CN102137465B - Channel allocation method suitable for opportunistic routing in multi-radio frequency multi-channel wireless mesh network - Google Patents

Channel allocation method suitable for opportunistic routing in multi-radio frequency multi-channel wireless mesh network Download PDF

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CN102137465B
CN102137465B CN201110054796.5A CN201110054796A CN102137465B CN 102137465 B CN102137465 B CN 102137465B CN 201110054796 A CN201110054796 A CN 201110054796A CN 102137465 B CN102137465 B CN 102137465B
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channel
node
path
stream
multi
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CN201110054796.5A
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CN102137465A (en
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张大方
何施茗
谢鲲
张继
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湖南大学
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Abstract

The invention provides a channel allocation mechanism suitable to be used by opportunistic routing to make the opportunistic routing make full use of multi-radio frequency multi-channel network resources. In the mechanism. a common channel distributing mode and a stream-based channel selection algorithm are adopted. By the algorithm, a channel interference status within the current neighboring range is collected, and the channel making path interference minimized is selected for each newly added stream to achieve purposes of balancing a channel resource load and maximizing throughput. The common channel allocation is no longer changed after the network is initialized, and is easy to implement; and by the stream-based channel selection, the repeated transmission problem which may be resulted from the use of different channels by a candidate node in the opportunistic routing in the negotiation process can be effectively prevented.

Description

In a kind of many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless mesh network, be applicable to the method for channel allocation of chance route

Technical field

The present invention relates to channel allocation technique in wireless network, refer to that especially the channel allocation for chance route is machine-processed in many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless mesh network.

Background technology

Chance route is routing mode emerging in multi-hop wireless network, and it utilizes wireless medium broadcast nature and multi-user diversity, does not determine in advance the down hop of route, and directly broadcast transmission packet, may have a plurality of neighbor nodes all correctly to receive packet around.Receiving that between the node of packet, carrying out certain coordinates, by one of them from destination node the node of " near " continue forwarding.Certainly not all node all participates in, and chance route is participated in by certain rules selection part wherein, and these selected neighbor nodes are called both candidate nodes or candidate's forward node.Through multi-party verification, with only have a traditional fixed route that presets down hop and compare, the mode of a plurality of both candidate nodes forwarding data of this use of chance route bag more can adapt to insecure wireless link, especially can make full use of the wireless link of remote and high Loss Rate, can obviously promote the end-to-end throughput of multi-hop wireless network, especially wireless mesh network.

The advantage of chance route in injection frequency wireless network explored fully and utilized, and still, its impact in many wireless radiofrequencies network also not can be good at understanding and using.Most of chance routes all, in injection single channel network frequently, had not both made full use of the channel resource that 802.11a/b itself has 12/3 quadrature, did not consider that node in wireless mesh network can configure the situation of a plurality of radio frequencies yet.Wireless network card cost impels the routing node of wireless mesh network as the router of cable network, to configure a plurality of network interfaces to the demand of the network bandwidth with wireless mesh network, make many wireless radiofrequencies mesh network start extensive use, therefore in many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless mesh network, research aircraft can route become the field in recent years receiving much concern.

In multichannel network, the research of chance route only has McExOR and ORinMM at present.The former is frequently given after channel allocation in multi channel network environment at injection, selects best chance route both candidate nodes, and how allocated channel is not specifically considered; The latter has only analyzed single current and has used the theoretical upper limit of chance route in many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless mesh network.Although above-mentioned algorithm has carried out desk study to chance route in the application of multichannel network, they are not suitable for the actual use of many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless mesh network.MCExOR channel allocation and route are separate, although can use with the collocation of any channel allocation mechanism, do not specify clear and definite channel allocation mechanism, and it are only applicable to injection network frequently.ORinMM solves the channel allocation scheduling scheme obtaining needs strict clock synchronous, does not also consider the time delay that radio frequency switches at interchannel, in practice operational applications.Therefore, in the urgent need to being adapted to the chance route of the multi channel network environment of many radio frequencies.

Summary of the invention

The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is, the defect existing for prior art, propose to be applicable in a kind of many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless mesh network the method for channel allocation of chance route, this technology adopts the common signal channel method of salary distribution and the channel selection algorithm based on stream, algorithm is collected the channel disturbance situation within the scope of current neighbours, then for every stream newly adding is selected to make path disturb minimum channel; Common signal channel just no longer needs to change after being distributed in netinit, is simple and easy to realize; Channel based on stream is selected effectively to avoid the repetition transmission problem that in chance route, both candidate nodes is used different channels to occur in negotiations process, to reach the object of channel resource load balancing and maximize throughput.

Technical solution of the present invention is that the step that is applicable to the method for channel allocation of chance route in described many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless mesh network is:

(1) by expected transmission times ETX index, determine that source node is to the needed candidate's forward node of destination node;

(2) adopt the common signal channel method of salary distribution, require all nodes to be all operated on identical orthogonal channel collection;

(3) adopt the allocated channel selection algorithm based on stream, require a stream in transmitting procedure, only to use a channel, and select to make path channel disturb minimum channel.

Below the present invention is made and being further illustrated.

At the mesh network of radio frequency multi-channel wireless more than, as shown in fig. 1, comprise V node (a gateway node GW and V-1 routing node), the configurable R of each a node less radio-frequency, the radio frequency quantity of supposing all node configurations equates, in network, can use the orthogonal channel of K, as shown in Figure 2.Many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless mesh network just can be corresponding becomes non-directed graph G=(V, E, the GW of an expansion, R, K), wherein E is for representing the matrix of link between node, only have when two internodal link packet delivery fractions are greater than certain threshold values and just think that the direct link between them exists, each other neighbours.That is to say for any link l (u, v) ∈ E and have a corresponding link packet delivery fraction Pr (u, v), be illustrated in link in noiseless situation and correctly receive packet success rate, this value can be calculated acquisition by propagation model.Suppose that link is symmetrical Pr (u, v)=Pr (v, u), and the link packet delivery fraction of arbitrary node is all independently.A neighbours Nb (u) who jumps of defined node u is Pr (u, v)>=P 0node set, P wherein 0< < 1.For remaining any node v that does not belong to Nb (u), link packet delivery fraction is 0, i.e. Pr (u, v)=0.

The problem need solving is given such model of place, at known each node to the optimal path of gateway node under, for the flow point of all existence in network coordinates suitable channel to make the throughput maximum of whole network.

Know-why of the present invention comprises:

(1) first by expected transmission times ETX index, determine that source node is to the needed candidate's forward node of destination node, determine routed path;

(2) after determining both candidate nodes, in order to guarantee the Channel Sharing between node and both candidate nodes, channel allocation mechanism requires all nodes to be all operated on identical orthogonal channel collection, that is to say that less radio-frequency number and orthogonal channel number equate; This method of salary distribution is called the common signal channel method of salary distribution, and the channel that radio frequency is used after netinit no longer changes, and being simple and easy to realize does not need complicated multi-channel protocol;

(3) then adopt the allocated channel selection algorithm based on stream to decide movable stream when through node, use which channel to transmit, namely which radio frequency.The channel selecting method of employing based on stream, requires a stream in transmitting procedure, only to use a channel, stream the node of process all use this channel to carry out sending and receiving.Because the real down hop forward node of chance route need to could be consulted to obtain by both candidate nodes after Packet Generation completes, if both candidate nodes is used different channels, in negotiations process, both candidate nodes may cannot be communicated by letter because not there is not common signal channel, it is invalid to make to consult, the transmission of the repeated and redundant causing.Channel based on stream is selected effectively to avoid this problem.

Although the less radio-frequency of all nodes is all used identical orthogonal channel, and each stream only uses a channel, and inappropriate channel allocation still can cause channel loading unbalanced and then affect network performance.For maximize throughput, when giving flow point allocating channel, should select load few or disturb few channel, so the main thought of channel selection algorithm is to select to make path channel disturb minimum channel as far as possible.

In order to obtain the use information of channel in node and its peripheral region, each node need be safeguarded two tables relevant to channel, and self channel is used channel use in table NCHL and neighbours to show NBCHL.The structure of these two tables is similar, as Fig. 2 and Fig. 3.Node u self channel is used in table NCHL (u) and comprises K value, the corresponding value of each channel.I value is f i(u) represent the number through the stream of node u and i channel of use.Within the scope of neighbours, channel is used table NBCHL (u) also to comprise K value, and i value is af i(u) be illustrated in the stream situation that all nodes within the scope of the neighbours of node u are used i channel, value equals i value sum in the table NCHL of node u and its all neighbor nodes.

af i(u)=∑f i(v),v∈{Nb(u)∪u}????(1)

Wherein, i is channel number, and u and v are node serial number, f i(v) represent the number through the stream of node v and i channel of use, af i(u) be illustrated in the stream situation that all nodes within the scope of the neighbours of node u are used i channel, Nb (u) is a hop neighbor of node u.

For an any i channel of definite Path selection, all can exist a bottleneck channel to disturb, represent to be disturbed on path the annoyance level of maximum node, be called path bottleneck channel and disturb BN path, i.It is optimum channel bch that source node is selected to make path bottleneck channel disturb minimum channel in K channel,

BN path,i=Max(af i(u)),u∈path????(2)

bch = arg Min i ( BN path , i ) , i &Element; ( 0 , . . . K ) - - - ( 3 )

Wherein, K is all orthogonal channel quantity, and path represents the set of node in the determined path of chance route, BN path, ifor path bottleneck channel disturbs, bch is optimum channel.

For the path of given a certain stream, the channel selection algorithm based on stream is divided into three steps:

The first step, to each channel, the channel usage of the current neighbours' scope under this channel of all querying nodes on path, the path bottleneck relatively obtaining under this channel disturbs;

Second step, in K channel, selects to make path bottleneck disturb minimum channel;

The 3rd step, upgrades channel usage within the scope of the neighbours of self channel usage of path node and the neighbor node of path node.

As known from the above, the present invention is applicable to the method for channel allocation of chance route in a kind of many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless mesh network, it adopts the common signal channel method of salary distribution and the channel selection algorithm based on stream, and common signal channel just no longer needs to change after being distributed in netinit, is simple and easy to realize; Channel based on stream is selected effectively to avoid the repetition transmission problem that in chance route, both candidate nodes is used different channels to occur in negotiations process, reaches the object of channel resource load balancing and maximize throughput.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is wireless Mesh netword structure chart;

Fig. 2 is self channel use table (NCHL) structure chart of node u in the present invention;

Fig. 3 is channel use table (NBCHL) structure chart within the scope of the neighbours of node u in the present invention;

Fig. 4 is network topology schematic diagram of the present invention;

Fig. 5 is route result of calculation schematic diagram in the present invention;

Fig. 6 is that in the present invention, self channel is used and represents intention;

Fig. 7 is that in the present invention, neighbours' scope channel is used expression intention.

Fig. 8 is the throughput cumulative distribution function schematic diagram of random concurrent 7 streams in the present invention.

Embodiment

The network topology network of 5*5 of take is example, and node 0 is gateway node, 2 radio frequencies that each node is equipped with, and available orthogonal channel is also 2, i.e. GW=0, R=K=2.P 0get 0.1, internodal link packet delivery fraction as shown in Figure 4, the link packet delivery fraction of adjacent node is 90%, in horizontal vertical direction, the link packet delivery fraction of the node in interval is 40%, in horizontal vertical direction, the link packet delivery fraction of two nodes in interval is 19%, and on diagonal, internodal link packet delivery fraction is 77%, and on diagonal, the link packet delivery fraction of the node in interval is 23%, three kinds of diagonally opposing corners are respectively 33%, 16% and 10%.Dotted line represents channel 1, and solid line represents channel 2.

When existing two streams, be respectively 22 and 12 to gateway node, wherein the 1st stream is used 1, the 2 stream of channel to use channel 2.Need to add new one by one stream from node 21 to gateway.

The expected transmission times ETX of link is the inverse of link packet delivery fraction, the ETX sum that the expected transmission times in path is link.Use dijkstra algorithm can calculate each node to the path of the minimum ETX of gateway node, the both candidate nodes of chance route also just adopts the node on path, has also just determined route.As shown in Figure 5, the routing node of the 1st stream comprises node 22 16 10 50; Article 2, the routing node of stream comprises node 12 60; Article 3, stream, the path of calculating gained comprises node 21 15 10 50.

Add a new stream 21 as follows to the process of gateway:

The first step: to each channel, the current neighbours' scope under this channel of all querying nodes on path

Channel usage, the path bottleneck relatively obtaining under this channel disturbs;

When the 1st stream is used 1, the 2 stream of channel to use channel 2, self channel usage of node is: it is 11 that self channel of node 0 is used tabular value; Node 6 and node 12 are 10; Node 22, node 16, node 10 and node 5 are 01; Other node is all temporarily 00; See in detail Fig. 6.

The neighbor node of node 21 has 5,6, and 7,8,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,22,23 and 24.Except self channel of outer other nodes of node 5,6,10,12,16 and 22 is used tabular value to be 00, neighbours' scope channel of node 21 is used tabular value that the node by self channel use table intermediate value non-zero is determined so, is (10+01+10+01+10+10)=42.The neighbor table of all nodes on similar the 3rd flow path all can calculate, and refers to Fig. 7.

Second step: in K channel, select to make path bottleneck disturb minimum channel;

As can be seen from Figure 7 at node 21 to the path of node 0, the bottleneck interference value of channel 2 is less than channel 1, thus the 3rd stream selective channel 2.Although the converging property of the flow of mesh network makes gateway node pack heaviest, become most probably the bottleneck of channel resource, from this example, can find out that the bottleneck of channel 1 is in node 15,10 and 5, and not at gateway node 0.So can not simply only be decided the selection of channel by gateway node.

The 3rd step: upgrade channel usage within the scope of the neighbours of self channel usage of path node and the neighbor node of path node.

By node 21,15, in self table of 10,5 and 0, the value of channel 2 correspondences adds 1.The neighbor node of these nodes recalculates neighbor table.

Emulation experiment is carried out under NS2, and topological structure adopts network as shown in Figure 4, and all nodes are all connected to the Internet by gateway node 0, so all flows all will converge to node 0.Consider real network, the probability that is equipped with 2 above less radio-frequencies because of factors such as costs is less, so adopt Double RF double-channel scene in simulated experiment.Be that each node is equipped with 2 less radio-frequencies, transmission rate is fixed as 54Mbps, can be operated on orthogonal channel and not interfere with each other, and number of available channels is also 2.25 nodes are evenly distributed in 220 meters long and 220 meters of wide regional extents, and two internodal horizontal and verticals distances are 44 meters.Propagation model is used shadowing model.All stream is all TCP, and bag size is 1000 bytes, sends as much as possible packet.

In 24 nodes, 7 nodes of random selection are 1 group as the source node of stream, record the throughput that converges of 7 concurrent streams.After changing random seed, again select, repeat 30 groups.Fig. 5 is the throughput cumulative distribution function of 30 groups of random concurrent 7 streams, and wherein SR represents fixed route route, and OR represents chance route, and 2r2c represents to use Double RF double-channel.

Injection frequently under single channel the intermediate value of fixed route and chance route be respectively 4.456Mbps and 5.044Mbps, under Double RF double-channel, adopt fixed route after method for channel allocation of the present invention and the intermediate value of chance route to be respectively 8.081Mbps and 9.438Mbps.The throughput ratio fixed route of the chance route under Double RF double-channel is high by 16.8%, higher by 87.11% than the chance route under injection frequency single channel, higher by 111.8% than the fixed route under injection frequency single channel.Under channel allocation of the present invention, Double RF double-channel is used the throughput of chance route can reach injection the more than 2 times of single channel fixed route frequently.

Claims (2)

1. in the multi-channel wireless of radio frequency more than mesh network, be applicable to a method for channel allocation for chance route, it is characterized in that, its step is:
(1) by expected transmission times ETX index, determine that source node is to the needed candidate's forward node of destination node;
(2) adopt the common signal channel method of salary distribution, require all nodes to be all operated on identical orthogonal channel collection;
(3) adopt the allocated channel selection algorithm based on stream, require a stream in transmitting procedure, only to use a channel, and select to make path channel disturb minimum channel; For the path of given a certain stream, the step of the channel selection algorithm based on stream is:
The first step: to each channel, the channel usage of the current neighbours' scope under this channel of all querying nodes on path, the path bottleneck relatively obtaining under this channel disturbs; For i the channel in a definite path, its path bottleneck channel disturbs computing formula be: ; Wherein, path represents the set of node in the determined path of chance route;
Second step: in K channel, select to make path bottleneck disturb minimum channel; The described path bottleneck that makes disturbs minimum channel ; K is all orthogonal channel quantity;
The 3rd step: upgrade channel usage within the scope of the neighbours of self channel usage of path node and the neighbor node of path node.
2. be applicable to according to claim 1 the method for channel allocation of chance route in many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless mesh network, it is characterized in that, when carrying out the first step, node need obtain the use information of channel in its peripheral region, each node need be safeguarded two data structures relevant to channel, and these two data structures are shown NBCHL for self channel is used in table NCHL and neighbours channel to use; Node uself channel use table NCHL ( u)in comprise K value, i value is represent through node uand use channel ithe number of stream;
Channel use table NBCHL within the scope of neighbours ( u) also comprising K value, i value is be illustrated in node uneighbours within the scope of all nodes use channels istream situation, this i value is for node uwith i value sum in the table NCHL of its all neighbor nodes.
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