CN102185543A - Energy-saving soft-start device for high-voltage asynchronous motor - Google Patents

Energy-saving soft-start device for high-voltage asynchronous motor Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102185543A
CN102185543A CN2010102278776A CN201010227877A CN102185543A CN 102185543 A CN102185543 A CN 102185543A CN 2010102278776 A CN2010102278776 A CN 2010102278776A CN 201010227877 A CN201010227877 A CN 201010227877A CN 102185543 A CN102185543 A CN 102185543A
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China
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circuit
power
input
phase
resistance
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CN2010102278776A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102185543B (en
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甘世红
俞渊
褚建新
顾伟
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上海海洋大学
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Publication of CN102185543B publication Critical patent/CN102185543B/en

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Abstract

The invention relates to the technical field of applications of high-voltage asynchronous motors and discloses an energy-saving soft-start device for a high-voltage asynchronous motor. The device is used for solving the problem that a soft starter occupies a larger space in the prior art and other problems. The technical scheme is as follows: the energy-saving soft-start device is characterized by comprising a signal detection processing circuit, a synchronous signal circuit, a control circuit, a trigger signal power amplifying circuit, a power execution circuit and a power circuit for providing more than one path of DC (direct-current) power supply, wherein the power execution circuit comprises three large groups of components which are in series connection between a terminal of a three-phase high-voltage AC (alternating-current) power supply and a terminal of the high-voltage asynchronous motor; each large group of components comprises two small groups of high-power thyristors which are connected in parallel in the opposite directions; and more than three high-power thyristors are connected in series in the same direction in each small group and two ends of each high-power thyristor are connected with circuits with voltage-sharing, protection and absorption effects in parallel. The energy-saving soft-start device has the beneficial effects of realizing the soft start and energy-saving running under a low load factor.

Description

A kind of energy-conservation soft starter device that is used for high-voltage asynchronous motor
Technical field
The present invention relates to the technical field that high-voltage asynchronous motor is used, particularly relate to a kind of energy-conservation soft starter device that is used for high-voltage asynchronous motor.The present invention can be applied in occasions such as high pressure oil pumper, high-pressure hydraulic pump, high pressure positive blower, such as: the rated voltage of motor is 3KV~10KV, capacity heavy-duty motor more than 100KW or the like.
Background technology
AC asynchronous motor is widely used in national economy every field such as industrial and mining enterprises, communications and transportation and national defense industry, and its use amount is big, scope is wide, and power consumption accounts for more than 60% of total amount of whole nation generating.(3KV~10KV) industry of asynchronous motor is very extensive, as industries such as metallurgy, oil, chemical industry, coal, water factory, power plant, machinings for applying high voltage.According to nineteen ninety-five " research report of motor speed adjusting technique industrialization approach and countermeasure ", the whole nation only blower fan pump apparatus just reaches the forty-two million platform, (3KV~10KV) ratio of large capacity motor is 4: 1 for its mesolow low capacity motor and high pressure, only the high-tension motor of blower fan pump apparatus just reaches more than 8,000,000, if add the employed high-voltage asynchronous motor of miscellaneous equipment, its quantity will be very huge.The capacity of high-tension motor is generally all bigger, usually all more than hundreds of kW.And the across-the-line starting meeting of motor produces very big starting current, generally can reach 5~7 times of rated current, maximum can reach 15 times, big like this starting current can produce very big impulsive force on motor stator winding and rotor bar, destroy winding insulation and cause the squirrel-cage bar fracture, cause the fault of motor, big electric current also can produce a large amount of Joule heats, reduce the life-span of motor, transient starting torque during the motor across-the-line starting is about 2 times of nominal torque in addition, and concerning gear drive equipment, impulsive force can make gear wear accelerate so greatly, and for belt transmission equipment, strengthened the belt wearing and tearing even broken belt.
Restriction to the AC asynchronous motor starting current, generally realize by the mode that reduces the stator input voltage, the step-down measure that the past people take has: methods such as the anti-step-down of stator crosstalk, autotransformer step-down, the step-down of Y-Δ, extend-triangle step-down, for wire wound asynchronous motor, can also take methods such as the quick resistance of serial connection frequency, water resistance in rotor loop.Though the starting current that these methods can restrictions motor, they are discontinuous for the adjusting of motor stator voltage, cause motor to have the secondary pulse electric current in starting process.
From the usage quantity of various motor, threephase asynchronous accounts for about 70% of total use amount simultaneously.Therefore carry out energy-conservation research to threephase asynchronous, significant.The controlling object of soft starter is common threephase asynchronous, it can be controlled the input voltage of motor, and the energy-saving run of motor generally also needs to realize by regulating the motor input voltage, thereby utilizes the voltage-regulation ability of soft starter itself to realize that the Energy Saving Control of motor is fully feasible.This mode does not need to increase extra energy saver, and the control strategy that only changes internal system just can reach purpose of energy saving.
Comparatively popular low pressure soft starter is the thyristor soft starter at present, and the high pressure soft starter solves bad owing to being subjected to the withstand voltage restriction of thyristor always, because the application of high-voltage asynchronous motor gets more and more and develops to the direction that maximizes, its starting problem pendulum is in face of us.The hydraulic resistance soft starter was often adopted in the high voltage and high power electromotor soft start, this soft starter has is convenient to control the advantage low with cost in the past, but has shortcomings such as taking up an area of greatly, consume big energy.
Summary of the invention
For solve the occupation of land that soft starter in the prior art exists big, consume big energy, power factor such as can not improve automatically at problem under the situation of underload rate, the present invention proposes a kind of energy-conservation soft starter device that is used for high-voltage asynchronous motor, its technical scheme is as follows.
1. energy-conservation soft starter device that is used for high-voltage asynchronous motor uses the three-phase high-voltage AC power, described three-phase, and the order of its positive phase sequence is A phase, B phase, C phase, and the latter is all than the former the 120 ° of phase angles that lag behind;
Comprise: the input treatment circuit, synchronous signal circuit, control circuit, the triggering signal power amplification circuit, the power executive circuit provides the power circuit of DC power supply more than a tunnel;
Three-phase high-voltage AC power, power executive circuit and sequence motor are connected in series; The output of power circuit links to each other with follow-up consuming parts; Synchronous signal circuit, its input is connected with the three-phase high-voltage AC power, its output is connected with the input of control circuit; The input treatment circuit, its input is connected with circuit-under-test or unit under test, its output is connected with the input of control circuit; The triggering signal power amplification circuit, its input is connected with the output of control circuit, its output is connected with the power executive circuit;
Described power executive circuit comprises three big constituent element devices, and it is connected in series in respectively between the terminals of the terminals of three-phase high-voltage AC power and high-voltage asynchronous motor; Each big constituent element device includes the high-power thyristor of two group's reverse parallel connections, in every group series aiding connection more than three high-power thyristor and be connected in parallel at the two ends of each high-power thyristor and have the circuit of voltage equalizing protection absorption; Described all the pressure is meant: in a group, each high-power thyristor of series aiding connection bears identical voltage; Described protection absorbs and is meant absorption peak voltage or peak current; In other words, described power executive circuit has the high-power thyristor of six groups altogether; Described high-power thyristor is unidirectional high-power thyristor, and it includes anode, negative electrode and gate pole;
Described control circuit comprises that a and b:a. are used to export six output interfaces of triggering signal; B. write and imported the automation control program, had calculating judgement controlled function, can carry out the CPU of stepless continuous adjusting from small to large the starting voltage electric current;
Six output interfaces of control circuit are connected with six inputs of triggering signal power amplification circuit;
The triggering signal power amplification circuit, its output has six the tunnel, comprise the output more than three pairs in each road, described more than three pairs, the quantity of the high-power thyristor of series aiding connection is corresponding identical in its concrete logarithm and each group, and each links to each other with high-power thyristor gate pole, negative electrode cross-over connection to output.
2. described power circuit comprises: power supply input terminal, power transformer, rectification circuit and direct current regulation circuit;
The power supply input terminal is connected with grid alternating current, and described grid alternating current is 110V alternating current or 220V alternating current or 230V alternating current or 380V alternating current; The input of power transformer is connected with the power supply input terminal; The output of power transformer is more than one group; One group of output that the input of rectification circuit is corresponding with power transformer connects; The output of rectification circuit is connected with the input of direct current regulation circuit;
Described direct current regulation circuit, its output are positive pole and negative pole; Anodal, negative pole is connected with follow-up consuming parts and negative pole is connected with the level earth terminal;
The output cathode of direct current regulation circuit and negative pole constitute DC power supply.
3. described three-phase high-voltage AC power, its three-phase be A phase, B mutually and C mutually;
Described synchronous signal circuit comprises: shared resistance, shared electric capacity, three-phase synchrotrans, three identical sync separator circuits;
Described three-phase synchrotrans comprise elementary winding and secondary winding;
Elementary winding comprises three sub-windings, and an end of each sub-winding is connected with one of three-phase high-voltage AC power respectively, and the other end of each sub-winding links together;
Secondary winding comprises three sub-windings, and the head end of three sub-windings constitutes three outlet terminals of three-phase synchrotrans; The end of three sub-windings links together, also links to each other with the negative pole of DC power supply, and this tie point is as the level earth terminal simultaneously;
Each bar sync separator circuit includes: the comparator that integrated operational amplifier circuit constitutes, photoelectrical coupler, first input resistance, second input resistance, the first stack resistance, the second stack resistance, comparator output resistance, photoelectrical coupler emitter-base bandgap grading output resistance, synchronous filtering electric capacity; The supply terminals of comparator connects positive pole, the negative pole of DC power supply;
Three outlet terminals of three-phase synchrotrans respectively connect a sync separator circuit, be that each sync separator circuit has following annexation: the normal phase input end of an outlet terminal of three-phase synchrotrans, first input resistance, second input resistance, comparator, four are connected in series; One end of one end of the first stack resistance and the second stack resistance, they all are connected with the common terminal of first input resistance with second input resistance; Synchronous filtering electric capacity, the one end is connected with the in-phase input end of comparator, its other end links to each other with the level earth terminal; The comparator output resistance, the one end is connected with comparator output terminal, its other end is connected with the input anode of photoelectrical coupler; The input negative terminal of photoelectrical coupler is connected with the level earth terminal; Photoelectrical coupler, its output plus terminal is connected with the dc power anode end, and its output negative terminal is connected with the level earth terminal by photoelectrical coupler emitter-base bandgap grading output resistance; The output negative terminal of photoelectrical coupler also is connected, exports synchronizing signal with the input of control circuit;
The lower end of shared resistance and the upper end of shared electric capacity are connected to form common point, this point simultaneously with three sync separator circuits in the inverting input of three comparators all be connected; The other end of three second stack resistance in the upper end of shared resistance and three sync separator circuits all is connected; The lower end of shared electric capacity links to each other with the level earth terminal; The other end of three first stack resistance all is connected with the dc power anode end.
4. described input treatment circuit comprises flowing through the current detection circuit that the motor current size detects; Described current detection circuit comprises three current transformers, six rectifier diodes, two clamp diodes, a potentiometer, a current-limiting resistance, an electrolytic capacitor filter, a smothing filtering electric capacity;
Six rectifier diodes are divided into three groups, and two the equal series aiding connections of rectifier diode up and down in every group connect; Three groups of rectifier diodes after being connected in series, fixing lower end, upper end, the electrolytic capacitor filter of potentiometer are connected in parallel again;
Three current transformers, its primary coil is serially connected in respectively in three phase lines, one end of its secondary coil lead to respectively corresponding one group of rectifier diode and with this group about the common terminal of rectifier diode be connected, the other end of its secondary coil is connected with the level earth terminal; Perhaps, each current transformer includes magnet ring and the induction coil that is wrapped on the magnet ring, article three, phase line is passed the magnet ring of three current transformers respectively, one end of induction coil lead to respectively corresponding one group of rectifier diode and with this group about the common terminal of rectifier diode be connected, the other end of induction coil is connected with the level earth terminal;
The mobile terminals of potentiometer are divided into three the tunnel and connect: the first via is connected with the positive pole of a clamp diode, the negative pole of this pipe is connected with the dc power anode end; The second the tunnel be connected with the negative pole of another clamp diode, the positive pole of this pipe is connected with the level earth terminal; Third Road is to be connected in series by mobile terminals, current-limiting resistance, smothing filtering electric capacity, level earth terminal; The common port of current-limiting resistance and level and smooth filter capacitor be connected, export detected current signal with the input of control circuit.
5. described input treatment circuit comprises the voltage detecting circuit that motor wiring terminal voltage size is detected;
Described voltage detecting circuit comprises: filter capacitor, potentiometer, current-limiting resistance, smothing filtering electric capacity, the bridge rectifier that is made of four rectifier diodes; The output two ends of bridge rectifier, one end are cathode output end, and its other end is cathode output end and is connected with the level earth terminal;
Bridge rectifier, any two terminals in three terminals of its input and motor are connected, and its output and filter capacitor, the fixing lower end, upper end of potentiometer are connected in parallel; The mobile terminals in the centre of potentiometer, current-limiting resistance, smothing filtering electric capacity, level earth terminal are connected in series; Current-limiting resistance is connected, carries detected voltage signal with the common port of level and smooth filter capacitor with the input of control circuit.
6. described input treatment circuit comprises the power factor signal deteching circuit; Described power factor signal deteching circuit comprises two circuit: an one circuit is: the tube voltage drop testing circuit of indirect detection motor current zero crossing; Its another circuit is: the synchronous signal circuit of detection of grid voltage over zero;
Described tube voltage drop testing circuit comprises input and output, and its input is connected across between the anode, negative electrode of high-power thyristor; The anode of described high-power thyristor, negative electrode are meant anode, the negative electrode of any one high-power thyristor in the power executive circuit; Perhaps, described high-power thyristor is meant any a group in six group's high-power thyristors in the power executive circuit, described anode be meant be connected on the most preceding high-power thyristor anode of this group, described negative electrode is meant and is connected on the last high-power thyristor negative electrode of this group;
Described tube voltage drop testing circuit and described synchronous signal circuit, their output link to each other with the input of control circuit respectively.
7. described tube voltage drop testing circuit is any one among the following three:
A. described tube voltage drop testing circuit comprises: first divider resistance, second divider resistance; The resistance of first divider resistance is greater than the resistance of second divider resistance; The input other end of input one end of tube voltage drop testing circuit, first divider resistance, second divider resistance, tube voltage drop testing circuit, they are connected in series; Second divider resistance, its two ends are connected with the input of control circuit;
B. described tube voltage drop testing circuit comprises: first current-limiting resistance, and second current-limiting resistance, input side inside is provided with the photoelectrical coupler of two-way light-emitting diode, collector resistance, output resistance; The input other end of the input side of input one end of tube voltage drop testing circuit, first current-limiting resistance, photoelectrical coupler, second current-limiting resistance, tube voltage drop testing circuit, they are connected in series; The outlet side of the positive terminal of DC power supply, collector resistance, photoelectrical coupler, the negative pole end of DC power supply, they are connected in series; The input of the points of common connection of collector resistance and photoelectrical coupler outlet side, output resistance, control circuit, they are connected in series;
C. described tube voltage drop testing circuit comprises: step-down isolation transformer, and first resistance, second resistance, input side inside is provided with the photoelectrical coupler of two-way light-emitting diode, collector resistance, output resistance; Described step-down isolation transformer comprises former limit winding and secondary winding;
The former limit winding of step-down isolation transformer is connected across the input two ends of tube voltage drop testing circuit; The other end of the secondary winding of the input side of one end of the secondary winding of step-down isolation transformer, first resistance, photoelectrical coupler, second resistance, step-down isolation transformer, they are connected in series; The outlet side of the positive terminal of DC power supply, collector resistance, photoelectrical coupler, the negative pole end of DC power supply, they are connected in series; The input of the points of common connection of collector resistance and photoelectrical coupler outlet side, output resistance, control circuit, they are connected in series.
8. described energy-conservation soft starter device comprises energy-saving circuit, and it comprises the three-phase linked switch;
Three wiring piles of three-phase linked switch input are connected with the terminals of three-phase high-voltage AC power respectively; Three wiring piles of three-phase linked switch output are connected with three wiring piles of high-voltage asynchronous motor terminals respectively.
9. described energy-conservation soft starter device comprises: model is the buffering driver of 74LS244, model is 8279 display circuit able to programme, the display unit that can show preset information, fault message, voltage parameter, current parameters, starting time parameter is used to select display mode, selects operational mode, has access to program, determines or revise the keyboard and the input circuit thereof of parameter; Described control circuit comprises the PIC16F877 single-chip microcomputer;
Described input treatment circuit, its output is connected with the input of control circuit; Described annexation comprises: the part output of input treatment circuit or whole output, and they are connected with the input interface of Chip Microcomputer A/D analog-to-digital conversion passage, make analog signal conversion become digital signal, make subsequent treatment to make things convenient for single-chip microcomputer;
Totally ten eight of described high-power thyristors promptly in each circuitry phase are six; These six are divided into two groups, are serially connected in the circuitry phase behind three series aiding connections of first group, behind three series aiding connections of second group, be connected with first group of reverse parallel connection more again; Described have a circuit of all pressing absorption, it specifically is meant: the components and parts that the two ends of each high-power thyristor connect comprise grading resistor, absorption resistance and absorption electric capacity, that is: absorption resistance, absorb capacitances in series and connect after, be connected in parallel with grading resistor again, be connected in parallel with the two ends of this high-power thyristor;
Described single-chip microcomputer, its output distribute six output interfaces to be connected with the input of driver; Six outputs of driver are connected with six inputs of triggering signal power amplification circuit, and six outputs of triggering signal power amplification circuit are connected with the gate pole of high-power thyristor respectively again.
10. described triggering signal power amplification circuit comprises: the driver more than six or six, six tunnel identical amplification parallel circuits;
Each amplifies parallel circuit and includes: current-limiting resistance, Darlington transistor, pulse transformer and three groups of above promotion assemblies; Each group promotes assembly and includes spacing diode, forward conduction diode, afterflow position limitation protection diode; Pulse transformer has an input winding and the output winding more than three, and each winding all has two terminals;
Promote the concrete quantity of the high-power thyristor of series aiding connection in the concrete quantity of assembly, the concrete quantity of pulse transformer output winding, the every group, this concrete quantity of three is consistent;
The described control circuit that includes CPU, its output comprise six road interfaces that are used to export triggering signal, and this six road interface is connected with six inputs of driver respectively;
Six outputs of driver amplify parallel circuit by six respectively and are connected with the high-power thyristor of six groups in the power executive circuit, form No. six connecting circuits thus; Promptly in No. six connecting circuits, its each road connecting circuit all has following annexation:
The nominal base stage of output end of driver, current-limiting resistance, Darlington transistor is connected in series; The input winding of the positive pole of DC power supply, pulse transformer, the nominal collector electrode of Darlington transistor are connected in series; The nominal emitter of Darlington transistor is connected with the level earth terminal; Spacing diode is connected across pulse transformer input winding two ends and its negative pole is connected with the positive pole of DC power supply;
The winding of respectively exporting of pulse transformer is connected with a high-power thyristor by one group of promotion assembly respectively, that is: pulse transformer is exported terminals of winding, the positive pole of forward conduction diode, negative pole, the gate pole of high-power thyristor, negative electrode, another terminals of pulse transformer output winding, they form being connected in series of closed loop; Afterflow position limitation protection diode, its negative pole is connected with the negative pole of forward conduction diode, it is anodal is connected with another terminals of pulse transformer output winding;
Described Darlington transistor is for being combined into the product of single device or the compound composition of triode that described Darlington transistor is two apportions.
Beneficial effect
Apparatus of the present invention have realized the energy-saving run under high-voltage asynchronous motor soft start, the underload rate.
Concrete, its benefit is: volume is little, in light weight, easy to use, increase starting voltage that can be level and smooth; Simultaneously, because soft start runner, huge starting current is to the impact of electrical network with to the infringement of motor when having reduced starting; As required, can also be under underload rate situation power factor detected and then reach control, improved the operational efficiency of motor, saved electric energy motor power factor.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is an electric functional-block diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is first's drawing of total electrical schematic diagram of the present invention, and Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 constitute complete total electrical schematic diagram;
Fig. 3 is the second portion drawing of total electrical schematic diagram of the present invention, and Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 constitute complete total electrical schematic diagram;
Fig. 4 is the connection diagram of three-phase synchrotrans summation current transformer;
Fig. 5 is the connection diagram of power executive circuit, only drawn the connection situation of A phase power executive circuit among the figure, has omitted the connection situation of B phase, C phase power executive circuit;
Fig. 6 is the circuit diagram of circuit for generating synchronous signals;
Fig. 7 is the circuit diagram of the gate trigger circuit of high-power thyristor;
Fig. 8 is the circuit diagram of current detection circuit;
Fig. 9 is the circuit diagram of voltage detecting circuit;
Figure 10 is a certain concrete tube voltage drop testing circuit, the current zero-crossing point that this circuit can the indirect detection motor; Under the commander of control circuit, circuit and the circuit for generating synchronous signals of this figure are used, and can also carry out the detection of power factor;
Figure 11 is a main program flow chart;
Figure 12 is and three waveform location diagrams of power factor angular dependence (-dance), and wherein: superposed figure is the voltage oscillogram at high-power thyristor two ends, and the figure in the middle of being positioned at is the current waveform figure of input single-chip microcomputer, and the figure that is positioned at the bottom is synchronous voltage signal figure; Among the figure Be the phase angle;
Figure 13 is behind the proceed-to-send, the stator line voltage oscillogram during heavy service; The line voltage of this moment fully is applied on the stator;
Figure 14 is to use the stator line voltage oscillogram in apparatus of the present invention Soft Start-up Process;
Figure 15 is the voltage at motor stator line voltage, high-power thyristor two ends and the oscillogram of trigger impulse, curve 1 motor stator line voltage oscillogram, and curve 2 is the voltage oscillograms at high-power thyristor two ends, curve 3 is oscillograms of trigger impulse;
Voltage when Figure 16 is constant flow starting, current waveform figure, top voltage waveform, a following current waveform during for constant flow starting when being constant flow starting among the figure, two waveforms are the waveform that obtains after the rectification;
Figure 17 is one of power factor circuit schematic diagram;
Figure 18 is two of a power factor circuit schematic diagram, compares with Figure 17, and this figure has increased step-down isolation transformer;
Figure 19 is three of a power factor circuit schematic diagram;
Motor stator current waveform when Figure 20 is the light-load energy saving operation;
Motor stator voltage waveform when Figure 21 is the light-load energy saving operation;
Figure 22 is the waveform schematic diagram of synchronizing signal and input signal;
Figure 23 is the electrical schematic diagram of D.C. regulated power supply.
Embodiment
Below, at first apparatus of the present invention are carried out overall description, description and interpretation.
High-power thyristor is called for short thyristor, claims controllable silicon, SCR again; Thyristor in this patent file is unidirectional thyristor.
A kind of energy-conservation soft starter device that is used for high-voltage asynchronous motor of the present invention uses the three-phase high-voltage AC power, described three-phase, and the order of its positive phase sequence is A phase, B phase, C phase, and the latter is all than the former the 120 ° of phase angles that lag behind.Here of particular note: above-mentioned " latter is all than the former the 120 ° of phase angles that lag behind " are that desirable electric power thus supplied is done an easy description, by the actual three-phase electricity that provides of power supply network, because the actual loading of each phase line circuit is different, so phase angle to 120 °, can cause deviation more or less, when three-phase imbalance, this deviation just more seems serious.Therefore, the scope of apparatus of the present invention applicable scope, protection of the patent right comprises the phase angle and some three-phase high-voltage AC power that depart from occur.
Apparatus of the present invention comprise: the input treatment circuit, and synchronous signal circuit, control circuit, the triggering signal power amplification circuit, the power executive circuit provides the power circuit of DC power supply more than a tunnel.Power circuit can be independent setting, is contained in other the device or parts or circuit in also can being, such as, a whole set of single-chip microcomputer of selling on the market, it has just added the power circuit that contains DC power supply.
Three-phase high-voltage AC power, power executive circuit and sequence motor are connected in series; The output of power circuit links to each other with follow-up consuming parts; Synchronous signal circuit, its input is connected with the three-phase high-voltage AC power, its output is connected with the input of control circuit; The input treatment circuit, its input is connected with circuit-under-test or unit under test, its output is connected with the input of control circuit; The triggering signal power amplification circuit, its input is connected with the output of control circuit, its output is connected with the power executive circuit;
Described power executive circuit comprises three big constituent element devices, and it is connected in series in respectively between the terminals of the terminals of three-phase high-voltage AC power and high-voltage asynchronous motor; Each big constituent element device includes the high-power thyristor of two group's reverse parallel connections, in every group series aiding connection more than three high-power thyristor and be connected in parallel at the two ends of each high-power thyristor and have the circuit of voltage equalizing protection absorption; Described all the pressure is meant: in a group, each high-power thyristor of series aiding connection bears identical voltage; Described protection absorbs and is meant absorption peak voltage or peak current; In other words, described power executive circuit has the high-power thyristor of six groups altogether; Described high-power thyristor is unidirectional high-power thyristor, and it includes anode, negative electrode and gate pole.
Described control circuit comprises that a and b:a. are used to export six output interfaces of triggering signal; B. write and imported the automation control program, had calculating judgement controlled function, can carry out the CPU of stepless continuous adjusting from small to large the starting voltage electric current.
Six output interfaces of control circuit are connected with six inputs of triggering signal power amplification circuit.
The triggering signal power amplification circuit, its output has six the tunnel, comprise the output more than three pairs in each road, described more than three pairs, the quantity of the high-power thyristor of series aiding connection is corresponding identical in its concrete logarithm and each group, and each links to each other with high-power thyristor gate pole, negative electrode cross-over connection to output.
Above-mentioned " the starting voltage electric current is carried out stepless continuous adjusting from small to large ", its content comprises: be the control core circuit with the single-chip microcomputer, make the lower voltage of apparatus of the present invention output in the initial period of soft start, controlled to scheme to ask this initial period to flow through the current value of motor, prevent very big starting current, and then avoid three-phase high-voltage AC power electrical network and high-voltage asynchronous motor are brought impact; For this reason, the technical measures of taking are: the position, last forward position of trigger impulse is relatively leaned on afterwards, the ON time of high-power thyristor in each cycle is shorter; Along with the rotation of motor, and change fast more more, seek under the basicly stable prerequisite of current of electric size, apparatus of the present invention improve constantly output voltage, promptly constantly change trigger angle, make the position, last forward position of trigger impulse more and more forward, the ON time of high-power thyristor in each cycle is more and more longer.
When soft start finished, motor reached normal rotating speed, and this moment is under the effect of trigger impulse: the high-power thyristor of each group, and in conducting during its corresponding forward voltage, during its corresponding reverse voltage, end.
Be further described below by a plurality of embodiment.
When enforcement is of the present invention, be not limited to the circuit of embodiment, can also principle according to the present invention handle flexibly, it comprises local circuit choice, changes and further deepen.
Embodiment 1
Present embodiment is by the introduction to a kind of physical circuit, thereby apparatus of the present invention are further described.
Hardware circuit in the present embodiment is expressed with Fig. 1 to Fig. 9 and Figure 17; In addition, have display unit, keyboard input circuit, circuit for remotely controlling in the present embodiment circuit in addition, these contents are not omitted in the drawings and are drawn, and in addition, DC power supply circuit is not done to draw in detail yet.Content that above-mentioned omission is not drawn and not detailed drawn content, some is the technological means that the present technique field is common, know, relevant books are full of in library and bookstore, in order to reduce the length, to people know known, common technique, no longer repeat to give unnecessary details, describe technology of the present invention in detail in the hope of abundant length is arranged.
Below in conjunction with Fig. 1 to Fig. 9 and Figure 17 the circuit in the present embodiment is elaborated.
Explanation about Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3.
Fig. 1 is the electric functional-block diagram of invention circuit in the present embodiment.Label declaration among Fig. 1: A is first phase sequence in the three-phase alternating current, i.e. A phase phase sequence also is expressed as the A line end that joins simultaneously; B is second phase sequence in the three-phase alternating current, i.e. B phase phase sequence also is expressed as the B line end that joins simultaneously; C is the third phase preface in the three-phase alternating current, i.e. C phase phase sequence also is expressed as the C line end that joins simultaneously; M is a motor; U be soft starter device output, be the input of motor, be positioned on the A phase circuit; V be soft starter device output, be the input of motor, be positioned on the B phase circuit; W be soft starter device output, be the input of motor, be positioned on the C phase circuit; K is the three-phase linked switch.
Among Fig. 1, the single-chip microcomputer in the control circuit, the various signals of bringing according to testing circuit, data and the software program that is provided with in advance, through handling, calculate and judging, in good time issues circuits for triggering with control signal, divides six the tunnel by circuits for triggering again, and triggering signal is delivered to the power executive circuit.
Above-mentioned Fig. 1 only is each circuit, each parts of having expressed in this enforcement, their overall correlation; Make more detailed description and interpretation below in conjunction with Fig. 2 to Fig. 9 and Figure 17.
Explanation for the total electrical schematic diagram in the present embodiment: because the length of figure paper size relation, total electrical schematic diagram content of contrive equipment is more in the present embodiment, can't total electrical schematic diagram full content clearly be drawn with the map sheet of an A4 size, so use two figure of Fig. 2, Fig. 3 to express the full content of total electrical schematic diagram; That is: Fig. 2 is first's drawing of total electrical schematic diagram, and Fig. 3 is the second portion drawing of total electrical schematic diagram; Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 constitute complete total electrical schematic diagram.
Label declaration among Fig. 2: A is first phase in the three-phase electricity, i.e. A phase; B is second phase in the three-phase electricity, i.e. B phase; C is the third phase in the three-phase electricity, i.e. the C phase; Ka is first fen cutter in the three-phase linked switch; Kb is second fen cutter in the three-phase linked switch; Kc is the 3rd a fen cutter in the three-phase linked switch; U be soft starter device output, be the input of motor, be positioned on the A phase circuit; V be soft starter device output, be the input of motor, be positioned on the B phase circuit; W be soft starter device output, be the input of motor, be positioned on the C phase circuit; M is a motor; USA is the output voltage of three-phase synchrotrans, and it has reflected the A situation of change of electricity mutually; USB is the output voltage of three-phase synchrotrans, and it has reflected the B situation of change of electricity mutually; USC is the output voltage of three-phase synchrotrans, and it has reflected the C situation of change of electricity mutually; I ' A is by the detected A phase current of current transformer variable signal; I ' B is by the detected B phase current of current transformer variable signal; I ' C is by the detected C phase current of current transformer variable signal; GK is the triggering signal that circuits for triggering are sent to the high-power thyristor gate pole, and circuits for triggering are divided into six the tunnel and send, and triggering signal is between the gate pole and negative electrode of high-power thyristor, and there are more detailed description and explanation in the back.
Apparatus of the present invention are born the high pressure of electrical network by the thyristor of series connection, when starting or energy-saving run, control circuit is by triggering thyristor, i.e. trigger angle by the continuous control thyristor, realize the terminal voltage of continuous control motor, and then the electric current of control motor, motor just can carry out soft start or energy-saving run like this.Concrete technical measures of the present invention have: a plurality of thyristor series aiding connections in every group are connected and a plurality of thyristors in the same group are triggered simultaneously, such benefit is: thyristor can tolerate high voltage and conducting moment be not easy to damage; The thyristor of series aiding connection is three in every group, also can be more; Thyristor is many more, the voltage of its tolerance is high more, and cost is also high more certainly.
In Fig. 2, the power executive circuit has six groups, 18 high-power thyristors altogether; In other words, six high-power thyristors are arranged in each circuitry phase; These six thyristors are divided into two groups, are serially connected in the circuitry phase behind three series aiding connections of first group, behind three series aiding connections of second group, be connected with first group of reverse parallel connection more again.
Also have, the components and parts that the two ends of each high-power thyristor connect comprise grading resistor, absorption resistance and absorption electric capacity, that is: absorption resistance, absorb capacitances in series and connect after, be connected in parallel with grading resistor again, be connected in parallel with the two ends of this high-power thyristor.Grading resistor can make high-voltage variable become low-voltage relatively low, that magnitude of voltage is identical, and is assigned to the two ends of each high-power thyristor uniformly; Absorption resistance and absorption electric capacity can absorb peak voltage, peak current, high order harmonic component electric energy etc., bypass, thereby high-power thyristor is carried out excellent protection.Usually: grading resistor is identical resistance, and absorption resistance is identical resistance, and absorbing electric capacity is identical capacity.
Foregoing can be in conjunction with Fig. 4 and about the explanation of Fig. 4, Fig. 5 and understand about the explanation of Fig. 5, and related content sees the introduction of back for details.
Part label declaration among Fig. 3: PIC16F877 is a single-chip microcomputer; 74LS244 is the buffer driver.Five circuit among Fig. 3: power factor circuit, current detection circuit, voltage detecting circuit, circuit for generating synchronous signals, gate trigger circuit.In the present invention, contain six in the gate trigger circuit and amplify parallel circuit, only drawn one of them among Fig. 3 and amplified parallel circuit, omitted other five and amplified parallel circuit.
Above-mentioned five circuit will be further detailed and explain also that in the back when the time comes, the relevant label to five circuit among Fig. 3 describes again.
Explanation about Fig. 4.
In above-mentioned total electrical schematic diagram (Fig. 2 and Fig. 3), three-phase synchrotrans summation current transformer, their input, refinements not enough of output annexation separately, for this reason, provide Fig. 4 to carry out refinement and express, promptly Fig. 4 is the connection diagram of the three-phase synchrotrans summation current transformer in the present embodiment.
Label declaration among Fig. 4:
A is first phase in the three-phase electricity, i.e. A phase; B is second phase in the three-phase electricity, i.e. B phase; C is the third phase in the three-phase electricity, i.e. the C phase; Ka is first fen cutter in the three-phase linked switch; Kb is second fen cutter in the three-phase linked switch; Kc is the 3rd a fen cutter in the three-phase linked switch; U be soft starter device output, be the input of motor, be positioned on the A phase circuit; V be soft starter device output, be the input of motor, be positioned on the B phase circuit; W be soft starter device output, be the input of motor, be positioned on the C phase circuit; M is a motor; USA is the output voltage of three-phase synchrotrans, and it has reflected the A situation of change of electricity mutually; USB is the output voltage of three-phase synchrotrans, and it has reflected the B situation of change of electricity mutually; USC is the output voltage of three-phase synchrotrans, and it has reflected the C situation of change of electricity mutually; I ' A is by the detected A phase current of current transformer variable signal; I ' B is by the detected B phase current of current transformer variable signal; I ' C is by the detected C phase current of current transformer variable signal.
C9 absorbs electric capacity; C10 absorbs electric capacity; C11 absorbs electric capacity; C12 absorbs electric capacity; C13 absorbs electric capacity; C14 absorbs electric capacity; C15 absorbs electric capacity; C16 absorbs electric capacity; C17 absorbs electric capacity; C18 absorbs electric capacity; C19 absorbs electric capacity; C20 absorbs electric capacity; C21 absorbs electric capacity; C22 absorbs electric capacity; C23 absorbs electric capacity; C24 absorbs electric capacity; C25 absorbs electric capacity.
R24 is an absorption resistance; R25 is a grading resistor; R26 is an absorption resistance; R27 is a grading resistor; R28 is an absorption resistance; R29 is a grading resistor; R30 is an absorption resistance; R31 is a grading resistor; R32 is an absorption resistance; R33 is a grading resistor; R34 is an absorption resistance; R35 is a grading resistor; R36 is an absorption resistance; R37 is a grading resistor; R38 is an absorption resistance; R39 is a grading resistor; R40 is an absorption resistance; R41 is a grading resistor; R42 is a grading resistor; R43 is an absorption resistance; R44 is a grading resistor; R45 is an absorption resistance; R46 is a grading resistor; R47 is an absorption resistance; R48 is a grading resistor; R49 is an absorption resistance; R50 is a grading resistor; R51 is an absorption resistance; R52 is a grading resistor; R53 is an absorption resistance; R54 is a grading resistor; R55 is an absorption resistance; R56 is a grading resistor; R57 is an absorption resistance; R58 is a grading resistor; R59 is an absorption resistance.
MCB1 is a pulse transformer; MCB2 is a pulse transformer; MCB3 is a pulse transformer; Ka is first fen cutter in the three-phase linked switch; Kb is second fen cutter in the three-phase linked switch; Kc is the 3rd a fen cutter in the three-phase linked switch;
As shown in Figure 4: the three-phase synchrotrans comprise elementary winding and secondary winding; Elementary winding comprises three sub-windings, and an end of each sub-winding is connected with one of three-phase high-voltage AC power respectively, and the other end of each sub-winding links together; Secondary winding comprises three sub-windings, and the head end of three sub-windings constitutes three outlet terminals of three-phase synchrotrans; The end of three sub-windings links together, also links to each other with the negative pole of DC power supply, and this tie point is as the level earth terminal simultaneously;
The connection situation of the current transformer of expressing among Fig. 4 is: current transformer has the magnetic material of an annular, phase line is passed from magnet ring, the induction winding is wrapped on the magnet ring, one end of each induction winding is sent induced current to current detection circuit, this induced current is got back to the other end of induction winding again from current detection circuit, thereby forms the loop circulation.The connection of current transformer is not limited to foregoing description, can be according to specific circumstances and the model of current transformer, specification determine the ways of connecting method.The connection situation of three current transformers among Fig. 4 is below about also having more detailed explanation in the explanation of Fig. 8.
Explanation about Fig. 5.
In above-mentioned total electrical schematic diagram (Fig. 2 and Fig. 3), the refinement not enough of the annexation of power executive circuit for this reason, provides Fig. 5 to carry out refinement and expresses, and promptly Fig. 5 is the connection diagram of the power executive circuit in the present embodiment.Also be noted that: only drawn the connection situation of A phase power executive circuit among Fig. 5, omitted the B phase that catenation principle duplicates, the connection situation of C phase power executive circuit.Label declaration among Fig. 5: A is first phase sequence in the three-phase alternating current, i.e. A phase phase sequence also is expressed as the A line end that joins simultaneously; U be soft starter device output, be the input of motor, be positioned on the A phase circuit; PIC16F877 is a single-chip microcomputer; 74LS244 is a buffering driver; C9 absorbs electric capacity; C10 absorbs electric capacity; C11 absorbs electric capacity; C18 absorbs electric capacity; C19 absorbs electric capacity; C20 absorbs electric capacity; R24 is an absorption resistance; R25 is a grading resistor; R26 is an absorption resistance; R27 is a grading resistor; R28 is an absorption resistance; R29 is a grading resistor; R42 is a grading resistor; R43 is an absorption resistance; R44 is a grading resistor; R45 is an absorption resistance; R46 is a grading resistor; R47 is an absorption resistance; MCB1 is a pulse transformer; MCB2 is a pulse transformer; Ka is first fen cutter in the three-phase linked switch.
GK_A+1, GK_A+2, GK_A+3 are the triggering signals of group's high-power thyristor above being sent among Fig. 5, and these three triggering signals are sent simultaneously; GK_A-1, GK_A-2, GK_A-3 are the triggering signals that is sent to following group's high-power thyristor among Fig. 5, and these three triggering signals also are to send simultaneously; GK_A+1, GK_A+2, GK_A+3 and GK_A-1, GK_A-2, GK_A-3 differ 180 ° on phase place.
At present embodiment, totally ten eight of the high-power thyristors in the power executive circuit promptly in each circuitry phase are six; These six are divided into two groups, are serially connected in the circuitry phase behind three series aiding connections of first group, behind three series aiding connections of second group, be connected with first group of reverse parallel connection more again; Described have a circuit of all pressing absorption, it specifically is meant: the components and parts that the two ends of each high-power thyristor connect comprise grading resistor, absorption resistance and absorption electric capacity, that is: absorption resistance, absorb capacitances in series and connect after, be connected in parallel with grading resistor again, be connected in parallel with the two ends of this high-power thyristor.About gate pole, the negative electrode of high-power thyristor is connected with circuits for triggering, in the explanation of back about Fig. 7 detailed explanation and introduction are arranged.
Explanation about Fig. 6.
Fig. 6 is the circuit diagram of circuit for generating synchronous signals, and the content of circuit for generating synchronous signals is basic identical among it and Fig. 3, and the breadth of picture becomes big, sees clearlyer.Label declaration among Fig. 6: USA is the output voltage of three-phase synchrotrans, and it has reflected the A situation of change of electricity mutually; USB is the output voltage of three-phase synchrotrans, and it has reflected the B situation of change of electricity mutually; USC is the output voltage of three-phase synchrotrans, and it has reflected the C situation of change of electricity mutually.About USA, USB, USC can be referring to Fig. 4.
INT_A is the output negative terminal of photoelectrical coupler; INT_B is the output negative terminal of photoelectrical coupler; INT_C is the output negative terminal of photoelectrical coupler; C1 is a synchronous filtering electric capacity; C2 is a synchronous filtering electric capacity; C3 is a synchronous filtering electric capacity; C4 is shared electric capacity; LM224-1 is a comparator; LM224-2 is a comparator; LM224-3 is a comparator; R1 is first input resistance; R2 is second input resistance; R3 is the comparator output resistance; R4 is a photoelectrical coupler emitter-base bandgap grading output resistance; R5 is the first stack resistance; R6 is the second stack resistance; R7 is first input resistance; R8 is second input resistance; R9 is the comparator output resistance; R10 is a photoelectrical coupler emitter-base bandgap grading output resistance; R11 is the first stack resistance; R12 is the second stack resistance; R13 is first input resistance; R14 is second input resistance; R15 is the comparator output resistance; R16 is a photoelectrical coupler emitter-base bandgap grading output resistance; R17 is the first stack resistance; R18 is the second stack resistance; R101 is shared resistance; VCC is a DC power supply.
Three input: USA, USB and the USC of circuit for generating synchronous signals are three outputs of three-phase synchrotrans; Can understand following description in conjunction with Fig. 4 and Fig. 6 for the three-phase synchrotrans:
Described three-phase synchrotrans comprise elementary winding and secondary winding; Elementary winding comprises three sub-windings, and an end of each sub-winding is connected with one of three-phase high-voltage AC power respectively, and the other end of each sub-winding links together; Secondary winding comprises three sub-windings, and the head end of three sub-windings constitutes three outlet terminals of three-phase synchrotrans; The end of three sub-windings links together, also links to each other with the negative pole of DC power supply, and this tie point is as the level earth terminal simultaneously.
It is to be noted: elementary winding and secondary winding directly are not electrically connected.Directly be not electrically connected, its benefit is: synchronous circuit, control circuit and other weak current part all can be designed to safe low-voltage, thereby ensure the safety of the person.Also have, the end of secondary three sub-windings, the negative pole of DC power supply, circuit for generating synchronous signals the level earth terminal, they link together.
In Fig. 6, when USA is high level, uppermost comparator LM224-1, its in-phase input end is an also high level of high level, its output, this high level is applied to the input of photoelectrical coupler by comparator output resistance R3 and lights the luminescent device of input, the output of photoelectrical coupler receives conducting behind the light, make the output negative terminal INT_A of photoelectrical coupler become high level, high level signal is sent in the control circuit as the synchronizing signal of this phase gone at last by original low level.In brief, be positive half cycle high level, cause the output negative terminal INT_A of photoelectrical coupler also to become the 5V high level as USA; Otherwise, when USA is the negative half period low level, causes the output negative terminal INT_A of photoelectrical coupler also to become the 0V low level; Also there are the high-low level relation of same nature in USB and INT_B, USC and INT_C.
3 points that have that need explanation: first point, to each mutually, the phase difference that its high level and low level occur is 180 ° of angles; Second point, as long as keep the phase difference of hexagonal angle degree between the alternating current that three-phase alternating-current supply provides, its each phase, because it is identical that the components and parts of each parallel circuit are provided with, so three photoelectrical coupler output negative terminals are delivered to the phase difference that the signal that desynchronizes in the control circuit also remains the hexagonal angle degree; Thirdly, in each cycle, circuit for generating synchronous signals is sent three synchronous square-wave signals altogether, each signal differs the hexagonal angle degree, promptly three synchronizing signals in one-period are: first is that the signal of A phase, second signal that is the B phase, the 3rd are the signals of C phase, then enter second period, so circulation endlessly.
Implementing when of the present invention, can (but not limiting) will design and make the target of debugging and be decided to be: referring to Figure 22 and other relevant drawing, Figure 22 wherein is the waveform schematic diagram of synchronizing signal and input signal.By USA, USB and the USC voltage signal that the three-phase synchrotrans provide, the RC filter hysteresis phase shift in circuit for generating synchronous signals again, its waveform just in time makes the natural commutation point of corresponding group thyristor just be in the zero passage change.Wherein: the R of A in mutually 2, R 5, R 6, C 1, R 101, C 4Participated in the hysteresis phase shift; The R of B in mutually 8, R 11, R 12, C 2, R 101, C 4Participated in the hysteresis phase shift; The R of C in mutually 14, R 17, R 18, C 3, R 101, C 4Participated in the hysteresis phase shift.The process comparator is transformed to sinusoidal ac signal 180 ° square-wave signal, each square-wave signal in the three-phase differs 120 ° successively, form the synchronizing signal of thyristor at INT_A, INT_B, INT_C three places, and sent into RB5, RB6, the RB7 mouth of PIC16F877; Above-mentioned synchronizing signal both can be used as the benchmark of triggering signal, can be used for open-phase protection and phase sequence again and detected.The waveform of three-phase synchronous signal INT_A, INT_B, INT_C is followed the phase order of 3-phase AC rule and is occurred by turns; Same mutually in, the time interval that each signal changes is π; The phase difference of each phase is 2 π/3.If so be benchmark with INT_A, after the rising edge of INT_A arrived, microcomputer carried out timing, if the signal that arrives through 2 π/3 is INT_B, that arrive through 2 π/3 is INT_C again, and then decidable is a positive phase sequence; On the contrary, after the rising edge of INT_A arrived, the signal that arrives through 2 π/3 was INT_C, was INT_B through what arrive again, and then decidable is a negative phase sequence.Also have, if phase shortage, then microcomputer does not receive relevant signal in corresponding timing time section.
Explanation about Fig. 7.
Fig. 7 is the circuit diagram of the gate trigger circuit of high-power thyristor, and the gate trigger circuit content among it and Fig. 3 is basic identical, and the breadth that Fig. 7 draws becomes big, sees clearlyer.Label declaration among Fig. 7: PIC16F877 is a single-chip microcomputer; 74LS244 is a buffering driver; MCB is a pulse transformer; GK_A+1, GK_A+2, GK_A+3 are triggering signals.Fig. 2, Fig. 3 figure and Fig. 7 are observed, analyze and can learn: include the control circuit (being singlechip chip PIC16F877, buffering driver 74LS244 etc. in the present embodiment) of CPU, its output comprises six road interfaces that are used to export triggering signal; Each interface of buffering driver 74LS244 output connects one again and amplifies parallel circuit.
As Fig. 2, Fig. 3 figure and shown in Figure 7:
In the present embodiment, three high-power thyristors of series aiding connection in every group; Corresponding, each amplifies parallel circuit and includes: current-limiting resistance, Darlington transistor, pulse transformer and three groups of promotion assemblies; Each group promotes assembly and includes spacing diode, forward conduction diode, afterflow position limitation protection diode; Pulse transformer has an input winding and three output windings, and each winding all has two terminals.
Include the control circuit of CPU, its output comprises six road interfaces that are used to export triggering signal, and this six road interface is connected with six inputs of driver respectively;
Six outputs of driver amplify parallel circuit by six respectively and are connected with the high-power thyristor of six groups in the power executive circuit, form No. six connecting circuits thus; Promptly in No. six connecting circuits, its each road connecting circuit all has following annexation:
The nominal base stage of output end of driver, current-limiting resistance, Darlington transistor is connected in series; The input winding of the positive pole of DC power supply, pulse transformer, the nominal collector electrode of Darlington transistor are connected in series; The nominal emitter of Darlington transistor is connected with the level earth terminal; Spacing diode is connected across pulse transformer input winding two ends and its negative pole is connected with the positive pole of DC power supply;
The winding of respectively exporting of pulse transformer is connected with a high-power thyristor by one group of promotion assembly respectively, that is: pulse transformer is exported terminals of winding, the positive pole of forward conduction diode, negative pole, the gate pole of high-power thyristor, negative electrode, another terminals of pulse transformer output winding, they form being connected in series of closed loop; Afterflow position limitation protection diode, its negative pole is connected with the negative pole of forward conduction diode, it is anodal is connected with another terminals of pulse transformer output winding.
Explanation about Darlington transistor:, in circuit, often two even more triode are connected together and form so-called Darlington transistor owing to reasons such as the multiplication factor of single triode are big not enough; This Darlington transistor can be compound with the triode of apportion, build, such as compound with two triodes in circuit, build a Darlington transistor, also can buy the compound Darlington transistor of putting up and becoming one.No matter be to build Darlington transistor, or the Darlington transistor that becomes one with the triode of apportion, it all can be simplified, be considered as a triode, thereby has nominal emitter, nominal base stage and nominal collector electrode.In the present invention, the Darlington transistor that uses in the gate trigger circuit can be understood in conjunction with Fig. 3, Fig. 5, Fig. 7.
Explanation about Fig. 8.
Fig. 8 is the circuit diagram of current detection circuit, and the content of the circuit of current detection circuit is basic identical among it and Fig. 3, and the breadth of picture becomes big, sees clearlyer.Label declaration among Fig. 8: I ' A is by the detected A phase current of current transformer variable signal; I ' B is by the detected B phase current of current transformer variable signal; I ' C is by the detected C phase current of current transformer variable signal; C5 is a smothing filtering electric capacity; C6 is an electrolytic capacitor filter; RW1 is a potentiometer; R20 is a current-limiting resistance; A/D-I is a current detection signal, it is sent to the A/D input port of single-chip microcomputer.Current detection circuit among Fig. 8 is used to detect the electric current that flows through motor, and the input of current detection circuit links to each other with three current transformers respectively, describes below in conjunction with Fig. 4 and Fig. 8.Current detection circuit comprises: three current transformers, six rectifier diodes, two clamp diodes, a potentiometer, a current-limiting resistance, an electrolytic capacitor filter, a smothing filtering electric capacity; Six rectifier diodes are divided into three groups, and two the equal series aiding connections of rectifier diode up and down in every group connect; Three groups of rectifier diodes after being connected in series, fixing lower end, upper end, the electrolytic capacitor filter of potentiometer are connected in parallel again; Three current transformers, its primary coil is serially connected in respectively in three phase lines, one end of its secondary coil lead to respectively corresponding one group of rectifier diode and with this group about the common terminal of rectifier diode be connected, the other end of its secondary coil is connected with the level earth terminal.All the other annexations as shown in Figure 8.Current detection circuit is output as dc signal, is sent to control circuit, promptly is sent to single-chip microcomputer PIC16F877, and the size of dc signal has reflected the size of current of motor; In addition; when electric current is excessive; this dc signal is admitted to control circuit; judge that through single-chip microcomputer PIC16F877 confirming as has been overcurrent; then single-chip microcomputer can send the instruction of overcurrent protection, and the order interlock circuit is taked safeguard measure, stops to export triggering signal, makes the no longer conducting of whole high-power thyristors such as the command triggers circuit; information with overcurrent protection observably shows on display unit simultaneously, so that carry out manual intervention or hand inspection, reparation.The input of above-mentioned current detection circuit links to each other with three current transformers respectively, can understand in conjunction with Fig. 4, Fig. 8.Two diodes that link to each other with current-limiting resistance R20 input are used for command potential.Problem about command potential has following explanation: with the pressure drop of diode forward conduction pipe is that 0.5V is an example; the dc signal of current-limiting resistance R20 output; maximum is+5.5V, minimum value be-0.5V, protect single-chip microcomputer PIC16F877 to avoid the damage of too high voltages therefrom.
Explanation about Fig. 9.
Fig. 9 is the circuit diagram of voltage detecting circuit, and the content of voltage detecting circuit is basic identical among it and Fig. 3, and the breadth of picture becomes big, sees clearlyer.Label declaration among Fig. 9: UUV is the voltage between two terminals of motor; C7 is a filter capacitor; C8 is a smothing filtering electric capacity; RW2 is a potentiometer; R21 is a current-limiting resistance; A/D-U is a voltage detection signal, and this signal is delivered to the A/D input port of single-chip microcomputer.Observation, analysis chart 9, the size of voltage detection signal A/D-U has reflected the size of the voltage U UV between two terminals of motor among Fig. 9.
Explanation about Figure 17.
In power factor signal deteching circuit of the present invention, described power factor signal deteching circuit comprises two circuit: an one circuit is: the tube voltage drop testing circuit of indirect detection motor current zero crossing; Its another circuit is: the synchronous signal circuit of detection of grid voltage over zero.
Figure 17 has drawn tube voltage drop testing circuit and relevant connecting circuit thereof.Design feature of the present invention is: the motor current zero crossing is not directly to measure, but by the situation of change of measuring tube pressure drop, the indirect current zero-crossing point that has recorded motor approx.
Label declaration among Figure 17: A is first phase sequence in the three-phase alternating current, i.e. A phase phase sequence also is expressed as the A line end that joins simultaneously; B is second phase sequence in the three-phase alternating current, i.e. B phase phase sequence also is expressed as the B line end that joins simultaneously; C is the third phase preface in the three-phase alternating current, i.e. C phase phase sequence also is expressed as the C line end that joins simultaneously; M is a motor; U be soft starter device output, be the input of motor, be positioned on the A phase circuit; V be soft starter device output, be the input of motor, be positioned on the B phase circuit; W be soft starter device output, be the input of motor, be positioned on the C phase circuit; R22 is first current-limiting resistance; R23 is second current-limiting resistance; DLGLD is the current zero-crossing point signal; PIC16F877 is a single-chip microcomputer.
The tube voltage drop testing circuit comprises: first current-limiting resistance, and second current-limiting resistance, input side inside is provided with the photoelectrical coupler of two-way light-emitting diode, collector resistance, output resistance; The input other end of the input side of input one end of tube voltage drop testing circuit, first current-limiting resistance, photoelectrical coupler, second current-limiting resistance, tube voltage drop testing circuit, they are connected in series; The outlet side of the positive terminal of DC power supply, collector resistance, photoelectrical coupler, the negative pole end of DC power supply, they are connected in series; The input of the points of common connection of collector resistance and photoelectrical coupler outlet side, output resistance, control circuit, they are connected in series.
The tube voltage drop testing circuit comprises input and output, and its input is connected across between the anode, negative electrode of high-power thyristor.In the present embodiment, the anode of described high-power thyristor, negative electrode are specially as follows:
As shown in figure 17, in uppermost group's high-power thyristor (three high-power thyristors that this group's high-power thyristor is connected in series about topmost in by Figure 17 constitute), it is the most preceding, i.e. a most left high-power thyristor anode, and it is last, i.e. a rightest high-power thyristor negative electrode.Aforesaid anode and negative electrode, they are connected with tube voltage drop testing circuit input.
Tube voltage drop testing circuit and synchronous signal circuit, their output link to each other with the input of control circuit respectively.The synchronous signal circuit that do not draw among Figure 17, synchronous signal circuit can be understood referring to Fig. 3 and Fig. 6.
Further specify as follows:
1. when high-power thyristor turn-offs, the voltage at its two ends raises, the voltage signal of this rising is by first current-limiting resistance and second current-limiting resistance, deliver to the input side of photoelectrical coupler, the two-way light-emitting diode that is positioned at input side is lighted, and then caused the photoelectric receiving tube conducting of outlet side, the current potential of collector electrode is reduced by height, control circuit (being single-chip microcomputer) is received this by the variable signal that height reduces, and can judge that this moment, high-power thyristor turn-offed.Because the high-power thyristor in the A circuitry phase turn-offs constantly, mean the current zero-crossing point moment of A circuitry phase; The high-power thyristor turn-off time is approximate in other words equals the current zero-crossing point time, so control circuit (being single-chip microcomputer) receives that the above-mentioned variable signal that is reduced by height can see the signal of current zero-crossing point as.
2. detect A synchronised voltage over zero, and send control circuit.
Be described as follows in conjunction with Fig. 6: INT_A, INT_B, INT_C three places all are output negative terminals of photoelectrical coupler in the circuit for generating synchronous signals; The waveform that occurs at this three place, its essence is that the sine wave with supply voltage converts square wave to, postponed the certain phase angle degree simultaneously, (in concrete the enforcement also can be the numerical value of other number of degrees such as having postponed 30 ° of degree, can adjust time of delay by the resistance and the capacitance size that change in the circuit, down together), in other words, the time close association that the rising edge time of occurrence of this square wave and supply voltage zero crossing occur; For a physical circuit, because relevant resistance and capacitance size determine, thereby the rising edge of square wave will appear after occurring in supply voltage zero crossing again through a fixing delay time.
The square wave that above-mentioned INT_A, INT_B, INT_C three places occur is sent into single-chip microcomputer, and they can have following two effects:
A. as the benchmark of each phase triggering signal; Single-chip microcomputer is based on this benchmark, again in conjunction with other information, judgement and calculating by analysis,, send the instruction or the instruction through sending the triggering high-power thyristor behind one section delay time of accurately controlling that trigger high-power thyristor immediately, gate trigger circuit is received the instruction back, high-power thyristor is triggered.
B. 30 degree are subtracted each other, added to the moment of square wave appearance (if in circuit for generating synchronous signals constantly with this current zero-crossing point mutually, the phase angle that postpones is not 30 degree but another numerical value, then should add the phase angle of this another numerical value), the just approximate power-factor angle that obtains when front motor.Control circuit learns behind the power-factor angle numerical value of front motor, and just numerical value, the energy-saving run of being correlated with have been controlled in view of the above.
Figure 12 is and three waveform location diagrams of power factor angular dependence (-dance), and wherein: superposed figure is the voltage oscillogram at high-power thyristor two ends, and the figure in the middle of being positioned at is the current waveform figure of input single-chip microcomputer, and the figure that is positioned at the bottom is synchronous voltage signal figure; Among the figure Be the phase angle.
3. in the reality debugging, can also use oscilloscope on same screen, to observe voltage, electric current actual change situation, and can adjust according to situation about showing on the screen.Also have, if tube voltage drop detects, the synchronizing voltage zero crossing detects and the calculating of control circuit, all might there be certain error in they; , can by revising the calculating parameter value of control circuit, various errors totally be compensated for this reason, power-factor angle accurately is controlled in certain scope thereby reach by the waveform that shows on the observation oscilloscope screen.
Embodiment 2
Describe in conjunction with Figure 18.Earlier the label among Figure 18 is described: A is first phase sequence in the three-phase alternating current, i.e. A phase phase sequence also is expressed as the A line end that joins simultaneously; B is second phase sequence in the three-phase alternating current, i.e. B phase phase sequence also is expressed as the B line end that joins simultaneously; C is the third phase preface in the three-phase alternating current, i.e. C phase phase sequence also is expressed as the C line end that joins simultaneously; M is inner motor for the connection of Y shape; U be soft starter device output, be the input of motor, be positioned on the A phase circuit; V be soft starter device output, be the input of motor, be positioned on the B phase circuit; W be soft starter device output, be the input of motor, be positioned on the C phase circuit; N is the neutral line terminals of three-phase alternating-current supply; N ' is a motor neutral line terminals, and N ' is connected with N; R201 is first divider resistance; R202 is second divider resistance; PIC16F877 is a single-chip microcomputer.
In the present embodiment, the tube voltage drop testing circuit comprises: first divider resistance, second divider resistance; The resistance of first divider resistance is greater than the resistance of second divider resistance; The input other end of input one end of tube voltage drop testing circuit, first divider resistance, second divider resistance, tube voltage drop testing circuit, they are connected in series; Second divider resistance, its two ends are connected with the input of control circuit.
Also have, as shown in figure 18, the tube voltage drop testing circuit externally is connected to: the input of tube voltage drop testing circuit is connected across between the anode of high-power thyristor, the negative electrode; The output of tube voltage drop testing circuit (i.e. the two ends of second divider resistance) links to each other with the input of control circuit.
Analyze Figure 18, when A phase high-power thyristor turn-offs, the voltage at its two ends raises, the voltage signal of this rising is by first divider resistance and the second divider resistance dividing potential drop, the signal that is obtained low voltage by second divider resistance is delivered to control circuit (being single-chip microcomputer), control circuit is received this by the variable signal that height reduces, and can judge that this moment, high-power thyristor turn-offed.Because the high-power thyristor in the A circuitry phase turn-offs constantly, mean the current zero-crossing point moment of A circuitry phase; The high-power thyristor turn-off time is approximate in other words equals the current zero-crossing point time, so control circuit (being single-chip microcomputer) receives that the above-mentioned variable signal that is reduced by height can see the signal of current zero-crossing point as.
Tube voltage drop testing circuit in the present embodiment 2, the tube voltage drop testing circuit in can alternative embodiment 1; The content of reading embodiment 1 can help to understand present embodiment 2.
Embodiment 3
Describe in conjunction with Figure 19.Earlier the label among Figure 19 is described: A is first phase sequence in the three-phase alternating current, i.e. A phase phase sequence also is expressed as the A line end that joins simultaneously; B is second phase sequence in the three-phase alternating current, i.e. B phase phase sequence also is expressed as the B line end that joins simultaneously; C is the third phase preface in the three-phase alternating current, i.e. C phase phase sequence also is expressed as the C line end that joins simultaneously; M is inner motor for the connection of Y shape; U be soft starter device output, be the input of motor, be positioned on the A phase circuit; V be soft starter device output, be the input of motor, be positioned on the B phase circuit; W be soft starter device output, be the input of motor, be positioned on the C phase circuit; N is the neutral line terminals of three-phase alternating-current supply; N ' is a motor neutral line terminals, and
N ' is connected with N; RDY is first resistance; RDE is second resistance; DLGLD is the current zero-crossing point signal; PIC16F877 is a single-chip microcomputer.
In present embodiment 3, the tube voltage drop testing circuit comprises: step-down isolation transformer, and first resistance, second resistance, input side inside is provided with the photoelectrical coupler of two-way light-emitting diode, collector resistance, output resistance; Described step-down isolation transformer comprises former limit winding and secondary winding.
The former limit winding of step-down isolation transformer is connected across the input two ends of tube voltage drop testing circuit; The other end of the secondary winding of the input side of one end of the secondary winding of step-down isolation transformer, first resistance, photoelectrical coupler, second resistance, step-down isolation transformer, they are connected in series; The outlet side of galvanic positive terminal, collector resistance, photoelectrical coupler, galvanic negative pole end, they are connected in series; The points of common connection of collector resistance and photoelectrical coupler outlet side, output resistance, control circuit, they are connected in series.
Analyze Figure 19, when A phase high-power thyristor turn-offs, the voltage at its two ends raises, the voltage signal of this rising is sent to the former limit winding of step-down isolation transformer, the secondary winding of sensed step-down isolation transformer again, deliver to the input side of photoelectrical coupler then by first resistance, second resistance, the two-way light-emitting diode that is positioned at input side is lighted, and then cause the photoelectric receiving tube conducting of outlet side, the current potential of collector electrode is reduced by height, control circuit (being single-chip microcomputer) is received this by the variable signal that height reduces, and can judge that this moment, high-power thyristor turn-offed.Because the high-power thyristor in the A circuitry phase turn-offs constantly, mean the current zero-crossing point moment of A circuitry phase; The high-power thyristor turn-off time is approximate in other words equals the current zero-crossing point time, so control circuit (being single-chip microcomputer) receives that the above-mentioned variable signal that is reduced by height can see the signal of current zero-crossing point as.
Embodiment 4
In embodiment 1,, thereby apparatus of the present invention have been made further instruction by introduction to a kind of physical circuit.Present embodiment still uses the physical circuit of introducing among the embodiment 1, the explanation of being correlated with.
Contrive equipment, the thyristor of series connection makes very high alternating current be divided into relatively low low pressure, so can bear the high pressure of electrical network owing to adopted the technical measures of all pressing; When starting or energy-saving run, the technical measures of taking have: a. trigger, make its conducting simultaneously simultaneously, thereby high-power thyristor is more reliability and durability for the high-power thyristor of connecting in the same group; B. control the trigger angle of thyristor, adjust triggering, the ON time of thyristor continuously, and then reach the terminal voltage of continuous control motor, be that control end voltage changing from small to big gradually makes on its magnitude of voltage that maintains energy-saving run until full voltage or control end voltage, thereby control its electric current, can realize the soft start or the energy-saving run of motor like this.Hardware circuit comprises: power cell, detecting unit, signal processing unit, synchronous circuit, control unit, triggering signal power amplifier unit, display unit, keyboard input circuit, circuit for remotely controlling, DC power supply circuit etc., the output of the input termination three-phase synchrotrans of circuit for generating synchronous signals wherein, the output of circuit for generating synchronous signals is input to synchronizing signal the reference signal of single-chip microcomputer as trigger impulse again, the control utmost point of thyristor is received in the output of triggering signal, circuit general structure such as Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and shown in Figure 3; Fig. 1 is an electric functional-block diagram of the present invention; Fig. 2 is first's drawing of total electrical schematic diagram of the present invention, and Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 constitute complete total electrical schematic diagram; Fig. 3 is the second portion drawing of total electrical schematic diagram of the present invention, and Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 constitute complete total electrical schematic diagram.
The briefing of present embodiment is as follows.
1, the high-voltage asynchronous motor soft start and the energy saver of thyristor series connection; partly constitute by power section and control circuit; power section comprises 18 high-power thyristors; every have 6 thyristors mutually; 3 series connection are a group, two groups of reverse parallel connections then, and the voltage of bearing for each high-power thyristor that guarantees to connect is the same and reach the purpose that protection absorbs; in each group, also there is grading resistor at the two ends of each high-power thyristor and resistance capaciting absorpting circuit.
Employing is the microcomputer control circuit of core with the single-chip microcomputer.Single chip machine controlling circuit is to be core with the PIC16F877 single-chip microcomputer, and is furnished with 8279 demonstration able to programme and keyboard circuits
In leading to the three-phase phase line of motor, current transformer is housed, the output two ends of each current transformer link to each other with the input of single chip machine controlling circuit, realize current signals thus.
In the input treatment circuit, include: synchronous voltage signal Acquisition Circuit, output voltage signal Acquisition Circuit, current signal Acquisition Circuit, tube voltage drop and power factor signal deteching circuit.。
2. detecting unit has voltage sensor and current sensor.Voltage sensor mainly detects the stator voltage value of motor; behind step-down rectifier, send into A/D (analog-to-digital conversion) passage of single-chip microcomputer; convert digital quantity to; be used for fault detect, overvoltage and under-voltage protection, voltage demonstration and voltage control etc., aforementioned step-down rectifier principle can be referring to Fig. 9 (can increase current-limiting resistance among Fig. 9) before rectification.Current transformer is used for detecting stator current, is used for carrying out current feedback or overcurrent protection etc.
3. signal processing unit comprises voltage, electric current absolute value, filtering, shaping, comparison circuit, cooperates the A/D converting unit of single-chip microcomputer, realizes that the numerical value of voltage, electric current detects.
4. circuit for generating synchronous signals is that sine wave signal with three-phase mains voltage changes square-wave signal into, benchmark as the synchronizing signal that triggers thyristor, after single-chip microcomputer is received square-wave signal, through a series of read, judge, analyze and handle after, send relevant instruction again, realize that 6 zero crossings of 6 road trigger impulses and three-phase mains voltage are synchronous.In addition, after these square-wave signals are admitted to single-chip microcomputer, can realize open-phase protection and phase sequence judgement by software.
5. gate trigger circuit with the signal amplification of single-chip microcomputer output, satisfies the triggering requirement of thyristor as triggering power amplifier unit from power.
6. display unit is to show preset information, fault message and operational factor, as parameters such as voltage, electric current, starting times; The keyboard input circuit can be finished the setting of predefined parameter, as tasks such as operational mode, starting current times, starting time, display modes.
7. circuit for remotely controlling is to use for convenience, the starting of some function such as motor, stop, function such as energy-saving run, can finish in control room separately, need to possess the distant signal transfer function, i.e. remote control function for this reason.
Utilize apparatus of the present invention can realize the soft start of high-voltage motor, big electric current is to the infringement of motor with to the impact of electrical network when reducing the high-voltage motor starting.By detection to power factor, improved the operational efficiency of high-tension motor, saved electric energy.
Embodiment 5
Present embodiment still uses the physical circuit of introducing among the embodiment 1, the explanation of being correlated with.
As shown in Figure 4, main circuit is near three current transformers that sensed current signal is housed in the three-phase circuit of motor side, after three-phase bridge rectification, filtering, dividing potential drop, obtain a d. c. voltage signal (current detection signal A/D-I among Fig. 8), with the A/D mouth (see figure 3) of this signal as current feedback signal input PIC16F877, CPU gets the current feedback value of its mean value as this moment again to the per half period sampling of this signal 50 times.
Near in the motor side three-phase electricity, get two-phase and draw as line voltage; This line voltage is through obtaining a d. c. voltage signal (voltage detection signal A/D-U among Fig. 9) after full-bridge rectification, filtering and the dividing potential drop, A/D mouth with this signal input PIC16F877, A/D is to sampling in the every half cycle of this signal 50 times, get the value of feedback of its mean value again, judge according to the size of this value then and handle as voltage this moment; Voltage feedback signal when this voltage signal system that both can be used as carries out soft start function, overvoltage and under-voltage guard signal when moving as motor again.
The input/output signal of circuit for generating synchronous signals provides synchronous voltage signal by synchrotrans (being the three-phase synchrotrans) as shown in Figure 3, and through RC filter hysteresis phase shift, its waveform is just in time just becoming in the natural commutation point place of this phase thyristor zero passage.Thus, the sinusoidal ac signal that each is imported mutually is transformed to and is output as positive and negative 180 ° square-wave signal; The three-phase square wave signal differs 120 ° successively; INT_A, INT_B, INT_C have formed the synchronizing signal of thyristor; send into RB5, RB6, the RB7 mouth of PIC16F877; benchmark as triggering signal; simultaneously can judge whether whether the priority of phase shortage and phase sequence is accurate, if phase shortage or phase sequence mistake, the protection that can be correlated with.The waveform of three-phase synchronous signal INT_A, INT_B, INT_C is followed the phase order of 3-phase AC rule, the phase difference of each phase is 2 π/3, if so be benchmark with INT_A, after the rising edge of INT_A arrives, microcomputer carries out timing, if the rising edge signal that arrives through 2 π/3 is INT_B, the rising edge signal that arrives through 2 π/3 is INT_C again, and then decidable is a positive phase sequence; On the contrary, after the rising edge of INT_A arrived, the rising edge signal that arrives through 2 π/3 was INT_C, and the rising edge that arrives through 2 π/3 is INT_B again, and then decidable is a negative phase sequence.
Relevant signal enters the PIC16F877 single-chip microcomputer handle after, form the relative trigger signal, triggering signal is from RD0/PSP0~RD5/PSP5 mouth output of single-chip microcomputer.
The power executive circuit has six groups, 18 high-power thyristors altogether; Be that six high-power thyristors are arranged in each circuitry phase; These six thyristors are divided into two groups, are serially connected in the circuitry phase behind three series aiding connections of first group, behind three series aiding connections of second group, be connected with first group of reverse parallel connection more again.
The general principles of present embodiment is: asynchronous machine M when starting, in each sinusoidal wave period thyristor is carried out six times and trigger, differ 60 ° of angles before and after promptly in regular turn the thyristor of each group to be triggered; What three thyristors in each group were carried out is to trigger (if not triggering simultaneously, the then last thyristor that triggers is subjected to is that full voltage causes and punctures straight-throughly, and other thyristor also will puncture damage in succession in subsequent triggers) simultaneously; In addition, control circuit is the trigger angle of continuous control thyristor also, just say: the triggered time gradually in advance, the thyristor ON time increases gradually, so, the terminal voltage of motor also improves, reaches at last full voltage gradually, the starting current of corresponding motor also is limited in can realizing the soft start of motor like this in certain number range in whole Soft Start-up Process.After soft start finishes, the power factor that control circuit can online detection motor, when the motor light running, power factor is very low, at this moment reduces the terminal voltage of motor, can improve the power factor of motor, has also just improved efficiency of motor, has saved electric energy.
Hardware designs is the physical basis of system, more requires to have software support yet system can normally be moved preferably.Introducing Control Technique of Microcomputer in electric machine control system is a very important part of the present invention, realize that the high performance control of electric machine soft starting and the starting and the energy-saving run of optimization motor are purposes of the present invention, and wherein Design of software has critical role in control system, and it is directly connected to the designing requirement that can system normally move, satisfy system preferably.In this soft start system, in order to simplify the reliability of hardware, raising system, hardware capability is realized by software greatly, so software design is one of emphasis of whole system.The software section of native system design mainly comprises: main program, closed loop counting subroutine, energy-saving run subprogram and interrupt service subroutine.
The main program of this soft start system mainly comprises 3 parts: 1. the initialization of system, self check; 2. keyboard, demonstration; 3. operation part.The main program of high-voltage asynchronous motor soft start and energy-saving run device, its flow chart as shown in figure 11.
In main program, at first detect the input voltage of three phase mains, can be according to the size of three phase mains input voltage, judge whether balance of the whether phase failure of power supply, overvoltage, under-voltage and three-phase, when there were faults such as the phase failure, overvoltage, under-voltage and severe three-phase imbalance in the discovery system, system quit work; When fault-free, can be by keyboard, manually import current ideal control parameter.Before starting button was pressed, systemic circulation detected.When starting button is pressed, set up the mark (this mark is received the back, can be carried out corresponding subsequent processing work by single-chip microcomputer) that allows thyristor to trigger, for relevant interrupt routine provides state information; After thyristor is started working, still need detect whether balance etc. of the whether phase failure, overvoltage, under-voltage and three-phase, will detect the electric current of motor simultaneously, carry out Fault Identification and implement protection according to the data that record.System also is provided with stop button, and whether control circuit continue detects stop button and presses, if press stop button be not then system continues operation, if detect the information of pressing stop button, then system do not rerun or restart.
Embodiment 6
For the three-phase linked switch K that occurs among Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 4 and Fig. 5, present embodiment is illustrated.
This switch is titled with " three link ", and its meaning is exactly in the three-phase circuit at switch place, and when switch closure, the three-phase circuit that its both sides connect all is communicated with one to one by switch, and when switch cut off, the three-phase circuit that its both sides connect was all cut off by switch.The action that opens or closes of three-phase linked switch K is carried out under the commander who with the single-chip microcomputer is the control core circuit.
Introduce the applicable cases of two kinds of three-phase linked switch K below.
First kind of applicable cases is that apparatus of the present invention only are applied to soft start, do not bear the task of energy-saving run.Should use in the situation, three-phase linked switch K is in off-state before soft start, when soft start finishes under back, the situation at the terminals maintenance full voltage of motor, three-phase linked switch K is closed under the commander of control circuit, thyristor in closed back, the device is no longer worked, so, the one, can reduce the probability of damage of thyristor, the 2nd, can reduce the work load of control circuit.
Second kind of applicable cases is that apparatus of the present invention not only are applied to soft start but also finish afterwards, also will bear the task of energy-saving run in soft start.Should can make three-phase linked switch K be in off-state all the time with in the situation.
The third applicable cases is, because the variation of line voltage and the variation of motor load, the operating power factor of motor also changes, if this variation is not very to talk about rapidly, can be when power factor is high closed three-phase linked switch K, thus and when power factor is low, cut off three-phase linked switch K and carry out energy-saving run.If above-mentioned power factor just changes very rapid, then can cut off three-phase linked switch K the long period, thereby carry out energy-saving run.
Above energy-saving run can be selected automatically by control circuit, also can be controlled by operating personnel, can also be on the basis that control circuit is selected automatically, be controlled by force by operating personnel.
In apparatus of the present invention, if do not use three-phase linked switch K also to be fine, this kind situation can be used in above-mentioned second kind situation.
Embodiment 7
Present embodiment passes through description, the description and interpretation to situation in the Soft Start-up Process, thereby the present invention is made further instruction.The physical circuit that present embodiment can be in conjunction with the embodiments introduced in 1, the explanation of being correlated with.
Figure 11 main program flow chart; Describe below in conjunction with Figure 11.
Physical circuit in the present embodiment is introduced as embodiment 1.After hardware circuit connection, assembling finish, also want the Input Software program, and debug.
Contrive equipment is through above-mentioned connection, assembling, the Input Software program and debug qualified.Below soft start situation in just using describe.
In the present embodiment, behind the connection three-phase alternating-current supply, do not begin soft start immediately, but carry out following work.
The first step, control circuit, particularly single-chip microcomputer carry out preparation, comprising: open display unit, operation single-chip microcomputer (comprising operation main program, the initialized subprogram of calling system).
In this step, can also carry out artificial new settings or modification to existing parameter in the scm software program by display unit and keyboard.In this step, and in other step, all can carry out human-computer dialogue by display unit and keyboard.
Second step; start and have the subprogram of defencive function; the so-called protection function; its content comprises and detects and judge, the content of detection as: whether control circuit and testing circuit work normal? whether three-phase circuit phase shortage? whether three-phase phase-sequence accurate? whether overvoltage of three-phase circuit? whether three-phase circuit under-voltage? whether three-phase in a basic balance?
Explanation about the three-phase equilibrium problem, its whether the method for balance have: three-phase input voltage respectively can be obtained signal, again respectively through step-down, rectification, filtering, all become the input that send control circuit behind the direct current signal respectively, pass through analog-to-digital conversion then, the analog DC signal becomes digital signal and send in the single-chip microcomputer, single-chip microcomputer compares the size of three way word signals, as Size Error within the scope of set point, then be in a basic balance, as Size Error outside the scope of set point, then be uneven.Set point can set in advance in software as the case may be.
In the 3rd step, single-chip microcomputer judges whole detection contents in above-mentioned second step, finds to have abnormal if detect content, then gets back to the first step, shows fault message at display unit simultaneously; If it is all normal to detect content, then carry out the 4th following step.
The 4th step, setting or new settings or modification control information, the content of control information can comprise the information of starting current size.
This step also may be incorporated in the above-mentioned first step carries out, so all normal if then above-mentioned the 3rd step is detected content, then directly carries out the 5th following step, and this 4th step no longer exists.
In the 5th step, enter the core work of soft start.
This step can be designed as and relevant selection information occur on display unit, confirms back starting beginning by operating personnel by keyboard again, also can establish a special starting button in addition and start beginning, can also be designed to directly import the starting beginning by program.
After entering starting state, it is fast that single-chip microcomputer calls the principal of constant current soft mould, and under the cooperation of and other control circuits (comprising single-chip microcomputer) fast at this mould, carry out the starting that current of electric is constant current, and promptly the control starting current is constant current in starting process.Illustrate: under the situation of no soft starter device, during electric motor starting, its motor stator two ends apply is the full voltage of three-phase alternating-current supply, because though rotor does not also rotate or rotates but also do not reach rated speed, so starting current is very big, this starts big electric current to electrical network, very big to motor impact itself.Soft starter device of the present invention is in preliminary stage, by control trigger angle, the less voltage of output, be applied on the stator of motor, the starting current of preliminary stage just is controlled as less numerical value like this, such as: according to the Numerical Control with starting current is the certain multiple of rated current during with normal rotation.Along with the rotation of motor, and change fast more more, output voltage that can be by improving constantly apparatus of the present invention, i.e. continuous change trigger angle, it is constant that starting current is maintained substantially; When rotating speed of motor reaches at full speed, the whole conductings of thyristor of corresponding group are (with regard to each big constituent element device, two group's high-power thyristors of its reverse parallel connection, 180 ° of conductings in turn at interval), the electric current that flows through thyristor is the electric current that flows through motor, soft start task has so just been finished, and enters next step.
In the process of above-mentioned soft start, the protection monitoring work that control circuit can also be correlated with simultaneously, such as, continuous cycle detection: whether three-phase circuit phase shortage? whether three-phase phase-sequence accurate? whether overvoltage of three-phase circuit? whether three-phase circuit under-voltage? whether three-phase in a basic balance? whether the electric current in the three-phase circuit overcurrent? in case find, when confirming to have the abnormal conditions that do not allow to occur, reinstate the higher interruption subroutine of priority level immediately, stop soft start work, stop output voltage, and on display unit, show fault message, with the inspection of reminding operating personnel to be correlated with, repair work; If no abnormal situation in the cycle detection, then soft start proceed, until finishing.
In the 6th step, whether decision needs to carry out energy-saving run.
After soft start finished, next whether apparatus of the present invention needed to carry out energy-saving run, according to the proceedings decision, also can be to be revised or new settings in the above-mentioned first step by operating personnel.
If do not need to carry out energy-saving run, earlier closed three-phase linked switch K, after stop the work (stopping promptly carrying trigger impulse) of thyristor to thyristor, otherwise will in switch, produce big electric current spark, cause three-phase linked switch K to damage.
Carry out energy-saving run if desired, then three-phase linked switch K is not closed, and thyristor works on.
Because motor is under the situation of underload, power factor is not high, wasted electric energy.In energy-saving run, need the circulate power factor of detection motor endlessly of apparatus of the present invention is to guarantee realizing energy-saving run under the numerical value situation of high power factor.With the single-chip microcomputer is the control core circuit, the phase angle relationship of the voltage and current by detecting motor, thus learn or through calculating the power factor of learning motor.Because motor is an inductive load, its electric current lags behind voltage, and the angle that electric current lags behind between the vector big more, voltage vector and electric current in other words of the phase angle of voltage is big more, illustrates that power factor is low more.
Three-phase alternating current power supply grid with the China's Mainland is an example, the frequency of three-phase alternating current is 50Hz each second, promptly the sinusoidal wave each time cycle that changes is 2 π (being that angle is 360 °), time of taking is 0.02 second, say that further sinusoidal wave every variation shared time of 1 ° of angle is 0.02 second/360; Therefore, the zero crossing of the phase voltage by detecting motor and the zero crossing of phase current obtain just can knowing after time difference of these two zero crossings or just can knowing through calculating the phase current of motor lags behind how many phase angles of phase voltage of motor again.In energy-saving run, single-chip microcomputer also can calculate the phase place angle of phase voltage, phase current, and the time difference of directly detecting, calculate and control above-mentioned two zero crossings gets final product.When the load of motor when heavily lightening, detected power factor will become value on the low side by normal value, this moment the time location with the rising edge of trigger impulse move backward, the ON time of high power transistor shortens, the output voltage of apparatus of the present invention reduces, so just can improve power factor, reach the purpose of energy-saving run.
More than be the explanation that example is carried out with the three-phase alternating current power supply grid of China's Mainland, if in the world frequency each second of other countries or area three-phase alternating current be not 50Hz, then understand and similarly calculate according to above-described principle.
More than describe and to understand in conjunction with Figure 12.Figure 12 is and three waveform location diagrams of power factor angular dependence (-dance), and wherein: top is the voltage waveform at high-power thyristor two ends, middle current waveform for the input single-chip microcomputer, and the bottom is a synchronous voltage signal, among the figure Be the phase angle.
Embodiment 8
The front, embodiment and embodiment 1 to embodiment 8, invention has been described, description and interpretation; In addition, can also understand the present invention in conjunction with Figure 13, Figure 14, Figure 15 and Figure 16.
Figure 13 is behind the proceed-to-send, the stator line voltage oscillogram during heavy service; The line voltage of this moment fully is applied on the stator.
Figure 14 is to use the stator line voltage oscillogram in apparatus of the present invention Soft Start-up Process, and what draw among the figure is the waveform of not enough one-period; Describe in conjunction with this figure: in each cycle The time trigger corresponding one group of thyristor, the whole conductings of the thyristor of this group, line voltage all was added to the corresponding of motor and extremely went up this moment, line voltage changes by the mode of intrinsic sine wave, its voltage is big by being changed to for a short time, has crossed after the maximum more from large to small; Electric current at stage of voltage decreases, motor is also reducing, when be reduced to less than unidirectional thyristor keep electric current the time, thyristor turn-offs, line voltage all is added on the corresponding thyristor.
Figure 15 is the voltage at motor stator line voltage, high-power thyristor two ends and the oscillogram of trigger impulse; Wherein curve 1 is the waveform of stator line voltage, and curve 2 is the voltage waveforms at thyristor two ends, and curve 3 is corresponding trigger waveforms, and as can be seen, after trigger impulse arrived, corresponding thyristor both end voltage was zero, and line voltage is added on the motor stator.
Voltage when Figure 16 is constant flow starting, current waveform figure, top voltage waveform, a following current waveform during for constant flow starting when being constant flow starting among the figure, two waveforms are the waveform that obtains after the rectification; From figure as can be seen: after using this soft starter device, starting process, the stator voltage of motor rises gradually; Starting current during approximately than normal rotation rated current be twice, be significantly less than the full voltage starting electric current that does not use soft starter device; So avoided to electrical network, to the impact of motor.
Embodiment 9
Describe in conjunction with Figure 20 and Figure 21.
Motor stator current waveform when Figure 20 is the light-load energy saving operation; Motor stator voltage waveform when Figure 21 is the light-load energy saving operation.
Three stator winding of motor internal are pressed triangle and are connected.
When motor is in light running, if motor directly is connected with three phase mains, its electric current is bigger, and waste is serious; If by apparatus of the present invention, enable energy-saving run, can obvious less electric current, saves energy can also make rotating speed of motor remain in the scope of rated speed simultaneously, now is analyzed as follows:
When apparatus of the present invention are enabled light-load energy saving when operation, in the cycle of one 2 л, its voltage waveform, on the basis of sine wave by six slicings, such as: slicing occurs in the A phase for the first time; Slicing occurs in the B phase for the second time; Slicing occurs in the C phase for the third time; The 4th time slicing occurs in the A phase; The 5th time slicing occurs in the B phase; The 6th time slicing occurs in the C phase.Aforementioned 6 slicings, each 1/3 л at interval (promptly the interval is 60 °).Voltage in the one-period is through six slicings, minimizing, thus with three-phase alternating current electrical network voltage ratio, the voltage effective value of apparatus of the present invention output reduces greatly, and then the effective value of motor stator voltage also reduces greatly, as shown in figure 21.
In addition, as can be seen from Figure 20, owing to use the operation of apparatus of the present invention light-load energy saving, motor stator voltage has reduced, the waveform change of motor stator voltage, cause the electric current of stator also different with the current waveform of sine wave, the effective value of its electric current also reduces greatly, thereby reaches the raising power factor, the purpose of saves energy.
Embodiment 10
Describe in conjunction with Figure 23.Figure 23 is the electrical schematic diagram of D.C. regulated power supply, and the circuit among the figure also can be referred to as the power circuit of DC power supply.
As shown in the figure, the input of this power circuit is the 220V alternating current, and its output has two, and one is the direct current of 12V, and another is the direct current of 5V.

Claims (10)

1. energy-conservation soft starter device that is used for high-voltage asynchronous motor uses the three-phase high-voltage AC power, described three-phase, and the order of its positive phase sequence is A phase, B phase, C phase, and the latter is all than the former the 120 ° of phase angles that lag behind;
It is characterized in that: comprising: the input treatment circuit, synchronous signal circuit, control circuit, the triggering signal power amplification circuit, the power executive circuit provides the power circuit of DC power supply more than a tunnel;
Three-phase high-voltage AC power, power executive circuit and sequence motor are connected in series; The output of power circuit links to each other with follow-up consuming parts; Synchronous signal circuit, its input is connected with the three-phase high-voltage AC power, its output is connected with the input of control circuit; The input treatment circuit, its input is connected with circuit-under-test or unit under test, its output is connected with the input of control circuit; The triggering signal power amplification circuit, its input is connected with the output of control circuit, its output is connected with the power executive circuit;
Described power executive circuit comprises three big constituent element devices, and it is connected in series in respectively between the terminals of the terminals of three-phase high-voltage AC power and high-voltage asynchronous motor; Each big constituent element device includes the high-power thyristor of two group's reverse parallel connections, in every group series aiding connection more than three high-power thyristor and be connected in parallel at the two ends of each high-power thyristor and have the circuit of voltage equalizing protection absorption; Described all the pressure is meant: in a group, each high-power thyristor of series aiding connection bears identical voltage; Described protection absorbs and is meant absorption peak voltage or peak current; In other words, described power executive circuit has the high-power thyristor of six groups altogether; Described high-power thyristor is unidirectional high-power thyristor, and it includes anode, negative electrode and gate pole;
Described control circuit comprises that a and b:a. are used to export six output interfaces of triggering signal; B. write and imported the automation control program, had calculating judgement controlled function, can carry out the CPU of stepless continuous adjusting from small to large the starting voltage electric current;
Six output interfaces of control circuit are connected with six inputs of triggering signal power amplification circuit;
The triggering signal power amplification circuit, its output has six the tunnel, comprise the output more than three pairs in each road, described more than three pairs, the quantity of the high-power thyristor of series aiding connection is corresponding identical in its concrete logarithm and each group, and each links to each other with high-power thyristor gate pole, negative electrode cross-over connection to output.
2. a kind of energy-conservation soft starter device that is used for high-voltage asynchronous motor according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described power circuit comprises: power supply input terminal, power transformer, rectification circuit and direct current regulation circuit;
The power supply input terminal is connected with grid alternating current, and described grid alternating current is 110V alternating current or 220V alternating current or 230V alternating current or 380V alternating current; The input of power transformer is connected with the power supply input terminal; The output of power transformer is more than one group; One group of output that the input of rectification circuit is corresponding with power transformer connects; The output of rectification circuit is connected with the input of direct current regulation circuit;
Described direct current regulation circuit, its output are positive pole and negative pole; Anodal, negative pole is connected with follow-up consuming parts and negative pole is connected with the level earth terminal;
The output cathode of direct current regulation circuit and negative pole constitute DC power supply.
3. a kind of energy-conservation soft starter device that is used for high-voltage asynchronous motor according to claim 1 is characterized in that:
Described three-phase high-voltage AC power, its three-phase be A phase, B mutually and C mutually;
Described synchronous signal circuit comprises: shared resistance, shared electric capacity, three-phase synchrotrans, three identical sync separator circuits;
Described three-phase synchrotrans comprise elementary winding and secondary winding;
Elementary winding comprises three sub-windings, and an end of each sub-winding is connected with one of three-phase high-voltage AC power respectively, and the other end of each sub-winding links together;
Secondary winding comprises three sub-windings, and the head end of three sub-windings constitutes three outlet terminals of three-phase synchrotrans; The end of three sub-windings links together, also links to each other with the negative pole of DC power supply, and this tie point is as the level earth terminal simultaneously;
Each bar sync separator circuit includes: the comparator that integrated operational amplifier circuit constitutes, photoelectrical coupler, first input resistance, second input resistance, the first stack resistance, the second stack resistance, comparator output resistance, photoelectrical coupler emitter-base bandgap grading output resistance, synchronous filtering electric capacity; The supply terminals of comparator connects positive pole, the negative pole of DC power supply;
Three outlet terminals of three-phase synchrotrans respectively connect a sync separator circuit, be that each sync separator circuit has following annexation: the normal phase input end of an outlet terminal of three-phase synchrotrans, first input resistance, second input resistance, comparator, four are connected in series; One end of one end of the first stack resistance and the second stack resistance, they all are connected with the common terminal of first input resistance with second input resistance; Synchronous filtering electric capacity, the one end is connected with the in-phase input end of comparator, its other end links to each other with the level earth terminal; The comparator output resistance, the one end is connected with comparator output terminal, its other end is connected with the input anode of photoelectrical coupler; The input negative terminal of photoelectrical coupler is connected with the level earth terminal; Photoelectrical coupler, its output plus terminal is connected with the dc power anode end, and its output negative terminal is connected with the level earth terminal by photoelectrical coupler emitter-base bandgap grading output resistance; The output negative terminal of photoelectrical coupler also is connected, exports synchronizing signal with the input of control circuit;
The lower end of shared resistance and the upper end of shared electric capacity are connected to form common point, this point simultaneously with three sync separator circuits in the inverting input of three comparators all be connected; The other end of three second stack resistance in the upper end of shared resistance and three sync separator circuits all is connected; The lower end of shared electric capacity links to each other with the level earth terminal; The other end of three first stack resistance all is connected with the dc power anode end.
4. a kind of energy-conservation soft starter device that is used for high-voltage asynchronous motor according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described input treatment circuit comprises flowing through the current detection circuit that the motor current size detects; Described current detection circuit comprises three current transformers, six rectifier diodes, two clamp diodes, a potentiometer, a current-limiting resistance, an electrolytic capacitor filter, a smothing filtering electric capacity;
Six rectifier diodes are divided into three groups, and two the equal series aiding connections of rectifier diode up and down in every group connect; Three groups of rectifier diodes after being connected in series, fixing lower end, upper end, the electrolytic capacitor filter of potentiometer are connected in parallel again;
Three current transformers, its primary coil is serially connected in respectively in three phase lines, one end of its secondary coil lead to respectively corresponding one group of rectifier diode and with this group about the common terminal of rectifier diode be connected, the other end of its secondary coil is connected with the level earth terminal; Perhaps, each current transformer includes magnet ring and the induction coil that is wrapped on the magnet ring, article three, phase line is passed the magnet ring of three current transformers respectively, one end of induction coil lead to respectively corresponding one group of rectifier diode and with this group about the common terminal of rectifier diode be connected, the other end of induction coil is connected with the level earth terminal;
The mobile terminals of potentiometer are divided into three the tunnel and connect: the first via is connected with the positive pole of a clamp diode, the negative pole of this pipe is connected with the dc power anode end; The second the tunnel be connected with the negative pole of another clamp diode, the positive pole of this pipe is connected with the level earth terminal; Third Road is to be connected in series by mobile terminals, current-limiting resistance, smothing filtering electric capacity, level earth terminal; The common port of current-limiting resistance and level and smooth filter capacitor be connected, export detected current signal with the input of control circuit.
5. a kind of energy-conservation soft starter device that is used for high-voltage asynchronous motor according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described input treatment circuit comprises the voltage detecting circuit that motor wiring terminal voltage size is detected;
Described voltage detecting circuit comprises: filter capacitor, potentiometer, current-limiting resistance, smothing filtering electric capacity, the bridge rectifier that is made of four rectifier diodes; The output two ends of bridge rectifier, one end are cathode output end, and its other end is cathode output end and is connected with the level earth terminal;
Bridge rectifier, any two terminals in three terminals of its input and motor are connected, and its output and filter capacitor, the fixing lower end, upper end of potentiometer are connected in parallel; The mobile terminals in the centre of potentiometer, current-limiting resistance, smothing filtering electric capacity, level earth terminal are connected in series; Current-limiting resistance is connected, carries detected voltage signal with the common port of level and smooth filter capacitor with the input of control circuit.
6. a kind of energy-conservation soft starter device that is used for high-voltage asynchronous motor according to claim 1 is characterized in that:
Described input treatment circuit comprises the power factor signal deteching circuit; Described power factor signal deteching circuit comprises two circuit: an one circuit is: the tube voltage drop testing circuit of indirect detection motor current zero crossing; Its another circuit is: the synchronous signal circuit of detection of grid voltage over zero;
Described tube voltage drop testing circuit comprises input and output, and its input is connected across between the anode, negative electrode of high-power thyristor; The anode of described high-power thyristor, negative electrode are meant anode, the negative electrode of any one high-power thyristor in the power executive circuit; Perhaps, described high-power thyristor is meant any a group in six group's high-power thyristors in the power executive circuit, described anode be meant be connected on the most preceding high-power thyristor anode of this group, described negative electrode is meant and is connected on the last high-power thyristor negative electrode of this group;
Described tube voltage drop testing circuit and described synchronous signal circuit, their output link to each other with the input of control circuit respectively.
7. a kind of energy-conservation soft starter device that is used for high-voltage asynchronous motor according to claim 6 is characterized in that: described tube voltage drop testing circuit is any one among the following three:
A. described tube voltage drop testing circuit comprises: first divider resistance, second divider resistance; The resistance of first divider resistance is greater than the resistance of second divider resistance; The input other end of input one end of tube voltage drop testing circuit, first divider resistance, second divider resistance, tube voltage drop testing circuit, they are connected in series; Second divider resistance, its two ends are connected with the input of control circuit;
B. described tube voltage drop testing circuit comprises: first current-limiting resistance, and second current-limiting resistance, input side inside is provided with the photoelectrical coupler of two-way light-emitting diode, collector resistance, output resistance; The input other end of the input side of input one end of tube voltage drop testing circuit, first current-limiting resistance, photoelectrical coupler, second current-limiting resistance, tube voltage drop testing circuit, they are connected in series; The outlet side of the positive terminal of DC power supply, collector resistance, photoelectrical coupler, the negative pole end of DC power supply, they are connected in series; The input of the points of common connection of collector resistance and photoelectrical coupler outlet side, output resistance, control circuit, they are connected in series;
C. described tube voltage drop testing circuit comprises: step-down isolation transformer, and first resistance, second resistance, input side inside is provided with the photoelectrical coupler of two-way light-emitting diode, collector resistance, output resistance; Described step-down isolation transformer comprises former limit winding and secondary winding;
The former limit winding of step-down isolation transformer is connected across the input two ends of tube voltage drop testing circuit; The other end of the secondary winding of the input side of one end of the secondary winding of step-down isolation transformer, first resistance, photoelectrical coupler, second resistance, step-down isolation transformer, they are connected in series; The outlet side of the positive terminal of DC power supply, collector resistance, photoelectrical coupler, the negative pole end of DC power supply, they are connected in series; The input of the points of common connection of collector resistance and photoelectrical coupler outlet side, output resistance, control circuit, they are connected in series.
8. a kind of energy-conservation soft starter device that is used for high-voltage asynchronous motor according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described energy-conservation soft starter device comprises energy-saving circuit, and it comprises the three-phase linked switch;
Three wiring piles of three-phase linked switch input are connected with the terminals of three-phase high-voltage AC power respectively; Three wiring piles of three-phase linked switch output are connected with three wiring piles of high-voltage asynchronous motor terminals respectively.
9. a kind of energy-conservation soft starter device that is used for high-voltage asynchronous motor according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described energy-conservation soft starter device comprises: model is the driver of 74LS244, model is 8279 display circuit able to programme, the display unit that can show preset information, fault message, voltage parameter, current parameters, starting time parameter is used to select display mode, selects operational mode, has access to program, determines or revise the keyboard and the input circuit thereof of parameter; Described control circuit comprises the PIC16F877 single-chip microcomputer;
Described input treatment circuit, its output is connected with the input of control circuit; Described annexation comprises: the part output of input treatment circuit or whole output, and they are connected with the input interface of Chip Microcomputer A/D analog-to-digital conversion passage, make analog signal conversion become digital signal, make subsequent treatment to make things convenient for single-chip microcomputer;
Totally ten eight of described high-power thyristors promptly in each circuitry phase are six; These six are divided into two groups, are serially connected in the circuitry phase behind three series aiding connections of first group, behind three series aiding connections of second group, be connected with first group of reverse parallel connection more again; Described have a circuit of all pressing absorption, it specifically is meant: the components and parts that the two ends of each high-power thyristor connect comprise grading resistor, absorption resistance and absorption electric capacity, that is: absorption resistance, absorb capacitances in series and connect after, be connected in parallel with grading resistor again, be connected in parallel with the two ends of this high-power thyristor;
Described single-chip microcomputer, its output distribute six output interfaces to be connected with the input of driver; Six outputs of driver are connected with six inputs of triggering signal power amplification circuit, and six outputs of triggering signal power amplification circuit are connected with the gate pole of high-power thyristor respectively again.
10. a kind of energy-conservation soft starter device that is used for high-voltage asynchronous motor according to claim 1 is characterized in that:
Described triggering signal power amplification circuit comprises: the driver more than six or six, six tunnel identical amplification parallel circuits;
Each amplifies parallel circuit and includes: current-limiting resistance, Darlington transistor, pulse transformer and three groups of above promotion assemblies; Each group promotes assembly and includes spacing diode, forward conduction diode, afterflow position limitation protection diode; Pulse transformer has an input winding and the output winding more than three, and each winding all has two terminals;
Promote the concrete quantity of the high-power thyristor of series aiding connection in the concrete quantity of assembly, the concrete quantity of pulse transformer output winding, the every group, this concrete quantity of three is consistent;
The described control circuit that includes CPU, its output comprise six road interfaces that are used to export triggering signal, and this six road interface is connected with six inputs of driver respectively;
Six outputs of driver amplify parallel circuit by six respectively and are connected with the high-power thyristor of six groups in the power executive circuit, form No. six connecting circuits thus; Promptly in No. six connecting circuits, its each road connecting circuit all has following annexation:
The nominal base stage of output end of driver, current-limiting resistance, Darlington transistor is connected in series; The input winding of the positive pole of DC power supply, pulse transformer, the nominal collector electrode of Darlington transistor are connected in series; The nominal emitter of Darlington transistor is connected with the level earth terminal; Spacing diode is connected across pulse transformer input winding two ends and its negative pole is connected with the positive pole of DC power supply;
The winding of respectively exporting of pulse transformer is connected with a high-power thyristor by one group of promotion assembly respectively, that is: pulse transformer is exported terminals of winding, the positive pole of forward conduction diode, negative pole, the gate pole of high-power thyristor, negative electrode, another terminals of pulse transformer output winding, they form being connected in series of closed loop; Afterflow position limitation protection diode, its negative pole is connected with the negative pole of forward conduction diode, it is anodal is connected with another terminals of pulse transformer output winding;
Described Darlington transistor is for being combined into the product of single device or the compound composition of triode that described Darlington transistor is two apportions.
CN201010227877.6A 2010-07-15 2010-07-15 Energy-saving soft-start device for high-voltage asynchronous motor CN102185543B (en)

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CN103117689A (en) * 2013-03-15 2013-05-22 李亭 Soft starter for medium and high-voltage thyristors of motor
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CN109230871A (en) * 2018-10-12 2019-01-18 常州市新创智能科技有限公司 A kind of phase asynchronous torque motor unwinding driving circuit of induction type and method
CN110912429A (en) * 2019-11-15 2020-03-24 北京机械设备研究所 Synchronous rectification control method and device of phase-shifted full-bridge/push-pull bidirectional converter

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CN102655385A (en) * 2012-01-05 2012-09-05 三一重型装备有限公司 Soft starter of three-phase asynchronous motor and control method of soft starter
CN102655385B (en) * 2012-01-05 2015-09-02 三一重型装备有限公司 Threephase asynchronous machine soft starter and control method thereof
CN102904429A (en) * 2012-09-17 2013-01-30 苏州天辰马智能设备有限公司 Soft start method and device of busbar voltage of alternating-current servo actuator
CN102904429B (en) * 2012-09-17 2016-04-20 苏州天辰马智能设备有限公司 The soft-start method of busbar voltage of alternating-current servo actuator and device
CN103117689A (en) * 2013-03-15 2013-05-22 李亭 Soft starter for medium and high-voltage thyristors of motor
CN104065316A (en) * 2013-03-22 2014-09-24 海洋王(东莞)照明科技有限公司 Motor control circuit
CN103684108A (en) * 2013-12-06 2014-03-26 遵义钛业股份有限公司 Motor soft start method
CN105552847A (en) * 2016-02-03 2016-05-04 无锡多普力科技有限公司 Motor protection switch with phase-sequence protection function
CN106059396A (en) * 2016-07-04 2016-10-26 湖北工业大学 Soft starter of high-voltage motor
WO2018058956A1 (en) * 2016-09-29 2018-04-05 广东美的制冷设备有限公司 Alternating-current electric motor control method and device, and air conditioner
CN106998167A (en) * 2017-04-28 2017-08-01 麦克维尔空调制冷(武汉)有限公司 A kind of realtime power factor angle detection method for solid-state soft initiator
CN106998167B (en) * 2017-04-28 2020-01-17 麦克维尔空调制冷(武汉)有限公司 Real-time power factor angle detection method for solid-state soft starter
CN107942798A (en) * 2017-11-29 2018-04-20 合肥联信电源有限公司 A kind of thyristor driver signal control circuit with overcurrent protection
CN109230871A (en) * 2018-10-12 2019-01-18 常州市新创智能科技有限公司 A kind of phase asynchronous torque motor unwinding driving circuit of induction type and method
CN110912429A (en) * 2019-11-15 2020-03-24 北京机械设备研究所 Synchronous rectification control method and device of phase-shifted full-bridge/push-pull bidirectional converter

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