, Fig. 5, Fig. 6, can see, pre-combustion grade cyclone 20 is vane type cyclone or groove-type cyclone, and the structure of cyclone can be axial swirler or radial swirler.When pre-combustion grade cyclone 20 adopts the single-stage cyclone, directly with pre-combustion grade head end wall 22, be connected, when pre-combustion grade cyclone 20 adopts the Multi-stage spiral device, cyclones at different levels first connect into an integral body, after composition pre-combustion grade cyclone 20, with pre-combustion grade head end wall 22, are connected again.Pre-combustion grade cyclone 20 is connected the mode that adopts welding or screw thread to add locking to be realized with pre-combustion grade head end wall 22.Pre-combustion grade cyclone 20 comprises the outer endless tube 23 of pre-combustion grade, pre-combustion grade Venturi tube 24, pre-combustion grade swirler blades 25.Pre-combustion grade swirler blades 25 circumferentially is evenly arranged and is welded thereon, thereby the outer endless tube 23 of pre-combustion grade and pre-combustion grade Venturi tube 24 are linked together, and the blades installation angle of pre-combustion grade swirler blades 25 is 30 °~70 °.Pre-combustion grade nozzle 21 is single pressure atomized fog jet, pneumatic nozzle or combined nozzle, directly be inserted into 27 li of pre-combustion grade nozzle locating ring 26 downstream internal channels, fuel oil through pre-combustion grade fuel pipe 28 forms pre-combustion grade mist of oil 17 by pre-combustion grade nozzle 21,17 dozens of pre-combustion grade mist of oils form oil film on pre-combustion grade cyclone Venturi tube internal face 29, carry out atomization under the incoming flow effect through pre-combustion grade internal channel 27, in pre-combustion grade outlet 30, carry out diffusion combustion.
From Fig. 3, Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 can see, main combustion stage 14 is by premix and pre-evaporation outer shroud 31, ring 33 in the premix and pre-evaporation ring, main combustion stage fuel oil ring 48, ring 42 in pre-membrane type nozzle, pre-membrane type nozzle outer shroud 43, the outer cyclone 34 of main combustion stage, main combustion stage inward eddy device 35 and pre-membrane type nozzle inward eddy device 32 form, wherein main combustion stage inward eddy device 35 encircles 42 with pre-membrane type nozzle is interior, in the premix and pre-evaporation ring, ring 33 welds together, formed ring cavity 37 in main combustion stage, the outer cyclone 34 of main combustion stage forms main combustion stage outer shroud 44 together with premix and pre-evaporation ring outer shroud 31, formed the outer ring cavity 36 of main combustion stage with pre-membrane type nozzle outer shroud 43, the inside and outside ring cavity 36 of main is merged into premix section 38 after pre-membrane type nozzle, the outer cyclone 34 of the main combustion stage inward eddy device 35 that main combustion stage 15 adopts and main combustion stage is the vane type cyclone, and the blades installation angle is 30 °~70 °.The structure of every grade blade formula cyclone is axial swirler, or radial swirler, and the two-stage rotation direction is identical or contrary.
As seen from Figure 6, fuel nozzle 16 is supplied with all fuel oils to combustion chamber, and fuel nozzle 16 comprises pre-combustion grade nozzle 39, main combustion stage inner nozzle 40 and pre-membrane type nozzle 41, and fuel nozzle 16 directly inserts main combustion stage outer shroud 44 from the upstream of head of combustion chamber 13.
From Fig. 6, in Fig. 8, can see, main combustion stage inner nozzle 40 is comprised of direct projection spray orifice 50 in main combustion stage fuel oil internal channel 45 and main combustion stage, and main combustion stage internal combustion oil ring 48 forms main combustion stage fuel oil internal channel 45 together with ring 33 in the premix and pre-evaporation ring, is a loop configuration.In the premix and pre-evaporation ring, encircle on 33 along circumferentially evenly having direct projection spray orifice 50 in a plurality of main combustion stages, fuel oil enters main combustion stage fuel oil internal channel 45 by fuel pipe in main combustion stage 46, then form ring spray mist 18 in the multiply main combustion stages through direct projection spray orifice in main combustion stage 50, spray in ring cavity 37 in main combustion stage.Pre-membrane type nozzle 41 by encircling 42 in pre-membrane type nozzle, pre-membrane type nozzle outer shroud 43 and pre-membrane type cyclone 32 form; Fuel oil sprays to premix section 38 by pre-membrane type nozzle 41, under the effect of the inside and outside eddy flow of main combustion stage, evaporate and the premix blending, in shorter physical dimension, realize the fuel oil rapid evaporation and with the even blending of air, enter main combustion stage outlet 49 and carry out premixed combustion, guarantee lower disposal of pollutants.
In main combustion stage, the number of direct projection spray orifice 50 is 6~30, the number of main combustion stage inward eddy device 35 blades is 1:1~5:1 with the ratio of the number of direct projection nozzle opening, encircles the 33 formed inclination angles of wall in main combustion stage in direct projection spray orifice 50 and premix and pre-evaporation ring and is 10 °~90 °.Direct projection spray orifice axial location in main combustion stage intra vane passage or main combustion stage intra vane passage downstream, is 20~50mm apart from the axial distance of main combustion stage outlet.Pre-membrane type nozzle 41 outlet axial locations are 20~50mm apart from the axial distance of main combustion stage outlet 49, can open tangential slot on ring 33 in main premix and pre-evaporation outer shroud 31, premix and pre-evaporation ring, tangential slot and premix and pre-evaporation ring inner and outer ring 31, the 33 formed inclination angles of wall are 10 °~90 °, and axial location is 20~50mm apart from the axial distance of main combustion stage outlet 49.The ratio that the main combustion stage fuel oil accounts for total amount of fuel is 50%~90%.

Claims (10)

1. a pre-membrane type divides the low pollution combustor of three grades of premix and pre-evaporations, it is characterized in that: described combustion chamber adopts the monocycle cavity configuration, and it forms its outline by casing (7) in outer combustion case (6) and combustion chamber, outside air enters by diffuser (10), burner inner liner outer wall (8), burner inner liner inwall (9) and head of combustion chamber (13) form combustion zone, combustion air all enters burner inner liner by head of combustion chamber (13), and dilution air is injected by the outer blending hole (11) on burner inner liner outer wall (8) and the interior blending hole (12) on burner inner liner inwall (9), described head of combustion chamber (13) adopts the fractional combustion scheme, is divided into main combustion stage (14) and pre-combustion grade (15), described pre-combustion grade (15) is connected with main combustion stage (14) by pre-combustion grade head end wall (22), and concentric with main combustion stage (14), pre-combustion grade (15) outwards comprises pre-combustion grade nozzle (21), pre-combustion grade swirler assembly (20), pre-combustion grade head end wall (22) by center, pre-combustion grade nozzle (21) and pre-combustion grade swirler assembly (20) coordinate location, pre-combustion grade nozzle (21) is positioned at pre-combustion grade swirler assembly (20), and coaxial with pre-combustion grade swirler assembly (20), pre-combustion grade swirler assembly (20) is connected with pre-combustion grade head end wall (22), the low speed recirculating zone that pre-combustion grade (15) utilization enters the rotational flow air generation of combustion chamber by pre-combustion grade swirler assembly (20) stabilizes the flame, and pre-combustion grade swirler assembly (20) is connected by ring (33) in pre-combustion grade head end wall (22) and main combustion stage premix and pre-evaporation section, pre-combustion grade head end wall (22) is connected in main combustion stage premix evaporator section to be encircled on (33) and the outer endless tube (23) of pre-combustion grade, wherein pre-combustion grade cyclone (20) comprises the outer endless tube (23) of pre-combustion grade, pre-combustion grade Venturi tube (24), pre-combustion grade swirler blades (25), pre-combustion grade nozzle locating ring (26), pre-combustion grade swirler blades (25) connects the outer endless tube (23) of pre-combustion grade, pre-combustion grade Venturi tube (24), pre-combustion grade nozzle locating ring successively, pre-combustion grade swirler blades (25) circumferentially is evenly arranged and is welded thereon, thereby the outer endless tube (23) of pre-combustion grade and pre-combustion grade Venturi tube (24) are linked together, described main combustion stage (14) is by premix and pre-evaporation ring outer shroud (31), ring (33) in the premix and pre-evaporation ring, main combustion stage fuel oil ring (48), ring (42) in pre-membrane type nozzle, pre-membrane type nozzle outer shroud (43), the outer cyclone (34) of main combustion stage, main combustion stage inward eddy device (35) and pre-membrane type nozzle inward eddy device (32) form, wherein in main combustion stage inward eddy device (35) and pre-membrane type nozzle, encircle (42), in the premix and pre-evaporation ring, ring (33) links together and forms ring cavity (37) in main combustion stage, the outer cyclone (34) of main combustion stage links together and forms main combustion stage outer shroud (44) with premix and pre-evaporation ring outer shroud (31), main combustion stage outer shroud (44) and pre-membrane type nozzle outer shroud (43) have formed the outer ring cavity (36) of main combustion stage, in the outer ring cavity (36) of main combustion stage and main combustion stage, ring cavity (37) is merged into premix section (38) after pre-membrane type nozzle, main combustion stage outer shroud (44) is connected and fixed by the whole end wall of head (51) and burner inner liner outer wall (8) and burner inner liner inwall (9), and in main combustion stage, ring cavity (37) and fuel nozzle (16) are integrated, described fuel nozzle (16) is supplied with all fuel oils to combustion chamber, fuel nozzle (16) outwards comprises pre-combustion grade nozzle (39), main combustion stage inner nozzle (40) and pre-membrane type nozzle (41) by center, pre-combustion grade nozzle (39) is connected with pre-combustion grade nozzle locating ring (26), and pre-membrane type nozzle (41) and main combustion stage outer shroud (44) coordinate location, fuel nozzle (16) directly inserts main combustion stage outer shroud (44) from the upstream of head of combustion chamber (13), wherein pre-combustion grade nozzle (21) is single-nozzle, directly be inserted into pre-combustion grade nozzle locating ring (26) downstream internal channel (27) inner, fuel oil through pre-combustion grade fuel pipe (28) forms pre-combustion grade mist of oil (17) by pre-combustion grade nozzle (21), pre-combustion grade mist of oil (17) is beaten at the upper oil film that forms of pre-combustion grade cyclone Venturi tube internal face (29), carry out atomization under the incoming flow effect through pre-combustion grade internal channel (27), in pre-combustion grade outlet (30), carry out diffusion combustion, main combustion stage inner nozzle (40) is comprised of direct projection spray orifice (50) in fuel gallery in main combustion stage (45) and main combustion stage, be fixed in ring (33) inboard in the premix and pre-evaporation ring, encircle (33) main combustion stage fuel oil internal channel (45) of looping structure together in main combustion stage internal combustion oil ring (48) and premix and pre-evaporation ring, in the premix and pre-evaporation ring, ring (33) is upper along circumferentially evenly having direct projection spray orifice (50) in a plurality of main combustion stages, fuel oil enters main combustion stage fuel gallery (45) by fuel pipe (46) in main combustion stage, then pass through direct projection spray orifice (50) in main combustion stage and form ring spray mist (18) in the multiply main combustion stage, spray to premix section (38), in main combustion stage, ring mist of oil (18) evaporates and the premix blending under the effect of main combustion stage inward eddy, realize the fuel oil rapid evaporation and with the even blending of air, then pass through premix section (38) and enter main combustion stage outlet (49) and carry out premixed combustion, guarantee lower disposal of pollutants, pre-membrane type nozzle (41) is comprised of ring (42), outer shroud (43) and pre-membrane type cyclone (32) in pre-membrane type nozzle, and in pre-membrane type nozzle, ring (42) and pre-membrane type nozzle outer shroud (43) are connected to form circumferential weld, and pre-membrane type cyclone is embedded in circumferential weld, fuel oil forms the even main combustion stage oil film of one deck (19) by pre-membrane type nozzle (41) through pre-membrane type cyclone (32) and sprays to premix section (38), under the effect of main combustion stage oil film (19) eddy flow inside and outside main combustion stage, evaporate and the premix blending, realize the fuel oil rapid evaporation and with the even blending of air, then pass through premix section (38) and enter main combustion stage outlet (49) and carry out premixed combustion, guarantee lower disposal of pollutants.
2. a kind of pre-membrane type according to claim 1 divides the low pollution combustor of three grades of premix and pre-evaporations, it is characterized in that: described pre-combustion grade nozzle (21) is pressure atomized fog jet, pneumatic nozzle or combined nozzle.
3. a kind of pre-membrane type according to claim 1 divides the low pollution combustor of three grades of premix and pre-evaporations, it is characterized in that: described pre-combustion grade cyclone (20) blades installation angle is 30 °~70 °, and the progression n of pre-combustion grade cyclone (20) is 1≤n≤3; The structure of every grade blade formula cyclone is axial swirler, or radial swirler; When pre-combustion grade cyclone (20) progression n=1, pre-combustion grade cyclone (20) directly connects with the whole end wall of pre-combustion grade head (22); When pre-combustion grade cyclone (20) progression n ﹥ 1, vane type cyclones at different levels first connect into an integral body, after composition pre-combustion grade cyclone (20), with pre-combustion grade head end wall (22), are connected again.
4. a kind of pre-membrane type according to claim 1 divides the low pollution combustor of three grades of premix and pre-evaporations, it is characterized in that: the required whole fuel oils in described fuel nozzle (16) supply combustion chamber, the ratio that the main combustion stage fuel oil accounts for total amount of fuel is 50%~90%.
5. a kind of pre-membrane type according to claim 1 divides the low pollution combustor of three grades of premix and pre-evaporations, it is characterized in that: the outer cyclone (34) of described main combustion stage inward eddy device (35) and main combustion stage is the vane type cyclone, and the blades installation angle is 30 °~70 °; The structure of every grade blade formula cyclone is axial swirler, or radial swirler, and the two-stage rotation direction is identical or contrary.
6. a kind of pre-membrane type according to claim 1 divides the low pollution combustor of three grades of premix and pre-evaporations, it is characterized in that: in described main combustion stage, the number of direct projection spray orifice (50) is 6~30, and in the number of main combustion stage inward eddy device (35) blade and main combustion stage, the ratio of the number of direct projection nozzle opening (50) is 1:1~5:1.
7. a kind of pre-membrane type according to claim 1 divides the low pollution combustor of three grades of premix and pre-evaporations, it is characterized in that: encircling the formed inclination angle of (33) wall in described main combustion stage in direct projection spray orifice (50) and premix and pre-evaporation ring and be 10 °~90 °, is 1:2~1:5 with the valid circulation area ratio of corresponding fuel gallery (45); In described main combustion stage, direct projection spray orifice (50) axial location is 20~50mm apart from the axial distance of main combustion stage outlet (49).
8. a kind of pre-membrane type according to claim 1 divides the low pollution combustor of three grades of premix and pre-evaporations, it is characterized in that: described pre-membrane type nozzle (41) outlet axial location is 20~50mm apart from the axial distance of main combustion stage outlet (49).
9. a kind of pre-membrane type according to claim 1 divides the low pollution combustor of three grades of premix and pre-evaporations, it is characterized in that: in described main premix and pre-evaporation ring outer shroud (31), premix and pre-evaporation ring, on ring (33), open tangential slot, in tangential slot and main premix and pre-evaporation ring outer shroud (31), premix and pre-evaporation ring, the ring formed inclination angle of (33) wall is 10 °~90 °, and axial location is 20~50mm apart from the axial distance of main combustion stage outlet (49).
10. a kind of pre-membrane type according to claim 1 divides the low pollution combustor of three grades of premix and pre-evaporations, it is characterized in that: described head of combustion chamber (13) is along circumferentially being evenly arranged, number is 10~60, the air capacity of head of combustion chamber (13) accounts for 20%~80% of combustion chamber total air, wherein main combustion stage (14) accounts for 60%~90% of head air capacity, and pre-combustion grade (15) accounts for 10%~40% of head air capacity.
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