CN102176088A - Two-dimensional photoelectric auto-collimation method and device for polarized light pyramid target common-path compensation - Google Patents

Two-dimensional photoelectric auto-collimation method and device for polarized light pyramid target common-path compensation Download PDF

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CN102176088A
CN102176088A CN 201110021730 CN201110021730A CN102176088A CN 102176088 A CN102176088 A CN 102176088A CN 201110021730 CN201110021730 CN 201110021730 CN 201110021730 A CN201110021730 A CN 201110021730A CN 102176088 A CN102176088 A CN 102176088A
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light
measuring
spectroscope
pyramid
polarization
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CN 201110021730
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CN102176088B (en
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谭久彬
朱凡
崔继文
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哈尔滨工业大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a two-dimensional photoelectric auto-collimation method and device for polarized light pyramid target common-path compensation, belonging to the technical field of precision instrument manufacture and precision measurement. According to the invention, high-precision photoelectric autocollimation angle measurement is realized for solving the defects in the existing method and device. The method comprises: a common-path shift quantity monitoring separating device based on a pyramid combined target can be used for curing a polarizing light splitter, a pyramid reflector and a measurement reflector to form the pyramid combined target, and separating a reference light beam which has a feature identical to that of a measurement light beam and is in common-path transmission with the measurement light beam while obtaining a two-dimensional angle variation by using the linear polarization feature of the laser; a controller is used for controlling a two-dimensional light beam deflection device in real time according to the shift quantity reflected by the reference light beam so as to inhibit the shift quantity coupled in the measurement light beam, thus the precision measurement on the two-dimensional angle variation is realized. The device for realizing the method comprises a two-dimensional photoelectric auto-collimation tube, the common-path shift quantity monitoring separating device based on the pyramid combined target, the controller and the two-dimensional light beam deflection device.

Description

Polarized light pyramid target is the 2 D photoelectric autocollimation method and apparatus of optical path compensation altogether
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of polarized light pyramid target 2 D photoelectric autocollimation method and apparatus of optical path compensation altogether, belong to exact instrument manufacturing and precision measurement field of measuring techniques.
Background technology
Along with the continuous development of precision manufacturing process technology and measuring technique, to the more and more higher requirement of measuring accuracy proposition of Bidimensional small angle.The photoelectric auto-collimation angle measurement method is widely used in small angle measurement, the calibration of high precision angle, the dull and stereotyped measurement of planeness, fields of measurement such as the straight line degree measurement of measurement, guide rail, revolving table position uncertainty are rocked at the angle of axle system, are the routine measurement instruments of department's indispensabilities such as machine-building, shipbuilding, Aero-Space, metrology and measurement, scientific research.
Laser is because the advantage that its monochromaticity is good, energy density is high, often it is applied in the distant-range high-precision measurement of angle, existing many units develop high precision photoelectric autocollimator based on LASER Light Source (1. Lin Yu pond, Zhang Ping, Zhao Meirong, Hong Xin. the open-air semiconductor laser autocollimator that uses. the accurate manufacturing technology of aviation, 2001,37 (3): 35-37; 2. Ma Fulu, Zhang Zhi's profit, Zhou Zhaofa. based on single line array CCD linearity collimator of M type graduation silk. optical technology, 2002,28 (3): 224-225; 3. open Yao Yu, Zhang Minghui, Qiao Yanfeng. a kind of high precision CCD laser auto-collimation Research on Measurement System. photoelectron laser, 2003,14 (2): 168-170), have far measuring distance, highly sensitive advantage, but because the drift of autocollimation light beam has limited the raising of final uncertainty of measurement.
The uncertainty of measurement of present most of photoelectric auto-collimator is all 0.5 " more than; only have minority can reach 0.5 " below, and be better than 0.5 for uncertainty of measurement " photoelectric auto-collimator; measuring distance usually less than 6m (friend 1. continues; model Tianquan; Cao Xuedong. photoelectric auto-collimator present Research and prospect. measurement technology, 2004.7:27-29; 2. the TA51 of Britain TaylorHobson company, DA20, DA400 type autocollimator operation manual .2002; 3. the ELCOMAT vario twin shaft autocollimator Chinese operation manual .2004 of German MOLLER-WEDEL company; 4. Chinese shipbuilding industry the 6354th SZY-99 of Jiujiang Precision Measuring Technology Research Institute of research institute type digital display autocollimator Chinese operation manual .2004).The drift of light beam is the main factor of restriction uncertainty of measurement in the photoelectric auto-collimator, and measuring distance drift value far away more is big more, and uncertainty of measurement is difficult to be guaranteed.The drift of light beam is mainly derived from the autocollimator: the drift that (1) lighting source emergent light intensity and direction instability cause; (2) drift that the atmospheric turbulence randomized jitter causes in the propagation path; (3) the atmospheric gradient change of refractive causes that bending of light causes the drift of measurement result.(1. square Zhong Yan, Yin Chunyong, Liang Jinwen. the research of high-precision laser collimation technique (one). aviation instrumentation technology .1997,17 (1): 3-6; 2. ten thousand Deans. laser datum high-acruracy survey technology. the .1999 of National Defense Industry Press, 6:58-78; 3. party is quick, Feng Qibo. improve the approach of laser alignment precision. and photon technology .2006,4 (14): 190-193; Hu Xin and, Yang Boxiong. Semiconductor Laser Collimator and laser beam drift Compensation Research thereof. optics and photoelectric technology .2007,5 (3): 25-27).
The drift of inhibition or compensation autocollimation light beam is the key that improves the photoelectric auto-collimator measuring accuracy, and the method for inhibition at present or compensation beam drift amount mainly contains:
(1) the space line that utilizes diffraction that zone plate, phase board, binary optical device or double slit etc. produce or interference fringe reaches the purpose of precision measurement to the insensitive characteristics of drift value.As adopt zone plate a bright cross curve on a certain position of the light source and the zone plate line of centres, to occur, by regulating the adjustable focus telescope between laser instrument and the zone plate, the cross bright line can be imaged on the different position of optical axis, with this optical axis as the datum line in the alignment measurement, because the cross bright line is the result of diffraction interference, so have better anti-interference, obtained ± 1 * 10 -7Rad (promptly the collimation precision of 0.04 ") (open kind bell, Yu Yinghao opens the Zhijiang River. linearity measurement of planeness technology. China Measuring Press, 1997:79-81).But this method need make the cross bright line move along optical axis by continuous adjustment focusing telescope, can't realize real-Time Compensation, has limited the application of this method.
The Poisson collimation method that people such as Richard F adopt, utilize opaque spheroid of plane wave illumination, producing a bright line by acting on of diffraction behind the spheroid is the Poisson line, this bright line passes through ball centre perpendicular to incident plane wave and its reverse extending line, utilize this Poisson line as the reference line of measuring, have certain anti-interference capability (Richard F.Schenz et al.Development of an extended straightness measurement reference.UCRL-99540, DE90006781).Can directly influence measurement result but the plane of incidence wave line of propagation changes in this method.
People such as Hao Q adopt the Phase Plate Alignment in Large-scale Measurement method, utilize center concealed wire that the phase board diffraction obtains as alignment fiducial, when incident light wave is that parallel plane ripple and direction are when determining, if incident light wave translation, the center concealed wire that diffraction obtains and the locus of diffraction pattern remain unchanged, reach the effect that suppresses the laser beam drift, can reach 10 -6Rad (promptly the collimation precision of 0.2 ") (Hao Q; Li D C.High-accuracy long distance alignment using single-mode opticalfiber and phase plate.Optics and Laser Technology, 2002.34:287-292).But this method can't suppress the angle drift of incident light wave.
(2) method that adopts double light path to compensate
The symmetric double flux of light method of people's propositions such as the Liu Xing of Tsing-Hua University accounts for, adopt certain light path that outgoing beam is divided into two bundles, when drift takes place in the incident beam direction, the direction of two outgoing beams changes respectively in the opposite direction, and the symmetrical center line of this two-beam remains unchanged, thereby the influence that can suppress to drift about has reached 1.8 * 10 -6Rad (promptly the collimation precision of 0.37 ") (Liu Xingzhan, Liang Jinwen, Chen Bo first-class. twin-beam compensation colimated light system. measurement technology, 1999.1:12-15).Become need be through repeatedly reflecting and reflecting for the product of symmetric double light beam in this method, installation accuracy and requirement on machining accuracy to each optical element are higher, and the transmission path of two light beams does not overlap in this method, make that beam characteristics is not quite identical in two light paths, the poor effect that the drift that produces in the transmission path is compensated.
Beijing Jiaotong University waits the people to propose a kind of road bucking-out system altogether at the collection side of rectifying, the emitting laser bundle is returned by prism of corner cube is parallel, be divided into two bundles respectively as measuring-signal and compensating signal through spectroscope, additional position error (the Kuang Cuifang that the make-up air disturbance brings, Feng Qibo, Liu Bin etc. a kind of verticality measuring method of the compensation of road altogether laser drift. photoelectric project, 2005.32 (4): 32-34).The angle drift that can the real-Time Compensation air turbulence in this method brings, but, be difficult to be applied to measurement of angle because the retrodirective reflection characteristic of prism of corner cube makes this method be only applicable to straight line degree measurement.
Beijing Jiaotong University proposes a kind of angular error measuring method that can monitor light beam drift in real time by people such as the phoenix tinkling of pieces of jade, adopt spectroscope and prism of corner cube as mobile unit, spectroscope is divided into folded light beam and transmitted light beam with incident beam, reflected light is as measuring beam, light beam is by way of compensation returned on transmitted light former road behind prism of corner cube, can obtain the angle drift of light beam in measuring process, thereby carry out real-Time Compensation, improve measuring accuracy (by the phoenix tinkling of pieces of jade, Zhang Bin, Feng Qibo. a kind of guide rail angle error measurement method based on the light beam drift compensation. Beijing Jiaotong University's journal, 2009.33 (6): 5-8).Measuring beam is not total to the road with the compensation light beam in this method in the process of returning, and the compensation light beam can not characterize the drift situation of measuring beam fully, and compensation effect is not good.
(3) method of employing close-loop feedback control
The mode of employing close-loop feedback control improves the directional stability of laser beam, for eliminating or compensating the measurement of angle deviation that is caused by beam drift, realizes that high-precision small angle measurement provides a kind of otherwise effective technique approach.
Xi'an University of Technology is deep in the hall to wait the people to adopt the close-loop feedback method to suppress beam drift, by feedback system receiving beam shifted signal, and drives topworks the deflection of laser beam is carried out two dimension adjustment, and realization has reached 5 * 10 to the real-time correction of beam drift amount -7Rad (that is: the precision of 0.1 ") (Yu Dianhong, Guo Yanzhen. improve a kind of method of laser alignment precision. the oil instrument, 1999.12:18-20).But this method only is used to improve the directivity of laser beam, can't be applied to measurement of angle.
The drift value feedback control type bucking-out system that the applicant proposed in 2004, flat the floating with the angle of Real-time and Dynamic separation detection and control laser beam floated, and realized angle drift value 0.6 * 10 on the specific direction -7Rad (that is: the high stability of 0.01 ") (Zhao Weiqian, Tan Jiubin, Ma Hongwen etc. drift value feedback control type laser alignment method. optics journal, 2004.24 (3): 373-377).But can only be used for the collimation on the specific direction, the speed of drift value monitoring and compensation is lower, can't be applied to application scenarios such as small angle measurement.
The applicant is in patent of invention " the long-distance 2 D photoelectric auto-collimation apparatus and method of drift amount target the FEEDBACK CONTROL " (grant number: ZL200510089852.3) of application in 2005, propose to adopt a kind of beam splitting type target detector, when obtaining the Bidimensional small angle variable quantity, separate and feed back to and the identical angle of measuring beam characteristic drift value feedback beam, control the two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly in real time by the monitoring angle drift value that feedback beam reflected, suppress to be coupling in the angle drift value in the measuring-signal, when increasing 2 D photoelectric autocollimator measuring distance, improved measurement stability.The road transmission altogether in return course owing to measuring beam and feedback beam in this method, passed through different travel paths, the angle drift value that feedback beam is coupled in the reflected measurement light beam fully, and measuring distance making great difference property more is serious more, thereby feedback control system can not effectively suppress the drift value of measuring beam, has restricted the raising of final angle measuring accuracy.
To sum up, all have the following disadvantages in the existing method and apparatus:
(1) utilizes in the method that the space line of the diffraction of generations such as zone plate, phase board, binary optical device or double slit or interference fringe collimates, directivity to incident light source is had relatively high expectations, can't suppress the influence of incident light source angle drift, the angle drift of incident light source directly causes collimating the drift of baseline, and limited in one's ability to the inhibition of air turbulence in the transmission path;
(2) adopt in the method for double light path compensation, the generation of symmetric double light beam is difficulty relatively, and measuring beam does not overlap with the transmission path of reference beam in the double light path, make that beam characteristics is not quite identical in two light paths, reference beam is the drift of reflected measurement light beam fully, the poor effect of compensation;
(3) adopt in the mode of close-loop feedback control, adopt the stability on the close-loop feedback raising laser beam specific direction mostly, be difficult to be applied to the autocollimation measurement of angle, and reference beam and measuring beam can't be accomplished common optic path, thereby the characteristic of reference beam and measuring beam is not quite identical, the poor effect that makes compensation has restricted the raising of final angle measuring accuracy.
Summary of the invention
The present invention seeks to realize the measurement of angle of high precision photoelectric autocollimation, a kind of polarized light pyramid target 2 D photoelectric autocollimation method and apparatus of optical path compensation altogether is provided in order to overcome the deficiency in the above-mentioned existing method and apparatus.
The polarized light pyramid target of the present invention 2 D photoelectric autocollimation method of optical path compensation altogether may further comprise the steps:
Step 1, a branch of light beam that LASER Light Source is sent form collimated light beam and emission behind graticule, spectroscope and collimator objective;
Step 2, described collimated light beam are incident to first polarization spectroscope after the reflection of two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly, this first polarization spectroscope is divided into mutually perpendicular transmitted light beam of polarization state and folded light beam with incident beam;
The transmitted light beam that step 3, step 2 are obtained after measuring mirror reflects as measuring beam, described measuring beam has obtained the two dimension angular variable quantity of measuring catoptron, described measuring beam returns by original optical path after the first polarization spectroscope transmission once more, up to being incident to spectroscope, and after this spectroscope reflection, be incident to second polarization spectroscope, light beam through this second polarization spectroscope transmission is received by first photoelectrical position sensor, and the signal of this first photoelectrical position sensor output is exported to controller as measuring-signal;
The light beam that the folded light beam that step 4, step 2 are obtained forms after the corner cube reflector reflection returns by original optical path is reverse, this road light beam is as the reference light beam, after described reference beam is incident to spectroscope, after this spectroscope reflection, be incident to the second polarization spectro mirror reflection, after this second polarization spectro mirror reflection, receive by second photoelectrical position sensor, the position signalling of this second photoelectrical position sensor output is exported to controller as beam drift amount reference signal, calculates the beam drift amount by controller;
Beam drift amount ε obtains by following formula:
ϵ = arctan ( Δ d ref f ) ,
Wherein: Δ d RefFor the reference beam in adjacent two sampling periods forms the alternate position spike of hot spot on second photoelectrical position sensor, f is the focal length of collimator objective.
Step 5, controller are controlled the two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly in real time according to the beam drift amount reference signal that receives and are rotated, measuring beam and reference beam are carried out deflection to the opposite direction of drift value simultaneously, calculate according to the measuring-signal that receives simultaneously and measure the angle of catoptron, realize the measurement of angle of 2 D photoelectric autocollimation with measured object deflection.
The two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly to the adjustment amount φ of light beam space angle is: φ=ε.
The measurement catoptron obtains by following formula with the angle θ of measured object deflection:
θ = 1 2 arctan ( Δ d m f ) ,
Wherein: Δ d mOn first photoelectrical position sensor, form the alternate position spike of hot spot for the measuring beam in adjacent two sampling periods.
Realize the above-mentioned polarized light pyramid target device of the 2 D photoelectric autocollimation method of optical path compensation altogether: it comprises 2 D photoelectric autocollimation light pipe, monitors tripping device, two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly, measures catoptron and controller based on the drift value of pyramid combination target
2 D photoelectric autocollimation light pipe: comprise LASER Light Source, graticule, spectroscope, first photoelectrical position sensor and collimator objective;
Drift value monitoring tripping device based on pyramid combination target: comprise first polarization spectroscope, corner cube reflector, second polarization spectroscope and second photoelectrical position sensor; First polarization spectroscope, corner cube reflector and measurement catoptron cure package are a pyramid combination target, the minute surface of the corner cube reflector in the described pyramid combination target is placed over against the light direction that reflects of first polarization spectroscope, described pyramid combination target is used for rotating with measured object to be realized measuring, described pyramid combination target is isolated reference beam when obtaining two dimension angular variable quantity measurement signal, described reference beam and common optic path identical with the measuring beam characteristic;
Second polarization spectroscope is used to receive spectroscopical folded light beam;
First photoelectrical position sensor is arranged on the focal plane of collimator objective of transmitted light beam exit direction of second polarization spectroscope, and second photoelectrical position sensor is arranged on the focal plane of collimator objective of folded light beam exit direction of second polarization spectroscope,
Controller receives the signal of first photoelectrical position sensor and second photoelectrical position sensor feedback, and controller output control signal is used to control the rotation of two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly.
Advantage of the present invention:
1, utilized the polarization characteristic of laser beam among the present invention, the autocollimation light beam that 2 D photoelectric autocollimation light pipe is sent is divided into mutually perpendicular transmitted light beam of polarization state and folded light beam behind first polarization spectroscope, transmitted light beam becomes measuring beam after measuring mirror reflects, measuring beam returns 2 D photoelectric autocollimation light pipe after seeing through first polarization spectroscope once more; Folded light beam becomes reference beam after the corner cube reflector reflection, reference beam is total to light path with measuring beam once more and returns 2 D photoelectric autocollimation light pipe after the first polarization spectro mirror reflection, adopt second polarization spectroscope that the two separated according to measuring beam with the mutually perpendicular characteristics of polarized reference beam attitude at receiving end, reference beam and measuring beam optic path altogether in whole measuring process, thereby the accurate drift value of reflected measurement light beam of reference beam.This is one of innovative point that is different from existing photoelectric auto-collimation measuring technique;
2., polarization spectroscope, plane mirror and corner cube reflector can be encapsulated as a pyramid combination target as an integrally curing among the present invention, this pyramid combination target is separable when obtaining the Bidimensional small angle variable quantity to measure signal goes out with the measuring beam characteristic is identical particularly separablely to go out and the measuring beam reference beam of optic path altogether; Pyramid combination target overall package has not only significantly improved the antijamming capability of light path, and simple and convenient when using.This be different from existing photoelectric auto-collimation measuring technique innovative point two;
3, utilize reference beam and the measuring beam characteristics of optic path fully altogether among the present invention, in conjunction with the close-loop feedback control technology, controller is controlled the two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly in real time according to the drift value of reference beam reflection, suppress to be coupling in the drift value in the measuring beam, can increase substantially measuring the measuring accuracy of catoptron two dimension angular variable quantity.This be different from existing photoelectric auto-collimation measuring technique innovative point three.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the embodiment two described polarized light pyramid targets 2 D photoelectric autocollimation structural representations of optical path compensation altogether;
Fig. 2 is the embodiment three described polarized light pyramid targets 2 D photoelectric autocollimation structural representations of optical path compensation altogether;
Fig. 3 is the embodiment four described polarized light pyramid targets 2 D photoelectric autocollimation structural representations of optical path compensation altogether;
Fig. 4 is the synoptic diagram that LASER Light Source is sent circularly polarized light beam;
Fig. 5 is the synoptic diagram that LASER Light Source is sent the elliptic polarization light beam;
Fig. 6 is the synoptic diagram that LASER Light Source is sent the orhtogonal linear polarizaiton light beam;
Fig. 7 is the synoptic diagram that LASER Light Source is sent linearly polarized light beam;
Fig. 8 is the structural representation that corner cube reflector adopts cube corner cube reflector;
Fig. 9 is the structural representation that corner cube reflector adopts the right angle conical mirror.
Embodiment
Embodiment one: below in conjunction with Fig. 1 present embodiment is described, the described polarized light pyramid of the present embodiment target 2 D photoelectric autocollimation method of optical path compensation altogether may further comprise the steps:
Step 1, a branch of light beam that LASER Light Source is sent form collimated light beam and emission behind graticule, spectroscope and collimator objective;
Step 2, described collimated light beam are incident to first polarization spectroscope after the reflection of two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly, this first polarization spectroscope is divided into mutually perpendicular transmitted light beam of polarization state and folded light beam with incident beam;
The transmitted light beam that step 3, step 2 are obtained after measuring mirror reflects as measuring beam, described measuring beam has obtained the two dimension angular variable quantity of measuring catoptron, described measuring beam returns by original optical path after the first polarization spectroscope transmission once more, up to being incident to spectroscope, and after this spectroscope reflection, be incident to second polarization spectroscope, light beam through this second polarization spectroscope transmission is received by first photoelectrical position sensor, and the signal of this first photoelectrical position sensor output is exported to controller as measuring-signal; The drift value information that comprises light beam in the two dimension angular variable quantity information of measuring catoptron and the whole measuring process in the described measuring-signal.
The light beam that the folded light beam that step 4, step 2 are obtained forms after the corner cube reflector reflection returns by original optical path is reverse, this road light beam is as the reference light beam, after described reference beam is incident to spectroscope, after this spectroscope reflection, be incident to the second polarization spectro mirror reflection, after this second polarization spectro mirror reflection, receive by second photoelectrical position sensor, the position signalling of this second photoelectrical position sensor output is exported to controller as beam drift amount reference signal, calculates the beam drift amount by controller; The drift value information that only comprises light beam in the whole measuring process in the described beam drift amount reference signal.
Step 5, controller are controlled the two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly in real time according to the beam drift amount reference signal that receives and are rotated, measuring beam and reference beam are carried out deflection to the opposite direction of drift value simultaneously, calculate according to the measuring-signal that receives simultaneously and measure the angle of catoptron, realize the measurement of angle of 2 D photoelectric autocollimation with measured object deflection.
Beam drift amount ε in the step 4 obtains by following formula:
ϵ = arctan ( Δ d ref f ) ,
Wherein: Δ d RefFor the reference beam in adjacent two sampling periods forms the alternate position spike of hot spot on second photoelectrical position sensor, f is the focal length of collimator objective.
The step 5 middle controller is controlled the two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly in real time according to the beam drift amount reference signal that receives and is rotated, and the two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly to the adjustment amount φ of light beam space angle is: φ=ε.
Measurement catoptron in the step 5 obtains by following formula with the angle θ of measured object deflection:
θ = 1 2 arctan ( Δ d m f ) ,
Wherein: Δ d mOn first photoelectrical position sensor, form the alternate position spike of hot spot for the measuring beam in adjacent two sampling periods.
Embodiment two: present embodiment is described below in conjunction with Fig. 1, realize the embodiment one described polarized light pyramid target device of the 2 D photoelectric autocollimation method of optical path compensation altogether, it comprises 2 D photoelectric autocollimation light pipe, monitors tripping device, two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly 8, measures catoptron 12 and controller 7 based on the drift value of pyramid combination target
2 D photoelectric autocollimation light pipe: comprise LASER Light Source 1, graticule 2, spectroscope 3, first photoelectrical position sensor 6 and collimator objective 9;
Drift value monitoring tripping device based on pyramid combination target: comprise first polarization spectroscope 10, corner cube reflector 11, second polarization spectroscope 5 and second photoelectrical position sensor 4; First polarization spectroscope 10, corner cube reflector 11 and measurement catoptron 12 cure package are a pyramid combination target, the minute surface of the corner cube reflector 11 in the described pyramid combination target is placed over against the light direction that reflects of first polarization spectroscope 10, described pyramid combination target is used for rotating with measured object to be realized measuring, described pyramid combination target is isolated reference beam when obtaining two dimension angular variable quantity measurement signal, described reference beam and common optic path identical with the measuring beam characteristic;
Second polarization spectroscope 5 is used to receive the folded light beam of spectroscope 3;
First photoelectrical position sensor 6 is arranged on the focal plane of collimator objective 9 of transmitted light beam exit direction of second polarization spectroscope 5, and second photoelectrical position sensor 4 is arranged on the focal plane of collimator objective 9 of folded light beam exit direction of second polarization spectroscope 5,
Controller 7 receives the signal of first photoelectrical position sensor 6 and second photoelectrical position sensor, 4 feedbacks, and controller 7 output control signals are used to control the rotation of two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly 8.
Two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly: form by two-dimentional light beam deflector and driving mechanism thereof.
Controller: the beam drift amount according to drift value monitoring device feedback is controlled the two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly in real time, suppresses to be coupling in the angle drift value of the light beam in the measuring-signal.
The travel path of its light beam is as follows:
LASER Light Source 1 gives off laser beam and illuminates the graticule 2 that is positioned at collimator objective 9 focal planes, see through spectroscope 3 and behind collimator objective 9, become the parallel outgoing of collimated light beam, after 8 reflections of two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly, transfer to first polarization spectroscope 10, first polarization spectroscope 10 is divided into mutually perpendicular transmitted light beam of polarization state and folded light beam with incident beam, transmitted light beam becomes measuring beam after measuring catoptron 12 reflections, obtained the two dimension angular variable quantity of measuring catoptron 12, and returned by former road through first polarization spectroscope 10 once more; Folded light beam becomes reference beam through corner cube reflector 11 reflections, because the retrodirective reflection characteristic of corner cube reflector 11, reference beam returns by former road is reverse, so reference beam is the drift value of light beam self in the reflected measurement process only, reference beam returns by former road with measuring beam after 10 reflections of first polarization spectroscope once more, reflect after collimator objective 9 is assembled through two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly 8, after spectroscope 3 reflections, arrive second polarization spectroscope 5, measuring beam sees through second polarization spectroscope 5 after first photoelectrical position sensor 6 receives, and forms measuring-signal; Reference beam after second photoelectrical position sensor 4 receives, forms reference signal through 5 reflections of second polarization spectroscope; Controller 7 is controlled the two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly in real time according to the beam drift amount of reference signal reflection, suppresses to be coupling in the drift of the light beam in the measuring-signal, realizes accurate measurement of angle.
Embodiment three: present embodiment is described below in conjunction with Fig. 2, the difference of present embodiment and embodiment two is: it also comprises first quarter wave plate 13, first polarization spectroscope 10, corner cube reflector 11, measurement catoptron 12 and first quarter wave plate, 13 cure package are a pyramid combination target, and first quarter wave plate 13 is arranged between first polarization spectroscope 10 and the corner cube reflector 11.Other composition is identical with embodiment two with annexation.
Embodiment four: present embodiment is described below in conjunction with Fig. 3, the difference of present embodiment and embodiment three is: it comprises that also second quarter wave plate, 14, the second quarter wave plates 14 are arranged between the spectroscope 3 of second polarization spectroscope 5 and 2 D photoelectric autocollimation light pipe.Other composition is identical with embodiment three with annexation.
Embodiment five: present embodiment is described below in conjunction with Fig. 1 and Fig. 4, the difference of arbitrary embodiment is in present embodiment and the embodiment one to four: LASER Light Source 1 is for sending the LASER Light Source of circularly polarized light, and other structure is identical with arbitrary embodiment in method of attachment and the embodiment one to four.
Provide a specific embodiment in conjunction with Fig. 1, LASER Light Source 1 in the present embodiment is the circularly polarized laser light source, first polarization spectroscope 10 adopts common spectroscope, and between first polarization spectroscope 10 and corner cube reflector 11, add first quarter wave plate 13, between the spectroscope 3 and second polarization spectroscope 5, add second quarter wave plate 14, as shown in Figure 5, its principle of work is: LASER Light Source 1 is sent the graticule 2 that circularly polarized laser Shu Zhaoliang is positioned at collimator objective 9 focal planes, see through spectroscope 3 and behind collimator objective 9, become the parallel outgoing of collimated light beam, after 8 reflections of two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly, transfer to first polarization spectroscope 10 forward, first polarization spectroscope 10 is the close catoptron 12 place's fixed placement of measuring before measuring catoptron 12, corner cube reflector 11 is in the reflection exiting surface place of first polarization spectroscope 10 fixed placement, first quarter wave plate 13 is fixed placement between first polarization spectroscope 10 and corner cube reflector 11, first polarization spectroscope 10 is divided into transmitted light beam and folded light beam with incident beam, transmitted light beam forms measuring beam and sees through first polarization spectroscope, 10 backs once more and returns by former road after measuring catoptron 12 reflections, its circular polarization is identical with former polarization direction not to change, folded light beam sees through first quarter wave plate 13 after corner cube reflector 11 reflects to form reference beam, and see through first quarter wave plate 13 once more after 10 reflections of first polarization spectroscope, return on the road altogether with measuring beam, because twice through first quarter wave plate 13, it is opposite with former polarization direction that thereby the circular polarization of reference beam becomes, promptly the circular polarization with measuring beam is opposite, measuring beam that returns and reference beam reflect after collimator objective 9 is assembled through two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly 8, after spectroscope 3 reflections, see through second quarter wave plate 14 before being positioned at second polarization spectroscope 5, thereby reference beam that circular polarization is opposite and measuring beam become the mutually perpendicular two bunch light beams of polarization state, by adjusting the fast and slow axis direction of second quarter wave plate 14, make the linearly polarized light of measuring beam correspondence see through second polarization spectroscope 5, receive by first photoelectrical position sensor 6 that is positioned at collimator objective 9 focal planes, form measuring-signal, the linearly polarized light of reference beam correspondence is through 5 reflections of second polarization spectroscope, receive by second photoelectrical position sensor 4 that is positioned at collimator objective 9 focal planes, form reference signal, controller 7 is controlled two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly 8 in real time according to the beam drift amount of reference signal reflection, suppress to be coupling in the angle drift of the light beam in the measuring-signal, and provide the final angle measurement result.
Embodiment six: present embodiment is described below in conjunction with Fig. 5, the difference of arbitrary embodiment is in present embodiment and the embodiment one to four, LASER Light Source 1 is for sending the LASER Light Source of elliptically polarized light, and other structure is identical with arbitrary embodiment in method of attachment and the embodiment one to four.
By adjusting major axis or the transmission of the short-axis direction and first polarization spectroscope 10 or the angle of polarization by reflection direction of elliptic polarization, adjust the transmitted light intensity of first polarization spectroscope 10 and the ratio of reflective light intensity.
Embodiment seven: present embodiment is described below in conjunction with Fig. 6, the difference of arbitrary embodiment is in present embodiment and the embodiment one to four, LASER Light Source 1 is for sending the LASER Light Source of orhtogonal linear polarizaiton light, and other structure is identical with arbitrary embodiment in method of attachment and the embodiment one to four.
Embodiment eight: present embodiment is described below in conjunction with Fig. 1 and Fig. 7, the difference of arbitrary embodiment is in present embodiment and the embodiment one to four, LASER Light Source 1 is for sending the LASER Light Source of single line polarized light, and other structure is identical with arbitrary embodiment in method of attachment and the embodiment one to four.
By adjusting linear polarization and the transmission of first polarization spectroscope 10 or the angle of polarization by reflection direction, adjust the transmitted light intensity of first polarization spectroscope 10 and the ratio of reflective light intensity.
Provide a specific embodiment in conjunction with Fig. 1, LASER Light Source 1 in the present embodiment is the linearly polarized laser light source, first polarization spectroscope 10 adopts common spectroscope, and between first polarization spectroscope 10 and corner cube reflector 11, add quarter wave plate 13, as shown in Figure 4, its principle of work is: LASER Light Source 1 is sent the graticule 2 that linearly polarized laser Shu Zhaoliang is positioned at collimator objective 9 focal planes, see through spectroscope 3 and behind collimator objective 9, become the parallel outgoing of collimated light beam, after 8 reflections of two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly, transfer to first polarization spectroscope 10 forward, first polarization spectroscope 10 is the close catoptron 12 place's fixed placement of measuring before measuring catoptron 12, corner cube reflector 11 is in the reflection exiting surface place of first polarization spectroscope 10 fixed placement, quarter wave plate 13 is fixed placement between first polarization spectroscope 10 and corner cube reflector 11, first polarization spectroscope 10 is divided into transmitted light beam and folded light beam with incident beam, transmitted light beam forms measuring beam and sees through first polarization spectroscope, 10 backs once more and returns by former road after measuring catoptron 12 reflections, its polarization direction is identical with former polarization direction not to change, folded light beam sees through quarter wave plate 13 after corner cube reflector 11 reflects to form reference beam by former road, and see through quarter wave plate 13 once more after 10 reflections of first polarization spectroscope, return on the road altogether with measuring beam, because twice through quarter wave plate 13, thereby the polarization direction of reference beam becomes vertical with former polarization direction, promptly vertical with the polarization direction of measuring beam, measuring beam that returns and reference beam reflect after collimator objective 9 is assembled through two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly 8, after spectroscope 3 reflections, arrive second polarization spectroscope 5 before being positioned at first photoelectrical position sensor 6, measuring beam sees through second polarization spectroscope, 5 backs and is received by first photoelectrical position sensor 6 that is positioned at collimator objective 9 focal planes, form measuring-signal, reference beam is received by second photoelectrical position sensor 4 that is positioned at collimator objective 9 focal planes after 5 reflections of second polarization spectroscope, form reference signal, controller 7 is controlled two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly 8 in real time according to the beam drift amount of reference signal reflection, suppress to be coupling in the angle drift of the light beam in the measuring-signal, and provide the final angle measurement result.

Claims (10)

1. polarized light pyramid target is total to the 2 D photoelectric autocollimation method of optical path compensation, it is characterized in that this method may further comprise the steps:
Step 1, a branch of light beam that LASER Light Source is sent form collimated light beam and emission behind graticule, spectroscope and collimator objective;
Step 2, described collimated light beam are incident to first polarization spectroscope after the reflection of two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly, this first polarization spectroscope is divided into mutually perpendicular transmitted light beam of polarization state and folded light beam with incident beam;
The transmitted light beam that step 3, step 2 are obtained after measuring mirror reflects as measuring beam, described measuring beam has obtained the two dimension angular variable quantity of measuring catoptron, described measuring beam returns by original optical path after the first polarization spectroscope transmission once more, up to being incident to spectroscope, and after this spectroscope reflection, be incident to second polarization spectroscope, light beam through this second polarization spectroscope transmission is received by first photoelectrical position sensor, and the signal of this first photoelectrical position sensor output is exported to controller as measuring-signal;
The light beam that the folded light beam that step 4, step 2 are obtained forms after the corner cube reflector reflection returns by original optical path is reverse, this road light beam is as the reference light beam, described reference beam has obtained beam drift amount information, after described reference beam is incident to spectroscope, after this spectroscope reflection, be incident to the second polarization spectro mirror reflection, after this second polarization spectro mirror reflection, receive by second photoelectrical position sensor, the position signalling of this second photoelectrical position sensor output is exported to controller as beam drift amount reference signal, calculates the beam drift amount by controller;
Step 5, controller are controlled the two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly in real time according to the beam drift amount reference signal that receives and are rotated, measuring beam and reference beam are carried out deflection to the opposite direction of drift value simultaneously, calculate according to the measuring-signal that receives simultaneously and measure the angle of catoptron, realize the measurement of angle of 2 D photoelectric autocollimation with measured object deflection.
2. polarized light pyramid target according to claim 1 is the 2 D photoelectric autocollimation method of optical path compensation altogether, it is characterized in that the beam drift amount ε in the step 4 obtains by following formula:
ϵ = arctan ( Δ d ref f ) ,
Wherein: Δ d RefFor the reference beam in adjacent two sampling periods forms the alternate position spike of hot spot on second photoelectrical position sensor, f is the focal length of collimator objective.
3. polarized light pyramid target according to claim 1 is the 2 D photoelectric autocollimation method of optical path compensation altogether, it is characterized in that, the step 5 middle controller is controlled the two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly in real time according to the beam drift amount reference signal that receives and is rotated, and the two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly to the adjustment amount φ of light beam space angle is: φ=ε.
4. polarized light pyramid target according to claim 1 and 2 is the 2 D photoelectric autocollimation method of optical path compensation altogether, it is characterized in that the measurement catoptron in the step 5 obtains by following formula with the angle θ of measured object deflection:
θ = 1 2 arctan ( Δ d m f ) ,
Wherein: Δ d mFor the measuring beam in adjacent two sampling periods forms the alternate position spike of hot spot on first photoelectrical position sensor, f is the focal length of collimator objective.
5. realize the described polarized light pyramid of the arbitrary claim of claim 1 to the 4 target device of the 2 D photoelectric autocollimation method of optical path compensation altogether, it is characterized in that, it comprises 2 D photoelectric autocollimation light pipe, monitors tripping device, two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly (8), measures catoptron (12) and controller (7) based on the drift value of pyramid combination target
2 D photoelectric autocollimation light pipe: comprise LASER Light Source (1), graticule (2), spectroscope (3), first photoelectrical position sensor (6) and collimator objective (9);
Drift value monitoring tripping device based on pyramid combination target: comprise first polarization spectroscope (10), corner cube reflector (11), second polarization spectroscope (5) and second photoelectrical position sensor (4); First polarization spectroscope (10), corner cube reflector (11) and measurement catoptron (12) cure package are a pyramid combination target, the minute surface of the corner cube reflector (11) in the described pyramid combination target is placed over against the light direction that reflects of first polarization spectroscope (10), described pyramid combination target is used for rotating with measured object to be realized measuring, described pyramid combination target is isolated reference beam when obtaining two dimension angular variable quantity measurement signal, described reference beam and common optic path identical with the measuring beam characteristic;
Second polarization spectroscope (5) is used to receive the folded light beam of spectroscope (3);
First photoelectrical position sensor (6) is arranged on the focal plane of collimator objective (9) of transmitted light beam exit direction of second polarization spectroscope (5), second photoelectrical position sensor (4) is arranged on the focal plane of collimator objective (9) of folded light beam exit direction of second polarization spectroscope (5)
Controller (7) receives the signal of first photoelectrical position sensor (6) and second photoelectrical position sensor (4) feedback, and controller (7) output control signal is used to control the rotation of two-dimentional light beam inflector assembly (8).
6. polarized light pyramid target according to claim 5 is the 2 D photoelectric autocollimation of optical path compensation altogether, it is characterized in that, it also comprises first quarter wave plate (13), first polarization spectroscope (10), corner cube reflector (11), measurement catoptron (12) and first quarter wave plate (13) cure package are a pyramid combination target, and first quarter wave plate (13) is arranged between first polarization spectroscope (10) and the corner cube reflector (11).
7. polarized light pyramid target according to claim 6 is the 2 D photoelectric autocollimation of optical path compensation altogether, it is characterized in that, it also comprises second quarter wave plate (14), and second quarter wave plate (14) is arranged between the spectroscope (3) of second polarization spectroscope (5) and 2 D photoelectric autocollimation light pipe.
8. polarized light pyramid target according to claim 5 is the 2 D photoelectric autocollimation of optical path compensation altogether, it is characterized in that the laser beam that LASER Light Source (1) is sent is circularly polarized light, elliptically polarized light, orhtogonal linear polarizaiton light or single line polarized light.
9. polarized light pyramid target according to claim 5 is the 2 D photoelectric autocollimation of optical path compensation altogether, it is characterized in that, corner cube reflector (11) adopts cube corner cube reflector.
10. polarized light pyramid target according to claim 5 is the 2 D photoelectric autocollimation of optical path compensation altogether, it is characterized in that, corner cube reflector (11) adopts the right angle conical mirror.
CN2011100217306A 2011-01-19 2011-01-19 Two-dimensional photoelectric auto-collimation method and device for polarized light pyramid target common-path compensation CN102176088B (en)

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GB1220371.7A GB2496965B (en) 2011-01-19 2012-01-18 Photoelectric autocollimation method and apparatus based on beam drift compensation
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