CN102137465A - Channel allocation method suitable for opportunistic routing in multi-radio frequency multi-channel wireless mesh network - Google Patents

Channel allocation method suitable for opportunistic routing in multi-radio frequency multi-channel wireless mesh network Download PDF

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CN102137465A
CN102137465A CN2011100547965A CN201110054796A CN102137465A CN 102137465 A CN102137465 A CN 102137465A CN 2011100547965 A CN2011100547965 A CN 2011100547965A CN 201110054796 A CN201110054796 A CN 201110054796A CN 102137465 A CN102137465 A CN 102137465A
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channel
node
stream
path
multi
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CN102137465B (en
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张大方
何施茗
谢鲲
张继
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湖南大学
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Abstract

The invention provides a channel allocation mechanism suitable to be used by opportunistic routing to make the opportunistic routing make full use of multi-radio frequency multi-channel network resources. In the mechanism. a common channel distributing mode and a stream-based channel selection algorithm are adopted. By the algorithm, a channel interference status within the current neighboring range is collected, and the channel making path interference minimized is selected for each newly added stream to achieve purposes of balancing a channel resource load and maximizing throughput. The common channel allocation is no longer changed after the network is initialized, and is easy to implement; and by the stream-based channel selection, the repeated transmission problem which may be resulted from the use of different channels by a candidate node in the opportunistic routing in the negotiation process can be effectively prevented.

Description

The method for channel allocation that is fit to the chance route in a kind of many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless mesh network

Technical field

The present invention relates to channel allocation technique in the wireless network, be meant in many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless mesh network channel allocation mechanism especially at the chance route.

Background technology

The chance route is a routing mode emerging in the multi-hop wireless network, and it utilizes wireless medium broadcast nature and multi-user diversity, does not determine next jumping of route in advance, and directly the broadcast transmission packet has a plurality of neighbor nodes on every side and all correctly receives packet.Carry out certain coordination between the node of packet receiving, by one of them from destination node the node of " closely " continue to transmit.Certainly not all node all participates in, and the chance route selects a part wherein to participate in by certain rule, and these selected neighbor nodes are called both candidate nodes or candidate's forward node.Through multi-party verification, with have only a conventional fixed route that preestablishes next jumping and compare, the mode that a plurality of both candidate nodes of this use of chance route are transmitted packet more can adapt to insecure Radio Link, especially can make full use of the Radio Link of remote and high Loss Rate, can obviously promote the end-to-end throughput of multi-hop wireless network, especially wireless mesh network.

The advantage of chance route in injection frequency wireless network explored fully and utilized, and still, its influence in many wireless radiofrequencies network also not can be good at understanding and utilization.Most of chance routes all are in injection single channel network frequently, have not both made full use of the channel resource that 802.11a/b itself has 12/3 quadrature, do not consider that also node in the wireless mesh network can dispose the situation of a plurality of radio frequencies.The wireless network card cost reduces the routing node that the demand of the network bandwidth impelled wireless mesh network with wireless mesh network and disposes a plurality of network interfaces as the router of cable network, make many wireless radiofrequencies mesh network begin extensive use, therefore research aircraft can route become the field that receives much concern in recent years in many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless mesh network.

The research of chance route has only McExOR and ORinMM in the multichannel network at present.The former is frequently given after the channel allocation in the multi channel network environment at injection, selects best chance route both candidate nodes, and how allocated channel is specifically considered; The latter has only analyzed single current and has used the theoretical upper limit of chance route in many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless mesh network.Though above-mentioned algorithm has carried out desk study to the chance route in the application of multichannel network, they are not suitable for the actual use of many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless mesh network.MCExOR channel allocation and route are separate, though can use with the collocation of any channel allocation mechanism, do not specify clear and definite channel allocation mechanism, and it only are applicable to injection network frequently.ORinMM finds the solution the channel allocation scheduling scheme that obtains needs strict clock synchronization, does not also consider the time-delay that radio frequency switches at interchannel, in practice operational applications.Therefore, press for the chance route that is adapted to the multi channel network environment of many radio frequencies.

Summary of the invention

The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is, defective at the prior art existence, propose to be fit in a kind of many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless mesh network the method for channel allocation of chance route, this technology adopts common signal channel method of salary distribution and based on the channel selection algorithm of stream, algorithm is collected the channel disturbance situation in current neighbours' scope, selects to make the path for every initiate stream then and disturbs minimum channel; Common signal channel just no longer needs to change after being distributed in netinit, is simple and easy to realize; Select effectively to avoid the repetition transmission problem that both candidate nodes uses different channels to occur in the chance route in negotiations process based on the channel of stream, to reach the purpose of channel resource load balancing and maximize throughput.

Technical solution of the present invention is that the step that is fit to the method for channel allocation of chance route in described many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless mesh network is:

(1) determines that by expected transmission times ETX index source node is to the needed candidate's forward node of destination node;

(2) adopt the common signal channel method of salary distribution, require all nodes all to be operated on the identical orthogonal channel collection;

(3) adopt based on the allocated channel selection algorithm that flows, require a stream in transmission course, only to use a channel, and select to make path channel to disturb minimum channel.

Below the present invention made further specify.

At the mesh network of radio frequency multi-channel wireless more than, as shown in fig. 1, comprise V node (a gateway node GW and V-1 routing node), the configurable R of each a node less radio-frequency, the radio frequency quantity of supposing all node configuration equates, can use K orthogonal channel in the network, as shown in Figure 2.Many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless mesh network just can be corresponding becomes non-directed graph G=(V, E, the GW of an expansion, R, K), wherein E is the matrix of link between the expression node, have only and two internodal link bag delivery rates to think just that greater than certain threshold values the direct link between them exists, each other neighbours.That is to say that (u, v) ∈ E has a link corresponding bag delivery rate Pr (u v), is illustrated in that link correctly receives the packet success rate under the noiseless situation, and this value can be calculated by propagation model and obtain for any link l.Suppose link be symmetry Pr (u, v)=(v, u), and the link bag delivery rate of arbitrary node all is independently to Pr.The neighbours Nb (u) that one of defined node u jumps be Pr (u, v) 〉=P 0Node set, P wherein 0<<1.For remaining any node v that does not belong to Nb (u), link bag delivery rate is 0, promptly Pr (u, v)=0.

The problem that needs to solve is given such model of place, under the optimal path of gateway node, makes the throughput maximum of whole network at known each node for the suitable channel of the flow distribution of all existence in the network.

Know-why of the present invention comprises:

(1) at first determines source node to the needed candidate's forward node of destination node, promptly determine routed path by expected transmission times ETX index;

(2) after determining both candidate nodes, in order to guarantee the Channel Sharing between node and both candidate nodes, channel allocation mechanism requires all nodes all to be operated on the identical orthogonal channel collection, that is to say that less radio-frequency number and orthogonal channel number equate; This method of salary distribution is called the common signal channel method of salary distribution, and the channel that radio frequency uses behind netinit no longer changes, and is simple and easy to not needing to realize complicated multi-channel protocol;

(3) adopt allocated channel selection algorithm to decide movable stream the time then, use which channel to transmit, just which radio frequency through node based on stream.Employing requires a stream only to use a channel in transmission course based on the channel selecting method of stream, promptly stream the node of process all use this channel to send and receive.Because real next redirect of chance route is sent out node and need could be consulted to obtain by both candidate nodes after packet is sent completely, if both candidate nodes is used different channels, both candidate nodes may can't not communicated by letter because do not have common signal channel in negotiations process, make that negotiation is invalid, the transmission of the repeated and redundant that causes.Select effectively to avoid this problem based on the channel of stream.

Though the less radio-frequency of all nodes all uses identical orthogonal channel, and each bar stream only uses a channel, inappropriate channel allocation still can cause channel loading unbalanced and then influence network performance.Be maximize throughput, when giving the flow distribution channel, should select load few or disturb few channel, as far as possible so the main thought of channel selection algorithm is to select to make path channel to disturb minimum channel.

In order to obtain the use information of channel in node and its peripheral region, each node need be safeguarded two tables relevant with channel, and self channel uses in table NCHL and the neighbours' scope channel to use and shows NBCHL.The similar of these two tables is as Fig. 2 and Fig. 3.Node u self channel uses among the table NCHL (u) and comprises K value, the corresponding value of each channel.I value is f i(u) number of representing to pass through node u and using the stream of i channel.Channel uses table NBCHL (u) also to comprise K value in neighbours' scope, and i value is af i(u) be illustrated in the stream situation that all nodes in neighbours' scope of node u use i channel, value equals i value sum among the table NCHL of node u and its all neighbor nodes.

af i(u)=∑f i(v),v∈{Nb(u)∪u} (1)

Wherein, i is channel number, and u and v are node serial number, f i(v) expression is through node v and use the number of the stream of i channel, af i(u) be illustrated in the stream situation that all nodes in neighbours' scope of node u use i channel, Nb (u) is the hop neighbor of node u.

All can exist a bottleneck channel to disturb for an any i channel of definite Path selection, be disturbed the annoyance level of maximum node on the expression path, be called the path bottleneck channel and disturb BN Path, iIt is optimum channel bch that source node selects to make the path bottleneck channel to disturb minimum channel in K channel,

BN path,i=Max(af i(u)),u∈path (2)

bch = arg Min i ( BN path , i ) , i ∈ ( 0 , . . . K ) - - - ( 3 )

Wherein, K is all orthogonal channel quantity, and path represents the set of node in the determined path of chance route, BN Path, iFor the path bottleneck channel disturbs, bch is an optimum channel.

For the path of given a certain stream, be divided into three steps based on the channel selection algorithm that flows:

The first step, to each channel, the channel operating position of the current neighbours' scope under this channel of all querying nodes on the path, the path bottleneck that relatively obtains under this channel disturbs;

In second step, in K channel, select to make the path bottleneck to disturb minimum channel;

In the 3rd step, upgrade channel operating position in neighbours' scope of neighbor node of self channel operating position of path node and path node.

As known from the above, the present invention is the method for channel allocation that is fit to the chance route in a kind of many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless mesh network, it adopts the common signal channel method of salary distribution and based on the channel selection algorithm that flows, common signal channel just no longer needs to change after being distributed in netinit, is simple and easy to realize; Select effectively to avoid the repetition transmission problem that both candidate nodes uses different channels to occur in the chance route in negotiations process based on the channel of stream, reach the purpose of channel resource load balancing and maximize throughput.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the wireless Mesh netword structure chart;

Fig. 2 is self channel use table (NCHL) structure chart of node u among the present invention;

Fig. 3 is interior channel use table (NBCHL) structure chart of the neighbours' scope of node u among the present invention;

Fig. 4 is a network topology schematic diagram of the present invention;

Fig. 5 is a route result of calculation schematic diagram among the present invention;

Fig. 6 is that self channel uses hoist pennants among the present invention;

Fig. 7 is that neighbours' scope channel uses hoist pennants among the present invention.

Fig. 8 is the throughput cumulative distribution function schematic diagram of concurrent at random 7 streams among the present invention.

Embodiment

Network topology network with 5*5 is an example, and node 0 is a gateway node, 2 radio frequencies that each node is equipped with, and the available orthogonal channel also is 2, i.e. GW=0, R=K=2.P 0Get 0.1, internodal link bag delivery rate as shown in Figure 4, the link bag delivery rate of adjacent node is 90%, the link bag delivery rate of the node in interval is 40% on the horizontal vertical direction, the link bag delivery rate of two nodes in interval is 19% on the horizontal vertical direction, and internodal link bag delivery rate is 77% on the diagonal, and the link bag delivery rate of the node in interval is 23% on the diagonal, three kinds of diagonally opposing corners are respectively 33%, 16% and 10%.Dotted line is represented channel 1, and solid line is represented channel 2.

When existing two streams, be respectively 22 and 12 to gateway node, wherein the 1st stream uses 1, the 2 stream of channel to use channel 2.Need to add new one by one stream from node 21 to gateway.

The expected transmission times ETX of link is the inverse of link bag delivery rate, and the expected transmission times in path is the ETX sum of link.Use dijkstra algorithm can calculate the path of each node to the minimum ETX of gateway node, the both candidate nodes of chance route also just adopts the node on the path, has also just determined route.As shown in Figure 5, the routing node of the 1st stream comprises node 22 16 10 50; Article 2, the routing node of stream comprises node 12 60; Article 3, stream, the path of calculating gained comprises node 21 15 10 50.

It is as follows to the process of gateway to add a new stream 21:

The first step: to each channel, the current neighbours' scope under this channel of all querying nodes on the path

The channel operating position, the path bottleneck that relatively obtains under this channel disturbs;

When the 1st stream used 1, the 2 stream of channel to use channel 2, self channel operating position of node was: it is 11 that self channel of node 0 uses tabular value; Node 6 and node 12 are 10; Node 22, node 16, node 10 and node 5 are 01; Other node temporarily all is 00; See Fig. 6 in detail.

The neighbor node of node 21 has 5,6, and 7,8,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,22,23 and 24.Self channel that removes node 5,6,10,12,16 and 22 outer other nodes uses tabular value to be 00, and neighbours' scope channel of node 21 uses tabular value will be used the node decision of table intermediate value non-zero by self channel so, is (10+01+10+01+10+10)=42.The neighbor table of all nodes on similar the 3rd flow path all can calculate, and sees Fig. 7 for details.

Second step: in K channel, select to make the path bottleneck to disturb minimum channel;

As can be seen from Figure 7 at node 21 to the path of node 0, the bottleneck interference value of channel 2 is littler than channel 1, thus the 3rd stream selective channel 2.Though the converging property of the flow of mesh network makes the gateway node load the heaviest, become the bottleneck of channel resource most probably, from this example as can be seen the bottleneck of channel 1 in node 15,10 and 5, and not at gateway node 0.So can not simply only decide the selection of channel by gateway node.

The 3rd step: upgrade channel operating position in neighbours' scope of neighbor node of self channel operating position of path node and path node.

With node 21,15, the value of channel 2 correspondences adds 1 in self table of 10,5 and 0.The neighbor node of these nodes recomputates neighbor table.

Emulation experiment is carried out under NS2, and topological structure adopts network as shown in Figure 4, and all nodes all are connected to the Internet by gateway node 0, so all flows all will converge to node 0.Consider real network, the probability that is equipped with the less radio-frequency more than 2 because of factors such as costs is less, so adopt dijection double-channel scene frequently in the simulated experiment.Be that each node is equipped with 2 less radio-frequencies, transmission rate is fixed as 54Mbps, can be operated on the orthogonal channel not disturb mutually, and number of available channels also is 2.25 nodes are evenly distributed in 220 meters long and the 220 meters wide regional extents, and two internodal levels and vertical range are 44 meters.Propagation model uses the shadowing model.All streams all are TCP, and the bag size is 1000 bytes, sends packet as much as possible.

Selecting 7 nodes in 24 nodes at random is 1 group as the source node of stream, writes down the throughput that converges of 7 concurrent streams.Select once more after changing random seed, repeat 30 groups.Fig. 5 is the throughput cumulative distribution function of 30 groups of concurrent at random 7 streams, and wherein SR represents the fixed route route, and OR represents the chance route, and 2r2c represents to use dijection double-channel frequently.

The intermediate value of fixed route and chance route is respectively 4.456Mbps and 5.044Mbps under the injection frequency single channel, and the fixed route under the dijection frequency double-channel behind the employing method for channel allocation of the present invention and the intermediate value of chance route are respectively 8.081Mbps and 9.438Mbps.The throughput ratio fixed route of the chance route under the dijection frequency double-channel is high by 16.8%, and is higher by 87.11% than the chance route under the injection frequency single channel, higher by 111.8% than the fixed route under the injection frequency single channel.Under channel allocation of the present invention, dijection double-channel frequently uses the throughput of chance route can reach injection more than 2 times of single channel fixed route frequently.

Claims (3)

1. be fit to the method for channel allocation of chance route in the mesh network of radio frequency multi-channel wireless more than a kind, it is characterized in that its step is:
(1) determines that by expected transmission times ETX index source node is to the needed candidate's forward node of destination node;
(2) adopt the common signal channel method of salary distribution, require all nodes all to be operated on the identical orthogonal channel collection;
(3) adopt based on the allocated channel selection algorithm that flows, require a stream in transmission course, only to use a channel, and select to make path channel to disturb minimum channel.
2. according to the method for channel allocation that is fit to the chance route in the described many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless of claim 1 mesh network, it is characterized in that, when execution in step (3),, be based on the step of the channel selection algorithm of stream for the path of given a certain stream:
The first step: to each channel, the channel operating position of the current neighbours' scope under this channel of all querying nodes on the path, the path bottleneck that relatively obtains under this channel disturbs;
Second step: in K channel, select to make the path bottleneck to disturb minimum channel;
The 3rd step: upgrade channel operating position in neighbours' scope of neighbor node of self channel operating position of path node and path node.
3. according to the method for channel allocation that is fit to the chance route in the described many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless of claim 2 mesh network, it is characterized in that, when carrying out the first step, node need obtain the use information of channel in its peripheral region, each node need be safeguarded two the data structures relevant with channel, and these two data structures are self channel use table NCHL and the interior channel use of neighbours' scope table NBCHL; Node u self channel uses among the table NCHL (u) and comprises K value, and i value is f i(u) expression is through the number of the stream of node u and use channel i.Channel uses table NBCHL (u) also to comprise K value in neighbours' scope, and i value is af i(u) be illustrated in the stream situation that all nodes in neighbours' scope of node u use channel i, being worth is i value sum among the table NCHL of node u and its all neighbor nodes.
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CN102932866A (en) * 2012-07-06 2013-02-13 北京邮电大学 Opportunistic routing mechanism applicable to multi-radio-frequency multi-channel Ad hoc network
CN104066098B (en) * 2013-03-18 2017-12-05 上海贝尔股份有限公司 Method and apparatus for distributed wireless networks
CN104066098A (en) * 2013-03-18 2014-09-24 上海贝尔股份有限公司 Method used for distributed wireless network and equipment thereof
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CN104080088B (en) * 2013-03-27 2017-09-12 中国移动通信集团湖南有限公司 A kind of method for channel allocation and device
CN103607745A (en) * 2013-12-04 2014-02-26 湖南大学 Method for combining opportunistic routing selection and channel allocation in wireless network
CN103619047A (en) * 2013-12-04 2014-03-05 湖南大学 Opportunistic routing method in multiple-concurrent-flow wireless mesh network
CN103607744A (en) * 2013-12-04 2014-02-26 湖南大学 Opportunistic routing method for sensing mesh network channels of multi-radio-frequency multi-channel wireless network
CN103607744B (en) * 2013-12-04 2016-04-27 湖南大学 A kind of chance method for routing of many radio frequencies multi-channel wireless net mesh network channel-aware
CN103607745B (en) * 2013-12-04 2016-05-18 湖南大学 A kind of method of combination machine meeting Route Selection and channel allocation in wireless network
CN103619047B (en) * 2013-12-04 2016-08-31 湖南大学 A kind of chance method for routing in many concurrently stream wireless mesh networks
CN104754649A (en) * 2015-03-06 2015-07-01 广州杰赛科技股份有限公司 Data transfer method and wireless Mesh node
CN105357767A (en) * 2015-11-27 2016-02-24 中国舰船研究设计中心 Shipboard wireless network channel distribution method based on minimum interference cost
CN109392054A (en) * 2018-11-13 2019-02-26 电子科技大学 A method of applied in wireless network collaboration multichannel and chance routing

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