CN102147236B - Fully distributed optical fiber strain and vibration sensing method and sensor - Google Patents

Fully distributed optical fiber strain and vibration sensing method and sensor Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102147236B
CN102147236B CN 201110005695 CN201110005695A CN102147236B CN 102147236 B CN102147236 B CN 102147236B CN 201110005695 CN201110005695 CN 201110005695 CN 201110005695 A CN201110005695 A CN 201110005695A CN 102147236 B CN102147236 B CN 102147236B
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China
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light
circulator
coupling
port
strain
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CN 201110005695
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102147236A (en
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王峰
张旭苹
王祥传
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南京大学
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE
    • G01L1/00Measuring force or stress, in general
    • G01L1/24Measuring force or stress, in general by measuring variations of optical properties of material when it is stressed, e.g. by photoelastic stress analysis using infra-red, visible light, ultra-violet
    • G01L1/242Measuring force or stress, in general by measuring variations of optical properties of material when it is stressed, e.g. by photoelastic stress analysis using infra-red, visible light, ultra-violet the material being an optical fibre
    • G01L1/246Measuring force or stress, in general by measuring variations of optical properties of material when it is stressed, e.g. by photoelastic stress analysis using infra-red, visible light, ultra-violet the material being an optical fibre using integrated gratings, e.g. Bragg gratings
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01DMEASURING NOT SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR A SPECIFIC VARIABLE; ARRANGEMENTS FOR MEASURING TWO OR MORE VARIABLES NOT COVERED IN A SINGLE OTHER SUBCLASS; TARIFF METERING APPARATUS; MEASURING OR TESTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01D5/00Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable
    • G01D5/26Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable characterised by optical transfer means, i.e. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light
    • G01D5/32Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable characterised by optical transfer means, i.e. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light with attenuation or whole or partial obturation of beams of light
    • G01D5/34Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable characterised by optical transfer means, i.e. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light with attenuation or whole or partial obturation of beams of light the beams of light being detected by photocells
    • G01D5/353Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable characterised by optical transfer means, i.e. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light with attenuation or whole or partial obturation of beams of light the beams of light being detected by photocells influencing the transmission properties of an optical fibre
    • G01D5/35338Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable characterised by optical transfer means, i.e. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light with attenuation or whole or partial obturation of beams of light the beams of light being detected by photocells influencing the transmission properties of an optical fibre using other arrangements than interferometer arrangements
    • G01D5/35354Sensor working in reflection
    • G01D5/35358Sensor working in reflection using Backscattering to detect the measured quantity
    • G01D5/35364Sensor working in reflection using Backscattering to detect the measured quantity using elastic backscattering, i.e. Brillouin or Raman, to detect the measured quantity

Abstract

The invention discloses a fully distributed optical fiber strain and vibration sensor comprising a laser (1), a first coupler (2), a pulse modulation module (3), an optical amplifier (4), a circulator (5), a sensing optical fiber (6), a fiber bragg grating (7), a polarization scrambler, a second coupler, a balance photoelectric detector, an analyzer, a photoelectric detector (12) and a signal processing unit. Continuous light output by the laser (1) is split into two paths through the first coupler (2), wherein one path is used as reference light and is accessed to a first input end of the second coupler (9) through the polarization scrambler (8); and the second path is processed by the pulse modulation module (3) and the optical amplifier (4) and then used as detection pulse light to be injected into a first port of the circulator (5). In the invention, Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR) and polarization optical time domain reflectometry (POTDR) are simultaneously utilized for respectively and correspondingly carrying out fully distributed measurement on strain and vibration on a signal optical fiber, the defects of a system with single BOTDR or POTDR are overcome, and the false alarm rate or missed report rate of the system is decreased.

Description

The method for sensing and the sensor of a kind of fully distributed fiber strain and vibration
Technical field
The present invention is a kind of Fibre Optical Sensor equipment that full distributed monitoring is carried out in strain and vibration, the Fibre Optical Sensor equipment that especially a kind of combination Brillouin light Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR) technology and polarized light time domain reflection (POTDR) technology can be simultaneously carried out full distributed monitoring to strain and vibration.
Background technology
Because when optical fiber receives external environment (like temperature, pressure, vibration etc.) when influencing; Transmit light intensity in the optical fiber; Phase place, frequency, parameters such as polarization state will change accordingly; These parameters through measuring transmission light just can obtain the respective physical amount, and this technology is called optical fiber sensing technology.
The distributing optical fiber sensing technology is sensing element with optical fiber; Can obtain in the sensor fibre zone in time the distributed intelligence with the incident of spatial variations, therefore can utilize the distributing optical fiber sensing technology that full distributed measurement is carried out in strain in the sensor fibre zone and vibration.
With respect to traditional electric weight type sensor, Fibre Optical Sensor has highly sensitive, anti-electromagnetic interference (EMI); Volume is little, and low price can carry out the advantage of remote distributed measurement; Therefore since late 1970s; Optical fiber sensing technology has obtained development widely, Brillouin scattering occurred based on Rayleigh scattering; The fully distributed fiber sensing technology of Raman scattering etc., wherein Brillouin light Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR) technology and polarized light time domain reflection (POTDR) technology are two kinds of comparatively common fully distributed fiber sensing technologies.
1) optical fiber is strained when influencing, and the frequency of the Brillouin scattering that light wave produces therein can squint, and is called Brillouin shift.The size of frequency shift amount and optical fiber strained size be directly proportional.Brillouin light Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR) technology is through injected pulse light in optical fiber, and measures the Brillouin shift of pulsed light continuous Brillouin scattering that produces in the spread fiber process, and then determines the strain information of optical fiber each position along the line.The BOTDR technology is the fully distributed fiber sensing technology of strain size in topmost so far a kind of accurately measuring optical fiber.But the BOTDR technology to the vibration measurement capability a little less than.Because although optical fiber can produce strain simultaneously when receiving external influence generation vibration in theory; But; On the one hand because the faint strain that microvibration causes is less to the influence that Brillouin shift produces; The BOTDR technology is slower to the measuring speed of strain on the other hand, need the time more than tens seconds usually, so the BOTDR technology is difficult to use in measuring vibrations.
2) polarized light time domain reflection (POTDR) technology is injected pulse light in optical fiber equally.But it confirms the optical fiber along the line external event of each position through the variation of the scattering polarization state of light measuring pulsed light and return at optical fiber along the line, thereby carries out full distributed measurement.Because the variation of optical polarization is very sensitive to the response of external event in the optical fiber, therefore can be used for measuring faint external event.Simultaneously because the POTDR technology is judged the variation of scatter light polarization attitude through light intensity signal, the response time is short, so can be used for measuring the vibration of frequency range greatly.Usually can measure 10KHz with interior vibration.But because the variation of strain that optical fiber receives and polarization state is not to concern one to one; And the POTDR technology adopts and last time measured the state that method is relatively judged optical fiber, so the POTDR technology is difficult to quasi-static strain and bigger strain are detected.
The BOTDR system is in the same place with the POTDR systems incorporate, can on same sensor fibre, realizes simultaneously to the monitoring of strain and vibration, whole cost is little more a lot of than the independent stack of two systems.In addition, than single BOTDR system and POTDR system, when judging external event, two systems work simultaneously, and the chance that system misrepresents deliberately, fails to report can be littler.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of fully distributed fiber sensor that can measure strain and vibration variation simultaneously.
Technical scheme of the present invention is:In order to achieve the above object, the present invention provides a kind of fully distributed fiber strain and vibration sensing method and sensor.Said sensor comprises laser instrument (1), first coupling mechanism (2), pulse modulation module (3), image intensifer (4); Circulator (5), sensor fibre (6), fiber grating (7); Scrambler (8), second coupling mechanism (9), balance photodetector (10); Analyzer (11), photodetector (12), signal processing unit (13).
The continuous light of laser instrument (1) output is divided into two-way behind first coupling mechanism (2): one tunnel light as a reference wherein is linked into the first input end of second coupling mechanism (9) behind scrambler (8); Circulator (5) first ports are gone into as the direct impulse light beam in the second tunnel pulse modulated module (3) and image intensifer (4) back.Direct impulse light is incided in the sensor fibre (6) by circulator (5) second ports.Rayleigh scattering light that direct impulse light produces in sensor fibre (6) and Brillouin scattering turn back to second port of circulator (5); And connect fiber grating (7) by circulator (5) the 3rd port outgoing and make the Brillouin scattering transmittance, simultaneously Rayleigh scattering light is reflected; The mixed signal that second input end and the reference light that the Brillouin scattering of transmission enters into second coupling mechanism (9) forms at second coupling mechanism (9) is input to balance photodetector (10) through two output terminals of second coupling mechanism (9) and is converted into electric signal, and entering signal processing unit (13) is handled then.
The Rayleigh scattering light of fiber grating (7) reflection enters into signal processing unit (13) after the output port of circulator (5) connects analyzer (11), photodetector (12).
The present invention can be through handling the Brillouin scattering of Rayleigh scattering transmittance of reflection simultaneously; Utilize Brillouin scattering and Rayleigh scattering light, adopt Brillouin light Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR) technology and right strain and the vibration of polarized light time domain reflection (POTDR) technology to carry out full distributed sensing respectively.
Through utilizing of the frequency displacement of Brillouin light Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR) commercial measurement, full distributed monitoring is carried out in strain through the Brillouin light of fiber grating (7) transmission; Utilize of the variation of polarized light time domain reflection (POTDR) commercial measurement simultaneously, full distributed monitoring is carried out in vibration through the Rayleigh scattering polarization state of fiber grating (7) reflection.
Be connected to scrambler in the first via behind first coupling mechanism (2), do not have scrambler in the second the tunnel.
Circulator (5) can be four port circulators, or the circulator of two three ports links to each other and to form (the 3rd port of first three ports circulator links to each other with first port of the circulator of second three port).
The live width of the laser instrument of selecting for use (1) is no more than 10MHz, and its preferred service band is that 800nm is to the interior optical fiber communication wave band of 1700nm scope.。
The centre wavelength of the fiber grating of selecting for use (7) is the centre wavelength of laser instrument (1); Three dB bandwidth can reflect Rayleigh scattering light and transmission Brillouin scattering less than the width of the decision by .Wherein, is the refractive index of sensor fibre (6); is the velocity of sound in the sensor fibre (6); is the centre wavelength of laser instrument (1), and is the light velocity in the vacuum.
Fully distributed fiber strain and vibration sensing method; The Rayleigh signal that reflects through fiber grating (7); Behind analyzer (11) and photodetector (12), enter into signal processing unit (13), after treatment; Obtain Rayleigh scattering polarization state of light change information; Utilize polarized light time domain reflection (POTDR) method that full distributed monitoring is carried out in vibration, the Brillouin's flashlight and the reference light that transmit through fiber grating (7) enter into balance photodetector (10) through second coupling mechanism (9), carry out coherent detection; Obtain the frequency shift amount information of Brillouin scattering again through signal processing unit (13), utilize Brillouin light Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR) method that full distributed monitoring is carried out in strain.
The detection method of fully distributed fiber strain and vibration transducer; The Brillouin's flashlight and the reference light that transmit through fiber grating (7) enter into balance photodetector (10) through second coupling mechanism (9); Carry out coherent detection; Obtain the frequency shift amount information of Brillouin scattering again through signal processing unit (13), confirm the external strain incident with this, what this road utilized is Brillouin light Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR) technology;
Beneficial effect of the present invention is:The present invention has combined BOTDR technology and POTDR technology; The present invention utilizes Brillouin light Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR) and polarized light time domain reflection (POTDR) simultaneously; On simple optical fiber, respectively full distributed measurement is carried out in strain and vibration; Only utilize a sensor fibre can measure strain incident and vibration event simultaneously, overcome the shortcoming of the existing function singleness of single BOTDR system and POTDR system, and reduced wrong report, the rate of failing to report of system significantly.Improved the measurement function and the range of application of fully distributed fiber sensor greatly, whole cost is little more a lot of than the independent stack of two systems.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a kind of fully distributed fiber strain provided by the invention and vibration transducer structural drawing;
Fig. 2 (a) is common four port circulator structural drawing;
Fig. 2 (b) is the structural drawing of the four port circulators that are made up of two three port circulators; 1.-4. be port.
Embodiment
Structure such as Fig. 1 of a kind of full distributed strain and vibration transducer, its practical implementation step that strain and vibration are measured is following:
1) continuous light of laser instrument (1) output is divided into two-way behind first coupling mechanism (2);
2) one tunnel light as a reference wherein is linked into the first input end of second coupling mechanism (9) behind scrambler (8);
3) the second tunnel pulse modulated module (3) is modulated into pulsed light, and is injected in the sensor fibre (6) through circulator (5) as direct impulse light through image intensifer (4) back.
4) Rayleigh scattering light in the sensor fibre (6) and Brillouin scattering return the three port ejaculation of back from circulator (5).
5) fiber grating (7) makes the Brillouin scattering light transmission, and Rayleigh scattering light is reflected.
6) Brillouin scattering of transmission enters into second input end of second coupling mechanism (9); The mixed signal that in second coupling mechanism (9), forms with reference light is input in the balance photodetector (10) through two output terminals of second coupling mechanism (9) and is converted into electric signal; Entering signal processing unit (13) is handled then; After signal processing unit (13) is handled, obtain the Brillouin shift amount, thereby realize full distributed sensing the strain in the sensor fibre regional extent.
7) Rayleigh scattering light of reflection through analyzer (11), enters into signal processing unit (13) from the 4th port output of circulator (5) behind the photodetector (12).After signal processing unit (13) is handled, obtain Rayleigh scattering polarization state of light situation of change, thereby realize full distributed sensing the vibration in the sensor fibre regional extent.
Example as a practical implementation; If the operation wavelength of laser instrument is 1550nm, live width is 1MHz.The laser that it sends has been divided into two-way through coupling mechanism (2), and wherein one the tunnel after electrooptic modulator modulation and Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) amplification, has entered into sensor fibre as direct impulse light.What sensor fibre used is common telecommunication optical fiber; Its refractive index , the velocity of sound in the optical fiber .Pulsed light can produce Rayleigh scattering light and Brillouin scattering in sensor fibre optical fiber; Wherein the Rayleigh scattering light frequency is consistent with the frequency of laser instrument; The frequency of Brillouin scattering can produce skew, and its Brillouin shift is .When sensor fibre receives strain and influences, the Brillouin shift of Brillouin scattering is changed, when receiving vibration effect, the polarization state of Rayleigh scattering light and Brillouin scattering is changed.The centre wavelength of fiber grating and the consistent wavelength of laser instrument; Be 1550nm; Three dB bandwidth is , and wherein is the light velocity in the vacuum.Brillouin scattering and Rayleigh scattering light return behind fiber grating along optical fiber, and Brillouin scattering can see through fiber grating, and another road light signal in coupling mechanism (2) gets into coupling mechanism (9).Their mixed signal converts electric signal into after response frequency is balance photodetector (10) detection about 11.2GHz, obtain the size of Brillouin shift again through signal processing unit, just can realize the full distributed measurement to strain.After Rayleigh scattering light was reflected by fiber grating, through analyzer, the light signal strength of output analyzer can change with the variation of Rayleigh scattering polarization state.This road signal is after 0 ~ 50MHz photodetector (12) converts electric signal into by response frequency, through just obtaining the situation of change of polarization state in the optical fiber after the signal processing unit processes, realizes the full distributed measurement to vibration.

Claims (4)

1. fully distributed fiber strain and vibration transducer is characterized in that comprising laser instrument (1), first coupling mechanism (2), pulse modulation module (3); Image intensifer (4), circulator (5), sensor fibre (6), fiber grating (7); Scrambler (8), second coupling mechanism (9), balance photodetector (10); Analyzer (11), photodetector (12), signal processing unit (13); The continuous light of laser instrument (1) output is divided into two-way behind first coupling mechanism (2): first via light as a reference wherein is linked into the first input end of second coupling mechanism (9) behind scrambler (8); Circulator (5) first ports are gone into as the direct impulse light beam in the second tunnel pulse modulated module (3) and image intensifer (4) back; Direct impulse light is incided in the sensor fibre (6) by circulator (5) second ports; Rayleigh scattering light that direct impulse light produces in sensor fibre (6) and Brillouin scattering turn back to second port of circulator (5); And connect fiber grating (7) by circulator (5) the 3rd port outgoing and make the Brillouin scattering transmittance, simultaneously Rayleigh scattering light is reflected; The mixed signal that second input end and the reference light that the Brillouin scattering of transmission enters into second coupling mechanism (9) forms at second coupling mechanism (9) is input to balance photodetector (10) through two output terminals of second coupling mechanism (9) and is converted into electric signal, and entering signal processing unit (13) is handled then; The Rayleigh scattering light of fiber grating (7) reflection enters into signal processing unit (13) after the output port of circulator (5) connects analyzer (11), photodetector (12); Through full distributed sensing is carried out in the Rayleigh scattering light of reflection, the corresponding change of Brillouin scattering light signal and the vibration of transmission; The centre wavelength of the fiber grating of selecting for use (7) is the centre wavelength of laser instrument (1), and three dB bandwidth is less than by 2nv aThe width of λ/c decision can reflect Rayleigh scattering light and transmission Brillouin scattering; Wherein, n is the refractive index of sensor fibre (6), v aBe the velocity of sound in the sensor fibre (6), λ is the centre wavelength of laser instrument (1), and c is the light velocity in the vacuum.
2. fully distributed fiber strain according to claim 1 and vibration transducer is characterized in that being connected to scrambler in the first via behind first coupling mechanism (2), do not have scrambler in the second the tunnel.
3. fully distributed fiber strain according to claim 1 and vibration transducer; It is characterized in that circulator (5) is four port circulators; Or the circulator of two three ports links to each other and to form, and wherein the 3rd port of first three ports circulator links to each other with first port of the circulator of second three port.
4. fully distributed fiber strain according to claim 1 and vibration transducer, the live width of the laser instrument (1) that it is characterized in that selecting for use is no more than 10MHz, the optical fiber communication wave band that its service band is 800nm in the 1700nm scope.
CN 201110005695 2011-03-23 2011-03-23 Fully distributed optical fiber strain and vibration sensing method and sensor CN102147236B (en)

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