CN102207371B - Three-dimensional point coordinate measuring method and measuring apparatus thereof - Google Patents

Three-dimensional point coordinate measuring method and measuring apparatus thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102207371B
CN102207371B CN2011100627955A CN201110062795A CN102207371B CN 102207371 B CN102207371 B CN 102207371B CN 2011100627955 A CN2011100627955 A CN 2011100627955A CN 201110062795 A CN201110062795 A CN 201110062795A CN 102207371 B CN102207371 B CN 102207371B
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measuring
coordinate
point
dimensional
sonde
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CN2011100627955A
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CN102207371A (en
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秦大辉
毛婷
王泽根
刘福臻
杨艳梅
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西南石油大学
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Abstract

The invention relates to a three-dimensional point coordinate measuring method and a measuring apparatus thereof. According to the invention, the problems on the flexibility of the system and the measuring speed are solved; therefore, the field measurement and the measurement of points that are not easy to be measured can be allowed, and the manufacturing cost can be reduced. According to the scheme of the method, a camera coordinate system is established; three-dimensional coordinates of marking points are calibrated in a light pen coordinate system, wherein the marking points are fixed on a measuring probe; spatial three-dimensional coordinates of implementation measuring time of a set of fixed marking points on the measuring probe are calculated in the camera coordinate system, and three-dimensional coordinates of the set of fixed marking points on the measuring probe are also calculated in a measuring probe coordinate system; and a logical relation of the two coordinate systems of the implementation measuring time is established; a three-dimensional coordinate of a spherical point of a spherical measuring head is calibrated in the measuring probe coordinate system; based on the above results, when the measuring is carried out, a spherical measuring head in the front of the measuring probe is contacted with a measured point to obtain a measuring point, and a coordinate of the measuring point is calculated. The measuring apparatus comprises supports, cameras, a measuring probe, a matched computer and matched software. The apparatus has two cameras, which are fixed on supports. The spherical measuring head is fixed at the front of a T-shaped rod, and a set of marking points, which are in a T-shaped form, are fixed on the T-shaped rod. According to the invention, the system has good flexibility, and the measuring speed is fast; besides, the measurement of a measuring point that is not easy to be measured is also allowed, and the cost is low.

Description

A kind of three-dimensional point coordinate measuring method and measurement mechanism

Technical field

The invention belongs to the precision measurement field, contact type measurement and these two kinds of methods of non-contact measurement are organically combined particularly a kind of measuring sonde and the portable three-dimensional coordinate measurement method and the measurement mechanism that move arbitrarily.

Background technology

The three coordinate measuring machine aspect is very ripe; State of development according to present measuring equipment; By common classification, can be divided into measuring system three-dimensional coordinates measurement system, flexible three-dimensional coordinates measurement system and be the structured light scanning measurement system etc. of representative with three-dimensional laser scanning measurement system, photo-optics scanning measurement system etc.The three-dimensional coordinates measurement systematic survey technology of contact is very ripe, even today that structured light scanning three-dimensional measurement means are popularized day by day, traditional C MM is still the maximum three-dimensional measurement means of the market share that account for.In general, traditional C MM has characteristics such as precision height, good reliability, technology maturation, but measuring speed is slow, the size and the weight of testee is had certain requirement, and needs relatively stricter laboratory environment.So the measuring point amount requires the high-acruracy survey of less standard component generally all to adopt traditional C MM.

The development of flexible measuring arm has at present become the focus of reverse-engineering research.There is Shi Duojia in flexible measuring arm manufacturing plant in the world, and main has: U.S. CIMCORE (ROMER-USA), French ROMER company, U.S. FARO company, Japanese Vectron company, German ZettMess company, gondola Garda company etc.

Above-mentioned portable three-coordinate measuring machine has better portability, dirigibility and on-the-spot detectability with respect to traditional three coordinate measuring machine, therefore greatly reduces the restriction to measurement environment, has enlarged the application scenario of three-dimensional measurement.But, weakness such as existing flexible measuring arm has the manufacturing cost height, and complex equipments is had relatively high expectations to measure field, and the one-shot measurement scope receives the restriction of brachium, and measuring speed is slow, and efficiency of measurement is low.

With three-dimensional laser scanning measurement system and photo-optics scanning measurement system etc. is the structured light scanning measurement system of representative; Has the fast advantage of measuring speed; Can obtain a large amount of measurement data at short notice; But two great shortcomings are but arranged, the one, can't carry out spot measurement, the coordinate that obtains some point that can not be selectable, independent; The 2nd, there is disconnected light to disturb, can not measure positions such as deep hole, shading light parts.

Summary of the invention

For better performance portable three-coordinate is measured advantage easy to use; Improve the flexibility and the measuring speed of measuring system simultaneously; And the various in-site measurements of As soon as possible Promising Policy; More adapt to the grade measurement that is difficult for measurement point and reduce the manufacturing cost of portable three-coordinate surveying instrument of deep hole, light shielding part, the present invention disclose a kind of three-dimensional point coordinate measuring method and measurement mechanism, these method combination contact type measurement and these two kinds of methods of non-contact measurement; The mathematical model of setting up contacts with the measured point through measuring sonde, and the check point three-dimensional coordinate is confirmed.Overcome effectively that present three coordinate measuring machine flexibility is low, cost is high and the non-contact scanning appearance can not survey shading light parts such as inside surface, can certain point of independent measurement defective.

The present invention realizes that the technical scheme that the goal of the invention of measuring method adopts is; A kind of three-dimensional point coordinate measuring method; This method is to contact with the measured point through measuring sonde; Two ccd video cameras are gathered measuring sonde parts of images information, confirm that through supporting computer software the three-dimensional point of measured point is sat, and this method realizes through following steps:

⑴, set up camera coordinate system, two CCD cameras to fixedly installing utilize camera from calibration algorithm, calculate the relative orientation of inner parameter and two cameras of camera, thereby set up the camera coordinate system;

⑵, calculate a group mark point Pg1-PgN who fixedly installs on the measuring sonde according to the binocular stereo vision matching algorithm and under camera coordinate system, implement to measure 3 d space coordinate constantly, adopt the three-dimensional coordinate of this group mark point Pg1-PgN under the measuring sonde coordinate system that fixedly installs on the principle calibration measurements probe of bundle adjustment;

, through one group be fixed on the measuring sonde point Pg1-PgN the probe coordinate system down three-dimensional coordinate and be engraved in the three-dimensional coordinate under the camera coordinate system when implementing measurement; Can confirm to implement to measure rotation matrix R and the translation vector T of measuring sonde coordinate system constantly, implement to measure the logical relation of two coordinate systems constantly thereby set up with respect to camera coordinate system;

⑷ the calibration algorithm of, the colourful attitude of employing measuring sonde single-point calibrates the three-dimensional coordinate of the centre of sphere point Pg of measuring sonde front end spheric probe at the measuring head coordinate system;

, when measuring; The spherical measuring head of measuring sonde front end contacts with the measured point; Two ccd video cameras are gathered the image information that is no less than 3 above monumented points on the measuring sonde; Supporting computer software repeating step (3) is set up the logical relation of measuring two coordinate systems constantly and the calibration result that utilizes step (4); Can obtain the three-dimensional coordinate of centre of sphere point Pg under camera coordinate system of the spherical measuring head of measuring sonde front end in real time, supporting computer software is confirmed the three-dimensional coordinate of measured point in camera coordinate system in the D coordinates value of the centre of sphere point Pg through measuring sonde front end sphere measuring head, and is kept in the database of supporting computing machine; Repeat above-mentioned measuring process, can accomplish measurement n measurement point.

The present invention realizes that the technical scheme that the goal of the invention of measurement mechanism adopts is; A kind of three-dimensional point coordinate measuring set; Comprise that support, ccd video camera, measuring sonde and supporting computing machine and software kit constitute, software kit is to adopt three-dimensional point coordinate measuring method of the present invention to realize that described ccd video camera is two; And be fixed on the support; Described measuring sonde comprises T shape bar, spherical measuring head and group mark point, and spherical measuring head is fixed on the front end of T shape bar, and a group mark point is T-shaped to be fixed on the T shape bar.

The invention has the beneficial effects as follows that measuring sonde can detect the point of various surfaces externally and internallies flexibly, as can stretching into deep hole, inside surface etc., and the monumented point on the measuring sonde is exposed to the observable zone of ccd video camera.The present invention replenishes as the strong of three-dimensional coordinates measurement and non-contact measurement, has enlarged the measurement range of object.Measuring system of the present invention is simple and reliable, the measurement dead angle in the time of can eliminating non-contact measurement again, have that volume is little, in light weight, measurement range is big, flexible and convenient to use, be easy to carry and outstanding advantage such as on-the-spot use.

Of the present invention comparing with other measuring system has some advantages:

(1) do not need strict accurate installing and locating between measuring sonde, ccd video camera and the testee three or between video camera and the video camera; Therefore can adjust the position of video camera flexibly according to the testee characteristics; Greatly facilitate on-the-spot the use, strengthened the flexibility of system.

(2) combination of measuring sonde and vision measurement system provides all advantages of traditional three coordinate measuring machine, and does not bring any restriction.Simultaneously, the applicability of this system has been encouraged the operator of wide spectrum, and they need not to be the photographic measurement expert of operation vision detection system.Traditional three coordinate measuring machine, and frame of reference, movable part and the lever system of be difficult to handling, can not provide to choose arbitrarily a little in time, easy measurement, but this is for measuring sonde, is easy to accomplish.

(3) do not need strict accurate installing and locating between measuring sonde, video camera and the testee three, therefore can adjust the position of video camera according to the testee characteristics flexibly, convenient on-the-spot the use strengthened the flexibility of system.

(4) video camera absorbs to such an extent that be the image of monumented point on the measuring sonde rather than the image at measuring point place, so measure the influence of geometric configuration, surface curvature and the material do not receive the testee surface, this is an optical measuring method pain in the neck the most in the past.And some difficult position or blind spot of surveying, can measure through the length and the shape that change measuring sonde.

Describe the present invention below in conjunction with accompanying drawing.

Description of drawings

Accompanying drawing 1 is a device synoptic diagram of the present invention.

Accompanying drawing 2 is the measuring sonde synoptic diagram.

In the accompanying drawing, 1, ccd video camera, 2, support, 3 measuring sondes, 3-1, T shape bar, 3-2, spherical measuring head, Pg1-PgN, monumented point, 4, computing machine.

Embodiment

A kind of three-dimensional point coordinate measuring method, this method are to contact with the measured point through measuring sonde, and two ccd video cameras are gathered the measuring sonde image information, confirm that through supporting computer software the three-dimensional point of measured point is sat, and this method realizes through following steps:

⑴, set up camera coordinate system, two CCD cameras to fixedly installing utilize camera from calibration algorithm, calculate the relative orientation of inner parameter and two cameras of camera, thereby set up the camera coordinate system.

⑵, calculate a group mark point Pg1-PgN who fixedly installs on the measuring sonde according to the binocular stereo vision matching algorithm and under the camera coordinate system coordinate system, implement to measure 3 d space coordinate constantly, adopt the three-dimensional coordinate of this group mark point Pg1-PgN under the measuring sonde coordinate system that fixedly installs on the principle calibration measurements probe of bundle adjustment.

The three-dimensional coordinate Pg1 that calibrates at next group mark point of measuring sonde coordinate system (xg1, yg1, zg1), Pg2 (xg2, yg2, zg2) ..., PgN (xgN, ygN, zgN).In the embodiment of the invention, group mark point is set to 5, i.e. N=5.

, through one group of monumented point Pg1-PgN that is fixed on the measuring sonde; Three-dimensional coordinate under the probe coordinate system is engraved in the three-dimensional coordinate of camera coordinate system when measuring with enforcement; Can confirm to implement to measure rotation matrix R and the translation vector T of measuring sonde coordinate system constantly, implement to measure the logical relation of two coordinate systems constantly thereby set up with respect to camera coordinate system.

⑷ the calibration algorithm of, the colourful attitude of employing measuring sonde single-point calibrates the three-dimensional coordinate of the centre of sphere point Pg of the spherical measuring head of measuring head front end at the measuring head coordinate system.

The calibration algorithm of the colourful attitude of described measuring sonde single-point is that the demarcation of adopting the centre of sphere Pg of the spherical measuring head of measuring sonde front end to order then adopts the self-calibrating method of the colourful attitude of single-point to demarcate.The centre of sphere Pg point of spherical measuring head is placed in the conical bore of calibrating block; Designing requirement to conical bore is to guarantee that spherical measuring head can not touch at the end; Will guarantee spherical measuring head position simultaneously under the situation of rotation, inclination certain angle, measuring sonde other any parts except that spherical measuring head can not touch the sidewall of conical bore.After putting into conical bore to spherical measuring head, guarantee spherical measuring head and taper hole around contact fully fully, behind measuring sonde inclination certain angle, any change does not take place in the locus of the center point P g of spherical measuring head like this.

Obtained n attitude of measuring sonde in the same position of spherical measuring head center point P g; Two ccd video camera collections have obtained n to spherical measuring head image; So through the binocular stereo vision Measurement Algorithm; Just can obtain the three-dimensional coordinate (in following formula monumented point be provided with 5, i.e. N=5) of n group measuring sonde monumented point Pg1 ~ PgN under camera coordinate system:

,i=1,2,…,n-1,n。

Again according to passing through to demarcate the three dimensional space coordinate of N monumented point Pg1 ~ PgN below spherical measuring head coordinate system on the spherical measuring head that obtains before this:

,i=1,2,…,n-1,n。

Just can obtain equation:

(1)

In order to obtain the attitude of measuring sonde, obtain rotation matrix R and the translation vector T of above-mentioned equation (1) measuring sonde coordinate system with respect to camera coordinate system through the SVD method with respect to video camera.

Establishing spherical measuring head center point P g earlier is Pg=[xgp, ygp, zgp] at the coordinate of measuring sonde coordinate system T, be Pc=[xgc, ygc, zgc] at the coordinate of camera coordinate system T, then can obtain following system of equations according to formula (1):

(2)

Because system of equations is a system of linear equations; Unknown number is 3; Therefore as long as n >=2 can calculate Pg; In order to increase stability and reliability, two ccd video cameras of native system are taken at least 6 groups totally 12 width of cloth images, ask the coordinate Pg of spherical measuring head central point at the measuring sonde coordinate system through least square method.

After having calibrated Pg, in actual measurement, get final product in the substitution formula (1), obtain the coordinate of spherical measuring head center, can obtain the three-dimensional coordinate of testee point at camera coordinate system.Thereby realized contact type measurement based on binocular stereo vision.

, when measuring; The spherical measuring head of measuring sonde front end contacts with the measured point; Two ccd video cameras are gathered the image information that is no less than 3 monumented points on the measuring sonde; Supporting computer software repeating step (3) is set up the logical relation of measuring two coordinate systems constantly and the calibration result that utilizes step (4); Can obtain the three-dimensional coordinate of centre of sphere point Pg under camera coordinate system of the spherical measuring head of measuring sonde front end in real time, supporting computer software is confirmed the three-dimensional coordinate of measured point in camera coordinate system in the D coordinates value of the centre of sphere point Pg through measuring sonde front end sphere measuring head, and is kept in the database of supporting computing machine; Repeat above-mentioned measuring process, can accomplish measurement n measurement point.

The present invention is according to said method; A kind of three-dimensional point coordinate measuring set of design; Comprise that support, ccd video camera, measuring sonde and supporting computing machine and software kit constitute, software kit is to adopt the described three-dimensional point coordinate measuring method of claim 1 to realize that described ccd video camera 1 is two; And be fixed on the support 2; Described measuring sonde 3 comprises T shape bar 3-1, spherical measuring head 3-2 and a group mark point Pg1-PgN, and spherical measuring head 3-2 is fixed on the front end of T shape bar 3-1, and a group mark point Pg1-PgN is T-shaped to be fixed on the T shape bar 3-1.A said group mark point Pg1-PgN is no less than 3.

This device is made up of the high-resolution ccd video camera of a custom-designed measuring sonde 3, two 1, its special calibrating annex and 4 in the computing machine that the software kit system is housed.

Said measuring sonde 3 is cores of this device; Measuring sonde 3 comprises T shape bar 3-1, spherical measuring head 3-2 and a group mark point Pg1-PgN; Spherical measuring head 3-2 is equipped with at T shape bar 3-1 front end place, and T shape bar 3-1 requires to tighten together with spherical measuring head 3-2, can not have loosening; Post at least 3 or the monumented point Pg1-PgN more than 3 on it, monumented point Pg1-PgN becomes the T type to distribute on T shape bar 3-1.For stability and the accuracy that increases system, consider the size of T shape bar 3-1 simultaneously, this embodiment of the invention is provided with 5 monumented points.

Said two ccd video cameras 1 are fixed on the both sides of rectangle sheet metal, and the photocentre axle clamp angle of two ccd video cameras 1 is between 20 to 60 degree, and ccd video camera 1 is connected with the computing machine that image pick-up card is housed 4.

Before the measurement, need demarcate system, comprising the demarcation of two video cameras 1, T shape bar 3-1 goes up the demarcation of monumented point and the demarcation of spherical measuring head 3-2 center.

The demarcation of CCD camera 1 can calculate the 3 d space coordinate under the defined coordinate system of binocular camera, and the demarcation that T shape bar 3-1 goes up demarcation and the spherical measuring head 3-2 center of monumented point Pg1-PgN can confirm that landmark space three-dimensional coordinate and spherical measuring head 3-2 central point are at the coordinate of measuring sonde 3 coordinate systems under the measuring sonde coordinate system.

Above-mentioned demarcation has been arranged, just can obtain 3 * 3 rotation matrix R and 3 * 1 translation column vector T between two coordinate systems.

After having set up the clear and definite transformational relation of two coordinate systems,, just can solve the three-dimensional coordinate of spherical measuring head 3-2 at camera coordinate system according to the 3 d space coordinate of the spherical measuring head 3-2 central point that calibrates in advance at the measuring sonde coordinate system

When measuring; Two ccd video cameras 1 are fixed; Hand-held measuring sonde is measured in different places, and the three dimensional space coordinate of the point that measuring sonde is measured all is under the ccd video camera coordinate system, thereby has realized the 3 D visual measurement of coordinates of hand-held measuring sonde measuring system.

During measurement; Only need the tested point on the spherical measuring head 3-2 contact gauge head contact object; The image of monumented point Pg1-PgN on the ccd video camera 1 picked-up measuring sonde, image pick-up card is gathered the ccd video camera image and is sent data to computing machine, just can calculate the three-dimensional coordinate Pg (xg of spherical measuring head 3-2 after the Computer Processing; Yg, zg).

This measurement mechanism possesses following characteristic:

1, function is strong.

This systems incorporate contact type measurement and two kinds of methods of non-contact measurement.Can provide the xyz three-dimensional coordinate of any measuring point in space in the measurement range, be a complete three-dimensional coordinates measurement system, can accomplish measurement and the multiple functions such as position measurement of correlating factor of the size and shape of single geometric element.This system can overcome effectively that present three coordinate measuring machine flexibility is low, cost is high and the non-contact scanning appearance can not be surveyed the defective of point and certain point of independent measurement of inside surface, and the measurement dead angle can effectively eliminate non-contact measurement the time.

2, good portability is flexible high.

The quality of whole measuring system is about 10-20kg, rather than as thousand kilograms of present three coordinate measuring machine tuples.And set up flexible, simple to operate.Therefore, so long carry it outdoor outside or carry out in-site measurement in the location of certain large-scale workpiece.

3, do not have complex mechanical construction, cost is low, and simultaneously, range is big, and precision is high.

The measurement space scope reaches meter level, and measuring accuracy reaches the 0.2mm level.

The theory that the present invention relates to is following referring to document:

⑴、Z?Zhang.?Flexible?camera?calibration?by?viewing?a?plane?from?unknown?orientations.?Pro.?Of?7?th?Int.?Conference?on?Computer?Vision,?Kerkyra,?Greece.?1999:?666-673.

⑵, Chen Houdao. towards the research of the Key Techniques of Reverse Engineering of quick shaping: [Master's thesis]. Wuhan: the Central China University of Science and Technology, 2003.

⑶?Ezio?Malis?,Adrien?Bartoli.Euclidean?Bundle?Adjustment?Independent?on?Camera?Intrinsic?Parameters[J],Rapport?de?recherchen,?2001,(12):4377~4386

⑷?Bill?Triggs,?Philip?McLauchlan,?Richard?Hartley?.Bundle?Adjustment?—A?Modern?Synthesis.In?Proceedings?of?the?International?Workshop?on?Vision?Algorithms:Theory?and?Practice,1999,?(1):298~372。

⑸ Z.Zhang?and?Y.Shan.Incremental?Motion?Estimation?through?Local?Bundle?Adjustment.?MicrosofTcehnical?Rrport?:MSR-TR-01-54,Microsoft?Research,?2001:1~36。

⑹?Manolis?I.ALourakis?and?Antonis?A.Argyrous.?The?Design?and?Implementation?of?a?Generic?Sparse?Bundle?Adjustment?Software?Package?Based?on?the?Levenberg-Marquardt?Algorithm?.Technical?Report:TR-340-FORTH-ICS,?2004:1~28。

Claims (2)

1. three-dimensional point coordinate measuring method; This method is to contact with the measured point through measuring sonde; Two ccd video cameras are gathered the measuring sonde image information, confirm that through supporting computer software the three-dimensional point of measured point is sat, and it is characterized in that: this method realizes through following steps:
⑴, set up camera coordinate system, two CCD cameras to fixedly installing utilize camera from calibration algorithm, calculate the relative orientation of inner parameter and two cameras of camera, thereby set up the camera coordinate system;
⑵, calculate a group mark point Pg1-PgN who fixedly installs on the measuring sonde according to the binocular stereo vision matching algorithm and under camera coordinate system, implement to measure 3 d space coordinate constantly, adopt the three-dimensional coordinate of this group mark point Pg1-PgN under the measuring sonde coordinate system that fixedly installs on the principle calibration measurements probe of bundle adjustment;
, through one group be fixed on the measuring sonde monumented point Pg1-PgN the probe coordinate system down three-dimensional coordinate and be engraved in the three-dimensional coordinate of camera coordinate system when implementing measurement; Can confirm to implement to measure rotation matrix R and the translation vector T of measuring sonde coordinate system constantly, implement to measure the logical relation of two coordinate systems constantly thereby set up with respect to camera coordinate system;
⑷ the calibration algorithm of, the colourful attitude of employing measuring sonde single-point calibrates the three-dimensional coordinate of the centre of sphere point Pg of the spherical measuring head of measuring head front end at the measuring sonde coordinate system;
, when measuring; The spherical measuring head of measuring sonde front end contacts with the measured point; Two ccd video cameras are gathered the image information that is no less than 3 monumented points on the measuring sonde; Supporting computer software repeating step (3) is set up the logical relation of measuring two coordinate systems constantly and the calibration result that utilizes step (4); Can obtain the three-dimensional coordinate of centre of sphere point Pg under camera coordinate system of the spherical measuring head of measuring sonde front end in real time, supporting computer software is confirmed the three-dimensional coordinate of measured point in camera coordinate system in the D coordinates value of the centre of sphere point Pg through measuring sonde front end sphere measuring head, and is kept in the database of supporting computing machine; Repeat above-mentioned measuring process, can accomplish measurement n measurement point.
2. a kind of three-dimensional point coordinate measuring method according to claim 1; It is characterized in that: the centre of sphere point Pg three-dimensional coordinate of the spherical measuring head of step ⑷ measuring sonde front end; Be that to adopt the centre of sphere with the spherical measuring head of measuring sonde front end be run-on point; Two ccd video camera collections are greater than the image of the measuring sonde under 2 kinds of diverse location attitudes, and supporting computer software can be confirmed the D coordinates value of centre of sphere point Pg under the coordinate system of popping one's head in of the spherical measuring head of measuring sonde front end through the D coordinates value of monumented point Pg1-PgN.
CN2011100627955A 2011-03-16 2011-03-16 Three-dimensional point coordinate measuring method and measuring apparatus thereof CN102207371B (en)

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