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Method for realizing interconnection structure in same layer domain of tree topology

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CN102130810A
CN102130810A CN 201110029504 CN201110029504A CN102130810A CN 102130810 A CN102130810 A CN 102130810A CN 201110029504 CN201110029504 CN 201110029504 CN 201110029504 A CN201110029504 A CN 201110029504A CN 102130810 A CN102130810 A CN 102130810A
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structure
tree
method
interconnection
fat
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CN 201110029504
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Chinese (zh)
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杨成
王京梅
许都
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电子科技大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for realizing an interconnection structure in the same layer domain of a tree topology. The interconnection structure obtained by using the method is used for solving the defects of a tree structure, the average hop of the interconnection structure is smaller than that of the tree structure, the fault-tolerant capacity is stronger than that of the tree structure, and less extra switching nodes and links are utilized. Meanwhile, a fat tree structure can be regarded as the overlap of plurality of single tree structures. The method can also be applied to the fat tree structure, thus reducing the average hop of the fat tree structure and strengthening the fault-tolerant capacity of the fat tree structure.

Description

一种树形拓扑的同层域内互联结构的实现方法 Implementation of the same layer interconnect structure within a tree topology

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及通信和计算机技术领域,具体涉及一种树形拓扑的同层域内互联结构的实现方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to communications and computer technologies, and particularly relates to a method to achieve the same layer as the interconnect structure within a tree topology.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 在并行互联网络、多处理器系统、片上网络等领域,树形交换结构以其平均跳数小、寻路方式简便、以及天然的汇聚特性等优势而得到广泛的应用。 [0002] In the Internet field parallel, multi-processor systems, networks on chip, its average number of the switch fabric tree hop small, simple pathfinding embodiment, the convergence characteristics and advantages of natural and widely used. 然而,众所周知的是,树形结构存在着一些难以克服的缺陷。 However, it is well known that the tree there are some difficult to overcome deficiencies. 由于树形结构高度的汇聚特性,使得在接近树根的地方,链路往往需要非常大的容量才能满足整个网络的正常通信。 Since the height of the tree convergence properties of such a place near the roots, the link often requires a very large capacity to meet the normal traffic of the entire network. 而一旦树形结构中某条链路或者某个节点发生失效,则故障点以下的所有点都会随之失效,当这种情况发生在接近树根节点的地方时,问题尤为严重。 Once the tree a link or a node failure occurs, it is all the fault point below the point of failure will follow, when this takes place close to the root node, the problem is particularly serious. 为了解决树形结构的这些不足,目前常见的办法是采用胖树结构。 To address these deficiencies tree structure, the current common approach is to use fat-tree structure. 然而,胖树为了达到设计要求,往往需要引入大量额外的交换节点和链路。 However, to meet the design requirements fat tree, often requires the introduction of significant additional switching nodes and links.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0003] 本发明所要解决的问题是:提供一种树形拓扑的同层域内互联结构的实现方法, 该互连结构减小了树形结构的平均跳数,一定程度上均衡了树形结构的流量,增多了树形结构的容错路径进而提高网络的容错性能。 [0003] The present invention aims to solve is: to provide a tree topology implemented method within the same layer as the interconnect structure, the interconnect structure reduces the average number of hops in the tree structure, a balanced tree structure to some extent the flow paths increase the fault tolerance of the tree structure of the network and to improve fault tolerance.

[0004] 本发明所提出的技术问题是这样解决的:提供一种树形拓扑的同层域内互联结构的实现方法,其特征在于: [0004] The technical problem posed is solved according to the present invention: to provide a tree topology implementation of the interconnect structure within the same layer, wherein:

[0005] ①设定存在一个已有的树形拓扑结构,该结构从根节点R开始由上而下总共具有m层,m大于2,共c个节点,其中根节点R位于第1层; [0005] ① exists a set of existing tree topology structure which start from the root node R m having a total of from top to bottom layer, is greater than 2 m, a total of nodes c, wherein R's located on a root node;

[0006] ②定义对于第η层的任意两个节点队和〜,11大于2,如果它们各自在第(η_1)层的父节点Pi和P」(Pi和Pj可能重叠),具有同一个第η-2层的父节点Ri,则称这些节点Ni、 N」、P” Pj和Ri属于同一个域Di,记作Ni, Nj, Pi, Pj, Ri属于Di,其中唯一的第n_2层节点Ri 称为该域的根,显然,对于任意第η层(η大于2)的所有Cn个节点而言,如果η-2层总共有cn_2个节点,则第η层最多能以划分为cn_2个域,且第η层的任意一个节点Ni属于且仅属于其中的某一个域Di, i = 1,2,…,cn_2; [0006] ② defined for any two nodes and first to η teams layer 11 is greater than 2, each of which in the parent node if the first (η_1) layer Pi and P "(Pi and Pj may overlap), the same having a first η-2 layer parent Ri, called nodes Ni, N ", P" Pj belong to the same domain Ri and Di, denoted as Ni, Nj, Pi, Pj, Ri belonging to Di, wherein only the first node layer n_2 Ri is called the root domain, obviously, for all nodes Cn any layer of [eta] ([eta] is greater than 2) if η-2 layer total cn_2 nodes, the first layer is most capable of [eta] is divided into two cn_2 domain, and a layer of any of the η node Ni belongs to one and only one domain wherein the Di, i = 1,2, ..., cn_2;

[0007] ③从第3层的节点开始逐层往下对整个树进行域的划分,最终能得到Cl+C2+… +cn_2个不同的域,记dmax = Cl+C2+…+cn_2,对任意一个域Di,假设它的根氏在全树的第η层, 则需要在第η+1层增加一些同层域内互联节点,使得域Di内的所有第η+2层节点能够通过这些同层域内互联节点进行互联; [0007] ③ start-layer down to the entire tree divided domain from the node layer 3 can eventually give Cl + C2 + ... + cn_2 different domains, denoted dmax = Cl + C2 + ... + cn_2, for any domain Di, assuming that the root's first [eta] layer of the whole tree, you need to add the same layer within the interlink node in a first η + 1 layer, such that all of η + 2 layer nodes within the domain Di through the same layer region interconnected nodes interconnected;

[0008] ④设域Di中位于全树第η层的氏共有ρ个子节点,第η+1层的P个子节点又分别有qi,q2,…,qp个子节点,即第η+2层总共有W…+qp个节点,取其中最大的Qi记作Qfflax, i = 1,2,…,P,则需要增加qmax个同层域内互联节点S。 [0008] ④ disposed domain Di is located in the full tree of [eta] layer's total ρ child nodes of η + P th node 1 layer and respectively qi, q2, ..., qp child nodes, ie η + layer of 2 there W ... + qp nodes, which take the maximum Qi is denoted as Qfflax, i = 1,2, ..., P, the same need to add more layers qmax art interlink node S. 对第j个同层域内互联节点Sj, j = 1,2,…,qmax,如果Cii <= j,则说明位于全树第η+1层且属于域Di中第i个节点还有尚未进行同层域内互联的子节点,从该节点的子节点中任选一个还没有进行同层域内互联的节点与第j个同层域内互联节点h相连;如此循环,直到所有的域Di中第n+2层节点都刚好与一个同层域内互联节点相连为止,最后将qmax个同层域内互联节点S1, S2,…, Sqfflax 一一首尾相连,形成一个环,就得到了该域的同层域内互联结构,使得该域内所有节点间除了存在原树上的交换通道,还可以实现通过同层域内互联节点直接进行交互; J-th region in the same layer network node Sj, j = 1,2, ..., qmax, if Cii <= j, then the whole tree is located in the first layer, and η + 1 belong to the domain Di is the i-th node has not yet been well child nodes interconnected within the same layer, optionally from a child node of the node has not been performed within a network layer node that is coupled with the j-th region in the same layer network node H; and so on, until all of the n-th field Di +2 node coincides with a layer of the same layer as far interlink node connected to the domain, and finally a qmax interconnected node within the same layer as S1, S2, ..., Sqfflax eleven end to end, form a ring, you get the same level domain of the domain interconnect structure, such that the domain is present in all nodes except the original tree exchange channels, may also be implemented by the same layer interact directly interconnected nodes in the domain;

[0009] ⑤对步骤③划分得到的每个域Di按照步骤④增加同层域内互联结构,i = 1, 2,…,dmax,就能够得到全树的同层域内互联结构。 [0009] ⑤ step ③ obtained by dividing each domain Di with increasing layer according to the procedure ④ art interconnect structure, i = 1, 2, ..., dmax, can be obtained within the same layer as the interconnect structure of the whole tree.

[0010] 通过这种扩展方式可以有效地降低树中任意两个底层节点间的平均跳数并显著地增加了容错路径。 [0010] can effectively reduce the average number of hops between any two trees in the bottom node and fault tolerance significantly increases the expansion path in this way. 当然采用这种同层域内互联结构会增加一定的连接与交换开销,因此可以有选择地在部分高密度、高负载的域进行互联,而对于树形交换拓扑结构的其他部分则保持不变。 In this course, the same layer will increase the art interconnect structure connected to the switching some overhead, may be selectively in a portion of high density, high load domain network, while the other part of the tree for the switching topology remains unchanged.

[0011] 对于树形结构变化而得到的胖树结构,同样可以利用这种域内互联进而提高交换性能与容错性能的特性,即同层域内互联结构同样可以适用于胖树结构,用于进一步提高胖树结构的整体性能。 [0011] For changes in the tree structure obtained fat tree, the same network can use this art and to improve performance and fault tolerance characteristics of the exchange, i.e. within the same layer interconnect structure is equally applicable to fat-tree structure for further improving the overall performance of the fat-tree structure.

[0012] 这种增加了同层域内互联的树形结构可以应用于并行互连网络和并行处理器系统,在一定程度上改善了原树形结构的平均跳数和流量汇聚等问题,在网络对容错需求较高的情况下,能够有效的增加整个树形结构的容错性。 [0012] This increases the tree structure within the same layer as the interconnection of the interconnection network may be applied in parallel and the parallel processor system, improving the average number of hops and traffic aggregation tree structure like the original problem to some extent, in the network of the fault-tolerant high demand, can effectively increase the fault tolerance of the whole tree structure.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0013] 图1为任意树形结构增加同层域内互联结构后的示意图; [0013] FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the interconnect structure within the same layer as any increase in the tree structure;

[0014] 图2为完全4元树CT 0,4),其中阴影部分为选取的一棵满足条件的子树; [0014] FIG. 2 is of complete 4-ary tree CT 0,4), wherein a hatched portion satisfying the condition is selected subtree;

[0015] 图3为完全4元树CT (4,4)中一个满足条件的子树增加同层域内互联结构的示意图; [0015] FIG 3 is a of complete 4-ary tree CT (4,4) in a condition satisfying subtree schematic structure within the same layer as the interconnection increases;

[0016] 图4为完全4元树CW4,4)增加同层域内互联结构后的示意图。 [0016] FIG. 4 is a full 4-ary tree CW4,4) increased schematic view of the interconnect structure within the same layer. 具体实施方式 detailed description

[0017] 下面结合附图对本发明作进一步描述: [0017] DRAWINGS The present invention is further described:

[0018] 树形拓扑结构有一个共同的特征,就是把树中任意一个节点作为根往下看,都可以得到一棵子树。 [0018] The tree topology has a common feature is that any node in the tree as a root look down, can get a sub-tree. 对于树中的任意一棵子树的根而言,它的子节点都直接通过它本身相连, 而它的孙子节点(即子节点的子节点)则有可能不与同一个子节点相连,即从根节点往下看,两个二级子节点有可能不属于同一个一级子节点。 For any subtree of the tree root, for its child nodes are directly connected via its own, while its grandchild node (i.e. the child nodes of the child node) may not be connected to the same sub-node, i.e., from the root look down nodes, two two child nodes may not belong to the same one child node. 这样的两个节点之间要通信,就必须通过这棵子树的根节点才能进行。 To communicate, it must be through a tree root to such sub-tree between two nodes. 树形结构的这种特性使得流量不断地往各个子树的根节点处汇聚,并且这种必须通过根节点的通信在跳数上也会比那些不用通过根节点就能实现的同级节点间的通信要多一些,而当根节点附近出现故障时,整个树形拓扑结构的都将受到严重影响。 This feature enables the tree structure to the root node of constant flow rate of each sub-tree aggregation, and this will be on the number of hops between the communication through the root node than those without the same level can be achieved by the root communication to be more, and when near the root node fails, the entire tree topology will be seriously affected.

[0019] 在一棵树中达到或超过三层的所有子树的第三层上增加一个同层域内互联结构, 从而给整棵树带来性能上的显著提高。 [0019] reached a tree or on the third layer over all three of a subtree with increasing layer art interconnect structure, leading to significant performance improvement for the whole tree. 通过互联后,对于任意一棵子树的根节点而言,它的所有孙子节点都增加了通过同层域内互联节点进行互联的通道,从而大量地增加了容错路径,并且在平均跳数上能够有所减小。 Through the Internet, for any one sub-tree root, for its increased all grandchildren nodes interconnected by channels interconnecting nodes within the same layer, thereby substantially increasing the fault tolerance path, and to have on the average number of hops the decreases. 对于这些孙子节点以下的节点,显然它们总会是另外某个节点的孙子节点,所以这种同层域内互联结构得以在全网展开,而使得整个树形拓扑结构在性能尤其是容错性上面得到大幅的提高。 These grandchild node for nodes below, always apparent that they are additionally grandchild node of a node, so this is the same layer as the art interconnect structure expand in the entire network, so that the entire tree topology obtained above properties, especially fault tolerance significantly improved.

[0020] 考虑到实际使用中的树形结构多是对称结构,以一棵完全4元树CW4,4)为例说明该同层互联结构。 [0020] Taking into account the actual use of the tree structure is more symmetrical structures to one of complete 4-ary tree CW4,4) as an example the same layer as the interconnect structure. 完全m元树CT(h,m)是这样的一棵树,树中所有的非叶子节点都有且仅有m个子节点,它共有h层的完全m元树。 M-ary complete tree CT (h, m) is a tree, the tree of all non-leaf nodes has exactly m child nodes, it consisted entirely stratum h m-ary tree. 可以得到,CT (h, m)有m~ (h_l)个叶子节点, 有(nrO+nri+"'+nT(h-3))个满足条件的子树。 Can be obtained, CT (h, m) there are m ~ (h_l) leaf nodes, there are (nrO + nri + " '+ nT (h-3)) that satisfy the condition subtree.

[0021 ] 对于如图2所示的是一棵完全4元树CT 0,4),选出如图2中阴影部分所示的满足条件的一棵三层子树,对于图中第二层的节点,它们都正好拥有4个子节点,所以需要增加4个交换节点来实现第三层的互联。 [0021] For the tree is a complete four yuan CT 0,4) shown in FIG 2, select a subtree three conditions shown in the shaded portion in FIG. 2 is met, for the second layer in FIG. nodes, they just have four child nodes, so it is necessary to increase four switching nodes interconnected to the third layer. 对于第1个新增的交换节点,如图3中所示的1',分别从第二层的每个节点的子节点中选出的一个节点与其相连,如图3中所示所有标号为1的第三层节点;用同样的方式选出与第2、3、4个新增交换(互联)节点相连的第三层子节点如图3中所示标号分别为2、3、4的节点。 For a first new switching node, as shown in FIG. 3 ', respectively, selected from a child node of each node connected thereto in the second layer, as shown in FIG. 3 is a numeral in all a third layer of nodes; selecting same manner as the first three, four additional switching (interconnection) layer of nodes connected to the third child node indicated by reference numeral 3 in FIG. 2, 3, respectively, node. 最后将新增的第1、2、3、4个节点两两首尾相连, 得到一个环。 Finally, the new coupled node 1,2,3,4 twenty-two inclusive, to give a ring. 这样得到该子树的同层域内互联结构如图3所示。 This gave the sub-tree within the same layer as the interconnect structure shown in Figure 3.

[0022] 按照如上方法继续选取原树中其余的满足等于或超过三层的子树进行互联改造, 就得到了同层域内互联结构,如图4所示。 [0022] selected according to the above method continues to meet the rest of the original tree is equal to or more than three sub-tree of interconnected transformation, we get the same level domain interconnect structure, as shown in FIG.

[0023] 实际中大量使用的胖树结构同样可以看作多个单树来进行互联。 [0023] The practical use of a large amount of fat may also be viewed as a tree structure of a plurality of interconnected single tree. GFT(h,m, w)是一棵胖树,它有个根节点,每个根节点往下都是一棵CT (h,m),对于树中每个非叶子节点有且仅有m个子节点,树中每个非根节点有且仅有w个父节点。 GFT (h, m, w) is a fat tree, it has a root, each root node down is a CT (h, m), for each non-leaf node of the tree and only m child nodes, each non-root node in the tree has one and only one parent node w.

Claims (1)

1. 一种树形拓扑的同层域内互联结构的实现方法,其特征在于:①设定存在一个已有的树形拓扑结构,该结构从根节点R开始由上而下总共具有m层, m大于2,共c个节点,其中根节点R位于第1层;②定义对于第η层的任意两个节点队和〜,11大于2,如果它们各自在第(η-1)层的父节点Pi和Pj (Pi和Pj可能重叠),具有同一个第η-2层的父节点Ri,则称这些节点NpNpPp Pj和Ri属于同一个域Di,记作Ni, Nj, Pi, Pj, Ri属于Di,其中唯一的第n-2层节点Ri称为该域的根,显然,对于任意第η层(η大于2)的所有Cn个节点而言,如果n-2层总共有cn_2个节点,则第η层最多能以划分为cn_2个域,且第η层的任意一个节点Ni属于且仅属于其中的某一个域Di, i = 1,2,…,cn_2 ;③从第3层的节点开始逐层往下对整个树进行域的划分,最终能得到Cl+C2+…+cn_2个不同的域,记dmax = Cl+C2+…+cn_2,对任意一 Implementation interconnection layer structure with domain A tree topology, which is: ① the presence of a conventional tree topology is set, this structure starts from the root node R m having a total of from top to bottom layer, m is greater than 2, a total of c nodes, wherein the first layer is located in the root node R 1; ② [eta] defined for the first layer and any two nodes - teams, 11 is greater than 2, each of which if the first (η-1) the parent layer node Pi and Pj (Pi and Pj may overlap), having the same parent node of Ri η-2 layer, called nodes NpNpPp Pj belong to the same domain and Ri Di, denoted as Ni, Nj, Pi, Pj, Ri belonging to Di, where only n-2-Ri layer is called the root node of the domain, obviously, for all nodes Cn any layer of [eta] ([eta] is greater than 2), if a total of n-2 layer nodes cn_2 , the first layer is most capable of η CN_2 divided into domains, and a layer of any of the η node Ni belongs and belongs to only one of the domain where Di, i = 1,2, ..., cn_2; ③ from layer 3 node starts down layer by layer to the entire tree divided domain, can be obtained finally Cl + C2 + ... + cn_2 different domains, denoted dmax = Cl + C2 + ... + cn_2, any one of 域Di,假设它的根氏在全树的第η层,则需要在第η+1层增加一些同层域内互联节点,使得域Di内的所有第η+2层节点能够通过这些同层域内互联节点进行互联;④设域Di中位于全树第η层的氏共有ρ个子节点,第η+1层的ρ个子节点又分别有Q1, Q2,…,Qp个子节点,即第η+2层总共有1+¾+"'+¾个节点,取其中最大的Cli记作qmax, i = 1,2,…,p,则需要增加qmax个同层域内互联节点S。对第j个同层域内互联节点Sj, j = 1,2,…,qmax,如果Cii <= j,则说明位于全树第η+1层且属于域Di中第i个节点还有尚未进行同层域内互联的子节点,从该节点的子节点中任选一个还没有进行同层域内互联的节点与第j个同层域内互联节点Sj相连;如此循环,直到所有的域Di中第η+2层节点都刚好与一个同层域内互联节点相连为止,最后将qmax个同层域内互联节点S1, S2,…,Sqfflax 一一首尾相连,形 Domain Di, assuming that the root's first [eta] layer of the whole tree, you need to add the same layer within the interlink node in a first η + 1 layer, such that all of η + 2 layer nodes within the domain Di through the same layer region interlink node interconnect; ④ disposed domain Di is located in the full tree of [eta] layer's total [rho] child node, the first η + ρ child node of layer 1 and respectively Q1, Q2, ..., Qp child nodes, ie η + 2 a total layer 1 + ¾ + " '+ ¾ nodes, which take the largest Cli referred to as qmax, i = 1,2, ..., p, with a need to increase qmax layers interconnected node within the j-th pair with S. layer within the interlink node Sj, j = 1,2, ..., qmax, if Cii <= j, then the whole tree is located in the first η + 1 layer belonging to the domain Di and the i-th node art there has not been the same layer as interconnect child nodes, optionally from a child node of the node has not been performed within a network layer node that is coupled with the j-th region in the same layer network node Sj; and so on, until all of the domains Di in the second layer nodes η + 2 exactly same layer connected to a network node until the art, and finally a qmax interconnected node within the same layer as S1, S2, ..., Sqfflax eleven end to end, form 一个环,就得到了该域的同层域内互联结构,使得该域内所有节点间除了存在原树上的交换通道,还可以实现通过同层域内互联节点直接进行交互;⑤对步骤③划分得到的每个域Di按照步骤④增加同层域内互联结构,i = 1,2,…, dmax,就能够得到全树的同层域内互联结构。 A ring, is obtained with a layer of interconnect structure within the domain so that the domain is present in all nodes except the original tree exchange channels, it may also be implemented by the same layer interact directly interconnected nodes in the domain; ⑤ obtained by dividing step ③ each domain Di with increasing layer according to the procedure ④ art interconnect structure, i = 1,2, ..., dmax, can be obtained within the same layer as the interconnect structure of the whole tree.
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