CN102232345A - Method for budding eelgrass seeds, cultivating seedlings and recovering sea grass bed - Google Patents

Method for budding eelgrass seeds, cultivating seedlings and recovering sea grass bed Download PDF

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CN102232345A
CN102232345A CN 201010172154 CN201010172154A CN102232345A CN 102232345 A CN102232345 A CN 102232345A CN 201010172154 CN201010172154 CN 201010172154 CN 201010172154 A CN201010172154 A CN 201010172154A CN 102232345 A CN102232345 A CN 102232345A
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zostera marina
seed
seedling
grass
sea
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CN102232345B (en
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周毅
杨红生
刘旭佳
刘炳舰
张涛
刘鹰
许强
张明珠
张福绥
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Institute of Oceanology of CAS
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Institute of Oceanology of CAS
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Abstract

The invention relates to a recovery technology for sea ecology, in particular to a method for budding eelgrass seeds, cultivating seedlings and recovering a sea grass bed. Eelgrass seeds are collected and the collected seeds are manually preserved; the temperature of the eelgrass seeds is controlled for cultivating the eelgrass seeds; the eelgrass seeds are activated to bud; and after the seeds bud, eelgrass seedlings can be planted or cultivated to a natural sea area suitable for the growth of eelgrass in respective four cultivating stages so as to form the sea grass bed and realize the recovery of the sea grass bed of the eelgrass. In the invention, the problem that most of the eelgrass seeds cannot be converted into an eelgrass adult plant under a natural sea area condition is solved; the cultivated eelgrass seedlings can be planted or cultivated into the natural sea area in respective four stages; and the budding success rate of the eelgrass seeds and the adult success rate in the natural sea area are obviously increased.

Description

A kind of grass wrack seeds sprouting, seedling culture and sea grass bed recovering method
Technical field
The present invention relates to the marine ecology recovering technology, specifically a kind of grass wrack seeds sprouting, seedling culture and sea grass bed recovering method.
Background technology
Sea grass bed (Seagrass meadows) ecosystem and mangrove forest, coral reef ecologic system are considered to coastal waters three big typical marine ecosystems together.And international research is the result show, the sea grass bed ecology service is worth apparently higher than the ecology service of mangrove forest and coral reef and is worth.Sea grass is unique shallow sea angiosperm under water that is submerged in, and differentiates organs such as root, stem, leaf, flower and seed.Sea grass bed in great numbers is the important symbol of healthy marine environment as the forest of land, is precious " grassland, seabed " or " submarine forest ".Sea grass bed is the high productivity district, can provide good habitat, nursery and protection ground for marine organisms such as fish shrimp crab shellfishes, also helps perching of seabird; Provide important food source for many biologies simultaneously.Sea grass bed also is that one of system is caught and sealed up for safekeeping to the most effective carbon on the earth, and the UN organizations are thought: reply climatic variation the most urgent action is to keep and recover " blue carbon " and converge, and sea grass is given priority to mangrove forest, sabkha.
Northern China temperate zone marine site, especially Shandong coastal waters are the important zones of sea grass distribution.Zostera marina (Zostera marina L.) is a kind of sea grass that the coastal distribution of northern China is the widest, quantity is maximum, and only is distributed in marine site, northern China temperate zone, as coastal waters such as Shandong, Hebei and Liaoning.The Zostera marina sea grass bed is the good place that marine economy biologies such as sea cucumber, shellfish (comprising octopus), shrimp crab class and fish are perched, bred and hide oneself.Zostera marina is a herbaceos perennial, and main sinking is born in the mild argillo arenaceous shallow water of physical features seabed, and the shallow water area from the intertidal zone to the subtidal zone all has distribution, and maximum water depth can reach 30m, and its leaf is elongated to be banded, is commonly called as Triglochin martimum, and Ye Changke reaches more than 3 meters.
In marine site, northern China temperate zone, as Shandong coastal waters, the Zostera marina sea grass bed was once very in great numbers, serious degradation now, and sea grass is sparse to be block and to distribute, and mostly is not linked to be sheet.In northern China, coastal fisherman Zostera marina sea grass commonly used makes to build the material on top, house.The sea grass room is the exclusive significant folk custom symbol in northern Shandong, also is considered in the world one of the most representative ecological local-style dwelling houses, mainly is distributed in coastal areas such as Weihai, Yantai, Qingdao.This illustrates that from the another side sea grass was how in great numbers in the past, and the now is but stayed very few.According to estimates, Shandong coastal waters Zostera marina sea grass bed has been degenerated more than 80%.
For a long time, the important function of sea grass in the ocean do not obtain enough attention, and the sea grass bed area descends in the world, many marine sites are on the brink of extinction, and injure other halobiontic existence, and bio-diversity also decreases, and it is fragile more that the littoral ecosystem also becomes.
People begin to recognize the important function of sea grass in marine ecosystems in recent years, begin to pay attention to the protection of the sea grass ecosystem with to the ecological recovery of the sea grass ecosystem of degenerating.Because coastal in northern China, the Zostera marina sea grass bed is serious degradation, and the existing sea grass of large-area transplanting is obviously unrealistic, thereby collects seed and carry out seed germination and seedling culture is to quicken the important means that sea grass bed recovers with the survival rate that improves seed.But technology in this respect is also very weak at present.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide and solve a kind of big Zostera marina seed germination, seedling culture and the sea grass bed recovering method that the utilization seed carries out the sea grass bed recovery.
For achieving the above object, the technical solution used in the present invention is:
A kind of grass wrack seeds sprouting, seedling culture and sea grass bed recovering method: gather the seed of whole Zostera marina reproduction strain, refrigeration is stand-by in common seawater; After 40-50 days promptly in late August with the ocean temperature of stored refrigerated seed to heat up 1~2 ℃ speed every day, be elevated to 18~20 ℃, continue 5-7 days down at 18~20 ℃, seed will germinate, and will be stand-by; Germinate from grass wrack seeds, successively the Zostera marina seedling can be cultivated in the natural waters that is fit to the Zostera marina growth, form sea grass bed, promptly realize the recovery of Zostera marina sea grass bed at four breeding phases.
Described four breeding phases are:
After phase I has just grown the grass wrack seeds young shoot, plant in the natural waters that is fit to the Zostera marina growth, the continued growth in the sea area of grass wrack seeds young shoot is until growing into strain;
Grass wrack seeds that second stage will be germinateed the phase I continues to cultivate down at 18~20 ℃, when its young shoot length to 2~5 centimeter length, plants in the natural waters that is fit to the Zostera marina growth, and the continued growth in the sea area of Zostera marina seedling is until growing into strain;
In the seed plantation that phase III bud that second stage is cultivated is long 2~5 centimetres or the silt of cultivation screw clamp bottom, under 20~25 ℃ of water temperatures and natural lighting condition, cultivate; Treat that the Zostera marina seedling grows 3~4 blades, 8~16 centimetres of height are partly cultivated the part seedling in the natural waters that is fit to the Zostera marina growth together with silt, and seedling is continued growth in the sea area, until growing into strain;
The quadravalence section with the phase III remaining seedling continue in water temperature is 4~20 ℃ tank, to cultivate 4~May of next year, Zostera marina seedling in the tank is transplanted to seedling continued growth in the sea area in the natural waters that is fit to the Zostera marina growth together with silt, until growing into strain;
Then the different phase Zostera marina of being cultivated in the natural waters that is fit to the Zostera marina growth all forms sea grass bed.
Described bottom of gullet adds silt, 5~10 centimetres of silt thickness, and fill with seawater on silt top, and changed portion's seawater every day when tank was cultivated, and the while is also filled natural air.The seed of described whole Zostera marina reproduction strain, the ripe and/or immature seed for Zostera marina, the seed of Zostera marina maturation is a sepia, fruit is hard, is difficult to pinch broken with finger; The immature seed of Zostera marina is absinthe-green to seem immature seed, promptly gathers the seed bearing whole reproduction strain of Zostera marina.Ripe and/or the immature seed of described collection Zostera marina is stored in the seawater water temperature and is 0~5 ℃ common seawater, change every day 0~5 ℃ seawater once.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: by the present invention, overcome under the natural waters situation, the seed of most of Zostera marina can not change Zostera marina adult plant into, successively can significantly improve the success rate that adult is sprouted and grown up at natural waters to grass wrack seeds at four breeding phases with the Zostera marina seedling cultivation cultivated or cultivate in the natural waters.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment the present invention is described in further detail.
Embodiment 1
Littoral Zostera marina distribution marine site was coastal as Qingdao and Weihai in Shandong, began to collect ripe seed on June 21st, 2008, wherein mature seed is a sepia, fruit is hard, be difficult to pinch with finger broken, after July 15 at the beginning of 8 months, except gathering ripe seed, also gather those and seem immature seed, immature seed is a light green, and certain rigidity is arranged, but it is broken that finger can be pinched, the reproduction strain of promptly gathering whole Zostera marina band seed.
Seem that with those immature seed all collects and separately preservation at indoor seed with maturation.All seeds all stored refrigerated in nature seawater, 0~5 ℃ of temperature.The seawater that changes 0~5 ℃ every day once gets final product, and in time chooses indivedual seeds that rot, and is stand-by.Test the seed of 1000 maturations approximately, owed ripe seed for 2000.
On August 20th, 2008, from beginning 0~5 ℃ of the seawater water temperature of cultivating grass wrack seeds is raise water temperature gradually, make its temperature reach 18~20 ℃ with 2 ℃ the speed of heating up every day, in illumination temperature control incubator, carry out seed germination and cultivate.After one week, the seed of collected maturation and seem that immature seed all will begin to germinate, the seed of final 98% maturation will germinate, and the final germination rate of those not full ripe seeds also has 70%, stand-by.
Germinate from grass wrack seeds, successively at four breeding phases with the Zostera marina seedling cultivation or cultivate in the natural waters that is fit to the Zostera marina growth, the formation sea grass bed is promptly realized the recovery of Zostera marina sea grass bed.
Phase I, after the grass wrack seeds young shoot had just grown, promptly bud length with the part seed was 10% kind by weight percentage September 6 and plants in the natural waters-Hui Spring gulf, Qingdao that is fit to the Zostera marina growth in 1 centimetre, the continued growth in the sea area of grass wrack seeds young shoot is until growing into strain;
Second stage continues the grass wrack seeds of remaining germination of phase I to cultivate down at 18~20 ℃, when its young shoot length to 2~5 centimeter length, but before the seedling fibrous root grows, with the part seed being 20% kind by weight percentage September 21 plants in the natural waters that is fit to the Zostera marina growth, the continued growth in the sea area of Zostera marina seedling is until growing into strain;
The seed plantation that the bud of the Zostera marina seedling that phase III is cultivated second stage is long 2~5 centimetres or cultivate in the silt of artificial bottom of gullet and carry out artificial culture, being about to seedling cultivates in the silt of artificial bottom of gullet of 32 cubes of water bodys, seawater is filled on tank top, wherein silt thickness is 6~7 centimetres, and silt is taken from the littoral sea that Qingdao does not have pollution.The tank of cultivating the Zostera marina seedling changes seawater and fill natural air with inflator pump every day,, the tank seawater is controlled at 20~25 ℃, cultivates under the intensity of natural lighting.Treat October 15, seedling grows 3~4 blades, and 8~16 centimetres of height are 20% to cultivate Hui Spring gulf, Qingdao together with silt with the part seedling by weight percentage, and seedling is continued growth in the sea area, until growing into strain;
The quadravalence section is that other seedling of phase III continue to cultivate in artificial tank, be natural temperature after October, be controlled at winter more than 4 ℃, the sea grass seedling in the tank has been cultivated together with silt in the Hui Spring gulf, Qingdao on April 20th, 2009, continued growth is until growing into strain.Then the different phase Zostera marina of being cultivated in the natural waters that is fit to the Zostera marina growth all forms sea grass bed.
The result observed June 15 in Hui Spring gulf, Qingdao, and the equal major part of seedling of each stage cultivation survives and highly reaches more than 70 centimetres, and sea grass bed forms.The Zostera marina seedling of each stage cultivation all has very high survival rate, and especially the Zostera marina seedling of transplanting on April 20th, 2009, survival rate reaches 96%; And the Zostera marina seedling percent of transplanting in September 6, September 21 and October 15 in 2008 will hang down, and is about 74%, 86% and 90% respectively.
From the above because in same reproduction strain, the seed of Zostera marina and asynchronous maturation, but first maturation comes off earlier, thereby collect ripe seed in large quantities and quite require great effort.And, the considerable absinthe-green immature seed that seems is arranged still in the seed maturity later stage (after July 15 to 8 months at the beginning of).These immature seeds are very easy to a large amount of collections, as long as gather whole reproduction strain at the scene, pluck seed and get final product indoor choosing then.Above-mentionedly seem immature seed, most can rotting and can not germinate under nature sprouted and grown into Zostera marina plant adult but still can carry out artificial seed according to the present invention.As seen the present invention can not only become the cultivating seeds of common maturation Zostera marina adult plant, and those can be seemed that immature cultivating seeds becomes Zostera marina adult plant.And the artificial preservation after the present invention gathers for grass wrack seeds has provided a kind of easy and effective method, is about to seed and is kept in the nature seawater under refrigerated condition, and this method will be guaranteed the sprouting of grass wrack seeds.And can not reveal empty kept dry seed, the seed that reveals empty kept dry seldom can germinate.According to the present invention, stimulate the sprouting that just can promote grass wrack seeds in suitable season by simple temperature programming in addition, almost all ripe seed can both be sprouted, and those seem that immature seed finally also will have over half can the sprouting.It is just sprouted from grass wrack seeds, the invention provides four breeding phases successively can planting or cultivate the Zostera marina seedling, all is easy to grasp.Phase I, after the grass wrack seeds young shoot had just grown, promptly bud length just can be planted the natural waters that is fit to the Zostera marina growth in 1 centimetre; Second stage is that the young shoot of grass wrack seeds is long more longer, as 2-5 centimetre, plants (moving) then and plants in the natural waters, but need plant (after growing because of fibrous root, seedling percent is low relatively) before the seedling fibrous root grows; Phase III is that the Zostera marina seedling is transferred in the artificial tank and proceeds artificial culture, and in mid-October, the Zostera marina seedling grows 3-4 blade in the tank, highly reaches 8-16 centimetre, just can cultivate in the natural waters that is fit to the sea grass growth; The quadravalence section is that the Zostera marina seedling is cultivated in artificial tank always, until the 4-5 month of next year just can be with the Zostera marina sprigging in the tank in the natural waters that is fit to the Zostera marina growth.To sum up by the present invention, overcome under the natural waters situation, the seed of most of Zostera marina can not change Zostera marina adult plant into, successively can significantly improve the success rate that adult is sprouted and grown up at natural waters to grass wrack seeds at four breeding phases with the Zostera marina seedling cultivation cultivated or cultivate in the natural waters.Comparatively speaking, in the quadravalence section, promptly the Zostera marina seedling is cultivated always and just is transplanted in next year 4-5 month in the natural waters, the risk minimum that this in general method Zostera marina seedling is stood at natural waters, survival rate the highest (more than 90%); And in the phase I, be just it to be planted in the natural waters after the grass wrack seeds young shoot has just grown, this method Zostera marina seedling will experience a harsh winter at natural waters, relative risk is just big much, if obtain but that the sea area is selected is suitable, plant method for planting, final survival rate also can be very high.In a word, adopt the present invention, the seedling of grass wrack seeds being cultivated into each stage that can be fast and convenient sprouts and grows up to the success rate of adult with significantly improving grass wrack seeds, will speed up the restoration and reconstruction of Zostera marina sea grass bed.

Claims (5)

1. a grass wrack seeds sprouting, seedling culture and sea grass bed recovering method is characterized in that: gather the seed of whole Zostera marina reproduction strain, refrigerate stand-by in common seawater; After 40-50 days promptly in late August with the ocean temperature of stored refrigerated seed to heat up 1~2 ℃ speed every day, be elevated to 18~20 ℃, continue 5-7 days down at 18~20 ℃, seed will germinate, and will be stand-by; Germinate from grass wrack seeds, successively the Zostera marina seedling can be cultivated in the natural waters that is fit to the Zostera marina growth, form sea grass bed, promptly realize the recovery of Zostera marina sea grass bed at four breeding phases.
2. by the described grass wrack seeds sprouting of claim 1, seedling culture and sea grass bed recovering method, it is characterized in that: described four breeding phases are:
After phase I has just grown the grass wrack seeds young shoot, plant in the natural waters that is fit to the Zostera marina growth, the continued growth in the sea area of grass wrack seeds young shoot is until growing into strain;
Grass wrack seeds that second stage will be germinateed the phase I continues to cultivate down at 18~20 ℃, when its young shoot length to 2~5 centimeter length, plants in the natural waters that is fit to the Zostera marina growth, and the continued growth in the sea area of Zostera marina seedling is until growing into strain;
In the seed plantation that phase III bud that second stage is cultivated is long 2~5 centimetres or the silt of cultivation screw clamp bottom, under 20~25 ℃ of water temperatures and natural lighting condition, cultivate; Treat that the Zostera marina seedling grows 3~4 blades, 8~16 centimetres of height are partly cultivated the part seedling in the natural waters that is fit to the Zostera marina growth together with silt, and seedling is continued growth in the sea area, until growing into strain;
The quadravalence section with the phase III remaining seedling continue in water temperature is 4~20 ℃ tank, to cultivate 4~May of next year, Zostera marina seedling in the tank is transplanted to seedling continued growth in the sea area in the natural waters that is fit to the Zostera marina growth together with silt, until growing into strain;
Then the different phase Zostera marina of being cultivated in the natural waters that is fit to the Zostera marina growth all forms sea grass bed.
3. by the described grass wrack seeds sprouting of claim 2, seedling culture and sea grass bed recovering method, it is characterized in that: described bottom of gullet adds silt, 5~10 centimetres of silt thickness, and fill with seawater on silt top, changed portion's seawater every day when tank was cultivated, and the while is also filled natural air.
4. by the described grass wrack seeds sprouting of claim 1, seedling culture and sea grass bed recovering method, it is characterized in that: the seed of described whole Zostera marina reproduction strain, the ripe and/or immature seed for Zostera marina, the seed of Zostera marina maturation is a sepia, fruit is hard, is difficult to pinch broken with finger; The immature seed of Zostera marina is absinthe-green to seem immature seed, promptly gathers the seed bearing whole reproduction strain of Zostera marina.
5. by the described grass wrack seeds sprouting of claim 1, seedling culture and sea grass bed recovering method, it is characterized in that: the ripe and/or immature seed of described collection Zostera marina, be stored in the seawater water temperature and be 0~5 ℃ common seawater, change every day 0~5 ℃ seawater once.
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CN102577699A (en) * 2012-01-01 2012-07-18 山东东方海洋科技股份有限公司 Method for cultivating zostera marina aseptic seedlings
CN102657070A (en) * 2012-05-01 2012-09-12 山东东方海洋科技股份有限公司 Construction method of seaweed germchit bank system
CN103098694A (en) * 2013-02-22 2013-05-15 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 Cultivation method of zostera marina artificial sea turfs
CN103098695A (en) * 2013-02-22 2013-05-15 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 Cultivation method of zostera marina high-quality seedling plants
CN103548443A (en) * 2013-11-22 2014-02-05 山东省海水养殖研究所 Sowing method of zostera marina seeds
CN104429218A (en) * 2013-09-16 2015-03-25 中国海洋大学 Natural sea-area sowing method of zostera marina seed
CN104770285A (en) * 2014-01-14 2015-07-15 中国海洋大学 Zostera marina young seedling manual culture method
CN105557498A (en) * 2015-12-28 2016-05-11 山东大学(威海) Ecological restoration method for zostera marina sea grass bed
CN106717248A (en) * 2016-11-22 2017-05-31 中国科学院海洋研究所 A kind of method for extending the eelgrass Seed storage time

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CN103609422B (en) * 2013-11-14 2015-05-27 青岛农业大学 Zostera marina seed multiplication method

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CN102577699A (en) * 2012-01-01 2012-07-18 山东东方海洋科技股份有限公司 Method for cultivating zostera marina aseptic seedlings
CN102577699B (en) * 2012-01-01 2013-12-04 山东东方海洋科技股份有限公司 Method for cultivating zostera marina aseptic seedlings
CN102657070A (en) * 2012-05-01 2012-09-12 山东东方海洋科技股份有限公司 Construction method of seaweed germchit bank system
CN103098694A (en) * 2013-02-22 2013-05-15 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 Cultivation method of zostera marina artificial sea turfs
CN103098695A (en) * 2013-02-22 2013-05-15 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 Cultivation method of zostera marina high-quality seedling plants
CN103098694B (en) * 2013-02-22 2014-08-27 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 Cultivation method of zostera marina artificial sea turfs
CN103098695B (en) * 2013-02-22 2014-08-06 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 Cultivation method of zostera marina high-quality seedling plants
CN104429218A (en) * 2013-09-16 2015-03-25 中国海洋大学 Natural sea-area sowing method of zostera marina seed
CN103548443A (en) * 2013-11-22 2014-02-05 山东省海水养殖研究所 Sowing method of zostera marina seeds
CN103548443B (en) * 2013-11-22 2015-06-17 山东省海水养殖研究所 Sowing method of zostera marina seeds
CN104770285A (en) * 2014-01-14 2015-07-15 中国海洋大学 Zostera marina young seedling manual culture method
CN105557498A (en) * 2015-12-28 2016-05-11 山东大学(威海) Ecological restoration method for zostera marina sea grass bed
CN106717248A (en) * 2016-11-22 2017-05-31 中国科学院海洋研究所 A kind of method for extending the eelgrass Seed storage time

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