CN102157215A - Method and device for treating radioactive wastes - Google Patents

Method and device for treating radioactive wastes Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102157215A
CN102157215A CN201110062940XA CN201110062940A CN102157215A CN 102157215 A CN102157215 A CN 102157215A CN 201110062940X A CN201110062940X A CN 201110062940XA CN 201110062940 A CN201110062940 A CN 201110062940A CN 102157215 A CN102157215 A CN 102157215A
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China
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heater
radioactive waste
electrode
temperature
gas
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CN201110062940XA
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102157215B (en
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陈明周
吕永红
刘夏杰
张臣刚
向文元
黄文有
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中科华核电技术研究院有限公司
中国广东核电集团有限公司
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Abstract

The embodiment of the invention discloses a method and device for treating radioactive wastes. The method comprises the following steps of: putting nonradioactive inorganic wastes into a furnace body of a radioactive waste treatment device to form a thermal plasma area above the inorganic wastes by electrode arcing, and heating the putted inorganic wastes to form a molten pool; starting a cooling device to cool down the furnace body to a temperature of 25-150 DEG C so as to make the inorganic wastes attached to the inner wall of the furnace body be solidified to form a shell; putting radioactive wastes into the furnace body to pyrolyze organic elements of the radioactive wastes, and then exhausting the generated gas from the furnace body; and charging inorganic elements of the radioactive wastes into the molten pool to be molten, and discharging the molten inorganic elements out of the furnace body. During the implementation of the method and device disclosed by the invention, the furnace body does not need refractory materials, and the molten body is solidified in an area near the inner wall of the furnace to form the shell, thus the inner wall of the furnace does not directly contact with the molten body, radioactive nuclides are prevented from polluting the inner wall of the furnace, the device can be used for treating various wastes, the service life of the device is long and the amount of residual wastes is small.

Description

A kind of radioactive waste disposal route and device

Technical field

The present invention relates to the nuclear waste disposal field, relate in particular to a kind of radioactive waste disposal route and device.

Background technology

Since the war industry of China's development sixties in 20th century nuclear, the particularly construction of nuclear power station and operation in recent years can produce a large amount of radioactive wastes in the process that nuclear fuel cycle, reactor operation, spentnuclear fuel processing, the elimination of nuclear facilities, radioactive isotope and other nuclear technology are utilized.Comprise solid combustible refuse (wood, paper, plastics and clothes etc.) in this radioactive waste, organic and inorganic drift, metal and other not flammable, nonmetal refuse (thermal insulation material, glass, soil and concrete etc.) radioactive wastes.Radioactive waste improvement work belongs to the ring in the nuclear industry research and production chain, and solving Abfallwirtschaft method and refuse problem of outlet is the needs that guarantee territory and Environmental security, also is the prerequisite of nuclear industry sustainable development.

At present the disposal route of radioactive waste is generally: classification---compression subtracts appearance, cement solidification or concrete and fixes---being sent to temporary library after the packing stores---shallow ground disposal.This method because of technology maturation by nuclear industry unit, particularly nuclear power station extensively adopts, but complex treatment process, processing speed are slow, refuse containing rate is low, the refuse nucleic leaching rate height after the compression.Along with the development of China's nuclear industry and nuclear power cause, the subtracting the appearance problem and will become increasingly conspicuous of radioactive waste.

Plasma hazardous waste treatment technology is the state-of-the-art innoxious appearance treatment technology that subtracts that environment circle is generally acknowledged, can carry out safety to hazardous chemical, persistence organic pollutant (POPs), useless agricultural chemicals, incineration residue, clinical waste, radioactive waste etc. and subtract the appearance processing, and seldom produce secondary pollution, obtained the great attention of domestic and international environmental protection and hygiene department, and entered the application stage in developed country.The Cement Composite Treated by Plasma technology is up to 10 with apparent temperature 4The hot plasma of K is as thermal source, and all flammable or difficult combustions, solid (or organic solvent) refuse that do not fire are carried out fusion---pyrolysis processing.The energy density height of hot plasma can make inorganic wastes fusion, debirs pyrolytic gasification at short notice.Subtracting the appearance treatment technology with other and compare fusion---pyrolysis processing can significantly reduce the amount of final refuse, reaches high volume reduction ratio (refuse amount before handling/processing back refuse amount).In addition, molten mass can obtain the firming body of chemical stability, mechanical stability and thermal stability brilliance after supercooling, stably be enclosed in radioactive nuclide in the firming body, its nucleic leaching rate is extremely low, can dispose after reorganizing and outfit, and changes the security performance of being apt to the refuse bag greatly.

But the inventor finds that in implementing process of the present invention still there are obvious defects in existing plasma hazardous waste disposal route and device.

As central electrode, bottom electrode is a hearth electrode to existing plasma hazardous waste treating apparatus with a root graphite electrode, and it is furnace lining that there are multiple layer refractory, insulation material in body of heater inside.Though this device can be handled radioactive waste, yet because this stove adopted hearth electrode, can cause therefore that the common common fault of electric arc furnaces---bottom electrode consumption is serious, behind the bottom electrode oxidation consumption, owing to can't change, can only pound whole body of heater and build stove again.Simultaneously, be furnace lining because the body of heater of this stove adopts multiple layer refractory, insulation material, furnace lining directly contacts molten mass, causes radioactive nuclide to enter furnace lining material, causes the pollution of furnace lining, has enlarged pollution range; And the body of heater of this kind type of furnace directly is subjected to the corrosion of the erosion of radioactive waste molten mass, particularly strong acid, strong basicity radioactive waste, thereby consumes soon, and serviceable life is short.Furnace lining material is melted can only open the heavy lining up of burner hearth after body corrodes, increase the irradiated risk of operating personnel, furnace lining consumption serious in addition whole body of heater is retired scraps, produce a large amount of secondary refuses.

Summary of the invention

Embodiment of the invention technical matters to be solved is, a kind of radioactive waste disposal route and device are provided, need not bottom electrode, body of heater need not fire resistive material and insulation material, the furnace wall has cooling device, molten mass in the burner hearth solidifies closing on the stove inner wall region, form one deck " scull ", the existence of " scull " does not directly contact the furnace wall with molten mass, prevent the radionuclide contamination body of heater, and make body of heater not be subject to processing the erosion of object and molten mass, thereby the corrosion resistance of device is stronger, makes this isolated plant be particularly suitable for the highly acid that comprises that process nuclear industry produces, strong basicities etc. are at the extremely strong refuse of interior corrosivity.

In order to solve the problems of the technologies described above, the embodiment of the invention provides a kind of radioactive waste disposal route, comprising:

Drop into cold inorganic wastes in the body of heater of radiotropism waste treatment equipment, and, above described inorganic wastes, form the heat plasma body region by the electrode arcing;

Heating drops into the inorganic wastes in the described body of heater, makes described inorganic wastes fusion and forms the molten bath;

Start cooling device, described body of heater is cooled to 25 ℃ ~ 150 ℃, make in the body of heater and solidify the formation scull attached to the inorganic wastes on the inwall;

Drop into pending radioactive waste in body of heater, the organic principle that makes described radioactive waste is by pyrolysis, and the gas of generation is discharged body of heater; The inorganic constituents of described radioactive waste enters the molten bath, forms molten mass after the fusion and discharges body of heater.

Wherein, described by the electrode arcing, above described inorganic wastes, form the heat plasma body region, comprising:

Power-on, the electrode of controlling described radioactive waste treatment facility is in contact with one another and forms path; Described electrode is inserted in the body of heater by the bell or the upper of furnace body of described radioactive waste treatment facility;

The electrode that is in contact with one another is drawn back, make between each electrode and form electric arc; And by on axis direction, running through the through hole of described electrode, input plasma working gas in body of heater;

Described plasma working gas is heated under arcing, forms the heat plasma body region above the inorganic wastes in body of heater.

Wherein, described startup cooling device remains on 25 ℃ ~ 150 ℃ with described body of heater, makes in the body of heater to solidify the formation scull attached to the inorganic wastes on the inwall, comprising:

After "dead" inorganic wastes in described body of heater begins fusion, start cooling device, it is cooled off from the outside of described body of heater; Electrode continues the inorganic wastes in the described body of heater of heating, makes described inorganic wastes keep molten condition;

Cooling device is cooled to 25 ℃ ~ 150 ℃ with described body of heater, makes in the body of heater to descend attached to the inorganic wastes temperature on the inwall thereupon, solidifies to form the thick scull of 1cm ~ 20cm.

Wherein, describedly drop into pending radioactive waste in body of heater, the organic principle that makes described radioactive waste is by pyrolysis, and the gas of generation is discharged body of heater; The inorganic constituents of described radioactive waste enters the molten bath, forms molten mass after the fusion and discharges body of heater, comprising:

In body of heater, drop into pending radioactive waste;

Described pending radioactive waste is by the high temperature in described hot plasma and molten bath heating, and its organic principle is discharged body of heater after by pyrolytic gasification; Its inorganic constituents enters the molten bath;

The inorganic constituents of described radioactive waste enters the molten bath and when being melted, accumulates in weld pool surface, forms the cold cap of one deck;

The inorganic constituents of described radioactive waste enters the molten bath and is melted the back and forms molten mass discharge body of heater, forms the firming body of stable performance after cooling off.

Wherein, describedly in body of heater, drop into pending radioactive waste and comprise:

By control drops into pending radioactive waste in body of heater speed, the cold cap thickness that the top, molten bath forms in the control burner hearth;

When charging aperture temperature in the body of heater during greater than 600 ℃, the speed of the pending radioactive waste of increasing input increases cover thickness; When temperature during less than 250 ℃, reduce the speed that drops into pending radioactive waste, reduce cold cap thickness.

Wherein, described organic principle is discharged after the body of heater after by pyrolytic gasification, also comprises:

The gas of discharging body of heater is lowered the temperature, prevent the filtrator operate as normal that the too high influence of its temperature is follow-up;

Particle in the elimination gas and aerosol particle are sent it in body of heater of radioactive waste treatment facility back to;

Inflammable gas in the burning gases, and, prevent the generation of dioxin to the cooling of the gas after the described burning;

Gas is further lowered the temperature, deacidifies, removed dust, and gas is reheated to more than the dew point;

The elimination aerosol particle is sent it in body of heater of radioactive waste treatment facility back to;

Absorption heavy metal, organic contaminant are removed oxides of nitrogen.

Correspondingly, the embodiment of the invention also provides radioactive waste treatment facility, comprising: body of heater, the bell that fastens with described body of heater, from the cooling device of the described body of heater of outer wrap and the electrode of going into body of heater from described bell or upper of furnace body oblique cutting;

Described body of heater is the uncovered column type, is made by metal material, does not wherein add fire resistive material and insulation material; This body of heater is used to hold the molten bath that formed by cold inorganic wastes fusion and pending radioactive waste; Described bottom of furnace body is provided with the molten mass floss hole, and the molten mass that is used for forming after the fusion of radioactive waste inorganic constituents is discharged body of heater;

Described bell top is provided with charging aperture, is used for dropping in body of heater cold inorganic wastes and pending radioactive waste; Around the described charging aperture or upper of furnace body be provided with the electrode patchhole, be used for going in the body of heater from bell or upper of furnace body oblique cutting for described electrode; Also be provided with exhaust port on the described bell, be used for the gas that organic principle with radioactive waste forms after by pyrolysis and discharge body of heater;

Described cooling device, the molten bath that is used in body of heater forms the stage at first, "dead" inorganic wastes in described body of heater starts when beginning fusion, and described body of heater is remained on 25 ℃ ~ 150 ℃, makes in the body of heater to solidify the formation scull attached to the inorganic wastes on the inwall; And when described radioactive waste treatment facility is handled radioactive waste the control stove body temperature;

Described electrode is provided with the through hole that runs through described electrode on axis direction, described through hole is used for input plasma working gas in body of heater; Described electrode is used for forming electric arc after energising, heats described plasma working gas, forms the heat plasma body region above the inorganic wastes in body of heater.

Wherein, described body of heater is the uncovered column type, is level or the center circular arc to outer process bottom it; Described bottom of furnace body central authorities are provided with the molten mass floss hole, and this molten mass floss hole is column type or funnel type.

Wherein, on the described bell or upper of furnace body be provided with 2 ~ 3 electrode patchholes, each electrode patchhole has electrode to insert in the body of heater; There is angle between each electrode, moves downward to being in contact with one another at electrode;

On the described bell or each electrode patchhole side of upper of furnace body is equipped with an electrod driving device, is used for moving up and down and left rotation and right rotation of control electrode.

Wherein, if radioactive waste treatment facility adopts two electrodes, then the polarity of two electrodes is opposite; If radioactive waste treatment facility adopts three electrodes, then opposite or three electrodes of the polarity of electrode and two other electrode connect three-phase alternating-current supply.

Wherein, also be provided with temperature-detecting device and view window on the described bell;

Described temperature-detecting device is used to detect in the body of heater, the temperature of top, molten bath; Described view window is used to observe the state of molten bath and radioactive waste.

Wherein, described cooling device comprises: from the refrigerating module of outer wrap furnace body outer wall and bottom, be arranged at the temperature sensing module of cooling device cooling medium import and export, and the flow-control module that is positioned at the coolant inlet place of refrigerating module;

The temperature sensing module is used for the temperature of sensing cooling medium; Flow-control module is used for the temperature according to the cooling medium of described temperature sensing module institute sensing, and control is by the flow of the cooling medium of described refrigerating module; Refrigerating module comprises the mezzanine space formation that is used to hold cooling medium between internal layer, skin and the ectonexine; Its skin is provided with coolant outlet and coolant entrance.

Wherein, the molten bath of flow-control module in body of heater forms at first, also do not drop into radioactive waste, and when the "dead" inorganic wastes in the described body of heater begins fusion, increase the coolant flow in the refrigerating module, body of heater is remained on 25 ℃ ~ 150 ℃, make in the body of heater and solidify the formation scull attached to the inorganic wastes on the inwall;

Flow-control module is handled in the radioactive waste process at described radioactive waste treatment facility, if described temperature sensing module senses is higher than 80 ℃ to cooling device exit coolant temperature, then increases the coolant flow in the described refrigerating module; If described temperature sensing module senses is lower than 50 ℃ to cooling device exit coolant temperature, then reduce the coolant flow in the described refrigerating module.

Wherein, described radioactive waste treatment facility also comprises the tail gas treatment device that is connected with exhaust port, is used for the gas of discharging in the body of heater is further purified;

This tail gas treatment device comprises: the refrigeratory of Lian Jieing, high-temperature filter, first high efficiency particulate air filter, secondary combustion chamber, heat exchanger, scrubbing tower, well heater, second high efficiency particulate air filter, activated carbon adsorber, Benitration reactor successively;

Described refrigeratory is used for the gas of discharging body of heater is lowered the temperature, and prevents the filtrator operate as normal that the too high influence of its temperature is follow-up;

Described high-temperature filter is used for the particle of elimination gas, and by charging aperture it is sent back in the body of heater of radioactive waste treatment facility;

Described first high efficiency particulate air filter is used for the aerosol particle of elimination gas, and by charging aperture it is sent back in the body of heater of radioactive waste treatment facility;

Described secondary combustion chamber is used for the inflammable gas of burning gases;

Described heat exchanger is used for the cooling of the gas after the burning is prevented the generation of dioxin;

Described scrubbing tower is used for dust is further lowered the temperature, deacidifies, removed to gas;

Described well heater is used for gas is reheated to more than the dew point;

Described second high efficiency particulate air filter is used for the elimination aerosol particle, and by charging aperture it is sent back in the body of heater of radioactive waste treatment facility;

Described activated carbon adsorber is used to adsorb heavy metal, organic contaminant;

Described Benitration reactor is used to remove oxides of nitrogen.

Implement radioactive waste disposal route and device that the embodiment of the invention provides, need not bottom electrode, body of heater need not fire resistive material and insulation material, the furnace wall has cooling device, molten mass in the burner hearth solidifies closing on the stove inner wall region, form one deck " scull ", the existence of " scull " does not directly contact the furnace wall with molten mass, prevent the radionuclide contamination body of heater, and make body of heater not be subject to processing the erosion of object and molten mass, thereby the corrosion resistance of device is stronger, makes this isolated plant be particularly suitable for the highly acid that comprises of process nuclear industry generation, strong basicities etc. are at the extremely strong refuse of interior corrosivity.

Further, radioactive waste disposal route and device that the embodiment of the invention provides, when handling radioactive waste, the top, molten bath forms the cold cap of one deck treating material in the burner hearth, can reduce the volatilization of radioactive nuclide in tail gas, and the output of flying dust in the reduction processing procedure, alleviate the pressure and the cost of tail gas clean-up.

Further, radioactive waste disposal route and device that the embodiment of the invention provides are when handling radioactive waste, hot plasma is kept between electrode and molten mass, hot plasma has played the beating action to the molten bath, makes molten mass more even, and the performance of product firming body is better.

Further, radioactive waste disposal route and device that the embodiment of the invention provides are when handling radioactive waste, from sending into plasma working gas amount seldom along the through hole of electrode axis direction, can reduce the volatilization of radioactive nuclide, improve the arresting efficiency of nucleic in the product firming body.

Description of drawings

In order to be illustrated more clearly in the embodiment of the invention or technical scheme of the prior art, to do to introduce simply to the accompanying drawing of required use in embodiment or the description of the Prior Art below, apparently, accompanying drawing in describing below only is some embodiments of the present invention, for those of ordinary skills, under the prerequisite of not paying creative work, can also obtain other accompanying drawing according to these accompanying drawings.

Fig. 1 is the radioactive waste disposal route first embodiment schematic flow sheet provided by the invention;

Fig. 2 is the radioactive waste disposal route second embodiment schematic flow sheet provided by the invention;

Fig. 3 is the radioactive waste treatment facility first example structure synoptic diagram provided by the invention;

Fig. 4 is the electrode structure synoptic diagram of radioactive waste treatment facility provided by the invention;

Fig. 5 is the radioactive waste treatment facility second example structure synoptic diagram provided by the invention;

Fig. 6 is the synoptic diagram that radioactive waste treatment facility provided by the invention has two electrodes;

Fig. 7 is the synoptic diagram that radioactive waste treatment facility provided by the invention has three electrodes;

Fig. 8 is a radwaste system structural representation provided by the invention;

Fig. 9 is radioactive waste disposal route the 3rd an embodiment schematic flow sheet provided by the invention.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawing in the embodiment of the invention, the technical scheme in the embodiment of the invention is clearly and completely described, obviously, described embodiment only is the present invention's part embodiment, rather than whole embodiment.Based on the embodiment among the present invention, those of ordinary skills belong to the scope of protection of the invention not making the every other embodiment that is obtained under the creative work prerequisite.

Referring to Fig. 1, be the radioactive waste disposal route first embodiment schematic flow sheet provided by the invention, as shown in Figure 1:

At step S100, drop into cold inorganic wastes in the body of heater of radiotropism waste treatment equipment.

At step S101,, above described inorganic wastes, form the heat plasma body region by the electrode arcing.

At step S102, heat the inorganic wastes in the described body of heater, make described inorganic wastes fusion and form the molten bath.

At step S103, start cooling device, described body of heater is cooled to 25 ℃ ~ 150 ℃, make in the body of heater and solidify the formation scull attached to the inorganic wastes on the inwall;

At step S104, in body of heater, drop into pending radioactive waste.

At step S105, the organic principle in the described radioactive waste is by pyrolysis, and the gas of generation is discharged body of heater; The inorganic constituents of radioactive waste enters the molten bath, and the molten mass that forms after the fusion is discharged body of heater.

Implement the radioactive waste disposal route that the embodiment of the invention provides, the initial period that forms in the molten bath, cooling device makes the molten mass in the body of heater solidify closing on the stove inner wall region, form one deck " scull ", the existence of " scull " does not directly contact the furnace wall with molten mass, prevent the radionuclide contamination body of heater, and make body of heater not be subject to processing the erosion of object and molten mass, thereby the corrosion resistance of device is stronger, makes this isolated plant be particularly suitable for the extremely strong refuse of corrosivity that comprises highly acid, strong basicity etc. that process nuclear industry produces.Simultaneously, the organic principle and the inorganic constituents of radioactive waste are separated, and after the inorganic composition process high-temperature fusion, the firming body performance of formation is more stable.

Referring to Fig. 2, be the radioactive waste disposal route second embodiment schematic flow sheet provided by the invention, in the present embodiment, with the flow process of this radioactive waste disposal route of more detailed description, as shown in Figure 2:

At step S200, drop into cold inorganic wastes in the body of heater of radiotropism waste treatment equipment.

At step S201, power-on, the electrode of controlling described radioactive waste treatment facility is in contact with one another and forms path; Described electrode is inserted in the body of heater by the bell or the upper of furnace body of described radioactive waste treatment facility.

At step S202, the electrode that is in contact with one another is drawn back, make between each electrode and form electric arc; And by run through the through hole of described electrode on axis direction, input plasma working gas in body of heater promptly adopts the mode starting electrode work of contact arcing.

In the present embodiment, from seldom along the plasma working gas amount of sending into the through hole of electrode axis direction, in the molten bath in the stove and the furnace cavity airflow convection intensity of top, molten bath low, thereby reduced air-flow carrying secretly to radioactive nuclide, thereby reduce the volatilization of radioactive nuclide, improve the arresting efficiency of nucleic in molten mass.

At step S203, the plasma working gas is heated under arcing, forms the heat plasma body region above the inorganic wastes in body of heater.

At step S204, the heat plasma body region is melted the inorganic wastes that drops in advance in the body of heater, forms the molten bath in burner hearth.Further, when handling radioactive waste, hot plasma is kept between electrode and molten mass, and hot plasma has played the beating action to the molten bath, makes molten mass more even, and the performance of product firming body is better.

At step S205, the initial period that forms in the molten bath starts cooling device, and described body of heater is cooled to 25 ℃ ~ 150 ℃, makes in the body of heater and solidifies the formation scull attached to the inorganic wastes on the inwall.

More specifically, the molten bath forms the back cooling device and cools off from the outer wall and the bottom of body of heater, the melt temperature of close inboard wall of furnace body in the molten bath in the body of heater is descended, attached to solidifying the formation scull on the inwall, the existence of scull can directly not contact inboard wall of furnace body with molten mass, prevent the radionuclide contamination body of heater, also make body of heater not be subjected to the erosion of radioactive waste and molten mass simultaneously.

At step S206, in body of heater, drop into pending radioactive waste, described radioactive waste in described heat plasma body region by pyrolysis.Further, pending radioactive waste drops in the body of heater from the charging aperture of bell top, and pending radioactive waste enters the heat plasma body region straight, pending radioactive waste in this zone by pyrolysis or fusion.Need to prove, because in body of heater, dropped into cold inorganic wastes before this and formed the molten bath, so in this step, radioactive waste in body of heater can by hot plasma and before cold inorganic wastes form the molten bath heating, this type of heating is more more even than the simple hot plasma heating radioactive waste that adopts.

At step S207, the gas that the organic principle of described radioactive waste produces after by pyrolysis is discharged body of heater; Inorganic constituents enters the molten bath, is melted the back and forms molten mass discharge body of heater.More specifically, the organic principle of radioactive waste by pyrolysis after, be gasificated as micromolecule (mainly being H2 and CO) gas, discharge from the exhaust port of radioactive waste treatment facility, discharge through further purifications back after the discharge; Inorganic constituents in the radioactive waste is by the high-temperature fusion of plasma, hazard component such as radioactive nuclide, heavy metal is dissolved or be included in the molten mass, molten mass is discharged from the floss hole of bottom of furnace body, forms the firming body of stable performance after cooling off, and reorganizes and outfit the back and disposes.

Further, pending radioactive waste through the heat plasma body region after, its organic principle is discharged body of heater after by pyrolytic gasification; Its inorganic constituents enters the molten bath; The inorganic constituents of part radioactive waste enters molten bath fashion is not melted, and it is accumulated in weld pool surface, forms one deck cold material overlayer (cold cap).

Preferably, in throwing in the radioactive waste process, by the speed of control radioactive waste charging in stove, the cold cap thickness that the top, molten bath forms in the control burner hearth.More specifically,, should strengthen inventory, increase cover thickness when near the temperature burner hearth charging aperture during greater than 600 ℃; When near the temperature burner hearth charging aperture during less than 250 ℃, should reduce inventory, suitably reduce cover thickness.When the furnace cavity temperature is controlled at 1000 ℃ ~ 1600 ℃, when near the temperature the exhaust port is controlled at 180 ℃ ~ 250 ℃, can obtain desirable cold cap thickness.

Cold cap can be caught the nucleic that volatilizees in the processing procedure and the flying dust of generation, after being caught by cold cap, the flying dust that produces in the radioactive nuclide that volatilizes in the molten bath and the processing procedure reenters the molten bath, reduce the output of flying dust in the processing procedure, suppress radioactive nuclide simultaneously and heavy metal volatilizees in tail gas, alleviate the pressure and the cost of tail gas clean-up.

Further, radioactive waste is discharged body of heater after by pyrolytic gasification, also the gas (tail gas) of discharging body of heater is carried out further purified treatment, comprising: the gas of discharging body of heater is lowered the temperature, prevent the filtrator operate as normal that the too high influence of its temperature is follow-up; Particle in the elimination tail gas and aerosol particle are sent it in body of heater of radioactive waste treatment facility back to; Inflammable gas in the burning gases, and, prevent the generation of dioxin to the cooling of the gas after the described burning; Gas is further lowered the temperature, deacidifies, removed dust, and gas is reheated to more than the dew point; The elimination aerosol particle is sent it in body of heater of radioactive waste treatment facility back to; Absorption heavy metal, organic contaminant are removed oxides of nitrogen.Above-mentioned processing procedure to tail gas is sent the particle of carrying secretly in the tail gas back to body of heater again, reduces volatile nuclide and heavy metal and is carried secretly by tail gas, increases the arresting efficiency of nucleic.

Implement the radioactive waste disposal route that the embodiment of the invention provides, the initial period that forms in the molten bath, cooling device makes the molten mass in the body of heater solidify closing on the stove inner wall region, form one deck " scull ", the existence of " scull " does not directly contact the furnace wall with molten mass, prevent the radionuclide contamination body of heater, and make body of heater not be subject to processing the erosion of object and molten mass, thereby the corrosion resistance of device is stronger, makes this isolated plant be particularly suitable for the extremely strong refuse of corrosivity that comprises highly acid, strong basicity etc. that process nuclear industry produces.

Further, the radioactive waste disposal route that the embodiment of the invention provides, when handling radioactive waste, the top, molten bath forms one deck cold material overlayer (cold cap) in the burner hearth, can reduce the volatilization of radioactive nuclide in tail gas, and the output of flying dust in the reduction processing procedure, alleviate the pressure and the cost of tail gas clean-up.

Further, the radioactive waste disposal route that the embodiment of the invention provides, when handling radioactive waste, hot plasma is kept between electrode and molten mass, and hot plasma has played the beating action to the molten bath, makes molten mass more even.Simultaneously, the organic principle and the inorganic constituents of radioactive waste are separated, and after the inorganic composition process high-temperature fusion, the firming body performance of formation is more stable.

Further, the radioactive waste disposal route that the embodiment of the invention provides is when handling radioactive waste, from sending into plasma working gas amount seldom along the through hole of electrode axis direction, can reduce the volatilization of radioactive nuclide, improve the arresting efficiency of nucleic in the product firming body.

Referring to Fig. 3, be the radioactive waste treatment facility first example structure synoptic diagram provided by the invention, as shown in Figure 3: this radioactive waste treatment facility comprises: body of heater 1, the bell 2 that fastens with body of heater, from the cooling device 4 of outer wrap body of heater and the electrode 3 of going into body of heater from bell 2 or body of heater 1 top oblique cutting.

Body of heater 1 is the uncovered column type, is made by metal material, does not wherein add fire resistive material and insulation material; This body of heater 1 is used to hold the molten bath that formed by cold inorganic wastes fusion and pending radioactive waste; Body of heater 1 bottom is provided with molten mass floss hole 11, is used for the molten mass that is enclosed with the radioactive waste inorganic constituents is discharged body of heater 1.

Be provided with charging aperture 21 directly over the bell 2, be used in body of heater 1, dropping into cold inorganic wastes and pending radioactive waste; Around the charging aperture 21 or body of heater 1 top is provided with electrode patchhole 22, and the utmost point 3 that is used to power is gone in the body of heater 1 from bell 2 or body of heater 1 top oblique cutting; Also be provided with exhaust port 23 on the bell 2, be used for radioactive waste by pyrolysis after the gas that forms of its organic principle discharge body of heater 1.

Cooling device 4, the molten bath that is used in body of heater 1 forms the stage at first, and the "dead" inorganic wastes in body of heater 1 starts when beginning fusion, and body of heater 1 is remained on 25 ℃ ~ 150 ℃, makes in the body of heater 1 to solidify the formation scull attached to the inorganic wastes on the inwall; And when radioactive waste treatment facility is handled radioactive waste the temperature of control body of heater 1.

Electrode 3 is provided with the through hole 32(of penetrating electrode referring to Fig. 4 on axis direction, not shown among Fig. 3), through hole 32 is used for input plasma working gas in body of heater 1; Electrode 3 is used for forming electric arc after energising, the heating plasma working gas forms the heat plasma body region above the inorganic wastes in body of heater 1.

Implement radioactive waste disposal route and device that the embodiment of the invention provides, need not bottom electrode, body of heater need not fire resistive material and insulation material, the furnace wall has cooling device, molten mass in the burner hearth solidifies closing on the stove inner wall region, form one deck " scull ", the existence of " scull " does not directly contact the furnace wall with molten mass, prevent the radionuclide contamination body of heater, and make body of heater not be subject to processing the erosion of object and molten mass, thereby the corrosion resistance of device is stronger, makes this isolated plant be particularly suitable for the highly acid that comprises of process nuclear industry generation, strong basicities etc. are at the extremely strong refuse of interior corrosivity.Simultaneously, the organic principle and the inorganic constituents of radioactive waste are separated, and after the inorganic composition process high-temperature fusion, the firming body performance of formation is more stable.

Referring to Fig. 5, be the radioactive waste treatment facility second example structure synoptic diagram provided by the invention, in the present embodiment, with the structure of more detailed this radioactive waste treatment facility of description, as shown in Figure 4: this radioactive waste treatment facility comprises equally: body of heater 1, the bell 2 that fastens with body of heater, go into the electrode 3 of body of heater and from the cooling device 4 of outer wrap body of heater from bell 2 or body of heater 1 top oblique cutting.

Body of heater 1 is the uncovered column type, is made by metal material, and key is, does not add fire resistive material and insulation material in the body of heater 1.This body of heater 1 is used to hold the molten bath that formed by cold inorganic wastes fusion and pending radioactive waste; Body of heater 1 bottom is provided with molten mass floss hole 11, is used for the molten mass that is enclosed with the radioactive waste inorganic constituents is discharged body of heater 1.

More specifically, body of heater 1 is the uncovered column type, and its bottom 12 is level or the center circular arc to outer process; Described bottom of furnace body 12 central authorities are provided with molten mass floss hole 11, and this molten mass floss hole 11 is column type or funnel type.

Bell 2 tops are provided with charging aperture 21, are used for dropping in body of heater 1 cold inorganic wastes and pending radioactive waste; Around the charging aperture 21 or body of heater 1 top is provided with electrode patchhole 22, and the utmost point 3 that is used to power is gone in the body of heater 1 from bell 2 or body of heater 1 top oblique cutting; Also be provided with exhaust port 23 on the bell 2, be used for radioactive waste by pyrolysis after the gas that forms of its organic principle discharge body of heater 1.

Preferably, also be provided with standby mouthful 24 on the bell 2 and temperature-detecting device 5, temperature-detecting device 5 is used to detect in the body of heater 1, the temperature of top, molten bath; Can be used as view window for standby mouthful 24, be used for the state that view window is used to observe molten bath and radioactive waste, also can be used as oxygen or air in.

The electrode patchhole 22 on the bell 2 or body of heater 1 top is 2 ~ 3, and each electrode patchhole 22 has an electrode 3 to insert in the body of heater 1; There is angle between each electrode 3, can being in contact with one another that electrode moves downward.If this radioactive waste treatment facility adopts two electrodes, then the polarity of two electrodes is opposite, and the setting of its electrode 3 as shown in Figure 6; If radioactive waste treatment facility adopts three electrodes, then opposite or three electrodes of the polarity of electrode and two other electrode connect three-phase alternating-current supply, and the setting of its electrode 3 as shown in Figure 7.Further, each electrode patchhole 22 side on the bell 2 or body of heater 1 top are equipped with an electrod driving device 31, are used for moving up and down and left rotation and right rotation of control electrode 3.

More specifically, electrode 3 is provided with the through hole 32(of penetrating electrode referring to Fig. 4 on axis direction, not shown among Fig. 5), through hole 32 is used for input plasma working gas in body of heater 1; Electrode 3 is used for after energising the electrode 3 that is in contact with one another being drawn back, and makes between each electrode 3 and forms electric arc; And the through hole 32 by on axis direction, running through described electrode, input plasma working gas in body of heater 1 promptly adopts the mode starting electrode work of contact arcing.Electric arc between the electrode 3 forms the heat plasma body region with the heating plasma working gas above the inorganic wastes in body of heater 1.

After radioactive waste enters body of heater from charging aperture 21, directly enter the heat plasma body region, after pyrolysis or fusion, organic principle is wherein become micromolecule (mainly being H2 and CO) gas by pyrolytic gasification, discharge from the exhaust port 11 of radioactive waste treatment facility, discharge through further purification back after the discharge; Inorganic constituents in the radioactive waste is by the high-temperature fusion of hot plasma, hazard component such as radioactive nuclide, heavy metal is dissolved or be included in the molten mass, molten mass is discharged from the floss hole 11 of bottom of furnace body, forms the firming body of stable performance after cooling off, and reorganizes and outfit the back and disposes.Further, when handling radioactive waste, the heat plasma body region is kept between electrode and molten mass, has played the beating action to the molten bath, makes molten mass more even, and the performance of product firming body is better

In the present embodiment, from seldom along the plasma working gas amount of sending into the through hole 32 of electrode axis direction, in the molten bath in the stove and the furnace cavity airflow convection intensity of top, molten bath low, thereby reduced air-flow carrying secretly to radioactive nuclide, thereby reduce the volatilization of radioactive nuclide, improve the arresting efficiency of nucleic in the product firming body.

Preferably, the electrode 3 in the present embodiment adopts carbon materials, and it is simple in structure, dependable performance, long service life; Plasma takes place easily simultaneously, can continue continuously in working order, avoid energy loss that thermal source parts water-cooled is caused and to the frequent replacing of electrode, energy utilization efficiency is higher, reduce production cost, reduced the irradiated risk of maintenance workload and staff.

Cooling device 4, the molten bath in body of heater 1 starts when forming the stage at first, and body of heater 1 is cooled to 25 ℃ ~ 150 ℃, makes in the body of heater 1 to solidify the formation scull attached to the inorganic wastes on the inwall; And when radioactive waste treatment facility is handled radioactive waste the temperature of control body of heater 1.

More specifically, described cooling device 4 comprises: the temperature sensing module 61,62 that is arranged at cooling device cooling medium import and export, from outer wrap furnace body outer wall and bottom refrigerating module, and the flow-control module 43 that is positioned at coolant entrance 41 places of refrigerating module.

Temperature sensing module 61,62 is used for the temperature of sensing cooling medium; Flow-control module 43 is used for the temperature according to the cooling medium of 61,62 sensings of described temperature sensing module, and control is by the flow of the cooling medium in the refrigerating module; Refrigerating module comprises the mezzanine space formation that is used to hold cooling medium between internal layer, skin and the ectonexine; Its skin is provided with coolant outlet 42 and coolant entrance 41, and the position of coolant outlet 42 is higher than the position of coolant entrance 41.

More specifically, the molten bath of flow-control module 43 in body of heater forms at first, also do not drop into radioactive waste, and when the "dead" inorganic wastes in the described body of heater begins fusion, increase the coolant flow in the refrigerating module, body of heater is remained on 25 ℃ ~ 150 ℃, the melt temperature of close inboard wall of furnace body in the molten bath in the body of heater is descended, attached to solidifying the formation scull on the inwall, the existence of scull can directly not contact inboard wall of furnace body with molten mass, prevent the radionuclide contamination body of heater, also make body of heater not be subjected to the erosion of radioactive waste and molten mass simultaneously.

Flow-control module 43 is handled in the radioactive waste process at radioactive waste treatment facility, if temperature sensing module 62 senses furnace body temperature and is higher than 80 ℃, then increases the coolant flow in the refrigerating module; If temperature sensing module 62 senses furnace body temperature and is lower than 50 ℃, then reduce the coolant flow in the refrigerating module 42.

Further, the radioactive waste treatment facility that present embodiment provides also comprises the tail gas treatment device (as shown in Figure 8) that is connected with exhaust port 23, is used for the gas of discharging in the body of heater is further evolved.This tail gas treatment device comprises: the refrigeratory 70 of Lian Jieing, high-temperature filter 71, first high efficiency particulate air filter 72, secondary combustion chamber 73, heat exchanger 74, scrubbing tower 75, well heater 76, second high efficiency particulate air filter 77, activated carbon adsorber 78, Benitration reactor 79 successively.

Refrigeratory 70 is used for the gas of discharging body of heater is lowered the temperature, and prevents the filtrator operate as normal that the too high influence of its temperature is follow-up.

High-temperature filter 71 is used for the particle of elimination tail gas, and by charging aperture it is sent back in the body of heater of radioactive waste treatment facility.

First high efficiency particulate air filter 72 is used for the aerosol particle of elimination tail gas, and by charging aperture it is sent back in the body of heater of radioactive waste treatment facility.

Secondary combustion chamber 73 is used for the inflammable gas of burning gases.

Heat exchanger 74 is used for the cooling of the gas after the burning is prevented the generation of dioxin.

Scrubbing tower 75 is used for dust is further lowered the temperature, deacidifies, removed to gas.

Well heater 76 is used for gas is reheated to more than the dew point.

Second high efficiency particulate air filter 77 is used for the elimination aerosol particle, and by charging aperture it is sent back in the body of heater of radioactive waste treatment facility.

Activated carbon adsorber 78 is used to adsorb heavy metal, organic contaminant.

Benitration reactor 79 is used to remove oxides of nitrogen.

In tail gas treatment device, the particle of carrying secretly in the tail gas is sent body of heater again back to, reduces volatile nuclide and heavy metal and is carried secretly by tail gas, increases the arresting efficiency of nucleic.Through the tail gas that tail gas treatment device was handled, guarantee environmental sound, can directly discharge by chimney.

Implement the radioactive waste treatment facility that the embodiment of the invention provides, the initial period that forms in the molten bath, cooling device makes the molten mass in the body of heater solidify closing on the stove inner wall region, form one deck " scull ", the existence of " scull " does not directly contact the furnace wall with molten mass, prevent the radionuclide contamination body of heater, and make body of heater not be subject to processing the erosion of object and molten mass, thereby the corrosion resistance of device is stronger, makes this isolated plant be particularly suitable for the extremely strong refuse of corrosivity that comprises highly acid, strong basicity etc. that process nuclear industry produces.

Further, the radioactive waste treatment facility that the embodiment of the invention provides, when handling radioactive waste, hot plasma is kept between electrode and molten mass, and hot plasma has played the beating action to the molten bath, makes molten mass more even.Simultaneously, the organic principle and the inorganic constituents of radioactive waste are separated, and after the inorganic composition process high-temperature fusion, the firming body performance of formation is more stable.

Further, the radioactive waste treatment facility that the embodiment of the invention provides is when handling radioactive waste, from sending into plasma working gas amount seldom along the through hole of electrode axis direction, can reduce the volatilization of radioactive nuclide, improve the arresting efficiency of nucleic in the product firming body.

Referring to Fig. 9, be radioactive waste disposal route the 3rd embodiment schematic flow sheet provided by the invention, in the present embodiment, will the detailed process of this radioactive waste disposal route be described in conjunction with radwaste system as shown in Figure 8.

At step S300, drop into cold inorganic wastes in the body of heater 1 by charging aperture 21 radiotropism waste treatment equipments.

At step S301, power-on, the electrode 3 of controlling radioactive waste treatment facilities by electrod driving device 31 moves downward to being in contact with one another and forming path.

At step S302, by electrod driving device 31 electrode 3 that is in contact with one another is drawn back, make between each electrode 3 and form electric arc; Distance between the electrode 3 can be regulated by electrod driving device 31, but should guarantee not current interruption between the electrode.Simultaneously, by the through hole 32 on electrode 3 axis directions, input plasma working gas in body of heater 1 promptly adopts the mode starting electrode work of contact arcing.

At step S303, the plasma working gas is heated under arcing, forms the heat plasma body region above the inorganic wastes in body of heater, and the inorganic wastes that drops in advance in the body of heater is melted, and forms the molten bath in the burner hearth of body of heater 1.

At step S304, the initial period that forms in the molten bath, also do not drop into radioactive waste, and when the "dead" inorganic wastes in the described body of heater begins fusion, flow-control module 43 increases the flow of the cooling medium that flows into refrigerating module, and described body of heater is remained on 25 ℃ ~ 150 ℃, and the melt temperature of close inboard wall of furnace body in the molten bath in the body of heater is descended, attached to solidifying the formation scull on the inwall, isolated inboard wall of furnace body contacts with molten mass.

At step S305, in body of heater 1, drop into pending radioactive waste by charging aperture 21, pending radioactive waste enters the heat plasma body region straight, and in the heat plasma body region by pyrolysis or fusion.Further, after the pending radioactive waste process heat plasma body region, its inorganic constituents enters the molten bath; The inorganic constituents of part radioactive waste enters molten bath fashion is not melted, and accumulates in weld pool surface and forms the cold cap of one deck.Cold cap can be caught the nucleic that volatilizees in the processing procedure and the flying dust of generation, after being caught by cold cap, the flying dust that produces in the radioactive nuclide that volatilizes in the molten bath and the processing procedure reenters the molten bath, the output of flying dust in the reduction processing procedure suppresses radioactive nuclide simultaneously and heavy metal volatilizees in tail gas.

So in embodiments of the present invention, in throwing in the radioactive waste process, by the speed of control radioactive waste 1 charging in stove, the cold cap thickness that the top, molten bath forms in the control burner hearth.More specifically, can know the situation of the cold cap in top, molten bath by temperature-detecting device 5 and view window.When the furnace cavity temperature greater than 600 ℃ or observe cold cap when thin, should strengthen inventory, increase cover thickness; When the furnace cavity temperature less than 250 ℃ or observe cold cap when thicker, should reduce inventory, suitably reduce cover thickness.

At step S306, the organic principle of radioactive waste after by pyrolysis discharged bodies of heater by exhaust port 23, the back discharging of further evolving after by pyrolytic gasification.Inorganic constituents in the radioactive waste is by the high-temperature fusion of plasma, hazard component such as radioactive nuclide, heavy metal is dissolved or be included in the molten mass, molten mass is discharged from the floss hole of bottom of furnace body, forms the firming body of stable performance after cooling off, and reorganizes and outfit the back and disposes.

Implement the radioactive waste disposal route that the embodiment of the invention provides, the initial period that forms in the molten bath, cooling device makes the molten mass in the body of heater solidify closing on the stove inner wall region, form one deck " scull ", the existence of " scull " does not directly contact the furnace wall with molten mass, prevent the radionuclide contamination body of heater, and make body of heater not be subject to processing the erosion of object and molten mass, thereby the corrosion resistance of device is stronger, makes this isolated plant be particularly suitable for the extremely strong refuse of corrosivity that comprises highly acid, strong basicity etc. that process nuclear industry produces.

Further, the radioactive waste disposal route that the embodiment of the invention provides, when handling radioactive waste, the top, molten bath forms the cold cap of one deck treating material in the burner hearth, can reduce the volatilization of radioactive nuclide in tail gas, and the output of flying dust in the reduction processing procedure, alleviate the pressure and the cost of tail gas clean-up.

Further, the radioactive waste disposal route that the embodiment of the invention provides, when handling radioactive waste, hot plasma is kept between electrode and molten mass, and hot plasma has played the beating action to the molten bath, makes molten mass more even.Simultaneously, the organic principle and the inorganic constituents of radioactive waste are separated, and after the inorganic composition process high-temperature fusion, the firming body performance of formation is more stable.

Further, the radioactive waste disposal route that the embodiment of the invention provides is when handling radioactive waste, from sending into plasma working gas amount seldom along the through hole of electrode axis direction, can reduce the volatilization of radioactive nuclide, improve the arresting efficiency of nucleic in the product firming body.Simultaneously, hot plasma is kept between electrode and molten mass, and hot plasma has played the beating action to the molten bath, makes molten mass more even, and the performance of product firming body is better.

One of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that all or part of flow process that realizes in the foregoing description method, be to instruct relevant hardware to finish by computer program, described program can be stored in the computer read/write memory medium, this program can comprise the flow process as the embodiment of above-mentioned each side method when carrying out.Wherein, described storage medium can be magnetic disc, CD, read-only storage memory body (Read-Only Memory, ROM) or at random store memory body (Random Access Memory, RAM) etc.

Above disclosed is a kind of preferred embodiment of the present invention only, can not limit the present invention's interest field certainly with this, and therefore the equivalent variations of doing according to claim of the present invention still belongs to the scope that the present invention is contained.

Claims (14)

1. a radioactive waste disposal route is characterized in that, comprising:
Drop into cold inorganic wastes in the body of heater of radiotropism waste treatment equipment, and, above described inorganic wastes, form the heat plasma body region by the electrode arcing;
Heat the inorganic wastes in the described body of heater, make described inorganic wastes fusion and form the molten bath;
Start cooling device, described body of heater is cooled to 25 ℃ ~ 150 ℃, make in the body of heater and solidify the formation scull attached to the inorganic wastes on the inwall;
Drop into pending radioactive waste in body of heater, the organic principle that makes described radioactive waste is by pyrolysis, and the gas of generation is discharged body of heater; The inorganic constituents of described radioactive waste enters the molten bath, forms molten mass after the fusion and discharges body of heater.
2. radioactive waste disposal route as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, and is described by the electrode arcing, forms the heat plasma body region above described inorganic wastes, comprising:
Power-on, the electrode of controlling described radioactive waste treatment facility is in contact with one another and forms path; Described electrode is inserted in the body of heater by the bell or the upper of furnace body of described radioactive waste treatment facility;
The electrode that is in contact with one another is drawn back, make between each electrode and form electric arc; And by on axis direction, running through the through hole of described electrode, input plasma working gas in body of heater;
Described plasma working gas is heated under arcing, forms the heat plasma body region above the inorganic wastes in body of heater.
3. radioactive waste disposal route as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, described startup cooling device remains on 25 ℃ ~ 150 ℃ with described body of heater, makes in the body of heater to solidify the formation scull attached to the inorganic wastes on the inwall, comprising:
After "dead" inorganic wastes in described body of heater begins fusion, start cooling device, it is cooled off from the outside of described body of heater; Electrode continues the inorganic wastes in the described body of heater of heating, makes described inorganic wastes keep molten condition;
Cooling device is cooled to 25 ℃ ~ 150 ℃ with described body of heater, makes in the body of heater to descend attached to the inorganic wastes temperature on the inwall thereupon, solidifies to form the thick scull of 1cm ~ 20cm.
4. radioactive waste disposal route as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, describedly drops into pending radioactive waste in body of heater, and the organic principle that makes described radioactive waste is by pyrolysis, and the gas of generation is discharged body of heater; The inorganic constituents of described radioactive waste enters the molten bath, forms molten mass after the fusion and discharges body of heater, comprising:
In body of heater, drop into pending radioactive waste;
Described pending radioactive waste is by the high temperature in described hot plasma and molten bath heating, and its organic principle is discharged body of heater after by pyrolytic gasification; Its inorganic constituents enters the molten bath;
The inorganic constituents of described radioactive waste enters the molten bath and when being melted, accumulates in weld pool surface, forms the cold cap of one deck;
The inorganic constituents of described radioactive waste enters the molten bath and is melted the back and forms molten mass discharge body of heater, forms the firming body of stable performance after cooling off.
5. radioactive waste disposal route as claimed in claim 4 is characterized in that, describedly drops into pending radioactive waste comprise in body of heater:
By control drops into pending radioactive waste in body of heater speed, the cold cap thickness that the top, molten bath forms in the control burner hearth;
When charging aperture temperature in the body of heater during greater than 600 ℃, the speed of the pending radioactive waste of increasing input increases cover thickness; When temperature during less than 250 ℃, reduce the speed that drops into pending radioactive waste, reduce cold cap thickness.
6. as each described radioactive waste disposal route in the claim 1 to 5, it is characterized in that described organic principle is discharged after the body of heater after by pyrolytic gasification, also comprises:
The gas of discharging body of heater is lowered the temperature, prevent the filtrator operate as normal that the too high influence of its temperature is follow-up;
Particle in the elimination gas and aerosol particle are sent it in body of heater of radioactive waste treatment facility back to;
Inflammable gas in the burning gases, and, prevent the generation of dioxin to the cooling of the gas after the described burning;
Gas is further lowered the temperature, deacidifies, removed dust, and gas is reheated to more than the dew point;
The elimination aerosol particle is sent it in body of heater of radioactive waste treatment facility back to;
Absorption heavy metal, organic contaminant are removed oxides of nitrogen.
7. a radioactive waste treatment facility is characterized in that, comprising: body of heater, the bell that fastens with described body of heater, from the cooling device of the described body of heater of outer wrap and the electrode of going into body of heater from described bell or upper of furnace body oblique cutting;
Described body of heater is the uncovered column type, is made by metal material, does not wherein add fire resistive material and insulation material; This body of heater is used to hold the molten bath that formed by cold inorganic wastes fusion and pending radioactive waste; Described bottom of furnace body is provided with the molten mass floss hole, and the molten mass that is used for forming after the fusion of radioactive waste inorganic constituents is discharged body of heater;
Described bell top is provided with charging aperture, is used for dropping in body of heater cold inorganic wastes and pending radioactive waste; Around the described charging aperture or upper of furnace body be provided with the electrode patchhole, be used for going in the body of heater from bell or upper of furnace body oblique cutting for described electrode; Also be provided with exhaust port on the described bell, be used for the gas that organic principle with radioactive waste forms after by pyrolysis and discharge body of heater;
Described cooling device, the molten bath that is used in body of heater forms the stage at first, "dead" inorganic wastes in described body of heater starts when beginning fusion, and described body of heater is remained on 25 ℃ ~ 150 ℃, makes in the body of heater to solidify the formation scull attached to the inorganic wastes on the inwall; And when described radioactive waste treatment facility is handled radioactive waste the control stove body temperature;
Described electrode is provided with the through hole that runs through described electrode on axis direction, described through hole is used for input plasma working gas in body of heater; Described electrode is used for forming electric arc after energising, heats described plasma working gas, forms the heat plasma body region above the inorganic wastes in body of heater.
8. radioactive waste treatment facility as claimed in claim 7 is characterized in that, described body of heater is the uncovered column type, is level or the center circular arc to outer process bottom it; Described bottom of furnace body central authorities are provided with the molten mass floss hole, and this molten mass floss hole is column type or funnel type.
9. radioactive waste treatment facility as claimed in claim 7 is characterized in that, on the described bell or upper of furnace body be provided with 2 ~ 3 electrode patchholes, each electrode patchhole has electrode to insert in the body of heater; There is angle between each electrode, can being in contact with one another that electrode moves downward;
Each electrode patchhole on the described bell is other to be equipped with an electrod driving device, is used for moving up and down and left rotation and right rotation of control electrode.
10. radioactive waste treatment facility as claimed in claim 9 is characterized in that, if radioactive waste treatment facility adopts two electrodes, then the polarity of two electrodes is opposite; If radioactive waste treatment facility adopts three electrodes, then opposite or three electrodes of the polarity of electrode and two other electrode connect three-phase alternating-current supply.
11. radioactive waste treatment facility as claimed in claim 10 is characterized in that, also is provided with temperature-detecting device and view window on the described bell;
Described temperature-detecting device is used to detect in the body of heater, the temperature of top, molten bath; Described view window is used to observe the state of molten bath and radioactive waste.
12. radioactive waste treatment facility as claimed in claim 7, it is characterized in that, described cooling device comprises: from the refrigerating module of outer wrap furnace body outer wall and bottom, be arranged at the temperature sensing module of cooling device cooling medium import and export, and the flow-control module that is positioned at the coolant inlet place of refrigerating module;
The temperature sensing module is used for the temperature of sensing cooling medium; Flow-control module is used for the temperature according to the cooling medium of described temperature sensing module institute sensing, and control is by the flow of the cooling medium of described refrigerating module; Refrigerating module comprises the mezzanine space formation that is used to hold cooling medium between internal layer, skin and the ectonexine; Its skin is provided with coolant outlet and coolant entrance.
13. radioactive waste treatment facility as claimed in claim 12, it is characterized in that, the molten bath of flow-control module in body of heater forms at first, also do not drop into radioactive waste, and when the "dead" inorganic wastes in the described body of heater begins fusion, increase the coolant flow in the refrigerating module, body of heater is remained on 25 ℃ ~ 150 ℃, make in the body of heater and solidify the formation scull attached to the inorganic wastes on the inwall;
Flow-control module is handled in the radioactive waste process at described radioactive waste treatment facility, if described temperature sensing module senses is higher than 80 ℃ to cooling device exit coolant temperature, then increases the coolant flow in the described refrigerating module; If described temperature sensing module senses is lower than 50 ℃ to cooling device exit coolant temperature, then reduce the coolant flow in the described refrigerating module.
14., it is characterized in that described radioactive waste treatment facility also comprises the tail gas treatment device that is connected with exhaust port as the described radioactive waste treatment facility of claim 7 to 13, be used for the gas of discharging in the body of heater is further purified;
This tail gas treatment device comprises: the refrigeratory of Lian Jieing, high-temperature filter, first high efficiency particulate air filter, secondary combustion chamber, heat exchanger, scrubbing tower, well heater, second high efficiency particulate air filter, activated carbon adsorber, Benitration reactor successively;
Described refrigeratory is used for the gas of discharging body of heater is lowered the temperature, and prevents the filtrator operate as normal that the too high influence of its temperature is follow-up;
Described high-temperature filter is used for the particle of elimination gas, and by charging aperture it is sent back in the body of heater of radioactive waste treatment facility;
Described first high efficiency particulate air filter is used for the aerosol particle of elimination gas, and by charging aperture it is sent back in the body of heater of radioactive waste treatment facility;
Described secondary combustion chamber is used for the inflammable gas of burning gases;
Described heat exchanger is used for the cooling of the gas after the burning is prevented the generation of dioxin;
Described scrubbing tower is used for dust is further lowered the temperature, deacidifies, removed to gas;
Described well heater is used for gas is reheated to more than the dew point;
Described second high efficiency particulate air filter is used for the elimination aerosol particle, and by charging aperture it is sent back in the body of heater of radioactive waste treatment facility;
Described activated carbon adsorber is used to adsorb heavy metal, organic contaminant;
Described Benitration reactor is used to remove oxides of nitrogen.
CN 201110062940 2011-03-16 2011-03-16 Method and device for treating radioactive wastes CN102157215B (en)

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CN102646455B (en) * 2012-04-26 2014-09-17 北京市奥利爱得科技发展有限公司 Method and system for radioactivity elimination of radioactive wastes
CN102855953A (en) * 2012-04-27 2013-01-02 西南科技大学 Continuous converting and sintering device for performing microwave high-temperature treatment on radioactive waste
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CN104658627A (en) * 2015-02-02 2015-05-27 中科华核电技术研究院有限公司 Solidified body used for performing glass curing process on low-medium radioactive waste and method
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CN106653130A (en) * 2017-01-23 2017-05-10 青岛天和清原科技有限公司 Middle-low radioactive waste treatment device
CN106782734A (en) * 2017-01-23 2017-05-31 青岛天和清原科技有限公司 A kind of middle cool waste processing method
CN106653130B (en) * 2017-01-23 2017-11-24 青岛天和清原科技有限公司 A kind of middle cool waste processing unit
CN107606621A (en) * 2017-08-31 2018-01-19 中国科学院力学研究所 A kind of centrifugal solid pollutant high temperature smelting furnace based on plasma
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