CN102206778A - Aluminium die casting alloy used as vehicle material - Google Patents

Aluminium die casting alloy used as vehicle material Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102206778A
CN102206778A CN2011100730458A CN201110073045A CN102206778A CN 102206778 A CN102206778 A CN 102206778A CN 2011100730458 A CN2011100730458 A CN 2011100730458A CN 201110073045 A CN201110073045 A CN 201110073045A CN 102206778 A CN102206778 A CN 102206778A
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alloy
die
cast
aluminum diecasting
vehicle
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CN102206778B (en
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高桥恭
福田征秀
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Honda Motor Co Ltd
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Honda Motor Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention provides a high-strength and highly-rigid aluminum die casting alloy which can even be made of low cost recycled aluminum ingot containing lots of Fe. The aluminum die casting alloy used as vehicle material, with Al-Si as basis, is cast with following components, % by weight, Si: 5-12%, Mg: 0.1-1.0%, Fe: over 0.16%, Mn: less than 1.5%, Cu: less than 1.0%, Zn: less than 2.0%, Ti: 0.03-0.2% or Sr:0.005-0.2%, and the balance being inevitable impurities Al, wherein either Ti: 0.03-0.2% or Sr:0.005-0.2% is added to minimize the metallic structure. After being cast, the alloy is water quenched or rapidly cooled in a water solution under 100 DEC within 0-5 minutes.

Description

Vehicle material aluminum diecasting alloy
Technical field
The present invention relates to vehicle material aluminum diecasting alloy.
Background technology
Require the material of the parts of high strength and high tenacity as the wheel of automobile, two wheeler etc., proposed in new aluminium ingot (being also referred to as aluminium alloy one time), to have added the aluminum diecasting alloy (for example referring to patent documentation 1) of several elements before.
Patent documentation 1: No. 3255560 communique of Japan's special permission
Summary of the invention
As the aluminum diecasting alloy of record in the above-mentioned patent documentation 1, if use new aluminium ingot, then can be suppressed at the amount that toughness is had dysgenic Fe below the 0.15 weight %, can have high strength and high tenacity concurrently.But, the twice-laid stuff of aluminium is promptly regenerated aluminium ingot (being also referred to as the secondary aluminium alloy) when using as basic material, owing to sneak into Fe inevitably, so existence can not have the problem of high strength and high tenacity concurrently.
The present invention In view of the foregoing makes, and its objective is, even when adopting the raw material aluminium ingot of regenerating cheaply etc., that contain more Fe, also can provide the aluminum diecasting alloy that has high strength and high tenacity concurrently.
To achieve these goals, vehicle material aluminum diecasting alloy of the present invention is the vehicle material aluminum diecasting alloy based on Al-Si, it is characterized in that, following alloy is carried out die casting, the following formation of this alloy: in weight %, more than Si:5~12%, Mg:0.1~1.0%, the Fe:0.16%, below the Mn:1.5%, below the Cu:1.0%, below the Zn:2.0%, in addition, add Ti:0.03~0.2%, Sr:0.005~0.2% the two or one of them for the microminiaturization of metal structure, all the other are Al and unavoidable impurities; After die casting, in 0~5 minute, carry out shrend or chilling in the aqueous cooling solutions below 100 ℃.
According to the present invention, the weight ratio of chemical ingredients is adjusted in above-mentioned scope, carry out die casting, after die casting, implement the thermal treatment of above-mentioned condition, so, can suppress to cause the generation of the needle-like Fe series intermetallic compound that toughness reduces and make the metal structure microminiaturization, can guarantee high tenacity and obtain high strength.Therefore, even when adopting the raw material aluminium ingot of regenerating cheaply etc., that contain more Fe, also can obtain having high strength and high tenacity concurrently, be suitable as the aluminum diecasting alloy that the parts of requirement of strength are arranged in automobile, two wheeler.
In addition, the shrend of above-mentioned aluminum diecasting alloy or with the chilling of the aqueous cooling solutions below 100 ℃, also can be after die casting 1 minute with interior enforcement.
At this moment, owing to can make the dendrite microminiaturization effectively, so, can obtain the aluminum diecasting alloy of high strength and high tenacity effectively.
In addition, above-mentioned aluminum diecasting alloy behind the chilling that has carried out quenching or aqueous cooling solutions, also can heat maintenance with 100~300 ℃.
At this moment, owing to produce age hardening at short notice, so, can obtain having concurrently high tenacity and more high-intensity aluminum diecasting alloy at short notice.
In addition, can be 2~24 hours the heat-up time of above-mentioned heating maintenance.
At this moment, owing to can produce age hardening conscientiously and fully, so, can obtain having concurrently high tenacity and more high-intensity aluminum diecasting alloy effectively.
According to the present invention, even when adopting the raw material aluminium ingot of for example regenerating cheaply etc., that contain more Fe, also can obtain having high strength and high tenacity concurrently, be suitable as the aluminum diecasting alloy that the parts of requirement of strength are arranged in automobile, two wheeler.
In addition, can obtain the aluminum diecasting alloy of high strength and high tenacity conscientiously.
In addition, can obtain having concurrently high tenacity and more high-intensity aluminum diecasting alloy at short notice.
In addition, can obtain having concurrently high tenacity and more high-intensity aluminum diecasting alloy conscientiously.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 (A) is that expression Al-Si is the chart of an example of the relation of Mg amount in the die-cast product of alloy and yield strength.Fig. 1 (B) represents that this Mg measures and the chart of an example of the relation of unit elongation.
Fig. 2 is that the Fe of expression in these casting product measures and the chart of an example of the relation of unit elongation.
Fig. 3 is the secondary dendrite spacing arm (DASII) of expression in these casting product and the chart of an example of the relation of fatigue strength.
Fig. 4 is the chart of the example that has or not the relation of adding Sr and unit elongation in these casting product of expression.
Fig. 5 is up to the chart of an example of the relation of time of shrend and yield strength behind the die-cast of expression in these casting product.
Fig. 6 is that Al-Si that expression contains Mg is the chart of an example of the relation of artificial aging time in the die-cast product of alloy, after the quenching and Rockwell hardness.
Fig. 7 is the chart of the mechanical properties of the expression aluminum diecasting alloy (comparative example) that has been suitable for the important document that aluminum diecasting alloy of the present invention (embodiment) and discontented unabridged version invent.
Embodiment
Below, with reference to the description of drawings embodiments of the present invention.
The aluminum diecasting alloy of present embodiment, be that following alloy is carried out die-cast, behind die-cast, carried out shrend or the quenching of chilling in the aqueous cooling solutions below 100 ℃ at 0~5 minute with interior, after the quenching, the artificial aging of using 100~300 ℃ temperature heating to keep is handled and is made.In this alloy, comprise chemical component weight than for Si (silicon): 5~12%, Mg (magnesium): 0.1~1.0%, above, the Mn (manganese) of Fe:0.16%: below 1.5%, Cu (copper): below 1.0%, Zn (zinc): below 2.0%, comprise Ti (titanium): 0.03~0.2%, Sr (strontium): 0.005~0.2% the two or one of them, all the other are Al (aluminium) and unavoidable impurities.
Below, illustrate present embodiment aluminum diecasting alloy chemical component weight than and the qualification reason and the effect thereof of heat-treat condition.
(Si:5~12%)
Si is the element that has the effect that improves flow of molten metal in the die-cast of aluminium alloy.Is 5% when above in Si amount with weight %, can make molten metal have good flowability, 12% when following, can guarantee the unit elongation of die-cast product, and therefore, the Si of the aluminum diecasting alloy of present embodiment measures preferably more than 5%, below 12%.
(Mg:0.1~1.0%)
Mg is that to be added to Al-Si be the element that plays the effect of the solution strengthening element that is solidly soluted into Al (α phase) in the alloy time and play the effect of the precipitation strength element that generates the Mg precipitated phase.Shown in the example of Fig. 1 (A), be in the alloy at Al-Si, if the Mg amount increases, then the yield strength of die-cast product has the tendency of raising.In addition, shown in the example of Fig. 1 (B), be in the alloy at Al-Si, if the Mg amount increases, then the unit elongation of die-cast product has the tendency of reduction.
In addition, the Al-Si that contains Mg is that alloy quenches, during solution treatment, forms the supersaturated solid solution with Mg supersaturation ground solid solution, handle, can obtain to improve the aluminum diecasting alloy of intensity by natural aging or artificial aging.
Mg amount is 0.1% when above, can get the effect that tangible intensity improves, and is 1.0% when following, can guarantee toughness, so the Mg of the aluminum diecasting alloy of present embodiment measures preferably more than 0.1%, below 1.0%.
(more than the Fe:0.16%)
Fe is the element that in Al-Si is the die-cast of alloy toughness is reduced.Shown in the example of Fig. 2, be in the alloy at Al-Si, if the Fe amount increases, then the unit elongation of die-cast product has the tendency of reduction.This is because the content of Fe can generate the more cause that makes the needle-like Al-Si-Fe series intermetallic compound that toughness reduces when increasing.
On the other hand, Fe is the element that has the effect that improves the character (hereinafter referred to as release property) that prevents to be sintered in mould when the die-cast aluminium alloy.
As described later can be by adding the generation that Mn suppress above-mentioned acicular Al-Si-Fe series intermetallic compound, in addition, the Fe amount is in 0.16% effect that can guarantee to improve release property when above.So the Fe amount of the aluminum diecasting alloy of present embodiment is preferably more than 0.16%.Embodiment is such as described later, and Fe amount by interpolation Mn, can be guaranteed extraordinary toughness 0.8% when following.So the Fe amount of the aluminum diecasting alloy of present embodiment is more preferably more than 0.16%, below 0.8%.
(Mn:1.5% is following)
Mn suppresses the element of the generation of above-mentioned needle-like Al-Si-Fe series intermetallic compound being added to intermetallic compound that the Al-Si that contains Fe generates the blocky Al-Si-Fe-Mn system that toughness is had no adverse effects when being alloy.That is, even when the many Al-Si of die-cast Fe amount are alloy,, also can guarantee the toughness of die-cast product by adding Mn.
Make the element of the toughness reduction of die-cast product when on the other hand, Mn is heavy addition.
If the Mn amount can be guaranteed the unit elongation of die-cast product below 1.5%, so the Mn amount of the aluminum diecasting alloy of present embodiment is preferably below 1.5%.Embodiment is such as described later, even reach at 0.8% o'clock in the Fe amount, if the Mn amount also can be guaranteed extraordinary toughness more than 0.3%, so the Mn amount of the aluminum diecasting alloy of present embodiment is more preferably more than 0.3%, below 1.5%.
(below the Cu:1.0%, Zn:2.0% is following)
The Cu amount has surpassed at 1.0% o'clock or the Zn amount has surpassed at 2.0% o'clock, and the toughness of die-cast product reduces, so the Cu amount of the aluminum diecasting alloy of present embodiment, Zn measure preferably respectively below 1.0%, below 2.0%.
(adding Ti:0.03~0.2%, these two kinds of Sr:0.005~0.2% or wherein a kind of)
Ti has the element that makes primary crystal α phase (Al) microminiaturization and improve the intensity and the flexible effect of die-cast product in Al-Si is the die-cast of alloy.The microminiaturization of primary crystal α phase (Al) is the microminiaturization of dendrite and dwindling of secondary dendrite spacing arm (DASII) just.Shown in the example of Fig. 3, known secondary dendrite spacing arm is more little, and the fatigue strength of die-cast product is high more.
On the other hand, Sr has the element that makes eutectic Si microminiaturization and improve the intensity and the flexible effect of die-cast product in Al-Si is the die-cast of alloy.Shown in the example of Fig. 4, be in the die-cast of alloy at Al-Si, if added Sr, then the unit elongation of die-cast product improves.
If the Ti amount then can improve intensity and toughness significantly more than 0.03%, if but surpassed 0.2%, even then interpolation is many again, effect is also constant.Similarly, if the Sr amount can improve intensity and toughness significantly more than 0.005%, if but surpassed 0.2%, even then interpolation is many again, effect is also constant.
For this reason, the aluminum diecasting alloy of present embodiment in order to improve intensity and toughness, preferably contains Ti or 0.005% above Sr more than 0.03%, in order to improve intensity and toughness more, more preferably contains Ti and 0.005% above Sr both sides more than 0.03%.In addition, the Ti of the aluminum diecasting alloy of present embodiment amount, Sr amount are considered from economical point, more preferably all below 0.2%.
(after the die casting, in 0~5 minute shrend or in the aqueous cooling solutions below 100 ℃ chilling)
Shown in the example of Fig. 5, be in the die-cast of alloy at Al-Si, if short to the time of quenching after the die casting, the yield strength of die-cast product improves, and if long to the time of quenching after the die casting, then the yield strength of die-cast product has the tendency of reduction.This be because, if the time till extremely quenching after the die casting is short, temperature when then keeping quenching than the highland, speed of cooling when solidifying beginning is accelerated, dendrite is by microminiaturization, and if long to the time of quenching, the temperature when then quenching is lower than zero pour, speed of cooling when solidifying beginning slows down, and the cause of dendrite microminiaturization does not take place.
In addition, if reduce the temperature of the liquid of quenching usefulness usually, then can strengthen the temperature head before and after quenching, the speed of cooling in the time of can further accelerating to solidify beginning can make dendrite microminiaturization more.
Satisfy the alloy of important document of the chemical component weight ratio of present embodiment, if after die casting in 0~5 minute shrend or in the aqueous cooling solutions below 100 ℃ chilling, then can have high strength and high tenacity concurrently by quenching.On the other hand, when after die casting, having surpassed 5 minutes or the fluid temperature of quenching usefulness when having surpassed 100 ℃,, also can not get high strength even quench to the time of quenching.Therefore, the aluminum diecasting alloy of present embodiment, preferably after the die casting more than 0 minute, carried out shrend or with the aqueous cooling solutions chilling below 100 ℃ with interior in 5 minutes.In addition, if the time of extremely quenching behind the die-cast in 1 minute, then can make the temperature before quenching be reduced to inferior limit, obtain the effect of intensity raising and the effect of mechanical properties homogenizing conscientiously.Therefore, the aluminum diecasting alloy of present embodiment, more preferably at 1 minute after the die casting with interior shrend or with the aqueous cooling solutions chilling below 100 ℃.
(after the quenching, keeping) with 100~300 ℃ temperature heating
Shown in the example of Fig. 6, at the Al-Si that contains Mg is in the alloy, behind die-cast, quench, carry out then the artificial aging processing when (heating keeps), as the hardness (Rockwell hardness) of the intensity index of die-cast product, have process along with the time rise rapidly the back, remain certain tendency.
After the alloy of the important document of the chemical component weight ratio that satisfies present embodiment carried out die-cast, quench with above-mentioned condition, when after quenching, keeping with the temperature more than 100 ℃, below 300 ℃ heating, promptly carry out age hardening, can improve intensity at short notice, so the aluminum diecasting alloy of present embodiment is preferably keeping with the heating of the temperature more than 100 ℃, below 300 ℃ after the quenching.In addition, if the above-mentioned heating hold-time is more than 2 hours, in 24 hours, then carry out age hardening fully, and as the state that does not reach overaging, the hardness of die-cast product is fully improved, so the aluminum diecasting alloy of present embodiment is more preferably keeping more than 2 hours in 24 hours with the temperature more than 100 ℃, below 300 ℃ heating after the quenching.In addition, when above-mentioned heating kept, the aluminum diecasting alloy of present embodiment was heated with predetermined heat-up rate.
According to present embodiment, carry out die-cast after being adjusted in the weight ratio of chemical ingredients in the above-mentioned scope, implement the thermal treatment of above-mentioned condition behind the die-cast, so, can suppress to cause the generation of the needle-like Fe series intermetallic compound that toughness reduces, and can make the metal structure microminiaturization, can when guaranteeing high tenacity, obtain high strength.Like this, even adopt regeneration aluminium ingot that for example cost is low etc., when containing the many raw material of Fe, thermal treatment by after die-cast and the casting also can obtain the aluminum diecasting alloy that has high strength and high tenacity concurrently, is suitable as the parts of desired strength in automobile, two wheeler.
In addition, according to present embodiment, reduce to the temperature of quenching and to diminish, the temperature before being about to quench keeps higherly, the partial coagulation that takes place before can preventing to quench, so, can obtain conscientiously mechanical properties evenly, the aluminum diecasting alloy of high strength and high tenacity.
In addition, according to present embodiment, owing to promptly carry out age hardening, so, can obtain having concurrently high tenacity and more high-intensity aluminum diecasting alloy at short notice.
In addition, according to present embodiment, owing to produce age hardening conscientiously fully, so, can obtain having concurrently high tenacity and more high-intensity aluminum diecasting alloy conscientiously.
Embodiment
In an embodiment, by chemical component weight than be Si:8.5%, Mg:0.15%, Fe:0.8%, Mn:0.03%, Cu:0.01%, Zn:0.01%, after the regeneration aluminium ingot fusion that all the other constitute for Al and unavoidable impurities, add Mn, Ti, Sr, be modulated into for by chemical component weight than be Si:8.5%, Mg:0.15%, Fe:0.8%, Mn:0.3%, Cu:0.01%, Zn:0.01%, Ti:0.04%, Sr:0.01%, all the other are the molten metal that Al and unavoidable impurities constitute.
Then,, above-mentioned molten metal is carried out die-cast, make two-wheel vehicle used wheel with having the pressure die-casting machine commonly used that the bicycle wheel forms the mould of usefulness.
After the die casting die sinking, promptly above-mentioned two-wheel vehicle used wheel is impregnated in the aqueous cooling solutions, quenches.At this moment, the time to quenching behind die-cast is 1 minute, and the temperature of the aqueous cooling solutions before quenching is 50 ℃.
Then, the two-wheel vehicle used wheel after the above-mentioned quenching is remained in the aging oven, the artificial aging of carrying out 180 ℃, 4 hours is handled (heating keeps).
After artificial aging is handled, above-mentioned bicycle wheel is cut off, carry out mechanical workout, be made into the tension test sheet, with the mechanical characteristics of this tension test sheet of stretching test machine determination.
[comparative example 1]
In comparative example 1, use the condition identical with embodiment, the molten metal identical with embodiment carried out die-cast, be made into two-wheel vehicle used wheel.Thermal treatment after the unreal casting casting of exerting pressure, and as undressed foundry goods.
Then, above-mentioned bicycle wheel is cut off, carry out mechanical workout, be made into the tension test sheet, with the mechanical characteristics of this tension test sheet of stretching test machine determination.
[comparative example 2]
In comparative example 2, the regeneration aluminium ingot fusion identical with embodiment, be modulated into for by chemical component weight than be Si:8.5%, Mg:0.15%, Fe:0.8%, Mn:0.03%, Cu:0.01%, Zn:0.01%, molten metal that all the other constitute for Al and unavoidable impurities.
Then, use the condition identical, above-mentioned molten metal is carried out die-cast, make two-wheel vehicle used wheel with embodiment.Thermal treatment after the unreal casting casting of exerting pressure, and as undressed foundry goods.
Then, above-mentioned bicycle wheel is cut off, carry out mechanical workout, be made into the tension test sheet, with the mechanical characteristics of this tension test sheet of stretching test machine determination.
Fig. 7 is the chart of mechanical characteristics of the aluminum diecasting alloy of expression embodiment, comparative example 1 and comparative example 2.
The aluminum diecasting alloy of embodiment although contain nearly 0.8% Fe, has shown the high-yield strength that surpasses 150MPa and has surpassed 7.5% high-elongation.
On the other hand, the aluminum diecasting alloy of comparative example 1, yield strength is low, is 105MPa.The unit elongation of the aluminum diecasting alloy of comparative example 2 is low, is 5.1%.
Above, describe embodiments of the present invention in detail, but the present invention is not limited thereto, for example exemplify out common die-cast method and be illustrated as one of die-cast method, can certainly implement high vacuum die-cast method.In addition, above-mentioned heating, chilling processing also can be carried out more than 2 times.Make the metal structure homogenizing like this, easily.
In addition, aluminum diecasting alloy of the present invention, various die-cast part applicable to four-wheeled vehicle, motor bike or other purposes, the for example subframe of four-wheeled vehicle, engine parts, wheel box, the vehicle frame of motor bike, swing arm, engine parts, wheel box etc., to its purposes without any qualification.In addition, the present invention can implement with the mode of having carried out various changes in the scope that does not break away from its purport.

Claims (4)

1. vehicle material aluminum diecasting alloy, it is vehicle material aluminum diecasting alloy based on Al-Si, it is characterized in that, following alloy is carried out die casting, the following formation of this alloy: in weight %, more than Si:5~12%, Mg:0.1~1.0%, the Fe:0.16%, below the Mn:1.5%, below the Cu:1.0%, below the Zn:2.0%, in addition, add Ti:0.03~0.2%, Sr:0.005~0.2% the two or one of them for the microminiaturization of metal structure, all the other are Al and unavoidable impurities;
After die casting, in 0~5 minute, carry out shrend or chilling in the aqueous cooling solutions below 100 ℃.
2. vehicle material aluminum diecasting alloy as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, above-mentioned shrend or with the chilling of aqueous cooling solutions is carried out in 1 minute after die casting.
3. vehicle material aluminum diecasting alloy as claimed in claim 1 or 2 is characterized in that, in above-mentioned shrend or after with the aqueous cooling solutions chilling, keeps with 100~300 ℃ of heating.
4. vehicle material aluminum diecasting alloy as claimed in claim 3 is characterized in that, be 2~24 hours the heat-up time that above-mentioned heating keeps.
CN 201110073045 2010-03-30 2011-03-25 Aluminium die casting alloy used as vehicle material Expired - Fee Related CN102206778B (en)

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