CN102163060B - Early warning method for collision avoidance of helicopter in training flight - Google Patents

Early warning method for collision avoidance of helicopter in training flight Download PDF

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CN102163060B
CN102163060B CN 201010559696 CN201010559696A CN102163060B CN 102163060 B CN102163060 B CN 102163060B CN 201010559696 CN201010559696 CN 201010559696 CN 201010559696 A CN201010559696 A CN 201010559696A CN 102163060 B CN102163060 B CN 102163060B
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helicopter
obstacle
warning
airspace
distance
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CN102163060A (en )
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高勇
袁诚
黄永华
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四川大学
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Abstract

本发明公开一种直升机训练飞行防撞预警方法,其能对直升机训练飞行航线上的危险障碍物、地形地貌提供预警。 The present invention discloses a helicopter training flight collision warning method that can provide early warning of dangerous obstacles on the helicopter flight training routes, topography. 该方法基于微型计算机技术、卫星定位技术及实时比对位置的原理,直升机训练飞行前事先建立训练飞行区域地形地貌数据库和障碍物数据库,直升机起飞后通过实时计算、更新直升机当前位置与地形地貌之间的最短距离,以及实时计算、更新直升机与障碍物之间的水平、垂直距离,即可检测直升机是否存在撞山或碰撞障碍物的危险,而后再根据检测结果报警。 The method is based on the principle of micro-computer technology, satellite positioning technology and real-time comparison of position, advance the establishment of a training flight area terrain database and obstacles database before the helicopter flight training, helicopter took off through real-time calculation, updating the current location of the helicopter and the topography of the shortest distance between, as well as real-time calculation, updating the level between the helicopter and the obstacle, the vertical distance, to detect whether the helicopter crashed into a mountain or a dangerous collision obstacles exist, then an alarm based on test results.

Description

一种直升机训练飞行防撞预警方法 Helicopter training flight collision warning method

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及直升机防撞预警,特别涉及一种直升机训练飞行防撞预警的实现方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to a helicopter crash early warning, particularly to a method for implementing a helicopter training flight collision warning.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 直升机在保障国民经济建设中的作用日益突出,其可执行运送补给、城市巡逻、森林防火搜救等任务;在军事领域,直升机担负着执行战场人员物资投送、战场侦察、火力攻击等重要使命。 [0002] the helicopter role in protecting the national economy increasingly prominent, it can perform resupply, city patrol, forest fire prevention and rescue and other tasks; in the military field, the helicopter responsible for execution of persons and goods delivery battlefield, battlefield reconnaissance, fire attacks important mission. 然而目前国内直升机数量、直升机飞行教员都较少,飞行员也十分紧缺。 However, currently the number of helicopters, helicopter flight instructors are fewer pilots are in short supply. 在这种情况下培养大量直升机飞行员,保障直升机训练飞行安全也就尤为重要。 Train a large number of helicopter pilots in this case, to protect helicopter training flight safety it is particularly important.

[0003] 直升机常飞行于城市上空、复杂低空,丘陵山区等区域。 [0003] helicopters often fly over the city in the area, complex low altitude, hills and mountains and so on. 丘陵山区地形起伏大、气象复杂多变、可视距离短,还存在低空地面高压线纵横、电缆密集、突出建筑物多的情况,这些飞行条件和障碍物都对直升机训练飞行安全构成较大的威胁。 Hilly and mountainous topography large, complex meteorological, visual distance is short, there are low-floor high-voltage horizon, cable-intensive, more prominent buildings, these flight conditions and obstructions pose a greater threat to flight safety training helicopter . 此外,直升机飞离基地后一般缺乏地面引导,飞行员完全靠经验和目视搜寻规避障碍物,经验具有局限性,刚上机的飞行学员缺乏经验且一旦进入陌生空域后就不具备经验;目视搜索带有主观性并不可避免地增加了飞行员的精力支出,易造成飞行疲惫,埋下安全隐患。 In addition, after the helicopter left the ground base a general lack of guidance, the pilot relies entirely on visual search experience and avoid obstacles, experience has limitations, student pilot on board just a lack of experience and once entering the unfamiliar airspace not have the experience; visual Search subjective and inevitably increases the energy expenditure of the pilots, the flight could easily lead to fatigue, buried security risk. 纵观2008年3-7月媒体报道的7起较大的直升机飞行事故中,除机械故障、飞行员违章驾驶所致的4起事故外,还有3起就是直升机低空飞行因撞树、挂高压线造成。 Throughout 2008, from March to July seven large helicopter accident reported in the media, in addition to mechanical failure, pilot illegal driving accident caused by 4, and 3 from the low-flying helicopter is due to hit the tree, hanging high-voltage lines cause. 由此可见直升机低空飞行存在较为严重的碰撞障碍物的安全威胁,亟待解决。 This shows that the presence of low-flying helicopters more serious security threat collision obstacle to be solved.

[0004] 直升机在复杂低空训练飞行时存在碰撞障碍物的危险,为此国内外曾提出三种技术解决方案:1.无源传感器探测;2.激光雷达探测;3.毫米波雷达探测。 [0004] dangerous obstacle helicopter crash in the presence of a complex low-level training flight, for which three technologies at home and abroad have been proposed solutions: 1. Passive sensors to detect; laser radar; 3 millimeter-wave radar to detect. 国外(如美国、法国、德国、以色列等国)在后两个方案上进行了研究和试验,取得了一定的成果,研发的产品也装备了部分直升机。 Foreign (such as the US, France, Germany, Israel and other countries) in the two programs after research and testing, and achieved certain results, research and development of products equipped with some helicopters.

[0005] 微型计算机一般尺寸小、功耗低、主频高低可选范围广、性能稳定,能够进行实时处理,工业许多领域都将其作为应用系统(如嵌入式系统)的基础运行平台。 [0005] The microcomputer generally small size, low power consumption, wide frequency range selectable high and low, stable performance, capable of real-time processing, it will be many areas of industry (such as embedded systems) platform as the foundation for running applications. 市场上可选的微型计算机多,如:PC104计算机、3寸单板机、5寸单板机等。 Optional multi-microcomputer on the market, such as: PC104 computer, SBC 3 inches, 5 inches SBC like.

[0006] 显示技术经过长期的发展,目前TFT-1XD液晶显示器已经广泛应用于工业、社会等各领域。 [0006] display technology over a long period of development, TFT-1XD liquid crystal displays have been widely used in various industrial, social and so on. 针对具体的应用,市场上TFT-LCD液晶显示器的尺寸、分辨率、对比度可选范围广,若有特殊用途还可定制。 For a particular application, the size of the liquid crystal display TFT-LCD market, resolution, contrast, wide range of options, if it can be customized for special purposes.

[0007] 目前全球卫星定位系统有如下四种:美国的GPS卫星定位系统、俄罗斯的GL0NASS卫星定位系统、欧洲的“伽利略”卫星定位系统、我国的“北斗”卫星定位系统。 [0007] The current global satellite positioning system has the following four categories: the US GPS satellite positioning systems, satellite positioning systems GL0NASS Russia, the European "Galileo" satellite positioning system, China's "Compass" satellite positioning system.

[0008] GPS卫星定位系统是覆盖全球的定位系统,随着美国停止对GPS卫星实施SA技术,使得全球广大用户能够用GPS动态载波相位测量获得厘米级精度的三维实时点位坐标,而且能够用C/A码伪距测量解获得米级的单点定位精度。 [0008] GPS satellite positioning system is the global positioning system covered, stop with the U.S. GPS satellites SA art embodiment, such global customers to obtain real-time three-dimensional coordinate points centimeter accuracy using GPS carrier-phase measurement dynamic, and can be used C / a code pseudorange measurements obtained solution meter-point positioning accuracy. 市场上经济型GPS-OEM模块能够提供更新频率大于10Hz、水平定位误差小于2米的定位信号,其在高速移动过程中仍能保持前述的定位精度。 Cheap market capable of providing GPS-OEM module update frequency is greater than 10Hz, the horizontal positioning error of the positioning signal is less than 2 meters, which can maintain the positioning accuracy during high-speed movement.

[0009] 随着俄罗斯对GL0NASS卫星定位系统的技术改进,GL0NASS卫星定位系统在民用领域的应用得到扩大。 [0009] As the Russian satellite positioning system technology GL0NASS improvement, application GL0NASS satellite positioning systems in civilian areas was expanded. 目前市场上高精度的GLONASS-OEM板已能提供定位误差小于2m、数据更新频率小于等于IOOHz的单点定位信号。 Precision currently on the market GLONASS-OEM board is able to provide positioning error is less than 2m, the data update frequency less than or equal IOOHz the signal point positioning.

[0010] 欧洲“伽利略”卫星定位系统正在建设中。 [0010] European "Galileo" satellite positioning system is under construction.

[0011] “北斗”卫星定位系统是我国建设的覆盖我国的全天候卫星定位系统,其与GPS、GL0NASS卫星定位系统相比增加了通讯功能,其定位精度与GPS卫星定位系统相当。 [0011] "Compass" satellite positioning system satellite positioning system around the clock coverage of the construction of our country, with GPS, GL0NASS satellite positioning system compared to an increase of communication, positioning accuracy with GPS satellite positioning system fairly.

[0012] 随着科技的发展,地理测绘手段增多、测量精度提高,国家地理测绘有关部门已掌握覆盖我国较广范围的高精度地图数据;与此同时,国内GIS行业已有多家从事地图数据供应和电子地图绘制的商业公司,预示着地图数据产业的商业快速发展。 [0012] With the development of science and technology, geographical mapping means increased measurement accuracy is improved, National Geographic mapping departments have mastered the high-precision map data coverage of a wide range; at the same time, the domestic GIS industry has engaged in a number of map data supply and electronic mapping of commercial companies, indicating the rapid development of the commercial map data industry. 目前获取地图数据的途径较多,如:商业购买,高精度航拍,结合等高线地图实地调查等。 Currently more ways to obtain map data, such as: commercially available, high-precision aerial photography, combined with contour maps of field surveys.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0013] 本发明公开了一种直升机训练飞行防撞预警方法,该方法在直升机训练飞行中能对直升机训练飞行航线上的各障碍物和地形地貌提供预警,提醒飞行员采取规避动作,避免发生直升机碰撞障碍物或撞山事故。 [0013] The present invention discloses a helicopter training flight collision warning method that can provide early warning of obstacles and terrain on each helicopter training flight in the helicopter training flight routes, alert the pilot to take evasive action to avoid the occurrence of helicopter Hill hit an obstacle or collision accidents.

[0014]目前直升机训练飞行基本上完全依靠飞行员的经验和目视搜索来规避障碍物,以防止直升机碰撞障碍物事故。 [0014] Currently helicopter training flights almost completely rely on the pilot's experience and visual search to avoid obstacles, obstacles to prevent the helicopter crash accident. 然而经验具有局限性,目视搜索带有主观性。 However, experience has limitations, subjective visual search. 此外,刚上机的新飞行员或飞行学员一般缺乏经验且一旦进入陌生空域后就不具备经验;而目视搜索会不可避免地增加飞行员的精力支出,易造成飞行疲惫,埋下安全隐患。 In addition, the machine just new cadet pilots or general lack of experience and once entering the unfamiliar airspace not have the experience; and visual search will inevitably increase energy expenditure pilots, flight could easily lead to fatigue, buried security risk.

[0015] 本发明公开的一种直升机防撞预警方法,主要是针对培训飞行学员的直升机训练飞行。 [0015] A helicopter crash early warning methods disclosed herein, mainly for helicopter training flight training flight students. 直升机训练飞行与作战飞行相比,训练飞行通常位于相对固定和有限空域,且该空域的地形地貌、障碍物数量和位置在一定时期内变化较小,从而使建立训练飞行区域地形地貌数据库和障碍物数据库相对容易。 Compared with flying helicopter combat flight training, flight training is usually located in a relatively fixed and limited airspace and the airspace of the topography, the number and location of obstacles in a given period minor changes, so that the establishment of regional training flight terrain and obstacles databases database was relatively easy.

[0016] 为解决直升机训练飞行防障碍物碰撞这个难题,本发明的技术方案是:基于微型计算机技术、卫星定位技术及实时比对位置的原理提出一种直升机训练飞行防撞预警方法,直升机训练飞行前该方法事先建立训练飞行区域地形地貌数据库和障碍物数据库,直升机起飞后该方法通过实时计算、更新直升机与障碍物之间的水平距离和垂直距离,以及实时计算、更新直升机当前位置与地形地貌之间的最短水平距离和最短垂直距离,即可按“预警算法”检测直升机“瞬时预警空域”内是否存在危险的障碍物,同时也可检测直升机是否存在撞山的危险,而后再根据这些检测结果报警。 [0016] In order to solve helicopter training flight collision with the obstacle preventing this problem, the technical solution of the present invention are: to provide a helicopter training flight collision warning method is based on the principle of micro-computer technology, satellite positioning technology and real-time comparison of position, Helicopter Training the pre-flight method prior establishment of a training flight area terrain databases and obstacle database, after the helicopter took off through the real-time calculation method, update the horizontal and vertical distance between the helicopter and obstacles, as well as real-time calculation, to update the current location of the helicopter and terrain the shortest distance between levels topography and the shortest vertical distance, you can press the "early warning algorithm" detect the presence of dangerous obstacles in the helicopter, "instantaneous warning airspace", but also to detect whether the helicopter crashed into a mountain in the presence of danger, and then based on these alarm detection result. 该方法涉及微型计算机(101)、定位模块(102)、数据存储模块(103)、显示模块(104)、报警模块(105)及通信接口模块(106)。 The method involves the microcomputer (101), the positioning module (102), a data storage module (103), a display module (104), an alarm module (105) and a communication interface module (106). 该方法循环步骤如下: The method loops the steps of:

[0017] 1.直升机训练飞行前按特定的调查方法标记直升机训练飞行区域的地形地貌和训练飞行区域内的障碍物,而后再按“子区域冗余”方式建立地形地貌数据库和障碍物数据库,并将这些数据库存储在数据存储模块(103)。 [0017] 1. helicopter pre-flight training, then press the "redundant sub-region" way to build terrain database and obstacle database according to terrain obstructions in the flight training region-specific survey methods mark helicopter flight training area and, these databases and stored in the data storage module (103).

[0018] 2.直升机起飞后,定位模块(102)按一定的频率持续提供直升机当前三维位置数据、直升机航向,该三维位置数据是直升机当前位置的经度、纬度和高度。 After [0018] 2. helicopter taking off, the positioning module (102) according to a certain frequency continues to provide three-dimensional position data of the present helicopter, the helicopter heading, the three-dimensional position data of the current position of the helicopter is the longitude, latitude and altitude.

[0019] 3.微型计算机(101)通过串口异步通信取得定位模块实时传送的直升机三维位置数据、直升机航向。 [0019] 3. The microcomputer (101) to obtain three-dimensional position data location module helicopter transmitted in real time through the serial asynchronous communication, helicopter heading.

[0020] 4.微型计算机(101)根据直升机当前位置首先选择地形地貌数据块和障碍物数据块,而后一方面确定直升机所处的地形环境,若直升机正处于各种地形地貌(如平原、丘陵)的上空,则计算直升机当前位置与地形地貌之间的最短距离,若直升机正处于山谷之间时,则计算直升机当前位置与山谷两侧、谷底之间的最短距离;另一方面计算直升机与选择的障碍物数据块中各障碍物之间的水平距离、垂直距离。 [0020] 4. The microcomputer (101) is first selected data block terrain and obstacle data block from the current position of the helicopter, the helicopter is determined and then an aspect in which the terrain, if the helicopter is in a variety of topography (e.g., plains, hills ) over the shortest distance between the current position of the helicopter with the terrain is calculated, if the helicopter is in the valley between the shortest distance between the current position of the helicopter sides of the valley, the valley is calculated; on the other hand with helicopter selected level between the obstacle obstacle data block distance, vertical distance.

[0021] 5.微型计算机(101)以步骤4计算所得的直升机当前位置与地形地貌之间的最短距离、直升机与步骤4选择的障碍物数据块中各障碍物之间的水平距离、垂直距离为依据,按“预警算法”检测直升机“瞬时预警空域”是否存在障碍物的同时,还检测直升机是否存在撞山的危险,而后根据检测结果控制报警模块(105)报警。 Obstacle between the horizontal obstacle data block [0021] The microcomputer (101) is obtained in step 4 calculates the shortest distance between the helicopter current position and topography, and the helicopter distance selected in step 4, the vertical distance based on, press the "warning algorithm" test helicopter "instantaneous warning airspace" whether there is an obstacle, and also detects whether there is the risk of a helicopter crashed into a mountain, and then the alarm control module based on test results (105) alarm.

[0022] 6.显示模块(104)实时显示与更新直升机、危险障碍物的位置及预警信息,预警信息包括直升机与各个障碍物之间的水平距离、垂直距离及直升机当前所在位置的地理地貌。 [0022] The display module (104) with real-time display updating the helicopter, the position and dangerous obstacle warning information, warning information comprises geographical landscape distance, horizontal distance between the current location of the helicopter and the respective distances vertically and the obstacle helicopter.

[0023] 7.完成以上处理后微型计算机(101)等待定位模块(102)下一次送来新的直升机位置数据,而后重复进行步骤3、4、5、6、7,直到直升机降落退出预警。 [0023] 7. After completion of the above processing microcomputer (101) to wait for the positioning module (102) for a new helicopter sent location data, and then repeats steps 3,4,5,6,7, until the helicopter landing exit warning.

[0024] 与步骤2、3、4、5、6、7还能并行处理的是:该方法通过通信接口模块(106)连接直升机机载数据链系统,即可与装备数据链系统的其它终端(如塔台、其它直升机等)组网进行数据通信,从而可以在输出直升机当前位置数据的同时也可接收其它数据链终端传送的数据。 [0024] 2,3,4,5,6,7 step is also parallel processing: the helicopter which is connected via a data link system onboard communication interface module (106), equipped with a data link system to other terminals (e.g., tower, other helicopters and the like) data communication networks, which can output the current position of the helicopter may also receive data while the data terminal to transmit other data link. 直升机训练飞行区域地形地貌数据库和障碍物数据库可在地面通过有线数据通信的方式更新,也可在训练飞行过程中通过无线数据通信的方式更新。 Helicopter flight training area terrain database and obstacles database can be updated in the ground by way of wired data communications, it can also be updated via a wireless data communication during the training flight.

[0025] 直升机训练飞行前调查标记直升机训练飞行区域的地形地貌和训练飞行区域内的障碍物时,将地形地貌以其表面上等间隔均匀分布的多个地形地貌单点表示并标记;将训练飞行区域内呈面状、线状分布的障碍物群以该障碍物群内等间隔均匀分布的多个障碍物单点表示并标记;将训练飞行区域内的高压线、电缆以线缆上等间隔均匀分布的多个线缆单点表示并标记;以及将孤立突出的建筑物、树木等障碍物以孤立单点表示并标记。 [0025] When a plurality of single point topography terrain obstacle flight training flight in the region of the front helicopter flight training survey mark area and the surface topography thereof uniformly distributed at equal intervals and marked helicopter training; the training the flight region planarly, a plurality of groups of obstacles à obstacle to the linear distribution interval of the obstacle and the like groups uniformly distributed and marked; a training flight in the region of high-voltage cable to the cable at equal intervals a plurality of single-point cables uniformly distributed and marked; projection and obstacle isolated buildings, trees, etc. in order to isolate single-point and marked. 标记地形地貌和障碍物时,各单点之间的间隔大小与直升机的机动性能、定位模块(102)的定位误差有关。 Topography and obstacle mark, the size and spacing of the helicopter mobility between the single point positioning module (102) about the positioning error.

[0026] “子区域冗余”是本发明存储地形地貌、障碍物数据的存储方式。 [0026] "subregion redundancy" of the present invention is a storage terrain, obstacle data storage. 建立地形地貌数据库和障碍物数据库时,按“子区域冗余”方式首先从二维平面将直升机训练飞行区域划分为多个正六边形子区域,然后将各子区域内标记的地形地貌数据和障碍物数据分别存储在各个地形地貌数据块和障碍物数据块中。 Terrain topography data to establish a database and obstacle database, press the "redundant sub-region" approach from the first two-dimensional plane to helicopter flight training area is divided into a plurality of regular hexagonal sub-region, then the mark in each sub-region and obstacle data are stored in the respective data block and a terrain obstacle data block. 正六边形子区域的边长与直升机的机动性能有关。 Regular hexagon sub-region with a side length about the helicopter maneuverability. 此外,这些地形地貌数据块和障碍物数据块还分别存储一个附加区域内的地形地貌和障碍物数据,该附加区域是距本子区域边界的垂直距离小于预定阈值的区域。 Furthermore, these data blocks terrain and obstacle data block further store terrain and obstacle data in an additional area, the additional area is a boundary region from the book vertical distance is less than a predetermined area threshold. 该阈值的大小与直升机的机动性能和定位模块(102)的定位误差有关。 The size and maneuverability of the helicopter and positioning of the threshold module (102) about the positioning error. 地形地貌数据库和障碍物数据库存储着标记的单点的经度、纬度、高度及名称。 Terrain and obstacle database database stores the longitude, latitude, altitude and name tag of a single point.

[0027] 按“子区域冗余”方式存储地形地貌数据,一方面有助于在预警过程中快速地确定直升机当前位置所处的地理环境,另一方面有助于确保直升机飞跃子区域边界上空时仍能有效地确定直升机当前所在位置的地理环境;按“子区域冗余”方式存储障碍物数据,一方面有助于减少计算直升机与障碍物之间的水平距离、垂直距离及相对方位的数据处理量,另一方面有助于确保直升机飞跃子区域边界上空时对障碍物预警的有效性。 [0027] Press "redundant sub-region" stored terrain data, on the one hand helps to quickly determine the current position of the helicopter in which the geographical environment in the early warning process, on the other hand helps to ensure that the helicopter flew over the sub-region boundary helicopter still effectively determine the current geographical location of the time; press "subregion redundancy" stored obstacle data, on the one hand helps to reduce the horizontal distance is calculated between the helicopter and the obstacle, a vertical distance and relative orientation amount of data processing, on the other hand helps to ensure the effectiveness of obstacle warning when the helicopter flew over the sub-region boundary.

[0028] 选择障碍物数据块和地形地貌数据块时,根据直升机位置确定直升机正处于的子区域或子区域边界,若直升机正处于某一子区域中,则选择该子区域的障碍物数据块和地形地貌数据块;若直升机正位于某一子区域边界上,则选择与该边界相临的任一子区域的障碍物数据块和地形地貌数据块。 When the [0028] data block and to select terrain obstacle data blocks, determining the helicopter is in the sub-region or sub-region boundary position according to the helicopter, when the helicopter is in a sub-region, the obstacle blocks selecting the sub-region and terrain data blocks; if n is located in a helicopter on the sub-region boundary, the data block is selected and terrain obstacle data block adjacent to the boundary of any sub-region.

[0029] 确定直升机所处地理环境时,首先根据直升机当前的位置选择地形地貌数据块,而后在该地形地貌数据块中检测直升机当前位置的地形环境。 [0029] When determining the geographical environment in which the helicopter, first select terrain data block based on the current position of the helicopter, and then detecting the current position of the helicopter terrain topography in the data block.

[0030] 报警模块(105)受微型计算机(101)控制从视觉和听觉两方面发出一种地理环境危险信号及四种不同危险等级的障碍物预警信号。 [0030] The alarm module (105) of the microcomputer (101) emits a control signal and the four kinds of geographical obstacles danger warning signals of different risk levels from both visual and aural.

[0031] “瞬时预警空域”是相对直升机当前位置、航向的时变立体空域,其按照危险等级从高到低划分为I到IV号空域。 [0031] "warning airspace instantaneous" is a relative current position of the helicopter, when the three-dimensional airspace heading change, which according to the level of danger from high to low numbers I to IV is divided into the airspace. I号空域是半径为R1、高为2氏圆柱体区域,II号空域是内径为R1、外径为R2、高为2H2的半圆环柱体区域,III号空域是内径为R2、外径为R3、高为2H3的半圆环柱体区域,IV号空域是内径为R3、外径为R4、高为2H4的半圆环柱体区域,其中R1 < R2 < R3 < R4, H1 < H2 < H3 < H4。 Airspace I, with a radius R1, a height of 2 & apos cylinder area, II is the inner diameter of the airspace number R1, an outer diameter of R2, a height of the annular cylinder half region of 2H2, III is the inner diameter of the airspace number R2, an outer diameter is R3, a height of the annular cylinder half region of 2H3, IV No. airspace an inner diameter of R3, an outer diameter of R4, semi-circle cylinder height region of 2H4, wherein R1 <R2 <R3 <R4, H1 <H2 <H3 <H4. 以直升机当前位置为坐标原点、直升机当前航向为y轴,按右手法则建立空间直角坐标系,“瞬时预警空域”中I到IV号空域表示为如下: Helicopter current position as the origin of coordinates, the current heading of the helicopter y-axis, the spatial rectangular coordinate system established by the right hand rule, "instantaneous warning airspace" No. I to IV in the airspace is expressed as follows:

[0032] I号空域为 [0032] I is the number airspace

Figure CN102163060BD00081

[0034] II号空域为 [0034] II Number of airspace

Figure CN102163060BD00082

[0036] III号空域为 [0036] III Number of airspace

Figure CN102163060BD00083

[0038] IV号空域为 [0038] IV Number of airspace

Figure CN102163060BD00084

[0040] “瞬时预警空域”的设计是以增加一定的预警疲劳来避免预警过程的漏警。 [0040] "instantaneous warning airspace," the design is based on the increase in certain fatigue warning to avoid missing alarm warning process. I到IV号空域的范围参数(RpRyRpRpHpHyHpH4)是根据直升机最大巡航速率vh、最大垂直爬升速率Vv、定位模块定位精度Pe与数据更新频率f、装置预警处理时间tp、人员反应时间仁、操作驾驶时间t。 I to a range of parameters IV Number airspace (RpRyRpRpHpHyHpH4) is vh The helicopter maximum cruise speed, maximum vertical climb speed Vv, positioning module accuracy Pe and data update frequency F, means warning processing time TP, personnel reaction time kernel, the operating driving time t. 及预警时间量tf联合确定,可根据不同直升机的机动性能做相应的调整。 And the amount of warning time tf determined jointly, can do the corresponding adjustment according to different maneuverability of the helicopter. 范围参数计算公式如下:各空域平面半径参数为 Range parameter is calculated as follows: a radius of each plane spatial parameters

[0041] pr= (tf+t0+tr+tp+l/f) Xvv+pe (e) [0041] pr = (tf + t0 + tr + tp + l / f) Xvv + pe (e)

[0042] 各空域垂直高度参数为 [0042] The height of each vertical spatial parameters

[0043] Pv= (tf+t0+tr+tp+l/f) Xvv (f) [0043] Pv = (tf + t0 + tr + tp + l / f) Xvv (f)

[0044] 在机型和硬件设备确定后,参数vh、vv, Pe, f、tp、tr, t。 [0044] After determining the type and hardware parameters vh, vv, Pe, f, tp, tr, t. 一般固定不变,此时各空域范围参数可随预警时间量tf的改变而相应地变化。 Generally fixed, then the amount of each of the parameters can be changed airspace tf correspondingly vary the warning time. 该方法因综合考虑了系统误差使得预警空域各范围参数在一定程度上增大,从而也就使得预警空域在一定程度上扩大,进而在一定程度上增加了预警疲劳;此外,该“瞬时预警空域”的垂直截面为阶梯形,与常规的垂直截面为三角形的预警空域相比,本发明“瞬时预警空域”的空域范围大,会在一定程度上增加预警疲劳度,但预警空域的扩大使得该方法能避免定位模块(102)的垂直定位误差带来的漏警。 The method considered due to systematic error warning airspace such that each range parameter increases to some extent, so that the warning airspace also to some extent expanded, thereby increasing the fatigue warning to some extent; In addition, the "instantaneous warning airspace "vertical cross-section is stepped, as compared with the conventional warning airspace triangular vertical cross-section, the present invention is the" big instantaneous warning airspace "of airspace, warning fatigue increases to some extent, but such that the expansion of early warning airspace the method can avoid the positioning module (102) of the vertical positioning error caused by missing alarm.

[0045] “预警算法”是本发明检测直升机是否存在碰撞障碍物或撞山危险的方法,该方法处理流程包含如下两个并行步骤: [0045] "warning algorithm" of the present invention is to detect whether there is a helicopter or a collision obstacle collision risk mountain method, the method comprising the two parallel flow process steps:

[0046] 1.判定直升机是否存在撞山的危险; [0046] 1. determine whether the helicopter crashed into a mountain of danger;

[0047] 1.1.若直升机处于各种地形地貌(如平原、丘陵、山区)的上空,就判断直升机当前位置与地形地貌之间的最短距离是否小于预定的安全距离阈值,若直升机当前位置与各地形地貌之间的最短距离小于垂直安全距离阈值则发出地形危险信号。 [0047] 1.1. If the helicopter in the sky all kinds of terrain (such as the plains, hills, mountains), it is judged whether or not the shortest distance between the current position of the helicopter and the topography is less than a predetermined safe distance threshold, if the helicopter around the current position the shortest distance between the shaped topography is less than the safe distance threshold vertical terrain danger signal is issued.

[0048] 1.2.若直升机正处于山谷之间时,就判断直升机当前位置与山谷两侧、谷底之间的最短距离是否小于预定的安全距离阈值;若存在至少一个最短距离小于预定安全距离阈值则发出地形危险信号。 . [0048] 1.2 if the helicopter is in the valley between, determines that the current position of the helicopter and valleys on both sides, whether the shortest distance between the bottom of the safety distance is smaller than a predetermined threshold; if there is at least a predetermined minimum distance is less than the safe distance threshold send out danger signals terrain.

[0049] 步骤1.1和1.2中的安全距离阈值与直升机的机动性能、定位模块(102)的定位 Location [0049] Step safe distance threshold and the maneuverability of the helicopter 1.1 and 1.2, the positioning module (102)

误差有关。 Error related.

[0050] 2.检测直升机“瞬时预警空域”是否存在危险障碍物; [0050] 2. Detection helicopter "instantaneous warning airspace," the existence of dangerous obstacles;

[0051] 2.1.根据直升机与各障碍物之间的水平距离、垂直距离检测I号预警空域是否存在障碍物,若I号空域存在障碍物,则发出一级危险障碍物预警信号,若I号空域不存在障碍物,则执行如下步骤2.2。 [0051] 2.1. The level of each obstacle between the helicopter and the distance, vertical distance detection warning airspace I, the presence of obstacles, if there is an obstacle I, airspace, issuing an obstacle warning signal danger, if I, airspace no obstacle exists, the following steps are performed 2.2.

[0052] 2.2.比较前后两次预警处理时计算得到的直升机与各障碍物之间的水平距离,判定直升机是否正接近这些障碍物,而后结合本次预警处理得到的直升机与直升机当前正接近的各障碍物之间的水平距离、垂直距离检测II号空域是否存在障碍物,若II号空域存在障碍物则发出二级危险障碍物预警信号,若II号空域不存在障碍物,则执行如下步骤2.3。 [0052] 2.2. The horizontal distance between the calculated warning when compared before and after treatment with the two helicopter obstacle, it is determined whether the helicopter is approaching the obstacle, then in conjunction with this process to give warning helicopters currently approaching helicopter obstacle between the horizontal distance, vertical distance detecting the presence of obstacles spatial resolution II, II, if an obstacle exists airspace issuing two dangerous obstacle warning signal, if the spatial resolution II obstacle exists, the following steps are performed 2.3.

[0053] 2.3.比较前后两次预警处理时计算得到的直升机与各障碍物之间的水平距离,判定直升机是否正接近这些障碍物,而后结合本次预警处理得到的直升机与直升机当前正接近的各障碍物之间的水平距离、垂直距离检测III号空域是否存在障碍物,若III号空域存在障碍物则发出三级危险障碍物预警信号,若III号空域不存在障碍物,则执行如下步骤 [0053] 2.3. The horizontal distance between the calculated warning when compared before and after treatment with the two helicopter obstacle, it is determined whether the helicopter is approaching the obstacle, then in conjunction with this process to give warning helicopters currently approaching helicopter the horizontal distance between the obstacle, the vertical distance detecting the presence of obstacles III spatial resolution, spatial resolution if there is an obstacle III issuing an obstacle warning signal three danger, if the spatial resolution III obstacle does not exist, then the following steps are performed

2.4。 2.4.

[0054] 2.4.比较前后两次预警处理时计算得到的直升机与各障碍物之间的水平距离,判定直升机是否正接近这些障碍物,而后结合本次预警处理得到的直升机与直升机当前正接近的各障碍物之间的水平距离、垂直距离检测IV号空域是否存在障碍物,若IV号空域存在障碍物则发出四级危险障碍物预警信号,若IV号空域不存在障碍物,则发出安全信号。 [0054] 2.4. The horizontal distance between the calculated warning when compared before and after treatment with the two helicopter obstacle, it is determined whether the helicopter is approaching the obstacle, then in conjunction with this process to give warning helicopters currently approaching helicopter the horizontal distance, vertical distance detecting No. IV airspace between the obstacle if an obstacle exists, if there is an obstacle four spatial resolution IV obstacle danger warning signal is issued, if the number of spatial IV obstacle does not exist, issue a safety signal .

[0055] 本发明与雷达防撞相比,本发明不需发射探测信号,只需接收外部提供的位置信号,成本低、性价比高,是一种被动防撞预警方法。 [0055] Compared with the collision avoidance radar, the present invention does not transmit the detection signal, only receiving a position signal externally provided, low cost, high cost, the method is a passive collision avoidance warning.

[0056] 本发明的有益效果是:本发明能对直升机训练飞行航线上的地形地貌和障碍物提 [0056] The invention has the advantages that: the invention can be put on the terrain and obstacles on the helicopter training flight route

供预警。 For early warning. 附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0057] 图1为本发明一种直升机训练飞行防撞预警方法的原理图 Schematic [0057] FIG. 1 is to invent a helicopter training flight collision warning method

[0058] 图2为本发明一种直升机训练飞行防撞预警方法的实施例示意图 [0058] FIG. 2 of the present embodiment Helicopter flight training collision warning schematic diagram of the inventive method

[0059] 图3为图2中预警装置(20)的硬件连接示意图 [0059] FIG. 3 is an alarm means (20) in FIG. 2 is a schematic view of hardware connection

[0060] 图1为本发明原理图,一种直升机训练飞行防撞预警方法涉及微型计算机(101)、定位模块(102)、数据存储模块(103)、显示模块(104)、报警模块(105)及通信接口(106)六部分,微型计算机(101)是本方法的运算处理核心,其循环进行如下四个步骤,直到直升机降落退出预警: [0060] Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the invention, A flight collision avoidance warning helicopter training method involves the microcomputer (101), the positioning module (102), a data storage module (103), a display module (104), an alarm module (105 ) and a communication interface (106) six-part, a microcomputer (101) is an arithmetic processing method of the present core of which the following four step cycle, until the helicopter landing exit warning:

[0061] 1.获取定位模块(102)传送的直升机位置(1011)。 [0061] 1. Obtain a location module (102) transmits the position of the helicopter (1011).

[0062] 2.选择地形、障碍物数据块(1012):根据直升机位置(1011)选择地形数据块和障碍物数据块。 [0062] 2. Select the terrain and obstacle data blocks (1012): (1011) to select terrain obstacle data block and the data block in accordance with the position of the helicopter.

[0063] 3.计算距离(1013):计算直升机当前位置与地形环境之间水平和垂直方向上的最短距离、直升机与如上步骤2选择的障碍物数据块中各障碍物之间的水平距离、垂直距离。 [0063] 3. Calculate the distance (1013): horizontal distance between the obstacle blocks the shortest distance between the position of the horizontal and vertical directions and the terrain, as described in step 2 of helicopter selected helicopter each obstacle is calculated current distance, vertical distance.

[0064] 4.预警判断:根据如上步骤3中计算距离(1013)得到的距离检测直升机是否存在撞山或碰撞障碍物的危险,并根据检测结果控制报警模块(105)报警。 [0064] 4. Analyzing Warning: obtained in step 3 above calculated distance (1013) from the helicopter exists a dangerous collision detection or collision obstacle mountains, and controls the alarm module based on detection results (105) an alarm.

[0065] 此外,微型计算机(101)还控制显示模块(104)实时显示、更新直升机及障碍物的位置和预警信息;微型计算机(101)可根据需要通过通信接口(106)进行数据通信(1015),即可更新地形地貌数据库和障碍物数据库。 [0065] Further, the microcomputer (101) further controls the display module (104) real-time display, and updates the position information of the helicopter and the obstacle warning; a microcomputer (101) can perform data communication (via the communications interface 1015 (106) as required ), to update the database topography and obstacle database.

[0066] 图2为本发明实施例示意图,图中标记为:1_直升机,2-塔台,3-GPS卫星,4-高压线标记点,5-高压线标记点,6-高压线标记点,7-高压线标记点,8-高压线标记点,9-高压线标记点,10-闻压线标记点,11-闻压线标记点,12-大树,13-大树,14-大树,15-大树,16-大树,17-大树,18-地形地貌标记点,19-地形地貌标记点,22-地形地貌标记点,23-地形地貌标记点,24-地形地貌标记点,25-地形地貌标记点,26-地形地貌标记点,27-地形地貌标记点,28-地形地貌标记点,29-地形地貌标记点,30-地形地貌标记点,31-地形地貌标记点,20-预警装置,21-机载数据链系统。 [0066] Figure 2 a schematic embodiment of the present invention, FIG labeled: 1_ helicopter, 2 tower, 3-GPS satellites, high voltage markers 4-, 5- markers high voltage, high voltage markers 6-, 7- marker high voltage, high voltage marker 8-, 9- high voltage markers, line markers pressure smell 10-, 11- smell pressure line marker, 12- trees, tree 13-, 14- trees, large 15 trees, 16 trees, 17 trees, 18 terrain markers, 19-point mark topography and the 22-point mark topography, 23 terrain markers, 24 markers topography, terrain 25 marker topography, terrain markers 26-, 27- marker topography, terrain markers 28-, 29- marker topography, terrain markers 30-, 31- topography marker, warning means 20 , 21 onboard data link system.

[0067] 图3为图2中预警装置(20)的硬件连接示意图,包括嵌入式计算机(2001)、控制接口(2002)、GPS-OEM 板(2003)、GPS 天线(2004)、抗震硬盘(2005)、LCD 显示屏(2006)、数据链接口(2007)、蜂鸣器(2008)、蜂鸣器(2009)、信号灯(2010)、信号灯(2011)、信号灯(2012)、信号灯(2013)、信号灯(2014),其中控制接口(2002)、蜂鸣器(2008)、蜂鸣器(2009)、信号灯(2010)、信号灯(2011)、信号灯(2012)、信号灯(2013)、信号灯(2014)完成报警功能。 [0067] FIG. 3 is an alarm means (20) FIG 2 is a schematic diagram of hardware connections, comprising an embedded computer (2001), the control interface (2002), GPS-OEM board (2003), GPS antenna (2004), a hard disk seismic ( 2005), LCD display (2006), data link port (2007), buzzer (2008), buzzer (2009), lights (2010), lights (2011), lights (2012), lights (2013) , lights (2014), in which the control interface (2002), buzzer (2008), buzzer (2009), lights (2010), lights (2011), lights (2012), lights (2013), lights (2014 ) to complete the alarm.

[0068] 下面结合附图1、附图2、附图3对本发明具体实施方式做进一步描述。 [0068] The following 2, Figure 3 the specific embodiments of the invention further described in conjunction with Figure 1, the drawings.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0069] 本发明提出的一种直升机训练飞行防撞预警方法:该方法基于微型计算机技术、卫星定位技术及实时比对位置的原理,直升机训练飞行前该方法事先建立训练飞行区域地形地貌数据库和障碍物数据库,直升机起飞后该方法通过实时计算、更新直升机(I)与各障碍物之间的水平距离和垂直距离,以及实时计算、更新直升机(I)当前位置与地形地貌之间水平和垂直方向上的最短距离,即可按“预警算法”检测直升机(I)的“瞬时预警空域”内是否存在障碍物及直升机(I)是否存在撞山的危险,而后再根据检测结果报警。 [0069] A helicopter training flight collision warning method proposed by the present invention: The method is based on micro-computer technology, and real-time satellite positioning technology than the principle of position before the helicopter flight training flight training method previously established regional topography and database obstacle database, helicopter taking off the method by real-time calculation, to update the helicopter (I) with the horizontal and vertical distance between the obstacle and the real-time calculation, to update the helicopter (I) between the current position and the horizontal and vertical topography the shortest distance in a direction, you can press if there is an obstacle and a helicopter (I) whether there is a danger helicopter it crashed into a mountain in the detection of (I) "instant warning airspace," "warning algorithm", and then the alarm based on test results. 其原理如图1所示,该方法涉及微型计算机(101)、定位模块(102)、数据存储模块(103)、显示模块(104)、报警模块(105)及通信接口(106)。 The principle shown in Figure 1, the method involves the microcomputer (101), the positioning module (102), a data storage module (103), a display module (104), an alarm module (105) and a communication interface (106).

[0070] 作为低空飞行器的直升机(I)对预警装置(20)性能指标要求高,预警装置(20)须满足尺寸小、重量轻、功耗低、工作温度范围广、抗震性强等性能指标。 High [0070] as a helicopter (I) altitude of the aircraft (20) of the warning device performance requirements, alarm means (20) must satisfy a small size, light weight, low power consumption, wide operating temperature range, shock resistance and other performance indicators . 微型计算机(101)采用尺寸小、重量轻、主频高的嵌入式计算机(2001)(如5寸单板计算机、3.5寸单板计算机等);定位模块(102)采用能提供定位误差小于2米、数据更新频率大于IOHz的GPS-OEM板(2003)与配套的GPS天线(2004);数据存储模块(103)采用抗震性强的抗震硬盘(2005);显示模块(104)采用功耗低、可视角度大、抗震性强的LCD显示屏(2006);报警模块105采用控制接口(2002)、蜂鸣器(2008)、(2009)与5种不同颜色的信号灯(2010)、(2011)、 The microcomputer (101) using a small size, light weight, high frequency of the embedded computer (2001) (e.g., 5-inch single board computer, 3.5 inch single board computer, etc.); positioning module (102) can be employed to provide positioning error is less than 2 m, the data update frequency is greater than IOHz GPS-OEM board (2003) and supporting a GPS antenna (2004); data storage module (103) using the strong earthquake seismic hard disk (2005); a display module (104) low power , viewing angle, high shock resistance LCD display (2006); alarm module 105 using the control interface (2002), buzzer (2008), (2009) with five different colors of light (2010), (2011 ),

(2012)、(2013)、(2014);通信接口(106)采用数据链接口(2007)。 (2012), (2013), (2014); a communication interface (106) using the data link port (2007). 预警装置(20)的各部分连接如图3所示。 Each of the alert means (20) is connected as shown in Figure 3. 需要说明的是:微型计算机(101)还可以采用PC104计算机;定位模块 Note that: the microcomputer (101) may also be employed PC104 computer; positioning module

(102)也完全可以根据需要选用北斗定位模块或GL0NASS定位模块或“伽利略”定位模块,甚至可以是双定位模块以提升定位可靠性。 (102) may also need to use entirely Beidou positioning module or modules or GL0NASS "Galileo" positioning module, or even a double positioning module to improve the reliability of positioning.

[0071] 本发明是基于掌握较多的先验信息(地形数据、障碍物数据),采用位置比对的原理对训练飞行的直升机提供防撞预警,因此,先验信息越多越详尽,预警可靠性就越好。 [0071] The present invention is based on a priori grasp more information (terrain data, obstacle data), the use of location than the principle of providing early warning of the crash of the helicopter flight training, so the more the more detailed prior information, early warning better reliability. 由于直升机训练飞行通常位于相对固定和有限的区域,该区域的地形地貌和障碍物信息可亲临现场调查得到,亦可由高精度航拍或卫星观测数据得到。 Since helicopter flight training usually located relatively fixed and limited areas, topography of the area and the obstacle information can be obtained at the scene investigation, can obtain high-precision aerial or satellite data.

[0072] 如图2所示的直升机训练飞行防撞预警实施例,由于直升机⑴训练飞行区域是丘陵山区,调查标记地形地貌数据和障碍物数据时,则主要采集丘陵山体、孤立大树、高压线的三维位置数据。 [0072] As shown in FIG. 2 helicopter training flight collision warning embodiment, since ⑴ helicopter flight training area is hilly and mountainous terrain data when investigating mark and obstacle data, mainly collected the mountain hilly, isolated trees, power lines the three-dimensional position data. 采集丘陵山体位置数据时,采集丘陵山体表面上间隔均匀的多个单点的位置数据,而后采用高阶曲面拟合的方法生成丘陵山体表面上等间隔均匀分布的其它多个单点的位置数据。 When the position data acquisition mountain hills, collection of a plurality of evenly spaced single point in hilly and mountainous surface of the position data, and then using the higher order surface fitting method of generating location data of the other plurality of points spaced evenly distributed on the surface of the hilly and mountainous, etc. . 采集丘陵山沟谷底位置数据时,采集丘陵山沟谷底表面上间隔均匀的多个单点的位置数据,而后采用高阶曲面拟合的方法生成丘陵山沟谷底表面上等间隔均匀分布的其它多个单点的位置数据。 Other multiple point method hilly valley bottom position when collecting data, a plurality of evenly spaced collection points hills single valley bottom surface position data, then generating a high-order surface fitting hills valley bottom surface evenly distributed at equal intervals location data. 采集高压线位置数据时,采集各高压线桩的位置数据,而后采用高阶曲线拟合的方法生成高压线上其它等间隔均匀分布的多个单点的位置数据。 When the position data acquired high-voltage, high-voltage lines acquired position data of each pile, and then using higher order curve fitting method of generating location data of a plurality of other high voltage on a single point intervals uniformly distributed. 采集孤立大树的位置数据时,首先采集大树在地面垂直投影点的位置数据,而后再把该投影点的位置数据的高度值加上一个修正量,修正量为大树的高度值,此后再将修正后的投影点位置数据作为大树的位置数据。 When the acquisition of the position data of the isolated trees, tree position data is acquired first in the perpendicular projection of the ground, then the value of the position data and then the height of the projection point plus a correction amount, the correction amount as a value tree, thereafter then the projection point corrected position data as position data tree.

[0073] 调查完直升机训练飞行区域的地形地貌和障碍物后,就将标记或拟合生成的地形地貌数据和障碍物数据按“子区域冗余”方式分别建立地形地貌数据库和障碍物数据库并存储在抗震硬盘(2005)中。 [0073] After the investigation terrain and obstacles helicopter flight training area, will mark or fitting terrain data and obstacle data generated by "redundant sub-region" approach were established terrain and obstacle database and database seismic stored in the hard disk (2005). 按“子区域冗余”方式建立数据库时,首先从二维平面将直升机训练飞行区域划分为多个正六边形子区域,然后将各子区域内标记的地形地貌数据和障碍物数据分别存储在各个地形地貌数据块和障碍物数据块中,这些地形地貌数据块和障碍物数据块还分别存储一个附加区域内的地形地貌和障碍物数据,该附加区域是距本子区域边界的垂直距离小于200米的区域。 When creating a database by "redundant sub-regional" approach, starting with the two-dimensional plane to helicopter flight training area is divided into a plurality of regular hexagonal sub-region, and then labeled each sub-area terrain data and obstacle data are stored in each terrain obstacle data blocks and data blocks, the data blocks terrain and obstacle data block further store terrain and obstacle data in an additional area, the additional area is a boundary region from the book 200 is smaller than the vertical distance meter area. 地形地貌数据库和障碍物数据库存储着调查标记或拟合生成的单点的经度、纬度、高度及名称。 Terrain and obstacle database database stores survey markers or fitting longitude of a single point of generation, latitude, altitude and name.

[0074] 建立好直升机训练飞行区域地形地貌数据库和障碍物数据库后,直升机起飞开始预警,预警循环步骤如下: [0074] After you create your helicopter flight training area terrain databases and obstacle database, the helicopter began to take off early warning, early warning cycle steps are as follows:

[0075] 1.GPS天线(2004)与GPS-OEM板(2003)实时接收GPS卫星(3)的定位信号,通过解算导航电文获得GPS天线(2004)的位置数据、移动方向,并以IOHz的频率更新这些数据,还将这些数据以NMEA-0183格式的ASCII码通过串口数据线送到嵌入式计算机(2001)串口缓冲区。 Location data [0075] 1.GPS antenna (2004) and GPS-OEM board (2003) Real-time GPS satellite receiver (3) a positioning signal, to obtain a GPS antenna (2004) by solving navigation data, moving direction, and to IOHz the frequency of updating the data, the data will be sent to the embedded computer (2001) in ASCII serial buffer NMEA-0183 format through the serial data line.

[0076] 2.嵌入式计算机2001通过多线程编程技术实时监视自身串口缓冲区,一旦检测到GPS-OEM板(2003)送来数据就立即按异步通信方式将串口缓冲区中的数据读取到内存中,进行数据处理,并将GPS天线(2004)的位置数据、移动方向分别作为直升机(I)的位置数据、航向。 [0076] 2. The embedded computer 2001 through multi-threaded programming serial buffer time monitoring itself, upon detection of GPS-OEM board (2003) is immediately sent to the data read by asynchronous communication serial data buffer to a memory and data processing, and a GPS antenna (2004) of the position data, as position data, respectively, the moving direction of the helicopter (I), and heading.

[0077] 3.嵌入式计算机(2001)获得串口数据后进行预警处理。 Early warning treatment [0077] 3. embedded computer (2001) to obtain serial data. 预警处理时,嵌入式计算机(2001)根据直升机(I)的位置选择地形地貌数据块和障碍物数据块,并计算直升机(I)当前位置与地形地貌之间的最短距离,以及计算直升机(I)与选择的障碍物数据块中各障碍物之间的水平距离、垂直距离。 When the warning process, the embedded computer (2001) to select the position of the helicopter (I) topography data blocks and obstacle data blocks, and calculates a helicopter (I) the shortest distance between the current position and topography, and calculating the helicopter (I ) between the obstacle and the obstacle horizontal block selected distance, vertical distance.

[0078] 4.嵌入式计算机(2001)按“预警算法”检测直升机(I)是否存在撞山的危险和检测直升机(I)的“瞬时预警空域”内是否存在障碍物,并根据检测结果向控制接口(2002)发送直升机(I)的环境危险信号和障碍物危险等级信号。 Whether there are obstacles in the [0078] 4. embedded computer (2001) by "early warning algorithm" test helicopter (I) whether there is a danger crashed into a mountain and helicopter detection (I) "instant warning airspace", according to the detection result control Interface (2002) sent a helicopter (I) of the environmental dangers and obstacles danger signal level signal.

[0079] 5.控制接口(2002)根据嵌入式计算机(2001)送来的环境危险信号和障碍物危险等级信号控制蜂鸣器(2008)、(2009)和信号灯(2010)、(2011)、(2012)、(2013)、(2014)从听觉和视觉上同时报警。 [0079] 5. Control Interface (2002) based on embedded computer (2001) sent environmental dangers and obstacles danger signal level control signal buzzer (2008), (2009) and lights (2010), (2011), (2012), (2013), (2014) the alarm while visually and aurally.

[0080] 6.在控制接口(2002)控制报警的同时,IXD显示屏(2006)显示更新直升机与障碍物的平面位置,并通过文字信息更新显示直升机和障碍物的三维位置、直升机与障碍物之间的水平距离和垂直距离、以及直升机当前所处的地形地貌。 [0080] 6. While the control interface (2002) control alarm, IXD display (2006) to update the display position of the helicopter with the plane of the obstacle, and displays the three-dimensional position of the helicopter and the obstacle, the obstacle helicopter updating a text message the horizontal distance and the vertical distance between the helicopter and the topography is currently located.

[0081] 7.嵌入式计算机(2001)等待GPS-OEM板(2003)下一次送来直升机(I)新的位置数据,而后重复进行以上I到7的步骤,直到直升机降落退出预警。 [0081] 7. embedded computer (2001) to wait for GPS-OEM board (2003) next sent a helicopter (I) new location data, and then repeating the above I to step 7 until the helicopter landed exit warning.

[0082] 预警装置(20)可连接机载数据链系统(21),从而可以适时与塔台(2)进行数据通信,即可适时接收塔台传送的地形地貌数据和障碍物数据,从而更新存储在抗震硬盘(2005)中的地形地貌数据库和障碍物数据库。 [0082] The warning means (20) can be connected to an onboard data link system (21), so that a timely data communication with a tower (2), to receiving timely topography data and obstacle data transmission tower, to thereby update stored seismic hard terrain and obstacle database database (2005).

[0083] 将控制接口(2002)作为下位机负责报警功能,使得嵌入式计算机(2001)能专心进行数据运算。 [0083] The control interface (2002) as the next machine is responsible for alarm functions, so that the embedded computer (2001) to concentrate data operations. 此外,通过控制接口(2002)还可以根据需要外接若干个输入按键,作为该方法的人机IO设备。 Further, through the control interface (2002) may also need to add the plurality of input keys, as a man-machine method the IO device.

[0084] 嵌入式计算机(2001)根据直升机(I)的位置一方面选择地形地貌数据块,当得出直升机(I)当前正处于丘陵山沟间时,嵌入式计算机(2001)首先选择该地形地貌数据块中高度数据与直升机(I)当前位置的高度值最相近的几个地形地貌单点:地形地貌单点(19)、地形地貌单点(22)、地形地貌单点(23)、地形地貌单点(24)、地形地貌单点(25)、地形地貌单点(26),并计算直升机(I)与这几个地形地貌单点之间的水平距离,以这些水平距离中的最小值为直升机与丘陵山体之间的水平最短距离,与此同时,嵌入式计算机(2001)选择该地形地貌数据块中经度、纬度数据与直升机(I)当前位置的经度、纬度值最相近的几个地形地貌单点:地形地貌单点(18)、地形地貌单点(27)、地形地貌单点(28)、地形地貌单点(29)、地形地貌单点(30)、地形地貌单点(31),并计算直升机(I)与这几个地形地貌单 [0084] The embedded computer (2001) in accordance with the position of the helicopter (I) as an aspect of selecting topography data block, obtained when the helicopter (I) is currently in the valley between the hills, embedded computer (2001) to select the first topography value of the current data block height data of the height position of the helicopter (I) closest topography several single point: topography single point (19), topography single point (22), topography single point (23), the terrain topography single point (24), topography single point (25), topography single point (26), and calculates the helicopter (I) between these levels and topography from a single point, to the level of the minimum distance is the shortest distance between the helicopter and the level of the mountain hills, at the same time, embedded computer (2001) to select the terrain data block longitude, latitude and longitude of the current position data with the helicopter (I), the value of the closest latitude few a topography single point: topography single point (18), topography single point (27), topography single point (28), topography single point (29), topography single point (30), topography single point (31), and calculates the helicopter (I) with several single topography 之间的垂直距离,以这些垂直距离中的最小值为直升机与丘陵山沟谷底之间的垂直最短距离,而后得到直升机(I)与该丘陵地形之间水平方向的最短距离为直升机(I)与地形地貌标记点(19)之间的水平距离,直升机(I)与该丘陵山沟谷底之间垂直方向的最短距离为直升机(I)与地形地貌标记点(18)之间的垂直距离;另一方面选择障碍物数据块,并计算直升机(I)与高压线标记点(4)、高压线标记点(5)、高压线标记点(6)、高压线标记点(7)、高压线标记点(8)、高压线标记点(9)、高压线标记点(10)、高压线标记点(11)、大树 The vertical distance between the minimum value of the vertical distance to the vertical distance between the helicopter and the shortest hills valley bottom, followed by a helicopter (I) and the shortest horizontal distance between the helicopter hilly terrain (I) and between the vertical distance between the horizontal (19) topography marker distance, helicopter (I) to the shortest vertical distance between the bottom of the valley hills helicopter (I) and topography marker (18); another selected aspects obstacle data block, and calculates the helicopter (I) and the high voltage marker (4), high-voltage markers (5), high-voltage point marker (6), high voltage marker (7), high voltage marker point (8), high-voltage marker (9), high-voltage marker (10), high voltage marker (11), the tree

(12)、大树(13)、大树(14)、大树(15)、大树(16)、大树(17)之间的水平距离、垂直距离,并将这些水平距离、垂直距离临时保存下来。 (12), a tree (13), a tree (14), a tree (15), a tree (16), between a horizontal tree (17) distance, vertical distance and the horizontal distance, vertical distance temporarily preserved.

[0085] 直升机⑴的“瞬时预警空域”是相对直升机⑴的当前位置和当前航向的时变空域,按危险等级由高到低划分为I到IV号空域。 [0085] the helicopter ⑴ "instant warning airspace" is a variation of the relative spatial helicopter ⑴ current location and current heading, according to the danger level from high to low is divided into I to IV No. airspace. I号空域是半径为R1、高为2氏圆柱体区域,II号空域是内径为R1、外径为R2、高为2H2的半圆环柱体区域,III号空域是内径为R2、外径为R3、高为2H3的半圆环柱体区域,IV号空域是内径为R3、外径为R4、高为2H4的半圆环柱体区域,其中R1 < R2 < R3 < R4, H1 < H2 < H3 < H4。 Airspace I, with a radius R1, a height of 2 & apos cylinder area, II is the inner diameter of the airspace number R1, an outer diameter of R2, a height of the annular cylinder half region of 2H2, III is the inner diameter of the airspace number R2, an outer diameter is R3, a height of the annular cylinder half region of 2H3, IV No. airspace an inner diameter of R3, an outer diameter of R4, semi-circle cylinder height region of 2H4, wherein R1 <R2 <R3 <R4, H1 <H2 <H3 <H4. 以直升机(I)的当前位置为坐标原点、直升机(I)当前航向为y轴,按右手法则建立空间直角坐标系,I到IV号空域表示为如下: The current position of the helicopter (I) as a coordinate origin, the helicopter (I) of the current heading of the y-axis, the spatial rectangular coordinate system established by the right hand rule, the I to IV airspace number represented as follows:

[0086] I号空域为 [0086] I is the number airspace

Figure CN102163060BD00131

[0088] II号空域为 [0088] II Number of airspace

Figure CN102163060BD00132

[0090] III号空域为 [0090] III Number of airspace

Figure CN102163060BD00133

[0092] IV号空域为 [0092] IV Number of airspace

Figure CN102163060BD00134

[0094] I到IV号空域的范围参数各空域范围参数是根据直九型直升机最大巡航速率vh、最大垂直爬升速率Vv、定位模块定位精度Pe与数据更新频率f、装置预警处理时间tp、人员反应时间tp操作驾驶时间t。 [0094] I to IV range resolution spatial parameters for each spatial parameter range is a straight nine helicopter maximum cruise speed vh, the maximum vertical climb speed Vv, positioning module accuracy Pe and data update frequency f, means warning processing time tp, personnel The reaction time tp driving operation time t. 及预警时间量tf联合确定,各空域范围参数如下: And the amount of warning time tf determined jointly, in each spatial range parameters are as follows:

[0095] R1 = 300m、R2 = 600m、R3 = 1300m、R4 = 2000m [0095] R1 = 300m, R2 = 600m, R3 = 1300m, R4 = 2000m

[0096] H1 = 50m、H2 = 100m、H3 = 200m、H4 = 300m [0096] H1 = 50m, H2 = 100m, H3 = 200m, H4 = 300m

[0097] “预警算法”处理流程包括如下两个并行步骤: [0097] "warning algorithm" process flow includes the following two steps in parallel:

[0098] 1.检测直升机⑴是否存在撞山的危险,并根据检测结果发出地形危险信号。 [0098] 1. Detection ⑴ helicopter crashed into a mountain if there is danger, danger signals terrain and issued based on test results. [0099] 若直升机(I)当前位置与地形地貌标记点(19)、地形地貌标记点(18)之间的距离至少存在一个距离小于预定的安全距离阈值100米,则向控制接口(2002)发出地形危险信号,若没有一个距离小于预定的安全距离阈值100米则向控制接口(2002)发出地形安全信号。 [0099] When the helicopter (I) of the current position of the topography marker (19), the distance between the topography marker (18) there is at least a distance less than a predetermined safety distance threshold of 100 m, then the control interface (2002) terrain danger signal emitted, if there is no distance smaller than a predetermined safe distance threshold 100 m issuing a safety signal to the topographic control interface (2002).

[0100] 2.检测“瞬时预警空域”是否存在障碍物,并根据检测结果发出障碍物危险等级信号。 [0100] 2. Detection "instantaneous warning airspace" whether there is an obstacle, an obstacle and the level of danger signals emitted from the detection result.

[0101] 2.1.嵌入式计算机(2001)根据直升机(I)与高压线标记点(4)、高压线标记点 [0101] 2.1. Embedded computer (2001) A helicopter (I) and the high voltage marker (4), high-voltage marker

(5)、高压线标记点(6)、高压线标记点(7)、高压线标记点(8)、高压线标记点(9)、高压线标记点(10)、高压线标记点(11)、大树(12)、大树(13)、大树(14)、大树(15)、大树(16)、大树(17)之间的水平距离、垂直距离判定I号空域是否存在障碍物,若这些成对的水平距离和垂直距离中存在至少一对距离同时满足水平距离小于300米、垂直距离的绝对值小于50米,则判定I号空域存在障碍物并向控制接口(2002)发出一级危险障碍物预警信号;若这些成对的水平距离和垂直距离中没有一对距离同时满足水平距离小于300米、垂直距离的绝对值小于50米,则执行如下步骤2.2。 (5), high-voltage point marker (6), high voltage marker (7), high voltage marker point (8), high voltage marker (9), high-voltage marker (10), high voltage marker (11), a tree (12 ), trees (13), a tree (14), a tree (15), a tree (16), between a horizontal tree (17) away from the vertical spatial resolution is determined whether there is an obstacle I, if these at least one pair of horizontal and vertical distances from the pair of simultaneously satisfying the horizontal distance is less than 300 m, the absolute value of the vertical distance is less than 50 meters, it is determined that there is an obstacle and the spatial resolution I control Interface (2002) issued a dangerous an obstacle warning signal; if the horizontal and vertical distances none of these paired distance meet horizontal distance is less than 300 m, the absolute value of the vertical distance is less than 50 meters, then the following steps are performed 2.2.

[0102] 2.2.比较前后两次预警处理时计算得到的直升机(I)与高压线标记点(4)、高压线标记点(5)、高压线标记点(6)、高压线标记点(7)、高压线标记点(8)、高压线标记点(9)、高压线标记点(10)、高压线标记点(11)、大树(12)、大树(13)、大树(14)、大树(15)、大树 [0102] 2.2. Calculated during handling before and after the two warning helicopter (I) and the high voltage marker (4), high-voltage markers (5), high-voltage point marker (6), high voltage marker (7), high-voltage lines labeled point (8), high voltage marker (9), high-voltage marker (10), high voltage marker (11), a tree (12), a tree (13), a tree (14), a tree (15), trees

(16)、大树(17)之间的水平距离,若同一障碍物本次预警处理得到的水平距离减去前一次预警处理得到的水平距离的差小于两倍定位GPS-OEM板(2003)水平定位误差,嵌入式计算机(2001)则判定直升机I正接近这些障碍物,反之则判定直升机(I)正远离这些障碍物。 (16), between a horizontal tree (17) from the same obstacle when the current warning process obtained by subtracting the horizontal distance from the previous level warning processing is less than twice the obtained GPS-OEM positioning plate (2003) horizontal positioning error, embedded computer (2001) it is determined that the obstacle is approaching the helicopter I, on the contrary it is determined that the helicopter (I) moving away from the obstacle. 而后嵌入式计算机(2001)再结合本次预警处理得到的直升机(I)与直升机(I)当前正接近的各障碍物之间的水平距离、垂直距离检测II号空域是否存在障碍物;若这些成对的水平距离和垂直距离中存在至少一对距离同时满足水平距离小于600米、垂直距离的绝对值小于100米,则判定II号空域存在障碍物并向控制接口(2002)发出二级危险障碍物预警信号,若这些成对的水平距离和垂直距离中没有一对距离同时满足水平距离小于600米、垂直距离的绝对值小于100米,则执行如下步骤2.3。 Then embedded computer (2001) recombination helicopter (I) obtained in this process warning level between the obstacle and the helicopter (I) is currently approaching distance, vertical distance detecting spatial II, the presence of obstacles; if these the pair of horizontal and vertical distances from the presence of at least one pair of two dangerous levels while meeting distance is less than 600 m, the absolute value of the vertical distance is less than 100 m, it is determined that there is an obstacle and the spatial resolution II control Interface (2002) issued an obstacle warning signal, when the horizontal and vertical distances none of these paired distance meet horizontal distance is less than 600 m, the absolute value of the vertical distance is less than 100 m, the following steps are performed 2.3.

[0103] 2.3.比较前后两次预警处理时计算得到的直升机(I)与高压线标记点(4)、高压线标记点(5)、高压线标记点(6)、高压线标记点(7)、高压线标记点(8)、高压线标记点(9)、高压线标记点(10)、高压线标记点(11)、大树(12)、大树(13)、大树(14)、大树(15)、大树 [0103] 2.3. Calculated during handling before and after the two warning helicopter (I) and the high voltage marker (4), high-voltage markers (5), high-voltage point marker (6), high voltage marker (7), high-voltage lines labeled point (8), high voltage marker (9), high-voltage marker (10), high voltage marker (11), a tree (12), a tree (13), a tree (14), a tree (15), trees

(16)、大树(17)之间的水平距离,若同一障碍物本次预警处理得到的水平距离减去前一次预警处理得到的水平距离的差小于两倍定位GPS-OEM板(2003)水平定位误差,嵌入式计算机(2001)则判定直升机(I)正接近这些障碍物,反之则判定直升机(I)正远离这些障碍物。 (16), between a horizontal tree (17) from the same obstacle when the current warning process obtained by subtracting the horizontal distance from the previous level warning processing is less than twice the obtained GPS-OEM positioning plate (2003) horizontal positioning error, embedded computer (2001) it is determined that the helicopter (I) is approaching the obstacle, on the contrary it is determined that the helicopter (I) moving away from the obstacle. 而后嵌入式计算机(2001)再结合本次预警处理得到的直升机(I)与直升机(I)当前正接近的各障碍物之间的水平距离、垂直距离检测III号空域是否存在障碍物,若这些成对的水平距离和垂直距离中存在至少一对距离同时满足水平距离小于1300米、垂直距离的绝对值小于200米,则判定III号空域存在障碍物并向控制接口(2002)发出三级危险障碍物预警信号;若这些成对的水平距离和垂直距离中没有一对距离同时满足水平距离小于1300米、垂直距离的绝对值小于200米,则执行如下步骤2.4。 Then embedded computer (2001) recombination helicopter (I) obtained in this process warning level between the obstacle and the helicopter (I) is currently approaching distance, vertical distance detecting the presence of obstacles spatial resolution III, if these horizontal and vertical distances in the presence of at least one pair of the distance from the dangerous levels meet three less than 1300 m, the absolute value of the vertical distance is less than 200 m, it is determined that there is an obstacle and the spatial resolution III control Interface (2002) issued an obstacle warning signal; if the horizontal and vertical distances none of these paired distance meet horizontal distance is less than 1300 m, the absolute value of the vertical distance is less than 200 m, the following steps are performed 2.4.

[0104] 2.4.比较前后两次预警处理时计算得到的直升机(I)与高压线标记点(4)、高压线标记点(5)、高压线标记点(6)、高压线标记点(7)、高压线标记点(8)、高压线标记点(9)、高压线标记点(10)、高压线标记点(11)、大树(12)、大树(13)、大树(14)、大树(15)、大树 [0104] 2.4. Calculated during handling before and after the two warning helicopter (I) and the high voltage marker (4), high-voltage markers (5), high-voltage point marker (6), high voltage marker (7), high-voltage lines labeled point (8), high voltage marker (9), high-voltage marker (10), high voltage marker (11), a tree (12), a tree (13), a tree (14), a tree (15), trees

(16)、大树(17)之间的水平距离,若同一障碍物本次预警处理得到的水平距离减去前一次预警处理得到的水平距离的差小于两倍定位GPS-OEM板(2003)水平定位误差,嵌入式计算机(2001)则判定直升机(I)正接近这些障碍物,反之则判定直升机(I)正远离这些障碍物。 (16), between a horizontal tree (17) from the same obstacle when the current warning process obtained by subtracting the horizontal distance from the previous level warning processing is less than twice the obtained GPS-OEM positioning plate (2003) horizontal positioning error, embedded computer (2001) it is determined that the helicopter (I) is approaching the obstacle, on the contrary it is determined that the helicopter (I) moving away from the obstacle. 而后嵌入式计算机(2001)再结合本次预警处理得到的直升机(I)与直升机(I)当前正接近的各障碍物之间的水平距离、垂直距离检测IV号空域是否存在障碍物;若这些成对的水平距离和垂直距离中存在至少一对距离同时满足水平距离小于2000米、垂直距离的绝对值小于300米,则判定IV号空域存在障碍物并向控制接口(2002)发出四级危险障碍物预警信号,若这些成对的水平距离和垂直距离中没有一对距离同时满足水平距离小于2000米、垂直距离的绝对值小于300米,则发出障碍物安全信号。 Then embedded computer (2001) recombination helicopter (I) the horizontal distance between the obstacle and the helicopter (I) is currently approaching, the vertical distance detecting whether an obstacle IV spatial resolution of this warning process obtained; if these the pair of horizontal and vertical distances from the presence of at least one pair of horizontal distance is less than meet the 2000 m, the absolute value is smaller than the vertical distance 300 m, it is determined that there is an obstacle and the spatial resolution IV control Interface (2002) issued four dangerous an obstacle warning signal, when the horizontal and vertical distances none of these paired distance meet horizontal distance is less than 2000 m, the absolute value of the vertical distance is less than 300 m, the safety signal issued obstacle.

[0105] 需要指出的是:预警算法流程中嵌入式计算机(2001)采用本次与前次预警处理得到的直升机与同一障碍物之间的水平距离之差是否小于两倍GPS-OEM板(2003)的定位误差的方法来判定直升机是否正接近该障碍物,这种方法是以增加预警过程的虚警概率换取预警过程中漏警概率的降低,这种虚警概率会随着GPS-OEM板(2003)定位精度的提高而降低。 [0105] It should be noted that: warning algorithm processes embedded computer (2001) uses the difference between the horizontal distance between the helicopter and the same obstacle this and previous warning process get is less than twice the GPS-OEM board (2003 ) method of positioning error to determine whether the helicopter is approaching the obstacle, this approach is to increase the probability of false alarm warning process in exchange for reducing the leakage alarm probability of early warning process, such as the probability of false alarm will be GPS-OEM board (2003) to improve the positioning accuracy decreases.

[0106] 控制接口(2002)根据嵌入式计算机(2001)送来的障碍物危险等级信号和地形危险信号通过改变蜂鸣器(2008)、(2009)的蜂鸣频率和点亮不同颜色的信号灯(2010)、(2011)、(2012)、(2013)、(2014)从视觉和听觉上同时报警。 [0106] Control Interface (2002) based on embedded computer (2001) sent an obstacle and terrain hazard level signal danger signal by changing the buzzer (2008), (2009) the tone frequency and lit lights of different colors (2010), (2011), (2012), (2013), (2014) while the alarm from the visual and auditory. 若控制接口(2002)收到一级危险信号,则点亮红色信号灯(2010),调整蜂鸣器(2008)蜂鸣频率为2000Hz ;若控制接口(2002)收到二级危险信号,则点亮黄色信号灯(2011),调整蜂鸣器(2008)蜂鸣频率为1500Hz;若控制接口(2002)收到三级危险信号,则点亮橙色信号灯(2012),调整蜂鸣器(2008)蜂鸣频率为1000Hz ;若控制接口(2002)收到四级危险信号,则点亮青色信号灯 When the control interface (2002) receives a danger signal, the red traffic lights (2010), to adjust the buzzer (2008), the tone frequency is 2000Hz; if a control interface (2002) receives two danger signals, the point bright yellow lights (2011), to adjust the buzzer (2008) buzzer frequency of 1500Hz; if the control interface (2002) received three red flags, the lights lit orange (2012), to adjust the buzzer (2008) bee Ming frequency is 1000Hz; if a control interface (2002) receives four danger signal, the green light is lit

(2013),调整蜂鸣器(2008)蜂鸣频率为1000Hz ;若控制接口(2002)收到安全信号,则不报警;若控制接口(2002)收到环境危险信号,则点亮蓝色信号灯(2014),调整蜂鸣器(2009)的蜂鸣频率为2500Hz ;若控制接口(2002)收到地形安全信号,则蜂鸣器(2009)、信号灯 (2013), to adjust the buzzer (2008) is 1000Hz tone frequency; if a control interface (2002) receives a safety signal, no alarm; if a control interface (2002) receives environmental danger signal, the blue light is lit. (2014), to adjust the buzzer (2009) beep frequency of 2500Hz; if the control interface (2002) received a terrain safety signal, the buzzer (2009), lights

(2014)不报警。 (2014) No alarm.

[0107] 本发明在直升机训练飞行中能对直升机训练飞行航线上的地形地貌和障碍物提 [0107] The present invention in a helicopter training flight can be put on the topography of the helicopter on a training flight routes and obstacles

供预警。 For early warning.

Claims (6)

  1. 1.一种直升机训练飞行防撞预警方法,其特征在于:该方法基于微型计算机技术、卫星定位技术及实时比对位置的原理,直升机训练飞行前该方法事先建立训练飞行区域地形地貌数据库和障碍物数据库,直升机起飞后该方法通过实时计算、更新直升机当前位置与地形地貌之间的最短距离,以及实时计算、更新直升机与障碍物之间的水平、垂直距离,即可按“预警算法”检测直升机是否存在碰撞障碍物或撞山的危险,并根据检测结果报警;该方法涉及微型计算机(101)、定位模块(102)、数据存储模块(103)、显示模块(104)、报警模块(105)、及通信接口(106);该方法包括如下循环步骤: (a)直升机训练飞行前按特定的调查方法标记直升机训练飞行区域内的地形地貌和障碍物,而后按“子区域冗余”方式建立地形地貌数据库和障碍物数据库,并将这些数据库存储在数据 A helicopter training flight collision warning method, wherein: the method based on micro-computer technology, and real-time satellite positioning technology than the principle of position before the helicopter flight training flight training method previously established regional topography and obstacles database database object, by helicopter taking off the real-time calculation method, updates the shortest distance between the position of the current topography helicopters, as well as real-time calculation, updated level between the helicopter and the obstacle, a vertical distance can press the "warning algorithm" detection helicopter risk of collision exists or hit an obstacle of the mountain, and the alarm detection result; the method involves the microcomputer (101), the positioning module (102), a data storage module (103), a display module (104), an alarm module (105 ), and a communication interface (106); the method comprising the cyclic steps: (a) training helicopter pre-flight survey method for marking a particular helicopter terrain and obstacles in the flight training area, then press "subregion redundancy" mode establish topography database and obstacle database, and the data stored in these databases 储模块(103); (b)直升机起飞后,定位模块(102)持续提供直升机当前三维位置数据; (c)微型计算机(101)通过串口异步通信取得定位模块实时传送的直升机三维位置数据; (d)微型计算机(101)根据直升机当前位置选择地形地貌数据块和障碍物数据块,而后一方面确定直升机所处的地形环境,并计算直升机当前位置与地形环境之间水平和垂直方向上的最短距离,另一方面计算直升机与选择的障碍物数据块中各障碍物之间的水平距离、垂直距离; (e)微型计算机(101)以直升机当前位置与地形环境之间水平和垂直方向上的最短距离、直升机与步骤(d)选择的障碍物数据块中的各障碍物之间的水平距离和垂直距离为依据,按“预警算法”检测直升机是否存在撞山危险的同时,还检测直升机“瞬时预警空域”是否存在障碍物,而后根据这些检测结果控制报警模块(105)报 Memory module (103); (b) the helicopter to take off, the positioning module (102) for providing a helicopter dimensional position data of the present; (c) a microcomputer (101) to obtain the helicopter three-dimensional position data location module real-time transmission of serial asynchronous communication via; ( d) the microcomputer (101) to select data blocks terrain and obstacle data block from the current position of the helicopter, the helicopter is determined and then an aspect in which the terrain, and calculates the shortest horizontal distance between the position of the terrain in the vertical direction and the current helicopters the distance between the level of the obstacle and on the other hand the selected helicopter obstacle data block distance, vertical distance; (e) a microcomputer (101) current position of the helicopter in the horizontal and vertical directions between the terrain the shortest distance, horizontal distance and vertical distance between the obstacle and the obstacle data block helicopter step (d) is selected based on, press the "warning algorithm" dangerous collision detecting whether the helicopter mountain exist, also detects the helicopter " instantaneous warning airspace "whether there is an obstacle, and then control the alarm module (105) in accordance with these detection results reported ;该“瞬时预警空域”是相对直升机当前位置、航向的时变立体空域,其按照危险等级从高到低划分为I到IV号空域,I号空域是半径为R1、 高为2氏圆柱体区域,II号空域是内径为R1、外径为R2、高为2H2的半圆环柱体区域,III号空域是内径为R2、外径为R3、高为2H3的半圆环柱体区域,IV号空域是内径为R3、外径为R4、高为2H4的半圆环柱体区域,以直升机当前位置为坐标原点、直升机当前航向为I轴,按右手法则建立空间直角坐标系,I到IV号空域为如下空域: I号空域为 ; The "warning airspace instantaneous" is a relative current position of the helicopter, when the three-dimensional airspace heading change, which according to the level of danger from high to low numbers I to IV divided airspace airspace No. I with a radius R1, a cylindrical height of 2 s area, II is the inner diameter of the airspace number R1, an outer diameter of R2, a height of the annular cylinder half region of 2H2, III is the inner diameter of the airspace number R2, an outer diameter of R3, half-height region of 2H3 annular cylinder, IV No. airspace an inner diameter of R3, an outer diameter of R4, half-height annular area 2H4 cylinder to the current position of the helicopter as the coordinate origin, the current heading of the helicopter I axis, the spatial rectangular coordinate system established by the right hand rule, the I IV No. airspace airspace as follows: I is the number airspace
    Figure CN102163060BC00021
    II号空域为 II No. airspace as
    Figure CN102163060BC00022
    III号空域为 III No. airspace as
    Figure CN102163060BC00023
    IV号空域为 IV No. airspace as
    Figure CN102163060BC00031
    其中R1 < R2 < R3 < R4jH1 < H2 < H3 < H4 ;该“预警算法”包括两个并行的步骤A和步骤B,在步骤A中,若直升机处于地形地貌的上空,则判断直升机当前位置与地形地貌之间的最短距离是否小于预定的安全距离阈值,若直升机当前位置与各地形地貌之间的最短距离小于垂直安全距离阈值则发出地形危险信号,若直升机正处于山谷之间时,则判断直升机当前位置与山谷两侧、谷底之间的最短距离是否小于预定的安全距离阈值,若存在至少一个最短距离小于预定安全距离阈值则发出地形危险信号,在步骤B中,首先根据本次预警计算得到的直升机与各障碍物之间的水平距离和垂直距离检测I号空域是否存在障碍物,若I号空域存在障碍物,则发出一级危险警报,若I号空域不存在障碍物则通过比较前后两次预警处理得到的直升机与各障碍物之间的水平距离判定直升机 Wherein R1 <R2 <R3 <R4jH1 <H2 <H3 <H4; the "warning algorithm" includes two parallel step A and step B, and in step A, when the helicopter is above the terrain, it is determined that the current position of the helicopter and whether the shortest distance between the terrain is less than a predetermined safety distance threshold, if the current helicopter shortest distance between the position of all terrain topography is less than the safe distance threshold vertical terrain danger signal is issued, if the helicopter is in the valley between, it is determined helicopter current position and valleys on both sides, whether the shortest distance between the bottom is less than a predetermined safety distance threshold, if there is at least a minimum distance is less than a predetermined safety distance threshold issuing terrain danger signal, in step B, is first calculated according to the Early warning horizontal and vertical distances between the respective obtained helicopter obstacle detection airspace I, the presence of obstacles, if there is an obstacle I, airspace, a hazard warning is issued, if the obstacle does not exist airspace I, by comparing the horizontal distance between the helicopter and twice before and after each obstacle warning determination process resulting from helicopter 否正接近这些障碍物,而后根据本次预警处理得到的直升机和直升机正接近的各障碍物之间的水平距离和垂直距离判定II号空域是否存在障碍物,若II号空域存在障碍物则发出二级危险警报,若II号空域不存在障碍物则通过比较前后两次预警处理得到的直升机与各障碍物之间的水平距离判定直升机是否正接近这些障碍物,而后根据本次预警处理得到的直升机和直升机正接近的各障碍物之间的水平距离和垂直距离判定III号空域是否存在障碍物,若III号空域存在障碍物则发出三级危险警报,若III号空域不存在障碍物则通过比较前后两次预警处理得到的直升机与各障碍物之间的水平距离判定直升机是否正接近这些障碍物,而后根据本次预警处理得到的直升机和直升机正接近的各障碍物之间的水平距离和垂直距离判定IV号空域是否存在障碍物,若IV号空域存 Horizontal and vertical distance between the obstacle is approaching the obstacle NO, then approaching the warning process in accordance with this obtained helicopters and helicopters spatial resolution is determined whether there is an obstacle II, II, if there is an obstacle issuing airspace two hazard warning, if the horizontal distance between the airspace II, no obstruction through the two warning before and after treatment with the obstacle obtained helicopter is determined whether the helicopter is approaching the obstacle, and then obtained according to the process of this warning horizontal and vertical distance between the helicopter and the helicopter is approaching the obstacle is determined whether there is an obstacle III spatial resolution, spatial resolution if there is an obstacle III three hazard warning is issued, if the obstacle does not exist No. III through the airspace the horizontal distance between the obstacle and the horizontal distance between the helicopter and each obstacle warning twice before and after treatment to determine whether resulting from a helicopter is approaching these obstacles, then approaching according to this process to get early warning helicopters and helicopter No. IV vertical spatial distance determination whether there is an obstacle, if the number of spatial memory IV 障碍物则发出四级危险警报,若IV号空域不存在障碍物则发出安全信号; (f)显示模块(104)实时显示与更新直升机、障碍物的位置及预警信息; (g)完成以上处理后,微型计算机(101)等待定位模块(102)送来直升机新的位置数据,而后重复进行步骤(b)、(c)、(d)、(e)、(f)、(g),直到直升机降落退出预警。 Hazard warning is issued four obstacle if the obstacle does not exist airspace No. IV issuing a safety signal; (f) and a warning display position information module (104) with real-time display updating the helicopter, the obstacle; (G) the above process is completed after the microcomputer (101) to wait for the positioning module (102) new location data sent from the helicopter, and then repeating steps (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), until helicopter landing exit warning.
  2. 2.按权利要求1所述的一种直升机训练飞行防撞预警方法,其特征在于:直升机训练飞行前调查标记直升机训练飞行区域的地形地貌和其内的障碍物时,将地形地貌用其表面上等间隔均匀分布的多个地形地貌单点表示并标记;将训练飞行区域内呈面状、线状分布的障碍物群用该障碍物群内等间隔均匀分布的多个障碍物单点表示并标记;将训练飞行区域内的高压线、电缆以线缆上等间隔均匀分布的多个线缆单点表示并标记;以及将孤立突出的建筑物、树木障碍物以孤立单点表示并标记。 A helicopter flight training collision warning method according to claim 1, wherein: when the helicopter flight training terrain obstacle preceding the survey area labeled helicopter flight training and therein, with which the surface topography a plurality of single point topography uniformly distributed at equal intervals and marked; planarly within a training flight area, the plurality of single point of the obstacle by the obstacle group distribution of the linear interval of the obstacle and the like groups uniformly distributed representation and mark; the training of high-voltage lines in the flight area, the cable to the cable at regular intervals more than a single point of cable evenly distributed and marked; and the isolated prominent buildings, trees obstacles to isolate a single point and marked.
  3. 3.按权利要求1或2所述的一种直升机训练飞行防撞预警方法,其特征在于:建立地形地貌数据库和障碍物数据库时,首先从二维平面将直升机训练飞行区域划分为多个正六边形子区域,然后将各子区域内标记的地形地貌数据和障碍物数据分别存储在各个地形地貌数据块和障碍物数据块中,此外,这些地形地貌数据块和障碍物数据块还分别存储一个附加区域内的地形地貌和障碍物数据,该附加区域是距本子区域边界的垂直距离小于预定阈值的区域,该阈值的大小与直升机的机动性能和定位模块(102)的定位误差有关;地形地貌数据库和障碍物数据库存储内容是标记的单点的经度、纬度、高度及名称。 3. A flight collision warning method of claim 12 or claim helicopter training, wherein: establishing the topography database and obstacle database, the first two-dimensional plane from helicopter flight training area into a plurality of regular hexagonal polygonal sub-region, and then each sub-region labeled terrain and obstacle data are stored in respective data blocks terrain and obstacle data block, in addition, the terrain and obstacle data blocks are stored data block further a terrain and obstacle data in the additional area, the additional area is from the book area boundary vertical distance is less than the area of ​​a predetermined threshold value, the size of the helicopter maneuverability and positioning module (102) the threshold value, the positioning error associated; terrain topography database and database storage contents obstacle is the longitude, latitude, altitude and name tag of a single point.
  4. 4.按权利要求1或2所述的一种直升机训练飞行防撞预警方法,其特征在于:选择地形地貌数据块和障碍物数据块时,首先根据直升机位置确定直升机正处于的子区域或子区域边界,若直升机正处于某一子区域中,则选择该子区域的地形地貌数据块和障碍物数据块;若直升机正位于某一子区域边界上,则选择与该边界相临的任一子区域的地形地貌数据块和障碍物数据块。 4. A flight collision warning method of claim 12 or claim helicopter training, wherein: the data block is selected terrain and obstacle data block, determines the helicopter is in the first sub-region or sub-position of the helicopter in accordance with region boundary, when the helicopter is in a sub-region, selecting terrain obstacle data block and the data block of the sub-region; positive if the helicopter is located on a sub-region boundary, and the boundary of any one of the adjacent selecting topography data block and the sub-region obstacle data block.
  5. 5.按权利要求1或2所述的一种直升机训练飞行防撞预警方法,其特征在于:地形地貌数据库和障碍物数据库可根据需要通过通信接口(106)更新。 5. Helicopter according to claim 1 or claim training flight collision warning method, which is characterized in that: the topography database and obstacle database can be updated via the communication interface (106) as needed.
  6. 6.按权利要求1所述的一种直升机训练飞行防撞预警方法,其特征在于:报警模块(105)受微型计算机(10 1)控制从视觉和听觉两方面发出一种环境危险信号和四种不同危险等级的预警信号。 6. Helicopter according to claim 1, said training flight collision warning method, comprising: an alarm module (105) of the microcomputer (101) a control signal sent from an environmental hazard both visual and auditory and tetrakis different kinds of warning signals danger levels.
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