CN102150526B - Planting method for improving production environment of potatoes - Google Patents

Planting method for improving production environment of potatoes Download PDF

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CN102150526B
CN102150526B CN 201010566535 CN201010566535A CN102150526B CN 102150526 B CN102150526 B CN 102150526B CN 201010566535 CN201010566535 CN 201010566535 CN 201010566535 A CN201010566535 A CN 201010566535A CN 102150526 B CN102150526 B CN 102150526B
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potato
potato seed
seed
fertilizer
soil
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CN102150526A (en
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徐世宏
李如平
杨为芳
陈明才
刘文奇
谭素宁
赵凤芝
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广西壮族自治区农业技术推广总站
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Abstract

The invention discloses a planting method for improving the production environment of potatoes, which comprises the following steps: regularly placing treated potato seeds on the surface of soil which is not ploughed or fallowed or slightly leveled, with the eyes of the seeds close to the soil downwards or sideways; applying high-quality thoroughly-decomposed farmyard manure or compound fertilizer beside the potato seeds, wherein the farmyard manure or fertilizer can not be in contact with the potato seeds; then covering 3-4 grass or thin soil layers on the surfaces of the potato seeds at intervals, or additionally covering one mulching film layer before covering the top layer; and then carrying out field management, and harvesting at the right time. By using the planting method, the production environment of potatoes can be improved, the yield and commodity rate can be increased, labor and time are saved, and the ecological environment is protected, thereby being beneficial to improving the soil structure and enhancing the soil productivity.

Description

Improve the implantation methods of production environment of potatoes
Technical field
The present invention relates to the potato culture field, be specially a kind of implantation methods that improves production environment of potatoes.
Technical background
Potato raw long period weak point, strong adaptability, per unit area yield are high, stem tuber is nutritious, of many uses, are the fourth-largest cereal crops that are only second in the world paddy and wheat, corn.The traditional cultivation method of potato is to broadcast front soil deeptillage, smooth again, applies simultaneously base fertilizer; Then ditched furrow, dig bunch planting kind potato, earthing lid kind also will carry out 2~3 times cultivation and banking for growth and the knot potato environment that improves potato in process of growth again; When gathering, also soil to be opened, dig one by one potato.The shortcoming of this cultivation method is that potato is tied potato in soil, when expanding, stem tuber is subject to the extruding of earth, be unfavorable for expanding of stem tuber, resistance suffered in the situation of non-sandy loam is larger, general knot potato is smaller, and big-and-middle potato rate is low, and this implantation methods trivial operations, labour intensity is large, the effort of taking a lot of work.
Agricultural Scientist have attempted the new cultivation method of some potatos in recent years, no-tillage cultivation method such as potato, furrow directly to be ditched in the farmland after the autumn harvest potato seed is placed on Tu Mianshang, cover with straw or standing grain class grass, use sufficient fertilizer, by the time cauline leaf turns withered by green gradually flavescence, raise straw or standing grain class grass, just can directly choose and receive potato.Open source literature has also been reported some relevant contents, for example:
1, Chinese patent, application number: 200510031892.2 titles: a kind of method winter-fallowed paddy field plantation potato, open (bulletin) number: CN1723752 applies for (patent right) people: Nanfang Potato Industrialization Engineering Tech. Co., Ltd., Hu'nan Prov, and the address: (design) people: Xiong Xingyao is invented in the Changsha, Hunan Furong District Hunan Agriculture University; Liu Mingyue; What Long March, summary: a kind of method winter-fallowed paddy field plantation potato, it comprises the steps: the selection of (1) kind: select vegetative period short, adaptable early-maturing variety; (2) potato seed is processed: seed soaking, and stripping and slicing, air-dry, seed dressing; (3) site preparation and fertilization: do furrow at the winter-fallowed paddy field trench digging, again at furrow face dispensing nitrogen, phosphorus, potash fertilizer; (4) begin sowing in good time: generally sow in mid or late December; (5) mulching straw and mulch film: after potato seed sets, straw is covered in the potato seed, again covering with plastic film on straw; (6) rupture of membranes draws seedling: when seedling began to expose straw, beginning teleblem, rupture of membranes was drawn seedling at the seedling place; (7) plant regulation and control: squaring period working concentration be that the uniconazole P of 100-200 mg/kg suppresses acrial part excessive growth; (8) extermination of disease and insect pest; (9) gather in the crops in good time.The present invention saves man-hour, and output is high, product are of fine quality, and is conducive to improve the rice field fertility, improves the paddy soil structure.
2, Chinese patent, application number: 200810079785.0 applyings date: 2008.11.12 title: high-yield culture technique for toxicity-removing white potato, open (bulletin) number: CN101401512 applies for (patent right) people: Qinyuan Virus-free Potato Development Service Center, address: fish spring village, Han Hong township, Qinyuan County, Shanxi Province, invention (design) people: Sun Jiangong; Li Si's water, summary: a kind of high-yield culture technique for toxicity-removing white potato, bask seeds by in advance vernalization, cultivate short strong sprout, rational potato seed planting depth and planting density, and at link reasonable managements such as fertilising, insect-pest, ridgings, make toxicity-removing white potato realize high yield, every mu can be increased production more than 500 kilograms.
3, Chinese patent, application number: 200710194980.3 titles: the method for High Yield Potato plantation, open (bulletin) number: CN101411274 applies for (patent right) people: Wang Jundou; Zhou Jianhua, address: invention (design) people: the Wang Jundou of Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Ministry of Economic Affaris of the Xincheng District federation of trade unions, summary: a kind of method of High Yield Potato plantation, it is the implantation methods that has changed traditional potato fully, technical characterictic is that the length of potato vernalization is long greater than traditional bud, the degree of depth of plantation is also greater than traditional degree of depth, because the bud length that is embedded in the soil is large, created condition both for the many fructufies of root, while also provides advantage for the drought resisting of this crop, because the vernalization phase is greatly in advance the planting season of tradition plantation potato, so when can increase exponentially the output of potato, can for improving the quality of potato, improve the commodity value of this crop and create condition again.Adopt the potato of such method plantation, the output that individual plant is the highest can reach 4 kilograms, and every mu of irrigated land potato yield generally speaking is about ten thousand jin.The potato of planting in the non-irrigated land of same arid exceeds about one times than the tradition plantation with the output of this technology.
4, Chinese patent, application number: 200710191344.5 applyings date: 2007.12.18 title: no-tillage high-yield culture technique of potato, open (bulletin) number: CN101461304, application (patent right) people: Yang Xiulan, address: No. 39, Gao Jian town, Hongze County, Huai’an, Jiangsu Province Dongfeng Road, invention (design) people: Yang Xiulan, summary, the no-tillage cultivation technology of a kind of potato, non-tillage field, directly ditch into furrow potato seed is placed on Tu Mianshang, cover with straw, use sufficient fertilizer, in the plantation and growth of potato, rationally execute inorganic fertilizer and agricultural chemicals, guarantee ripe High Yield Potato.
5, Chinese patent, application number: 200910138522.7, title: the method for cultivating potatoes with straws in winter and spring, open (bulletin) number: CN101595801, application (patent right) people: Kong Yun is flourish, address: Room 601, Building 184, flood dragon river, Zhenhai District, Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province street refinery company residential block, invention (design) people: Kong Yun is flourish, summary: with " method of cultivating potatoes with straws in winter and spring ", technical characteristics is: utilize the uncultivated large tracts of land paddy field in south China Winter-Spring, use the growth characteristics of potato, with the method for thick straw culture underglass potato, potato is produced reach high-quality, high yield, good harvest.Major technique of the present invention is by using the growth characteristics of potato, to the seed selection of potato, breeding, whole ground, plantation, rational close planting, the good harvest of the realization winter-spring season potatos such as control, results of method, rich water field management, damage by disease and insect with thick straw culture underglass potato.
The implantation methods of the potato that above-mentioned open source literature is introduced, propose: the implantation methods of potato mainly comprises seed selection, sowing, fertilising, lid grass, blinding or epiphragma, field management, prevention and elimination of disease and pests and results, these methods can improve the output of potato to a certain extent, but the weak point that exists is because sowing only covers 1 layer of grass or soil, potato raw growth process root is undeveloped, knot potato environment is poor, and output does not also increase.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of can solve the knot potato environment that the potato traditional planting technology exists poor, yield poorly, trivial operations, labour intensity is large, the problem of the effort of taking a lot of work provides a kind of improvement knot potato environment, the potato seed method for planting that saves labor.
The implantation methods that the present invention improves production environment of potatoes is characterised in that: not through turning over plow harrow or slightly make smooth soil surface, with the regular placement of the seed potato of processing, eye downwards or side direction press close to native face, in potato seed next door dispensing high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure or composite fertilizer, fertilizer can not contact with potato seed, then cover 3-4 layer grass or thin soil at the potato seed spaced surface, perhaps add the lid layer mulch film at inferior top layer, such layering repeatedly interval covering can promote root flourishing, knot potato environment is good, improve significantly the output of potato, the present invention carries out field management and in good time results after also comprising plantation.
Described seed potato process be to potato seed carry out disinfection, stripping and slicing, seed dressing and vernalization processes.
Above-described regular placement potato seed is that potato seed " product " font or "the" shape are put at soil surface.
Above-described grass layer in the potato seed surface coverage is straw, wheat straw, maize straw, sugarcane top, standing grain shape weeds and the leaf smashed, also can be sawdust, the corn ear heart, and thickness is 3~5cm, and the corn ear heart must be broken into 1-5cm because too thick 2Particle, grass layer is paved with whole furrow face and does not leave a blank.
Above-described at potato seed spaced surface covering 3-4 layer grass or thin soil, be the lid layer grass, the lid layer thin soil can not cover two-layer grass or two-layer thin soil simultaneously again.
Above-described thin soil in the potato seed surface coverage is soft fine earth, or is mixed with the fine earth of some farmyard manures, composite fertilizer, and thickness is 3~5cm.
Above-described mulch film, black degradable mulch preferably, can substantially become fractionlet in 3-5 month, and dissolve at leisure in soil, even become the fertilizer that absorbs for crops, and such as: modified starch-polyethylene degradable film, shitosan-polyethylene degradable film, vegetable fiber-polyethylene degradable film etc.
The above-described mulch film of adding a cover, mulch film will be adjacent to straw or soil layer, mulch film is not staved, and covers 3~5cm fine earth on the film.
Below be several concrete grammar of the present invention:
Method one
(1) potato seed, field are processed: the potato seed of selected mistake is carried out disinfection, waits to broadcast after the stripping and slicing, seed dressing, vernalization, and no-tillage cultivation only needs the field face is slightly done smooth getting final product, the according to a conventional method smooth field face of the cultivation of turning over.
(2) implantation methods:
The first step, pendulum kind: potato seed " product " font is placed, and the downward or side direction of eye is pressed close to native face, line-spacing 30cm, 20cm is respectively stayed on the furrow limit, spacing in the rows 25~30cm, furrow face width 70~100cm, furrow width 40cm, every drill seeding kind 2~3 row.Second step, fertilising: row replacement fertilizer is discharged in the middle of two row potato seeds, but fertilizer can not contact with potato seed.The general every mu of need of base manure are executed high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure 1000~1500kg, 45% potassium sulphate type ternary composite fertilizer 80~100kg, potassium sulphate 20~25kg.The 3rd step, blinding: after the fertilising, with fine earth drowning potato seed and fertilizer, the about 5cm of thickness.In the 4th step, lid grass: behind the potato seed lid thin soil, evenly, fitly mulching straw, wheat straw, maize straw, sugarcane top and standing grain shape weeds, also can be the heart-broken grain of sawdust, corn ear, 3~5cm be paved with whole furrow face and leave a blank.The 5th step, blinding again: the even about 5cm of blinding on the straw face again behind the mulching straw.
(3) field management: growing period can suitably topdress according to the growth of cereal crop seedlings and promote growth or spray paclobutrazol control seedling; The overall principle of water management is to keep the field moistening, and whole breeding time, the moisture luffing was unsuitable excessive; Attention control late blight, ring rot, black stem, bacterial wilt and the damage by disease and insect such as aphid, cutworm are wanted in sick worm prevention and control.
(4) in good time results: when cauline leaf turns withered by green gradually flavescence, stolon and stem tuber come off easily, can gather in the crops when the stem tuber color and luster is normal.During results, only need straw is pushed aside, pick potato and get final product.
Method two:
(1) potato seed, field are processed: the potato seed of selected mistake is carried out disinfection, waits to broadcast after the stripping and slicing, seed dressing, vernalization, and no-tillage cultivation only needs the field face is slightly done smooth getting final product, the according to a conventional method smooth field face of the cultivation of turning over.
(2) implantation methods:
The first step, pendulum kind: potato seed " product " font is placed, and the downward or side direction of eye is pressed close to native face, line-spacing 30cm, 20cm is respectively stayed on the furrow limit, spacing in the rows 25~30cm, furrow face width 70~100cm, furrow width 40cm, every drill seeding kind 2~3 row.Second step, fertilising: row replacement fertilizer is discharged in the middle of two row potato seeds, but fertilizer can not contact with potato seed.The general every mu of need of base manure are executed high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure 1000~1500kg, 45% potassium sulphate type ternary composite fertilizer 80~100kg, potassium sulphate 20~25kg.The 3rd step, blinding: after the fertilising, with fine earth drowning potato seed and fertilizer, the about 5cm of thickness.In the 4th step, epiphragma: film is wide, and epiphragma is meticulous to be advisable greater than the wide 20~25cm of furrow (ridge), and film will be adjacent to straw, mulch film is not staved.The 5th step, blinding again: the about 5cm of uniform fold fine earth on the ground face again behind the covering with plastic film.
(3) field management: growing period can suitably topdress according to the growth of cereal crop seedlings and promote growth or spray paclobutrazol control seedling; The overall principle of water management is to keep the field moistening, and whole breeding time, the moisture luffing was unsuitable excessive; Attention control late blight, ring rot, black stem, bacterial wilt and the damage by disease and insect such as aphid, cutworm are wanted in sick worm prevention and control.
(4) in good time results: when cauline leaf turns withered by green gradually flavescence, stolon and stem tuber come off easily, can gather in the crops when the stem tuber color and luster is normal.During results, only need straw is pushed aside, pick potato and get final product.
Method three:
(1) potato seed, field are processed: the potato seed of selected mistake is carried out disinfection, waits to broadcast after the stripping and slicing, seed dressing, vernalization, and no-tillage cultivation only needs the field face is slightly done smooth getting final product, the according to a conventional method smooth field face of the cultivation of turning over.
(2) implantation methods:
The first step, pendulum kind: potato seed " product " font is placed, and the downward or side direction of eye is pressed close to native face, line-spacing 30cm, 20cm is respectively stayed on the furrow limit, spacing in the rows 25~30cm, furrow face width 70~100cm, furrow width 40cm, every drill seeding kind 2~3 row.Second step, blinding: with the potato seed of fine earth drowning, about thickness 5cm.In the 3rd step, fertilising: spread fertilizer over the fields, fertilizer is spread fertilizer over the fields on the furrow face uniformly, general every mu of need are executed high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure 1000~1500kg, 45% potassium sulphate type ternary composite fertilizer 80~100kg, potassium sulphate 20~25kg.In the 4th step, lid grass: behind the potato seed lid thin soil, evenly, fitly mulching straw, wheat straw, maize straw, sugarcane top and standing grain shape weeds, also can be the heart-broken grain of sawdust, corn ear, 3~5cm be paved with whole furrow face and leave a blank.The 5th step, blinding again: the even about 5cm of blinding on the straw face again behind the mulching straw.
(3) field management: growing period can suitably topdress according to the growth of cereal crop seedlings and promote growth or spray paclobutrazol control seedling; The overall principle of water management is to keep the field moistening, and whole breeding time, the moisture luffing was unsuitable excessive; Attention control late blight, ring rot, black stem, bacterial wilt and the damage by disease and insect such as aphid, cutworm are wanted in sick worm prevention and control.
(4) in good time results: when cauline leaf turns withered by green gradually flavescence, stolon and stem tuber come off easily, can gather in the crops when the stem tuber color and luster is normal.During results, only need straw is pushed aside, pick potato and get final product.
Method four:
(1) potato seed, field are processed: the potato seed of selected mistake is carried out disinfection, waits to broadcast after the stripping and slicing, seed dressing, vernalization, and no-tillage cultivation only needs the field face is slightly done smooth getting final product, the according to a conventional method smooth field face of the cultivation of turning over.
(2) implantation methods:
The first step, pendulum kind: potato seed " product " font is placed, and the downward or side direction of eye is pressed close to native face, line-spacing 30cm, 20cm is respectively stayed on the furrow limit, spacing in the rows 25~30cm, furrow face width 70~100cm, furrow width 40cm, every drill seeding kind 2~3 row.Second step, blinding: with the potato seed of fine earth drowning, about thickness 5cm.In the 3rd step, fertilising: spread fertilizer over the fields, fertilizer is spread fertilizer over the fields on the furrow face uniformly, general every mu of need are executed high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure 1000~1500kg, 45% potassium sulphate type ternary composite fertilizer 80~100kg, potassium sulphate 20~25kg.In the 4th step, the lid grass: after the fertilising, evenly, fitly covering mulching straw, wheat straw, maize straw, sugarcane top and standing grain shape weeds on the furrow face, also can be the heart-broken grain of sawdust, corn ear, and 3~5cm is paved with whole furrow face and does not leave a blank.In the 5th step, epiphragma: film is wide, and epiphragma is meticulous to be advisable greater than the wide 20~25cm of furrow (ridge), and film will be adjacent to straw, mulch film is not staved.The 6th step, blinding again: the about 5cm of uniform fold fine earth on the ground face again behind the covering with plastic film.
(3) field management: growing period can suitably topdress according to the growth of cereal crop seedlings and promote growth or spray paclobutrazol control seedling; The overall principle of water management is to keep the field moistening, and whole breeding time, the moisture luffing was unsuitable excessive; Attention control late blight, ring rot, black stem, bacterial wilt and the damage by disease and insect such as aphid, cutworm are wanted in sick worm prevention and control.
(4) in good time results: when cauline leaf turns withered by green gradually flavescence, stolon and stem tuber come off easily, can gather in the crops when the stem tuber color and luster is normal.During results, only need straw is pushed aside, pick potato and get final product.
The present invention compared with prior art, substantive distinguishing features that it is outstanding and significant progress are:
1, not through turning over plow harrow or slightly make smooth soil surface, regular placement potato seed has guaranteed that potato growth has suitable spacing and enough knot potato spaces.
2, layering repeatedly covers grass or thin soil in the interval, can promote the potato root flourishing, and knot potato environment is good, improves significantly output and the commodity rate of potato.
3, cover the black degradative plastic film, the one, can so that the root heat and moisture preserving of potato growth prevent erosion, the 2nd, effectively shading avoids potato to see that light turns green, the 3rd, avoided that common ground film is very difficult degrades the disadvantage of contaminated land and environment.
4, basically do not need intertillage to loosen the soil after the plantation, get final product if there are weeds slightly manually to pull out, because which floor soft cover layer is arranged, dial careless leicht fallen D/A with hand, but notice that dialling grass the potato children during age does not injure seedling.
5, saving of work and time, ecological, environmental protective is conducive to improve soil structure, improves the soil soil fertility.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1
(1) kind is selected: Favorita.
(2) sowing time: in 11 months, the first tenday period of a month (osmanthus south area).
(3) potato seed is processed: sow front 15~20 days, the potato seed of selected mistake is watered 50kg and soaked 15~20 minutes with 68.75g/L Yin Fali suspending agent 75ml (perhaps 72% gram reveals soluble powder 100g), 37.5% spring journey suspending agent 100ml, 72% streptomycin sulphate soluble powder 15g, carry out stripping and slicing after picking up, drying, the stripping and slicing size is advisable with 25~30g.Do not contain saline and alkaline plant plait wood ash or land plaster seed dressing with what contain carbendazim (be about potato seed weight 0.3%) or metalaxyl (be about potato seed weight 0.1%) immediately after the stripping and slicing.Carry out vernalization after mixing kind, when most of potato seed young shoot grows to 0.5~1cm, can sow.
(4) field is smooth: no-tillage cultivation only needs the field face is slightly done smooth getting final product, the according to a conventional method smooth field face of the cultivation of turning over.
(5) plantation specification: furrow face width 100cm, furrow width 40cm, every drill seeding kind 3 row, line-spacing 30cm, 20cm is respectively stayed on the furrow limit, spacing in the rows 25~30cm.
(6) implantation methods:
Method one: the first step, pendulum kind: potato seed " product " font is placed, and the downward or side direction of eye is pressed close to native face, line-spacing 30cm, 20cm is respectively stayed on the furrow limit, spacing in the rows 25~30cm, furrow face width 70~100cm, furrow width 40cm, every drill seeding kind 2~3 row.Second step, fertilising: row replacement fertilizer is discharged in the middle of two row potato seeds, but fertilizer can not contact with potato seed.The general every mu of need of base manure are executed high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure 1000~1500kg, 45% potassium sulphate type ternary composite fertilizer 80~100kg, potassium sulphate 20~25kg.The 3rd step, blinding: after the fertilising, with fine earth drowning potato seed and fertilizer, the about 5cm of thickness.In the 4th step, the lid grass: behind the potato seed lid thin soil, evenly, fitly covering mulching straw, wheat straw, maize straw, sugarcane top and standing grain shape weeds, also can be the heart-broken grain of sawdust, corn ear, and 3~5cm is paved with whole furrow face and does not leave a blank.The 5th step, blinding again: the even about 5cm of blinding on the straw face again behind the mulching straw.
Method two: the first step, pendulum kind: potato seed " product " font is placed, and the downward or side direction of eye is pressed close to native face, line-spacing 30cm, 20cm is respectively stayed on the furrow limit, spacing in the rows 25~30cm, furrow face width 70~100cm, furrow width 40cm, every drill seeding kind 2~3 row.Second step, fertilising: row replacement fertilizer is discharged in the middle of two row potato seeds, but fertilizer can not contact with potato seed.The general every mu of need of base manure are executed high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure 1000~1500kg, 45% potassium sulphate type ternary composite fertilizer 80~100kg, potassium sulphate 20~25kg.The 3rd step, blinding: after the fertilising, with fine earth drowning potato seed and fertilizer, the about 5cm of thickness.In the 4th step, epiphragma: film is wide, and epiphragma is meticulous to be advisable greater than the wide 20~25cm of furrow (ridge), and film will be adjacent to soil layer, mulch film is not staved.The 5th step, blinding again: the about 5cm of uniform fold fine earth on the ground face again behind the covering with plastic film.
Method three: the first step, pendulum kind: potato seed " product " font is placed, and the downward or side direction of eye is pressed close to native face, line-spacing 30cm, 20cm is respectively stayed on the furrow limit, spacing in the rows 25~30cm, furrow face width 70~100cm, furrow width 40cm, every drill seeding kind 2~3 row.Second step, blinding: with the potato seed of fine earth drowning, about thickness 5cm.In the 3rd step, fertilising: spread fertilizer over the fields, fertilizer is spread fertilizer over the fields on the furrow face uniformly, general every mu of need are executed high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure 1000~1500kg, 45% potassium sulphate type ternary composite fertilizer 80~100kg, potassium sulphate 20~25kg.In the 4th step, the lid grass: behind the potato seed lid thin soil, evenly, fitly covering mulching straw, wheat straw, maize straw, sugarcane top and standing grain shape weeds, also can be the heart-broken grain of sawdust, corn ear, and 3~5cm is paved with whole furrow face and does not leave a blank.The 5th step, blinding again: the even about 5cm of blinding on the straw face again behind the mulching straw.
Method four: the first step, pendulum kind: potato seed " product " font is placed, and the downward or side direction of eye is pressed close to native face, line-spacing 30cm, 20cm is respectively stayed on the furrow limit, spacing in the rows 25~30cm, furrow face width 70~100cm, furrow width 40cm, every drill seeding kind 2~3 row.Second step, blinding: with the potato seed of fine earth drowning, about thickness 5cm.In the 3rd step, fertilising: spread fertilizer over the fields, fertilizer is spread fertilizer over the fields on the furrow face uniformly, general every mu of need are executed high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure 1000~1500kg, 45% potassium sulphate type ternary composite fertilizer 80~100kg, potassium sulphate 20~25kg.In the 4th step, the lid grass: after the fertilising, evenly, fitly covering mulching straw, wheat straw, maize straw, sugarcane top and standing grain shape weeds on the furrow face, also can be the heart-broken grain of sawdust, corn ear, and 3~5cm is paved with whole furrow face and does not leave a blank.In the 5th step, epiphragma: film is wide, and epiphragma is meticulous to be advisable greater than the wide 20~25cm of furrow (ridge), and film will be adjacent to straw, mulch film is not staved.The 6th step, blinding again: the about 5cm of uniform fold fine earth on the ground face again behind the covering with plastic film.
(7) fertilizer application: the general every mu of need of base manure are executed high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure 1000~1500kg (perhaps chicken manure 250~300kg, superphosphate 40~50kg, farmyard manure 1000~1500kg mixing stack retting are 20~25 days), 45% potassium sulphate type ternary composite fertilizer 80~100kg, potassium sulphate 20~25kg.Topdress for the first time and should carry out when neat seedling (80% emerges), every mu is watered the 2500kg pouring with potassium sulphate type ternary (15: 15: 15) composite fertilizer 8~10kg and executes.Carry out when buddingging topdressing the second time, every mu is watered the 2500kg pouring with potassium sulphate type ternary composite fertilizer 5~10kg, potassium sulphate fertilizer 5~10kg and executes.Saw that seedling topdressed in 10~15 days after buddingging.The fertilizer deficiency, every mu is watered the 2500kg pouring with potassium sulphate type ternary composite fertilizer 5~10kg and executes.
(8) moisture regulation: total principle is to keep the field moistening.Sowing remains moistening up to the front soil of emerging, and namely soil moisture content reaches about 65% of maxmun field capacity.Running into arid should in time pour water by the furrow ditch, water layer be ditch depth 1/3 to 1/2 and keep a few hours, forbid broad irrigation.After emerging, strengthen a little field humidity by furrow irrigation, make water capacity reach the about 70% more suitable of maxmun field capacity.From after buddingging to gathering in the crops front 15 days (when cauline leaf turns Huang), keep the field moistening, make soil moisture content reach about 80% of maximum water-holding capacity.Spring, summer and winter are no-tillage, and potato knot potato later stage rainwater is more, note the draining prevention against water-logging.Gather in the crops and drained water in field in front 15 days, prevent that field humidity is excessive, strengthen the product storage property.
(9) sick worm prevention and control: attention control late blight, ring rot, black stem, bacterial wilt and the damage by disease and insect such as aphid, cutworm.
(10) gather in the crops: can successively gather in the crops listing according to market conditions mid-March in good time, during results, only needs straw is pushed aside, picks potato and get final product.
Different implantation methods output and structure of output contrast
Result of the test shows (seeing Table 1), and the present invention can the Effective Raise potato yield, improves big-and-middle potato rate (the above potato of 50g) and commodity rate.Wherein, the Pubei County test, 2103.6 kilograms of straw culture underglass per mu yields, than 678.2 kilograms of traditional cultivation volume increase, amplification 47.6%, big-and-middle potato rate and commodity rate are respectively 88.5% and 96.5%, improve 0.7% and 6.8% than traditional cultivation respectively; The Xingbin District test, 2181.8 kilograms of straw culture underglass per mu yields, than 651.5 kilograms of traditional cultivation volume increase, amplification 42.6%, big-and-middle potato rate and commodity rate are respectively 80.2% and 89.1%, improve 2.3% and 4.0% than traditional cultivation respectively; The Lingui County test, 2304.1 kilograms of straw culture underglass per mu yields, than 677.3 kilograms of traditional cultivation volume increase, amplification 41.6%, big-and-middle potato rate and commodity rate are respectively 92.2% and 90.2%, improve 16.7% and 11.3% than traditional cultivation respectively.
The different implantation methods output of table 1 and structure of output contrast
Annotate: A: culture underglass method of the present invention (namely improving the production environment of potatoes cultivation);
B: the tradition cultivation (CK) of turning over.

Claims (3)

1. implantation methods that improves production environment of potatoes, it is characterized in that: implantation methods is: not through turning over plow harrow or slightly make smooth soil surface, with the regular placement of the seed potato of processing, eye downwards or side direction press close to native face, in potato seed next door dispensing high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure or composite fertilizer, fertilizer can not contact with potato seed, then covers 3-4 layer grass or thin soil at the potato seed spaced surface, perhaps adds the lid layer mulch film at inferior top layer; Carry out field management and in good time results after the plantation;
Described seed potato process be to potato seed carry out disinfection, stripping and slicing, seed dressing and vernalization processes;
Described regular placement potato seed is that potato seed " product " font or "the" shape are put at soil surface;
Described grass layer in the potato seed surface coverage is straw, wheat straw, maize straw, sugarcane top, standing grain shape weeds and the leaf smashed, or sawdust, the heart-broken grain of corn ear, and thickness is 3~5cm;
Described at potato seed spaced surface covering 3-4 layer grass or thin soil, be the lid layer grass, the lid layer thin soil can not cover two-layer grass or two-layer thin soil simultaneously again;
Described thin soil in the potato seed surface coverage is soft fine earth, or is mixed with the fine earth of some farmyard manures, composite fertilizer, and thickness is 3~5cm;
Described mulch film is degradable mulch.
2. the implantation methods that improves production environment of potatoes according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: its concrete steps are:
(1) potato seed, field are processed: with the potato seed of selected mistake carry out disinfection, stripping and slicing, seed dressing, vernalization wait to broadcast after processing, no-tillage cultivation only needs the field face is slightly done smooth getting final product, the according to a conventional method smooth field face of the cultivation of turning over;
(2) implantation methods:
The first step, pendulum kind: potato seed " product " font is placed, and the downward or side direction of eye is pressed close to native face, line-spacing 30cm, 20cm is respectively stayed on the furrow limit, spacing in the rows 25~30cm, furrow face width 70~100cm, furrow width 40cm, every drill seeding kind 2~3 row; Second step, fertilising: row replacement, fertilizer is discharged in the middle of two row potato seeds, but fertilizer can not contact with potato seed, every mu of need of base manure are executed high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure 1000~1500kg, 45% potassium sulphate type ternary composite fertilizer 80~100kg, potassium sulphate 20~25kg, the 3rd step, blinding: after the fertilising, with the potato seed of fine earth drowning and fertilizer, thickness 5cm, the 4th step, lid grass: behind the potato seed lid thin soil, evenly, fitly cover grass layer 3~5cm, be paved with whole furrow face and do not leave a blank; The 5th step, blinding again: the even about 5cm of blinding on the straw face again behind the mulching straw;
(3) field management: growing period suitably topdresses according to the growth of cereal crop seedlings and promotes growth or spray paclobutrazol control seedling; Keep the field moistening, the attention control damage by disease and insect;
(4) in good time results: when cauline leaf turns withered by green gradually flavescence, stolon and stem tuber come off easily, can gather in the crops when the stem tuber color and luster is normal.
3. the implantation methods that improves production environment of potatoes according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: its concrete steps are:
(1) potato seed, field are processed: the potato seed of selected mistake is carried out disinfection, waits to broadcast after the stripping and slicing, seed dressing, vernalization, and no-tillage cultivation only needs the field face is slightly done smooth getting final product, the according to a conventional method smooth field face of the cultivation of turning over;
(2) implantation methods:
The first step, pendulum kind: potato seed " product " font is placed, and the downward or side direction of eye is pressed close to native face, line-spacing 30cm, 20cm is respectively stayed on the furrow limit, spacing in the rows 25~30cm, furrow face width 70~100cm, furrow width 40cm, every drill seeding kind 2~3 row; Second step, fertilising: row replacement fertilizer is discharged in the middle of two row potato seeds, but fertilizer can not contact with potato seed; The 3rd step, blinding: after the fertilising, with fine earth drowning potato seed and fertilizer, thickness 5cm; In the 4th step, epiphragma: the width of mulch film is greater than the wide 20~25cm of furrow, and epiphragma is meticulous, and film will be adjacent to soil layer, mulch film is not staved; Epiphragma is meticulous, and film will be adjacent to soil layer, mulch film is not staved; The 5th step, blinding again: uniform fold fine earth 5cm on the ground face again behind the covering with plastic film;
(3) field management: growing period suitably topdresses according to the growth of cereal crop seedlings and promotes growth or spray paclobutrazol control seedling; Keep the field moistening, the attention control damage by disease and insect;
(4) in good time results: when cauline leaf turns withered by green gradually flavescence, stolon and stem tuber come off easily, can gather in the crops when the stem tuber color and luster is normal.
CN 201010566535 2010-12-01 2010-12-01 Planting method for improving production environment of potatoes CN102150526B (en)

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