CN102161169B - Small-caliber aspherical composite precise processing method - Google Patents

Small-caliber aspherical composite precise processing method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102161169B
CN102161169B CN2011100214276A CN201110021427A CN102161169B CN 102161169 B CN102161169 B CN 102161169B CN 2011100214276 A CN2011100214276 A CN 2011100214276A CN 201110021427 A CN201110021427 A CN 201110021427A CN 102161169 B CN102161169 B CN 102161169B
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China
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workpiece
grinding
axis
processing
polishing
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CN2011100214276A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102161169A (en
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尹韶辉
唐昆
胡天
王宇
余剑武
朱科军
徐志强
朱勇建
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湖南大学
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Abstract

The invention relates to a small-caliber aspherical composite precise processing method. The method comprises the following steps of: 1. clamping a workpiece (5) on a precise machine tool, wherein axes of a grinding wheel spindle (2) and a grinding head spindle (9) are parallel, separated from a sliding table (4) and intersected with the axis of a workpiece spindle (6); and grinding and processing an inclined shaft of the workpiece (5) by a micropowder grinding wheel (3); 2. carrying out in-place measurement on the workpiece (5) by using a detecting device (7) to generate a compensation processing track, and then processing along the track by the mocropowder grinding wheel (3); and 3. using a grinding head (8) to grind and polish the workpiece (5) to finally obtain a finished product. In the small-caliber aspherical composite precise processing method, precise inclined axis mirror grinding and inclined axis magnetorheological polishing and grinding are integrated into a single machinetool, so that the installation and the tool setting errors are reduced, the working hours are also reduced, the accuracy and the efficiency are improved, the interference phenomenon is prevented, thecontrollability is good, and continuous processing can be achieved.

Description

Small-bore aspheric surface combined precision processing method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of aspherical mirror machining method, be specifically related to a kind of small-bore aspheric combined precision processing method.
Background technology
Along with developing rapidly of photoelectricity communication, optics, automobile, bioengineering and Aero-Space industry, the demand sharp increase of the small-bore aspherical optical element of ultraprecise.The manufacturing of the small-bore aspherical optical element of this type carries out through high-precision mould mainly at present that glass heat is molded to form with optical plastic injection moulding.And this mould adopts superhard alloy to process usually, and the aspheric surface face type of its core rod requires to reach the form accuracy of submicron order, nano level surface roughness and minimum sub-surface damage.
Grinding and polishing two procedures are generally adopted in the processing of above-mentioned small-bore aspheric surface face type, on ultraprecise grinding machine and two kinds of lathes of lapping and buffing machine, process respectively.During small-bore aspheric surface grinding, because the processing bore is less, if emery wheel adopts the vertical mode installation with workpiece, both are easy to generate interference in process.Therefore, for avoiding interfering, add and to adopt the mode of inclined shaft grinding to process the relative axis of workpiece inclination of emery wheel axis certain angle man-hour.And, adopt a kind of micro mist skive that aspheric surface is carried out mirror grinding in order to reach ultra-smooth and high-precision surface.Accomplish after the processing workpiece taken off being installed to the follow-up grinding and polishing of the enterprising row of aspheric surface polishing lathe, the form accuracy that further improves the surface also reduces surface roughness.Adopt the defective of above-mentioned two procedures processing to be, workpiece needs on two different lathes, to carry out multiple clamping, can bring alignment error, tool setting error etc. to influence the consequence of machining accuracy like this; Multiple clamping has consumed more unproductive time simultaneously, has reduced working (machining) efficiency.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem that the present invention will solve is; Defective to the prior art existence; A kind of small-bore aspheric surface combined precision processing method is provided; The method of Compound Machining that this method is processed through integrated ultraprecise inclined shaft mirror grinding and two kinds of processing technologys of the magnetorheological polishing processing of inclined shaft are gone forward one by one in conjunction with on-position measure and compensation process technology, attempts to reduce alignment error, tool setting error with raising machining accuracy and operating efficiency; And can prevent the generation of interference, be specially adapted to the efficient manufacturing and the steady production of small-bore aspherical optical element of ultraprecise and mould thereof.
Technical solution of the present invention is; This small-bore aspheric surface combined precision processing method that is provided; Referring to accompanying drawing 1; Be to utilize a precision machine tool that is equipped with inclined shaft mirror grinding device and the magnetorheological grinding and polishing device of inclined shaft, follow following concrete operations step and process small-bore aspheric surface workpiece: referring to accompanying drawing 1~4
One, with workpiece 5 clampings on precision machine tool, and make the axis spaced and parallel of grinding head main shaft 9 of grinding wheel spindle 2 axis and the magnetorheological grinding and polishing device 10 of inclined shaft of inclined shaft mirror grinding device 1, and equidistantly be separated by between these two axis and the slide unit 4.These two axis become angle ∠ θ successively with the axis of work spindle 6 1With ∠ θ 2Intersect angle ∠ θ 1With ∠ θ 2Equate.Said ∠ θ 1With ∠ θ 2The angle span be 40~50 °; Then, adopt optical loupes to carry out the heart is handled to workpiece 5 and micro mist emery wheel 3 earlier.Make micro mist emery wheel 3 under the drive of grinding wheel spindle 2, the aspheric surface face type of workpiece 5 carried out the inclined shaft grinding again according to the grinding track of setting.Add man-hour, make the axis of said grinding wheel spindle 2 become ∠ θ with the axis of work spindle 6 3Angle of intersection, said ∠ θ 3The angle span do; 40~50 °;
Two, the shape that adopts 7 pairs of step 1 of checkout gear to obtain the workpiece 5 of process preparatory processing is carried out on-position measure, judges according to measurement result whether the workpiece form accuracy reaches processing request.If measurement result shows that the workpiece form accuracy reaches processing request and can finish this step.Form accuracy does not reach processing request if measurement result shows workpiece; Then measurement result is contrasted initial grinding track; Adopt conventional method to calculate form error by machine tool system software according to comparing result; And adopt Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Gaussian transformation method to filter out after the measuring system random error; Simulate the error compensation curve, generate the compensation machining locus according to three NURBS (English full name Non-UniformRational B-Spline) curves (Chinese translation is a non-homogeneous B spline curve) conventional method, along this track workpiece is implemented grinding by micro mist emery wheel 3 again.So circulation is till the form accuracy of workpiece reaches requirement;
Three, make the work spindle 6 of workpiece 5 that form accuracy that step 2 obtains reaches processing request along lathe Y direction translation 400~500mm distance.Start the magnetorheological grinding and polishing device 10 of inclined shaft, make its grinding head 8 under the drive of grinding head main shaft 9, carry out polishing processing the workpiece 5 that step 2 obtained.Add man-hour, above grinding head, supply with magnetic rheological body, the axis of said grinding head main shaft 9 becomes ∠ θ with the axis of work spindle 6 4Angle of intersection, ∠ θ 4The angle span be: 40~50 °.The circular arc normal of the arc chord angle of said grinding head 8 is overlapped with the polishing surface normal of workpiece 5 all the time, and the contact point of said workpiece 5 and magnetic rheological body 11 constitute the normal direction in workpiece 5 polishings zone all the time.Simultaneously; Because there is magnetic field in grinding head 8 front ends; Utilize the magnetic field effect that magnetic rheological body 11 is adsorbed on the grinding head 8, realize the grinding of workpiece 5 is promptly got small-bore aspheric surface combined precision processed finished products with polishing through the fine shear action between magnetic rheological body 11 and the workpiece 5.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
A. integrated accurate inclined shaft mirror grinding and two kinds of processing unit (plant)s of the magnetorheological polishing of inclined shaft and technology on the separate unit lathe; In conjunction with on-position measure and compensation process technology; Reduce alignment error, tool setting error, also reduced secondary process man-hour simultaneously, improved machining accuracy and working (machining) efficiency;
B. the inclined shaft processing mode is adopted in grinding and polishing processing, can effectively prevent the generation of interference, is specially adapted to the efficient stable manufacturing of small-bore aspherical optical element of ultraprecise and mould thereof;
C. the controllability of machining path is good, can implement continuous processing.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of a specific embodiment of the used precision machine tool of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is an inclined shaft mirror grinding principle schematic;
Fig. 3 is the magnetorheological polishing principle schematic of inclined shaft;
Fig. 4 is the magnetorheological polishing machining area of an inclined shaft sketch map.
Being denoted as in above Fig. 1~4:
1-inclined shaft mirror grinding device,
The 2-grinding wheel spindle,
3-micro mist emery wheel,
The 4-slide unit,
The 5-workpiece,
The 6-work spindle,
The 7-checkout gear,
The 8-grinding head,
9-grinding head main shaft,
The magnetorheological grinding and polishing device of 10-inclined shaft,
The 11-magnetic rheological body.
The specific embodiment:
Embodiment 1: referring to accompanying drawing 1~4,
One, with workpiece 5 clampings on the ULPG type precision machine tool made by high efficient grinding Engineering Technical Research Centre minute manufacturing research institute of Hunan China university country; Make the axis spaced and parallel of grinding head main shaft 9 of grinding wheel spindle 2 axis and the magnetorheological grinding and polishing device 10 of inclined shaft of the inclined shaft mirror grinding device 1 of this lathe, and equidistantly be separated by between these two axis and the slide unit 4.These two axis become angle ∠ θ successively with the axis of work spindle 6 1With ∠ θ 2Intersect angle ∠ θ 1With ∠ θ 2Equate.Said ∠ θ 1With ∠ θ 2Angle be 40 °; Then, adopt optical loupes to carry out the heart is handled to workpiece 5 and micro mist emery wheel 3 earlier.Make micro mist emery wheel 3 under the drive of grinding wheel spindle 2, the aspheric surface face type of workpiece 5 carried out the inclined shaft grinding again according to the grinding track of setting.Add man-hour, make the axis of said grinding wheel spindle 2 become 40 ° of angle of intersection with the axis of work spindle 6;
Two, the shape that adopts 7 pairs of step 1 of checkout gear to obtain the workpiece 5 of process preparatory processing is carried out on-position measure, and measurement result shows that the workpiece form accuracy reaches processing request, finishes this step;
Three, make the work spindle 6 of workpiece 5 that form accuracy that step 2 obtains reaches processing request along lathe Y direction translation 400mm.Start the magnetorheological grinding and polishing device 10 of inclined shaft, make its grinding head 8 under the drive of grinding head main shaft 9, carry out polishing processing workpiece 5.Add man-hour, above grinding head, supply with magnetic rheological body, the axis of said grinding head main shaft 9 becomes 40 ° of angle of intersection with the axis of work spindle 6.The circular arc normal of the arc chord angle of grinding head 8 is overlapped with the polishing surface normal of workpiece 5 all the time.And the contact point of workpiece 5 and magnetic rheological body 11 constitutes the normal direction in workpiece 5 polishings zone all the time.Simultaneously, utilize the magnetic field effect of grinding head 8 front ends that magnetic rheological body 11 is adsorbed on the grinding head 8, realize the grinding of workpiece 5 is promptly got small-bore aspheric surface combined precision processed finished products with polishing through the fine shear action between magnetic rheological body 11 and the workpiece 5.
Embodiment 2: referring to accompanying drawing 1~4,
One, with workpiece 5 clampings on precision machine tool, and make the axis spaced and parallel of grinding head main shaft 9 of grinding wheel spindle 2 axis and the magnetorheological grinding and polishing device 10 of inclined shaft of inclined shaft mirror grinding device 1, and equidistantly be separated by between these two axis and the slide unit 4.These two axis become angle ∠ θ successively with the axis of work spindle 6 1With ∠ θ 2Intersect angle ∠ θ 1With ∠ θ 2Equate.Said ∠ θ 1With ∠ θ 2Angle be 50 °; Then, adopt optical loupes to carry out the heart is handled to workpiece 5 and micro mist emery wheel 3 earlier.Make micro mist emery wheel 3 under the drive of grinding wheel spindle 2, the aspheric surface face type of workpiece 5 carried out the inclined shaft grinding again according to the grinding track of setting.Add man-hour, make the axis of said grinding wheel spindle 2 become 50 ° of angle of intersection with the axis of work spindle 6;
Two, the shape that adopts 7 pairs of step 1 of checkout gear to obtain the workpiece 5 of process preparatory processing is carried out on-position measure; Measurement result shows that the workpiece form accuracy does not reach processing request; Measurement result is contrasted initial grinding track; Adopt conventional method to calculate form error by machine tool system software according to comparing result; And adopt Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Gaussian transformation method to filter out after the measuring system random error, and simulate the error compensation curve, generate the compensation machining locus according to three nurbs curve conventional methods, along this track workpiece is implemented grinding by micro mist emery wheel 3 again.So circulation is till the form accuracy of workpiece reaches requirement;
Three, make the work spindle 6 of workpiece 5 that form accuracy that step 2 obtains reaches processing request along lathe Y direction translation 500mm.Start the magnetorheological grinding and polishing device 10 of inclined shaft, make its grinding head 8 under the drive of grinding head main shaft 9, carry out polishing processing the workpiece 5 that step 2 obtains through error compensation processing.Add man-hour, above grinding head, supply with magnetic rheological body, the axis of said grinding head main shaft 9 becomes 50 ° of angle of intersection with the axis of work spindle 6.The circular arc normal of the arc chord angle of grinding head 8 is overlapped with the polishing surface normal of workpiece 5 all the time.And the contact point of workpiece 5 and magnetic rheological body 11 constitutes the normal direction in workpiece 5 polishings zone all the time.Simultaneously, utilize the magnetic field effect of grinding head 8 front ends that magnetic rheological body 11 is adsorbed on the grinding head 8, realize the grinding of workpiece 5 is promptly got small-bore aspheric surface combined precision processed finished products with polishing through the fine shear action between magnetic rheological body 11 and the workpiece 5.

Claims (1)

1. small-bore aspheric surface combined precision processing method, this method is followed following steps:
One, with workpiece (5) clamping on precision machine tool; And make the parallel axes of grinding head main shaft (9) of grinding wheel spindle (2) axis and the magnetorheological grinding and polishing device of inclined shaft (10) of inclined shaft mirror grinding device (1); And equidistantly be separated by between these two axis and the slide unit (4), these two axis become angle ∠ θ successively with the axis of work spindle (6) 1With ∠ θ 2Intersect angle ∠ θ 1With ∠ θ 2Equate said ∠ θ 1With ∠ θ 2The angle span be 40~50 °; Then; Adopt optical loupes to carry out the heart is handled to workpiece (5) and micro mist emery wheel (3) earlier; Make micro mist emery wheel (3) under the drive of grinding wheel spindle (2), the aspheric surface face type of workpiece (5) carried out the inclined shaft grinding again according to the grinding track of setting; Add man-hour, make the axis of said grinding wheel spindle (2) become ∠ θ with the axis of work spindle (6) 3Angle of intersection, said ∠ θ 3The angle span do; 40~50 °;
Two, adopt checkout gear (7) that the shape that step 1 obtains the workpiece (5) of process preparatory processing is carried out on-position measure; Judge according to measurement result whether the workpiece form accuracy reaches processing request; If measurement result shows that the workpiece form accuracy reaches processing request and gets final product end step; Form accuracy does not reach processing request if measurement result shows workpiece; Then measurement result is contrasted initial grinding track, adopt conventional method to calculate form error according to comparing result, and adopt Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Gaussian transformation method to filter out after the measuring system random error by machine tool system software; Simulate the error compensation curve, generate the compensation machining locus according to three nurbs curve conventional methods; Along this track workpiece is implemented grinding by micro mist emery wheel (3) again, so circulation is till the form accuracy of workpiece reaches requirement;
Three, make the work spindle (6) of workpiece (5) that form accuracy that step 2 obtains reaches processing request along lathe Y direction translation 400~500mm distance; Start the magnetorheological grinding and polishing device of inclined shaft (10); Make its grinding head (8) under the drive of grinding head main shaft (9), carry out polishing processing to the workpiece (5) that step 2 obtained; Add man-hour, above grinding head, supply with magnetic rheological body, the axis of said grinding head main shaft (9) becomes ∠ θ with the axis of work spindle (6) 4Angle of intersection, ∠ θ 4The angle span be: 40~50 °; The circular arc normal of the arc chord angle of said grinding head (8) is overlapped with the polishing surface normal of workpiece (5) all the time; And the contact point of said workpiece (5) and magnetic rheological body (11) constitutes the normal direction in workpiece (5) polishing zone all the time; Simultaneously; Utilize the magnetic field effect that magnetic rheological body (11) is adsorbed on the grinding head (8), realize the grinding of workpiece (5) is promptly got small-bore aspheric surface combined precision processed finished products with polishing through the fine shearing between magnetic rheological body (11) and the workpiece (5).
CN2011100214276A 2011-01-19 2011-01-19 Small-caliber aspherical composite precise processing method CN102161169B (en)

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CN102672601B (en) * 2012-05-02 2014-08-20 西安交通大学 Double-beam grinding machine
CN102975097B (en) * 2012-12-05 2015-03-25 厦门大学 Grinding and polishing combined machining machine tool
CN102990500B (en) * 2012-12-26 2014-12-10 哈尔滨工业大学 Magnetorheological polishing device with vertical shaft and tilting shaft with rotary table hung upside down
CN103692294B (en) * 2013-11-11 2016-06-08 中国科学院上海光学精密机械研究所 The superhigh precision processing method of rice magnitude optical element
CN105598785B (en) * 2015-10-14 2017-09-08 中国人民解放军国防科学技术大学 A kind of small-bore burnishing device of Combined Random Vibration
CN107415060B (en) * 2017-09-26 2019-03-05 长沙理工大学 A kind of small-bore axisymmetry optical surface element precision machining method
CN108284369B (en) * 2018-03-27 2021-01-26 广东工业大学 Aspheric surface ultra-precise polishing and shape error compensation method
CN111266933A (en) * 2020-02-24 2020-06-12 大连理工大学 Ultra-precision machining method and device for thin-wall hard and brittle fairing with complex shape

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JP4458235B2 (en) * 2003-09-29 2010-04-28 株式会社不二越 Concave end machining method and apparatus
CN1328007C (en) * 2004-11-23 2007-07-25 哈尔滨工业大学 Ultrasonic magnetic rheological composite polishing method and polisher thereof
CN101564824B (en) * 2009-06-05 2010-11-03 湖南大学 Method and device for polishing magneto-rheological inclined shaft

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