Wheel type mobile fruit picking robot and fruit picking method

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Publication number
CN102124866A
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CN
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
sensor
picking
system
control
fruit
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CN 201110021812
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102124866B (en )
Inventor
姬长英
安秋
彭磊
顾宝兴
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南京农业大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a picking method and picking robot device aiming at fruits which are in size of an apple and is similar to a sphere. The picking robot device comprises a mechanical actuating device, control system hardware and control system software. The mechanical actuating device comprises a picking mechanical arm, an underactuated manipulator, an electric sliding table and an intelligent mobile platform, wherein the control system hardware comprises an IPC (industrial personal computer), a motion control card, a data acquisition card, an AHRS (attitude and heading reference system), a coder, a monocular camera, a binocular camera, a force sensor, a slipping sensor and the like. During operation, the IPC fuses information of the coder, the AHRS, monocular camera components and an ultrasonic sensor to enable the mobile platform to independently navigate and avoid obstacles. A binocular vision system collects images of mature fruits and obstacles and extracts the characteristics of the images so as to realize obstacle avoidance of the mechanical arm and fruit positioning. Finally, the IPC fuses the information of the force sensor, the slipping sensor and the position sensor, thereby further reliably gripping the mature fruits and separating the fruits from fruit branches.

Description

一种轮式移动水果采摘机器人及水果采摘方法 Wheeled mobile robot and fruit picking fruit picking methods

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及农业机器人技术领域,尤其是一种轮式移动水果采摘机器人及水果采摘方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to the field of agricultural robot, in particular a wheeled mobile robot and fruit picking fruit picking method.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 水果是我国重要的经济作物,目前水果己成为继粮食、蔬菜之后的第三大农作物。 [0002] fruit is an important cash crop, currently fruit has become the third largest crop after grain, vegetables. 水果产业在国民经济中具有重要地位。 Fruit industry has an important position in the national economy. 在食品消费结构中,随着主食消费比重的缓慢下降和副食品消费比重的上升,水果消费在整个食物消费中的比重也在逐步上升。 In the food consumption structure, the slow decline with the rise in the proportion of consumption of staple and non-staple food consumption ratio, the proportion of fruit consumption in the whole food consumption has gradually increased. 自1978年中国实行农业结构调整政策以来,中国的水果产业得到快速发展,1997年一跃成为世界第一水果生产大国。 Since 1978, China implemented the policy of agricultural structure adjustment, China's fruit industry developed rapidly in 1997 became the world's largest producer of fruit. 水果产量从1978年的657万吨增长至1997年的5089. 3万吨。 Fruit production increased from 6.57 million tons in 1978 to 50.893 million tons in 1997. 到2006 年,中国水果产量己达9599. 2万吨,占世界水果产量的18. 1%。 By 2006, Chinese fruit production has reached 95.992 million tons, accounting for 18.1 percent of world fruit production. 除了具有总量优势外,中国许多水果的产量都居于世界前列,2006年中国苹果和梨产量为沈05. 9万吨和1198. 6万吨, 分别占世界产量的40. 8%和61. 4%,均居于世界第一位。 In addition to the total advantage, yield fruits of many Chinese are living in the world in 2006, China Shen apple and pear production was 059,000 tons and 11.986 million tons, accounting for 40.8% of world production and 61. 4%, are living in the world. 柑橘产量达1591. 9万吨,占世界产量的50. 5%,也居于世界第一位。 Citrus production reached 15.919 million tons, accounting for 50.5% of world production, also living in the world. 以上数据显示,苹果、柑橘、梨是我国水果的主要种植品种,无论是面积还是产量均一直排在前三位。 The above data show, apples, oranges, pears are the main planting varieties of fruit, both in area and production have been the top three. 因此,本发明的轮式移动水果采摘机器人主要采摘对象是针对以上几种水果。 Accordingly, the present invention is a wheeled mobile robot main picking fruit picking a target for more than several fruits.

[0003] 进入21世纪以来,我国人口面临老龄化问题日趋严重,而且随着工业的迅速发展,农业劳动力逐渐向工业及其他行业转移,农业劳动力成本短缺严重且成本逐渐提高。 [0003] In the 21st century, China's population is facing increasingly serious aging problem, but with the rapid development of industry, agriculture labor force gradually transfer to industry and other industries, labor costs and the cost of severe shortages of agricultural gradually improve. 水果采摘作业是水果生产中最耗时、最费力的环节,其收获又属于劳动密集型作业。 Fruit picking fruit production work is the most time-consuming, the most laborious part of its harvest and labor-intensive job. 以上种种因素给水果的收获带来了很大的困难,因此研究开发一种智能化的水果采摘装置势在必行。 All these factors give the fruit harvest has brought great difficulties, so the development of an intelligent fruit picking device is imperative. 轮式移动水果采摘机器人不仅能够降低果农的劳动强度、降低果树采摘成本、提高采摘效率、保证果实及时收获、保证果品质量,而且对于促进农村经济发展,提高我国农业机械的现代化、智能化水平,加速农业现代化进程有着重大的推动作用。 Fruit picking wheeled mobile robot can not only reduce the labor intensity of fruit, fruit picking reduce costs, improve picking efficiency, and ensure timely harvest fruit, to ensure fruit quality, but also to promote rural economic development, improve China's modernization of agricultural machinery and intelligence, accelerate the process of modernization of agriculture has a major role in promoting.

[0004] 相对于发达国家,我国在水果采摘机器人领域的研究起步较晚,大概始于20世纪90年代中期。 [0004] developed countries, China's research in fruit picking robots started late relative, probably began in the 20th century, the mid-1990s. 目前国内有不少科研院校和研究所在进行采摘机器人和智能农业机械相关的研究。 Currently there are studies related to robotics and intelligent agricultural machinery and many research institutions and research institutes during the picking.

[0005] 中国发明专利ZL200310118301. 6,发明名称为“一种移动机器人平台的驱动结构和驱动方法”。 [0005] Chinese patent ZL200310118301. 6, entitled "structure and driving method for driving a mobile robot platform." 该专利介绍了一种用于轮式移动机器人平台的驱动结构,采用协调的驱动方式,它包括一个主动导向轮和两个独立的驱动轮。 This patent describes the structure of a drive for wheeled mobile robot using a coordinated drive system which comprises an active guide wheels and two separate drive wheels. 主动导向轮由小功率较高减速比的电机驱动,控制导向轮的转角;两个驱动后轮分别由两个低控制精度的扁平电机或轮毂电机驱动。 Active high-power small by the guide wheel gear motor drive ratio, the control angle of the guide wheel; two flat motors drive the rear wheels or precision-wheel motor drives are controlled by two low. 平台驱动控制器按照本体电机协调算法把移动平台的运动要求分解为对三个电机的控制命令,然后控制导向轮的转动和两个后轮的差动以完成本体的运动。 Platform motor drive controller according to the coordinated motion of the mobile platform body algorithm requires three decomposed into a control command of the motor, and controls the differential rotation of the two rear wheels and the guide wheels to complete the movement of the body. 但该专利中没有描述详细的机械结构,而且也没有针对果园路面环境进行设计,因此该结构很难应用于水果的采摘。 However, the patent does not described in detail the mechanical structure, and there is no design for orchard road conditions, and therefore the structure is difficult to apply the picked fruit.

[0006] 中国发明专利ZL200410053041. 3,发明名称为“智能移动机器人”。 [0006] Chinese patent ZL200410053041. 3, entitled "Intelligent Mobile Robot." 该专利介绍了一种智能移动机器人,包括车体平台和大脑两大部分,采用笔记本电脑作为机器人大脑。 This patent describes an intelligent mobile robot, including vehicle platforms and two parts of the brain, using a laptop as a robot brain. 机器人大脑负责采集处理视觉信号,负责与外界对象通信和高层决策,下位机负责机器人执行机构的底层控制,并将获得的里程计信息、超声波传感器信息和储能状态信息上传给机器人大脑。 Robot brain responsible for visual signal acquisition and processing, and is responsible for communication with the outside world objects high-level decisions, the lower level control unit responsible for the robot actuators, and odometer information obtained, and the ultrasonic sensor information storage status information uploaded to the robot brain. 该专利主要对控制系统组成进行了描述,但没有涉及到机器人的具体机械结构的详细描述。 This patent mainly control system has been described, but not related to the detailed description of specific mechanical structure of the robot. 该专利使用的是普通的超声波传感器,虽然价格便宜,经济性好,但是普通的超声波传感器发射角大,探测范围大,但是其致命的缺点是方向性不好。 The patent uses an ordinary ultrasonic sensors, although cheap, the economy is good, but the general ultrasonic sensors emit large angle, large detection range, but its fatal flaw is not good directionality. 而对于路面环境比较复杂的果园,使用普通的超声波传感器极易造成障碍物的误判,因此该平台并不适宜在果园环境中使用。 For more complex road conditions orchards, using conventional ultrasonic sensor can easily result in false obstacle, so the platform is not suitable for use in the orchard environment.

[0007] 此外,南京农业大学对茄子收获的视觉系统和机械臂的避障进行了研究;上海交通大学对黄瓜采摘进行了研究;江苏大学对番茄收获机械手进行相应研究;西北农林科技大学对苹果采摘机器人手臂控制进行了研究;浙江大学对番茄收获机械手进行了运动学分析。 [0007] In addition, Nanjing Agricultural University eggplant harvest of vision systems and robot arm obstacle avoidance studied; Shanghai Jiaotong University cucumber picking studied; tomato harvesting manipulator accordingly Jiangsu University; Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University of Science and Technology of Apple picking robot arm control has been studied; Zhejiang university of tomato harvesting manipulator kinematics analysis. 从以上研究可以看出,在采摘机器人领域国内的科研人员做了大量的探索性工作,但是水果的采摘是个极其复杂的过程,目前仍有很多难题很难解决。 As can be seen from the above study, the domestic harvest in the field of robotics researchers have done a lot of exploratory work, but picking fruit is an extremely complex process, there are still many problems difficult to solve. 比如以上研究大多是集中在智能移动平台、采摘机械臂、各种末端执行器、视觉传感器系统、果实的各种分割和识别算法等几个单方面的研究,由于工作量太大,研究难度高,所以几乎没有人将果实采摘的各个环节整合在一起深入研究。 Most of such research is focused on the above study several unilateral intelligent mobile platform, picking robot arm, various end effector, a visual sensor system, various fruit segmentation and recognition algorithm, due to the large amount of work, high difficult to study , so almost no one will integrate all aspects of picking fruit together in-depth study. 这就带来一些重要的问题,研究出来的成果比较零散,采摘机器人执行采摘任务仍然需要人的协助,只能实现半自动化,而且采摘的效率普遍比较低。 This brings a number of important issues, come up with the results of fragmented, picking picking robot to perform tasks still require human assistance, can only be achieved semi-automatic, and picking efficiency generally low. 这些问题在国内外都广泛存在。 These problems are widespread at home and abroad.

[0008] [0008]

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0009] 本发明的目的在于提供一种轮式移动水果采摘机器人及水果采摘方法,本发明就是针对以上研究中存在的问题,将轮式智能移动平台、电动滑台、采摘机械臂、欠驱动采摘机械手、传感器系统整合在一起,将采摘机械臂的运动、欠驱动采摘机械手的抓取和轮式智能移动平台的行走等几个关键步骤整合在一起,真正实现了水果的智能化采摘。 [0009] The object of the present invention to provide a robotic fruit picking fruit picking and method of a mobile wheel, the present invention addresses the problems in the above study, the wheel intelligent mobile platform, electric stage, picking robot arm, Underactuated picking robot, sensor systems together, the picking robot arm movement, such as walking underactuated several key steps in picking robot crawler and wheeled intelligent mobile platform together, truly intelligent picking fruit. 采摘的几个关键步骤的整合并非几个步骤的简单叠加,采摘机械臂的运动、欠驱动采摘机械手的抓取和轮式智能移动平台的行走是非常复杂的系统工程,不仅机械结构、软件和算法需要完美地融合在一起,而且整个系统运转要结合果园实际的采摘工作环境。 The integration of several key steps of picking is not a simple superposition of several steps, the movement of the robot arm picking, picking Underactuated wheeled robot crawling and walking intelligent mobile platform is a very complex system engineering, not only the mechanical structure, software and algorithm needs perfectly together, and the entire system works in conjunction with the orchard picking the actual work environment. 要想取得良好的采摘效果,以上几个关键因素缺一不可。 To get a good harvest results, more than a few key factors are indispensable.

[0010] 本发明的技术方案是: [0010] aspect of the present invention is:

一种轮式移动水果采摘机器人,包括机械执行装置和控制系统, 所述机械执行装置包括轮式智能移动平台、采摘机械臂和欠驱动采摘机械手和电动滑 Wheeled mobile fruit picking robot comprising a mechanical actuating device and a control system, said mechanical actuator means includes a intelligent mobile wheeled platform, and the picking robot arm and the robot picking UNDERACTUATED electric slide

台; station;

所述轮式智能移动平台包括第一驱动轮总成、第二驱动轮总成、第一从动轮总成、第二从动轮总成、平台机架、电机控制柜、水果收集箱以及侧面挡板,其中第一驱动轮总成、第二驱动轮总成、第一从动轮总成、第二从动轮总成与平台机架之间采用螺栓联接,侧面挡板用铆钉铆接平台机架上,电机控制柜固定在轮式智能移动平台的中部;水果收集箱位于采摘机械臂和电机控制柜之间; The intelligent wheeled mobile platform assembly comprising a first drive wheel, second drive wheel assembly, a first clutch assembly, a second clutch assembly, platform chassis, motor control cabinet, and the side gears fruit collecting tank coupling between the bolt plate, wherein the first drive wheel assembly, a second drive wheel assembly, a first clutch assembly, the second driven wheel assembly and the platform chassis, baffle side platform chassis with riveted motor control cabinet is fixed to the middle of the wheel intelligent mobile platform; picking fruit collecting tank located between the robot arm and motor control cabinet;

所述第一驱动轮总成和第二驱动轮总成分别包括驱动轴、轴承、减速器、直流伺服电机、编码器、轴承盖、平键、轴承座固定法兰、轴承、轴承座、轴承盖和轮毂联接法兰,第一从 The first and second driving wheel assembly each driving wheel assembly includes a drive shaft, a bearing, reducer, DC servo motor, an encoder, a bearing cap, key, fixed bearing housing flange, bearing, bearing, bearing the coupling flange and the hub cap, from a first

5动轮总成和第二从动轮总成分别包括轴、轴承、轴承座、轴承盖、轴承座固定法兰和轮毂联接法兰; 5 and a second wheel assemblies each comprising a shaft driven wheel assembly, bearings, housings, bearing caps, bearing fixed connecting flange and a hub flange;

所述采摘机械臂固定在轮式智能移动平台前端的电动滑台上,采摘机械臂的结构包括大臂、小臂、伸缩臂、两个直流伺服舵机、两个直流伺服电机、水果下滑管道和漏斗状缓冲节; The picking robot arm fixed to the electric wheel intelligent mobile platform distal sliding table, picking robot arm structure comprising a boom, an arm, a telescopic arm, two DC servo steering gear, two DC servo motors, fruit falling pipe funnel-shaped section and a buffer;

所述伸缩臂的结构包括伸缩臂连接架、第一套筒、深沟球轴承、滑槽、深沟球轴承、第二套筒、直线轴承、机械手连接框、深沟球轴承、直线轴承、滑杆、第一圆形滑块、深沟球轴承、 水果接收篮固定架、第二圆形滑块、双向丝杠、深沟球轴承、轴承盖、联轴器、电机固定法兰和直流伺服电机; The telescopic arm comprises a telescopic arm connecting frame structure, a first sleeve, deep groove ball bearings, chutes, deep groove ball bearings, a second sleeve, linear bearings, connected to the robot frame, deep groove ball bearings, linear bearings, slider, the first slider round, deep groove ball bearing, receiving the fruit basket holder, the second slider circular, two-way screw, deep groove ball bearings, the bearing cap, couplings, and DC motor fixing flange servo motor;

所述电动滑台包括直流伺服电机、联轴器、滑杆、螺杆、滑杆、轴承座、机械臂固定滑块、 轴承座和电机固定架; The electric stage includes a DC servo motor, coupling, slider, screw, slider bearing, the slider is fixed robot arm, bearing housing and motor mount;

所述欠驱动采摘机械手包括第一手指关节、第一手指连杆、第二手指关节、手掌、第二手指连杆、连杆、驱动杆、联轴器、下支撑杆、下底盘、直流伺服电机、长连接杆、上支撑杆、中间法兰和螺杆轴;手掌与中间法兰通过上支撑杆进行联接;下底盘与中间法兰通过下支撑杆进行联接,行程开关安装在下支撑杆与中间法兰的连接处;手指安装在手掌上,两个手指平行对称布置;联轴器将螺杆轴与直流伺服电机轴联接在一起,使得工作时伺服电机转动, 将螺杆轴的转动则转化为驱动杆的上下运动; Under the picking robot comprises a first driving finger joint, the fingers of the first link, the second finger joints, hands, fingers second connecting rod, the driving rod coupling, the rod, the chassis, the DC servo motor, long connecting rod, the support rod, the intermediate flange and the screw shaft; palm and be coupled to the intermediate flange through the upper support rod; lower chassis coupled with the intermediate flange carried by the support rod, the support rod attached to the lower limit switch and the intermediate flange connection; finger is mounted on the hand palm, two parallel fingers are arranged symmetrically; joint coupling together with the screw shaft axis DC servo motor, the servo motor so that the work is rotated, the rotation of the screw shaft into the driving up and down movement of the rod;

所述控制系统包括工控机、8轴运动控制卡、数据采集卡、直流伺服电机、编码器、 AHRS姿态方位参考系统、单目摄像机组件、双目摄像机、工业级超声波传感器、力传感器、滑觉传感器、位置传感器、控制电路及电机控制柜。 The control system includes IPC, 8-axis motion controller, data acquisition card, DC servo motor, an encoder, the AHRS attitude location reference system, monocular camera assembly, binocular camera, industrial ultrasonic sensor, a force sensor, and slip sensors, position sensors, control circuitry and motor control cabinet.

[0011] 所述轮式智能移动平台后端左侧设有工控机,轮式智能移动平台后端右侧设有锂电池供电箱,给工控机供电的蓄电池和逆变器位于工控机和锂电池供电箱中间,运动控制卡、数据采集卡、分别插装在工控机的PCI插槽内,双目摄像机位于所述机械手连接框的上侧,智能移动平台前端设有AHRS姿态方位参考系统和单目摄像机组件。 [0011] The left rear wheel intelligent mobile platform with IPC, the right rear wheel intelligent mobile platform with lithium battery box, a battery power supply to IPC and IPC and the inverter is located lithium intermediate battery box, motion control card, data acquisition card, are inserted in the PCI slot IPC, binocular camera located on the hand side mechanical coupling frame, provided with intelligent mobile internet distal location reference system AHRS attitude and monocular camera assembly.

[0012] 所述欠驱动采摘机械手、螺杆轴和驱动杆的材料为45号钢,第一手指关节、第一手指连杆、第二手指关节、手掌、第二手指连杆、连杆、下支撑杆、下底盘、长连接杆、上支撑杆和中间法兰的材料均为尼龙。 [0012] The Underactuated picking robot, and the material of the screw shaft 45 is driven steel rod, a first finger joint, the fingers of the first link, the second finger joints, hands, fingers second connecting rod, the supporting rod, the chassis, the long connecting rod, the support rod and the intermediate flange materials are nylon.

[0013] 所述水果下滑管道内部有多个漏斗状缓冲节,缓冲节由软橡胶材料制成。 Internal [0013] The decline in fruit pipe section with a plurality of funnel-shaped buffer, the buffer section is made of soft rubber material.

[0014] 所述伸缩臂设置在采摘机械臂末端关节处,伸缩臂还包括传动机构,传动机构由双向丝杠、圆形滑块、滑槽和滑杆等组成。 [0014] The telescopic arm is provided picking robot arm end joints, the transmission mechanism further comprising a telescopic arm, a bidirectional transmission screw, the circular slider, and the slider chute and so on. 伸缩臂的外部由第一套筒和第二套筒用螺栓联接在一起,第一套筒上侧开有滑槽,下侧开有腰型通孔,第二套筒上下两侧均开有滑槽;第一圆形滑块的上下两侧分别装有一个深沟球轴承,深沟球轴承轴承卡在滑槽内,第一圆形滑块中间有内螺纹孔;第二圆形滑块上侧装有深沟球轴承,轴承卡在滑槽内,下侧与水果接收篮固定架相连接,第二圆形滑块中间设有内螺纹孔。 External coupling of the telescopic arm by the first and second sleeves bolted together, on a first side of the sliding sleeve is opened, the side opening has a waist-shaped through hole, the second sleeve with both sides opened chute; a first upper and lower sides are respectively provided with a circular slide groove ball bearings, deep groove ball bearings in the slide card, the first intermediate circular slide internally threaded bore; a second circular slide block side with deep groove ball bearings, stuck in the chute and the lower side of the receiving fruit basket holder is connected to the second intermediate circular slide provided with an internal thread hole.

[0015] 一种利用轮式移动水果采摘机器人进行的水果采摘方法,包括以下步骤: 水果采摘时,机械臂将采摘机械手送到果实附近; [0015] A use of wheeled mobile robot fruit picking fruit picking method, comprising the steps of: when the fruit picking, the robotic arm to a nearby fruit picking robot;

采摘机械手上的位置传感器检测采摘机械手与果实的相对位置,当检测到果实已进入采摘机械手采摘范围时,直流伺服电机正向转动,采摘机械手开始抓取果实,压力传感器检测手指和果实之间的夹持力,并判断是否达到实验所给出的水果所能承受的力阈值;若达到力阈值则采摘机械手停止运动,机械臂模拟人工采摘的上抬动作,完成果枝与果柄的分离; Picking on the robot position sensor picking relative position of the robot and fruit, when detecting that the fruit has entered the picking robot picking range, DC servo motor rotates forward picking robot start crawling fruit, between the pressure sensor detects the finger and fruit clamping force, and determines whether the force threshold fruit given experiment can bear; if the force threshold is reached the motion stops picking robot, picking robot arm simulation of artificial elevation operation, complete separation of the stalk of the fruiting branches;

接下来采摘机械臂伸缩关节回缩,采摘机械手的手指张开,将果实放入水果接收篮内, 最后水果经水果下落管道和缓冲漏斗缓慢地滑落到水果收集箱内。 Next the picking robot arm retracted telescopic joint, the robot picking fingers apart, the fruit into the receiving fruit basket, and finally the fruit by fruit drop pipe and the surge hopper to fall slowly fruit collection box.

[0016] 本发明的有益效果是: [0016] Advantageous effects of the present invention are:

本发明的优点如下:(1)欠驱动采摘机械手的螺杆轴和驱动杆的材料为45钢,其它部分材料均为尼龙,质量相比之下采摘机械手总重量降低约25%,重量降低会直接导致采摘机械臂系统的能耗随之降低约25% ; (2)在机械臂下方设计水果接收篮和水果下落管道,当果实与果枝分离后直接放入水果接收篮,果实经下落管道直接滑落到水果收集箱内,这样机械臂工作时就会大大减小了机械臂多数关节的旋转角度,有些关节甚至无需动作,而采摘的效率却提高40%左右,机械臂动作部分能耗也随之降低约40% ; (3)水果下滑管道内部有多个漏斗状缓冲节,缓冲节由软橡胶材料制成,能够降低果实下滑过程中的速度,从而减少果实在下滑过程中因碰撞或摩擦引起的损伤;(4)整个机械臂固定在电动滑台上,在工作时机械臂可以在电动滑台上左右滑动,这样设计的优点是 Advantages of the present invention are as follows: (1) under drive screw shaft and drive bar material picking robot 45 is steel, the other parts are nylon materials, picking robot mass compared to the total weight reduction of about 25% weight reduction directly picking manipulator system lead consumption decreases by about 25%; (2) below the design robot arm receiving basket fruit and fruit drop pipe, after the fruit and the fruit directly into the separation fruiting receiving basket, fruit drop through pipes directly slipped the fruit collection box, so that when the robot working will greatly reduce the angle of rotation manipulator joint majority, and some even without joint action, and picking efficiency is increased by 40%, energy consumption also will be part of the robot arm action decreased by about 40%; (3) falling fruit funnel-shaped inner pipe with a plurality of buffer sections, the buffer section is made of soft rubber material can reduce the speed of the falling fruit, thus reducing the fruit falling due to collision or friction. injury; (4) fixed to the slide table in the whole electric robot arm, the robot arm can be left in the electric sliding table slides during operation, the advantage of this design is 智能移动平台在果园行间行走一次就可以采摘完其两侧的果实,整个智能移动平台行走的路程可以减半,行走部分的能耗可以降低35%-40%; (5)机械臂末端关节的伸缩臂传动机构由双向丝杠、圆形滑块、滑槽和滑杆等部分组成,当机械臂在采摘水果时机械手伸进树冠,同时水果接收篮退出树冠,这样既可以减少果实下滑管道与果枝碰撞而损伤果枝和果胎现象,也可以防止果实下滑管道被果枝阻挡造成果实滑落不畅的现象;(6) AHRS姿态方位参考系统,可输出智能移动平台的三轴的角速度、航向角度、加速度值。 Intelligent mobile platform walking in a row to be picked orchard fruit finish on both sides thereof, the smart mobile platform walking distance can be halved, the energy consumption can be reduced underbody 35% -40%; (5) the end of the robot arm joint the telescopic arm by a bidirectional transmission screw, the circular slider, and the slider chute and other components, when the robot arm when the robot picking the fruit into his crown, while receiving basket exit canopy fruits, both to reduce the decline in fruit conduit fruiting and fruit damaged tire phenomenon, can be prevented from falling fruit fruiting conduit is blocked resulting in poor fruiting and fruit slip phenomenon collision; (6) AHRS attitude location reference system, intelligent mobile platform may output a three-axis angular velocity, heading angle acceleration values. AHRS、工业级超声波传感器和双目立体视觉系统信息融合后大大提高了智能移动平台导航精度和避障能力;(7)轮式智能移动平台由直流伺服电机和减速机驱动,由编码器来反馈当前位置信息,能够实现精确的位置控制;(8)机械手的旋转关节模拟人工采摘的上台动作,实现果实与果枝的分离,这样设计就是为了避免在采摘机械手上增加复杂的果实分离装置,简化了欠驱动机械手的结构,降低了机械臂末端的重量。 The AHRS, industrial ultrasonic sensor and the binocular vision system is greatly enhanced after the intelligent information fusion mobile internet navigation and obstacle avoidance capability precision; (7) wheel intelligent mobile platform driven by a DC servo motor and reducer to feedback by an encoder current position information, it is possible to achieve precise position control; rotary joints analog (8) robot manual picking stage operation, separation of fruit and fruiting branches, so that the design is to avoid picking robot arm increases the complexity fruit separation apparatus, simplifying the underactuated manipulator structure, reducing the weight of the robot arm end. (9)采摘机械臂是根据果园实际使用环境自行研制的,虽然精度与工业机械臂相比还有距离,但是完全能够满足果实采摘的使用要求,而且整个机械臂的成本仅为同类工业机械臂的25%左右,大大降低了果农的使用成本。 (9) it is based on the orchard picking robot arm developed by the actual use of the environment, although compared with the precision robotic arm as well as from the industry, but fully able to meet the requirements of fruit picking, and cost of the entire manipulator of comparable industrial robot arm about 25%, greatly reducing the cost of fruit. (10)轮式智能移动平台由两个驱动轮来驱动,由两个驱动轮的速度差和软件转向模型实现转向,这样就避免使用结构复杂且笨重的平行四边形转向机构,减轻了整个系统的重量,节约了成本。 (10) Smart wheeled mobile platform is driven by two wheels, the speed difference between the two drive wheels and steering the software model implemented steering, thus avoiding the use of complicated and bulky structure of parallelogram steering mechanism, reducing the overall system weight, cost savings.

[0017] 本发明提高了水果采摘劳动生产率、降低了果农的劳动强度、降低了水果采摘成本、解决了劳动力短缺且成本过高这一问题,保证了果实及时采收、保证了果品质量。 [0017] The invention improves the fruit picking labor productivity, reduce labor intensity of farmers, reducing the cost of fruit picking, to solve the problem of labor shortage and high cost, to ensure the timely harvesting fruit, to ensure fruit quality.

[0018] 本发明对于促进农村经济发展,提高我国农业的现代化、智能化水平,加快农业科技进步具有重要意义。 [0018] The present invention is of great significance to promote rural economic development, improve the modernization level of intelligence of China's agriculture, accelerate agricultural science and technology.

[0019] [0019]

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0020] 图1是本发明一个实施例的侧面结构示意图。 [0020] FIG. 1 is a schematic side view of the structure of an embodiment of the present invention.

[0021] 图2是本发明一个实施例的结构俯视图。 [0021] FIG. 2 is a structural plan view of one embodiment of the present invention.

[0022] 图3是本发明的驱动轮总成和从动轮总成与平台机架联接图。 [0022] FIG. 3 is a driving wheel assembly of the present invention and the driven wheel assembly coupled with the platform chassis FIG. [0023] 图4是本发明一个实施例的结构左视图。 [0023] FIG. 4 is a left side view of one embodiment of the present invention. .

[0024] 图5是本发明的机械臂的结构图。 [0024] FIG 5 is a configuration diagram of a robot arm of the present invention.

[0025] 图6是本发明的机械臂末端关节剖视图。 [0025] FIG. 6 is a sectional view of a joint end of the robot arm of the present invention.

[0026] 图7是本发明的电动滑台结构图之一。 [0026] FIG. 7 is a block diagram of one of the electric stage according to the present invention.

[0027] 图8是本发明的电动滑台结构图之二。 [0027] FIG. 8 is a configuration diagram of the electric slide table 2 of the invention.

[0028] 图9是本发明的机械手的结构示意图。 [0028] FIG. 9 is a schematic diagram of the structure of the robot according to the present invention.

[0029] 图10是本发明的驱动系统装配图。 [0029] FIG. 10 is an assembly view of a drive system of the present invention.

[0030] 图11本发明的控制系统的主要功能模块构成示意图。 [0030] The main functional block diagram of the control system 11 is a schematic configuration of the present invention.

[0031] 图1中,1为双目摄像机、2为欠驱动采摘机械手、3为水果接收篮、4为水果下滑管道、5为采摘机械臂、6为单目摄像机组件、7为AHRS姿态方位参考系统、8为电动滑台、9为侧面挡板、10为驱动轮、11为从动轮、12为工控机、13为锂电池供电箱、14为显示器、15为电机控制柜、16为水果收集箱。 In [0031] FIG. 1, a binocular camera 2 is driven under the robot picking, fruit is a receiving basket 3, the pipe 4 is a decline in fruit, for the picking robot arm 5, 6 is a monocular camera assembly, 7 AHRS attitude orientation reference system for the electric stage 8, a side flap 9, 10 of the drive wheel, driven wheels 11, 12 for the IPC, for the lithium battery case 13, a display 14, control cabinet 15 is a motor, 16 fruits collection box.

[0032] 图2中,17为蓄电池、18为逆变器。 In [0032] FIG. 2, the battery 17, an inverter 18.

[0033] 图3中,19为驱动轮总成1、20为驱动轮总成2、21为平台机架、22为轮胎、23为从动轮总成1J4为从动轮总成2。 In [0033] FIG. 3, 19, 20 is a drive wheel assembly of the driving wheel assembly 2,21 platform chassis, a tire 22, a driven gear assembly 23 is driven wheel assembly 2 1J4.

[0034] 图5中,25为直流伺服舵机J6为机械臂大臂、27为直流伺服舵机、观为机械臂小臂、四为直流伺服电机、30为漏斗状缓冲节。 [0034] FIG. 5, 25 is a DC Servo J6 manipulator arm, 27 is a DC servo steering gear, for the manipulator arm concept, four DC servo motor, a buffer section 30 is funnel-shaped.

[0035] 图6中,31为伸缩臂连接架、32为第一套筒、33为深沟球轴承、34为滑槽、35为深沟球轴承、36为第二套筒、37为直线轴承、38为机械手连接框、39为深沟球轴承、40为直线轴承、41为滑杆、42为第一圆形滑块、43为深沟球轴承、44为水果接收篮固定架、45为第二圆形滑块、46为双向丝杠、47为深沟球轴承、48为轴承盖、49为联轴器、50为电机固定法兰、51为直流伺服电机。 In [0035] FIG. 6, the connecting frame 31 is a telescopic arm, a first sleeve 32, is a deep groove ball bearings 33, 34 of chute 35 is a deep groove ball bearings, a second sleeve 36, 37 is a straight line bearing block 38 is connected to the robot, deep groove ball bearings 39, 40 is a linear bearing, the slider 41, the slider 42 is a first round, deep groove ball bearings 43, 44 for the reception fruit basket holder, 45 a second circular slide, two-way screw 46, 47 for the deep groove ball bearings, the bearing cap 48, coupling 49, motor mounting flange 50, 51 is a DC servo motor.

[0036] 图7中,52为直流伺服电机、53为联轴器、54为滑杆、55为螺杆、56为滑杆、57为轴承座、58为机械臂固定滑块、59为轴承座、60为电机固定架。 In [0036] FIG. 7, a DC servo motor 52, coupling 53, 54 is a slider, a screw 55, slider 56, bearing housing 57, a slider 58 fixed to the robot arm, the bearing block 59 60 motor bracket.

[0037] 图8中,61为第一手指关节、62为第一手指连杆、63为第二手指关节、64为手掌、 65为第二手指连杆、66为连杆、67为驱动杆、68为联轴器、69为下支撑杆、70为下底盘、71 为直流伺服电机、72为长连接杆、73为上支撑杆、74为中间法兰、75为螺杆轴。 In [0037] FIG 8, 61 of the first joint of the finger as the first finger link 62, 63 of the second joint of the finger to the palm 64, a second finger link 65, connecting rod 66, the drive rod 67 is , the coupling 68, the support rod 69 is, as a lower chassis 70, a DC servo motor 71, 72 for the connecting rod length, for the support bar 73, an intermediate flange 74, 75 is a screw shaft.

[0038] 图9中,76为轮毂联接法兰、77为驱动轴、78为轴承、79为减速器、80为直流伺服电机、81为编码器、82为轴承盖、83为平键、84为轴承座固定法兰、85为轴承、86轴承座、87 为轴承盖。 [0038] In FIG. 9, the coupling flange 76 of the hub, drive shaft 77, bearing 78, 79 is a reduction gear, 80 is a DC servo motor, an encoder 81, the bearing cap 82, 83 is a flat key, 84 bearing housing fixed flange 85 bearing, 86 bearing, 87 is a bearing cap.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0039] 下面结合附图对本发明作进一步描述: [0039] DRAWINGS The present invention is further described:

对照图1,本实施例的轮式移动水果采摘机器人主要由双目摄像机1、欠驱动采摘机械手2、水果接收篮3、水果下滑管道4、采摘机械臂5、单目摄像机组件6、AHRS姿态方位参考系统7、电动滑台8、侧面挡板9、驱动轮10、从动轮11、工控机12、锂电池供电箱13、显示器14、电机控制柜15、水果收集箱16等组成。 Wheeled mobile robot control fruit picking FIG. 1, the present embodiment is mainly composed of a binocular camera, Underactuated picking robot 2, receiving fruit basket 3, 4 pipes falling fruit picking robot arm 5, monocular camera assembly 6, AHRS attitude location reference system 7, electric stage 8, the side flap 9, a drive wheel 10, driven wheel 11, IPC 12, lithium battery box 13, the composition of the display 14, the motor control cabinet 15, the collection tank 16 or the like fruit.

[0040] 对照图1、图2、图3和图4,轮式智能移动平台包括第一驱动轮总成(19)、第二驱动轮总成(20)、第一从动轮总成(23)、第二从动轮总成(24)、平台机架(21)、及侧面挡板(9),其中第一驱动轮总成(19)、第二驱动轮总成(20)和第一从动轮总成(23)、第二从动轮总成(24)与平台机架(21)之间采用螺栓联接,侧面挡板(9)用铆钉铆接平台机架(21)上, 电机控制柜(15)固定在轮式智能移动平台的中部;水果收集箱(16)位于采摘机械臂(5)和电机控制柜(15)之间; [0040] Control 1, 2, 3 and 4, the mobile platform comprises a first intelligent wheeled driving wheel assembly (19), a second drive wheel assembly (20), a first clutch assembly (23 ), the second driven wheel assembly (24), platform chassis (21), and the side flap (9), wherein the first drive wheel assembly (19), a second drive wheel assembly (20) and a first driven wheel assembly (23), between the use of the second driven wheel assembly (24) and the platform chassis (21) bolted on the side flap (9) with a rivet platform chassis (21), the motor control cabinet (15) is fixed to a wheeled mobile platform central intelligence; fruit collecting tank (16) located in the picking arm (5) and between a cabinet (15) to control the motor;

对照图5,采摘机械臂(5)固定在轮式智能移动平台前端的电动滑台(8)上,采摘机械臂的结构包括大臂(26)、小臂(28)、伸缩臂、两个直流伺服舵机(25、27),两个直流伺服电机(29、51),水果下滑管道(4)、漏斗状缓冲节(30)。 Electric control 5, a picking arm (5) fixed to the front end of a wheeled platform, intelligent mobile slide (8), the picking robot arm structure comprises a boom (26), an arm (28), telescopic arms, two DC servo (25, 27), two DC servo motors (29, 51), the fruit falling duct, funnel-shaped buffer section (30) (4).

[0041] 对照图6,伸缩臂的结构包括伸缩臂连接架31、第一套筒32、深沟球轴承33、滑槽34、深沟球轴承35、第二套筒36、直线轴承37、机械手连接框38、深沟球轴承39、直线轴承40、滑杆41、圆形滑块42、深沟球轴承43、水果接收篮固定架44、圆形滑块45、双向丝杠46、 深沟球轴承47、轴承盖48、联轴器49、电机固定法兰50、直流伺服电机51。 [0041] FIG. 6 controls, telescoping boom structure comprises a telescopic arm connecting frame 31, the first sleeve 32, deep groove ball bearing 33, the chute 34, deep groove ball bearing 35, a second sleeve 36, linear bearing 37, manipulator connecting frame 38, deep groove ball bearing 39, linear bearing 40, the slider 41, the slider 42 round, deep groove ball bearings 43, fruit receiving basket holder 44, the slider 45 round, bi-directional screw 46, deep groove ball bearing 47, bearing cap 48, coupling 49, the motor mounting flange 50, DC servo motor 51.

[0042] 对照图7,电动滑台8包括直流伺服电机52、联轴器53、滑杆M、螺杆55、滑杆56、 轴承座57、机械臂固定滑块58、轴承座59、电机固定架60。 [0042] FIG. 7 controls, electric stage 8 comprises a DC servo motor 52, coupling 53, the slider M, the screw 55, slider 56, bearing 57, slider 58 fixed to the robot arm, the bearing housing 59, motor fixing frame 60.

[0043] 对照图8,欠驱动采摘机械手2包括第一手指关节61、第一手指连杆62、第二手指关节63、手掌64、第二手指连杆65、连杆66、驱动杆67、联轴器68、下支撑杆69、下底盘70、 直流伺服电机71、长连接杆72、上支撑杆73、中间法兰74、螺杆轴75。 [0043] FIG 8 controls, Underactuated picking robot 2 comprises a first finger joint 61, a first finger link 62, a second joint finger 63, palm 64, the second finger link 65, link 66, the drive rod 67, couplings 68, the support rod 69, the lower chassis 70, the DC servo motor 71, a long connecting rod 72, the support bar 73, the intermediate flange 74, the screw shaft 75. 手掌64与中间法兰74通过上支撑杆73进行联接;下底盘70与中间法兰74通过下支撑杆69进行联接,行程开关安装在下支撑杆69与中间法兰74的连接处。 Palm intermediate flange 64 and the support rod 74 by the coupling 73; the lower support bar 70 with the intermediate chassis 69 by a coupling flange 74, limit switch 69 mounted on the lower support rod 74 and the intermediate flange. 手指安装在手掌64上,两个手指平行对称布置。 64 is mounted on the hand palm finger, two fingers symmetrically disposed in parallel. 联轴器68将螺杆轴75与直流伺服电机轴联接在一起,工作时伺服电机转动,将螺杆轴75的转动则转化为驱动杆67的上下运动。 The screw shaft 68 coupling the DC servo motor shaft 75 are coupled together, the servo motor operation, the rotation of the screw shaft 75 is converted into vertical movement of the drive rod 67.

[0044] 对照图9,第一驱动轮总成19和第二驱动轮总成20包括、驱动轴77、轴承78、减速器79、直流伺服电机80、编码器81、轴承盖82、平键83、轴承座固定法兰84、轴承85、轴承座86、轴承盖87和轮毂联接法兰76,从动轮总成23和从动轮总成M包括轴、轴承、轴承座、轴承盖、轴承座固定法兰和轮毂联接法兰; [0044] Control 9, the first and second driving wheel assembly 19 includes a drive wheel assembly 20, a drive shaft 77, bearings 78, gear unit 79, DC servo motor 80, encoder 81, the bearing cap 82, key 83, the fastening flange bearing housing 84, bearings 85, bearing 86, the coupling flange 87 and the hub cap bearing 76, clutch assembly 23 and the driven wheel assembly M includes a shaft, bearings, bearing, bearing cap, bearing the coupling flange and fixing flange of the hub;

轮式移动水果采摘机器人的控制系统包括工控机、8轴运动控制卡、数据采集卡、直流伺服电机、编码器、AHRS姿态方位参考系统、单目摄像机组件、双目摄像机、工业级超声波传感器、力传感器、滑觉传感器、位置传感器、控制电路及电机控制柜等。 Fruit picking wheeled mobile robot control system comprising IPC, 8-axis motion controller, data acquisition card, DC servo motor, an encoder, the AHRS attitude location reference system, monocular camera assembly, binocular camera, industrial ultrasonic sensor, a force sensor, and slip sensors, position sensors, control circuitry and motor control cabinet.

[0045] 欠驱动采摘机械手2通过机械手连接框38与机械臂的伸缩臂相连,水果接收篮3 通过其固定架44与圆形滑块45下侧的螺栓相联接,果实接收篮上的水果下滑管道内有多个软橡胶材料的漏斗状缓冲节30,在水果下滑时缓冲节30可以降低水果下滑的速度,从而降低果实下滑过程中因碰撞和摩擦造成的损伤。 [0045] Underactuated picking robot 2 is connected to frame 38 by the robot arm is connected with the robot arm telescopic, fruit basket 3 receiving mount 44 the bolt 45 and the lower side of the circular slider coupled through which the fruit falling on the fruit receiving basket a plurality of funnel-shaped section 30 of soft rubber cushion material within the pipe, when the fruit falling fruit buffer section 30 may reduce the rate of decline, thereby reducing damage to the fruit falling due to collision and friction caused. 整个采摘机械臂5固定在智能移动平台的前端的电动滑台8上,在工作时机械臂5可以在电动滑台8上左右滑动。 Picking robot arm 5 is fixed to the entire front end of the electric intelligent mobile platform 8 on the slide table, the robot arm 5 can slide around on the slide table 8 in the motor during operation.

[0046] 工控机12位于智能移动平台后端左侧,锂电池供电箱13位于智能移动平台后端右侧,给工控机12供电的蓄电池17和逆变器18位于工控机和锂电池供电箱中间,运动控制卡、数据采集卡、分别插装在工控机的PCI插槽内,双目摄像机1位于机械手连接框38的上侧,AHRS姿态方位参考系统)和单目摄像机组件6位于智能移动平台前端。 [0046] IPC intelligent mobile platform 12 at the left rear, lithium battery box 13 on the right rear end of intelligent mobile platform, power supply to the IPC 12 and the inverter 17 battery 18 and the lithium battery located IPC tank intermediate, card motion control, data acquisition card, are inserted in the PCI slot IPC, binocular camera 1 is located on the robot is connected to the side frame 38, the AHRS attitude location reference system) and the monocular camera assembly 6 is located in a smart mobile front-end platform.

[0047] 机械臂末端关节的伸缩臂传动机构由双向丝杠、圆形滑块、滑槽和滑杆组成,伸缩臂的外部由第一套筒32、第二套筒36用螺栓联接在一起,第一套筒32上侧开有滑槽,下侧开有腰型通孔,第二套筒36上下两侧均开有滑槽。 [0047] The telescopic arm manipulator end joint by a bidirectional transmission screw, the circular slider, and the slider chute composition, outer telescopic arm, the second sleeve 36 by bolts coupled together by a first sleeve 32 the first sleeve 32 has upper chute opening, the side opening has a waist-shaped through-hole, the second sleeve 36 has upper and lower sides are open chute. 圆形滑块42的上下两侧装有深沟球轴承35、深沟球轴承43,轴承卡在滑槽内,圆形滑块42中间有内螺纹孔,圆形滑块45上侧装有深沟球轴承33,轴承卡在滑槽内,下侧与水果接收篮固定架44相连接,圆形滑块45中间也有内螺纹孔,直流伺服电机51转动使双向丝杠上的两个圆形滑块在滑槽内同时往里缩进或同时往外伸出运动。 Circular upper and lower sides 42 of the slider 35 equipped with deep groove ball bearings, deep groove ball bearing 43, bearing the card in the chute, the slide circular internally threaded hole 42 in the middle, with a circular upper side of the slider 45 deep groove ball bearing 33, bearing the card in the chute, the lower side of the receiving basket fruit holder 44 is connected to the middle of the circular slider 45 has an internally threaded bore, rotation of DC servo motor 51 of the two circles on the two-way screw shaped slider while simultaneously inside indented or outwardly extending movement in the chute.

[0048] 本发明的工作原理和工作过程如下: [0048] The working principle and process of the present invention is as follows:

采摘机器人工作时,单目摄像机组件6检测路面导航信息,AHRS姿态方位参考系统7检测智能移动平台的航向角度、加速度值,编码器反馈智能移动平台的移动速度和移动距离信息。 Picking robot work, monocular camera module 6 detects road navigation information, the AHRS attitude location reference system 7 detects a heading angle intelligent mobile platform, acceleration value, the encoder feedback intelligent mobile platform moving speed and the moving distance information. 双目摄像机1检测待采摘果树的位置,当检测到视野范围内有果树时,工控机12向8 轴运动控制卡发送轮式智能移动平台停止前进指令。 Binocular camera 1 detects the position to be picked fruit trees, fruit trees when the field of view is detected, IPC wheel intelligent mobile platform 12 sends a halt command to the 8-axis motion control card. 双目摄像机1用来采集果树、果实的图像信息以及采摘机械臂采摘路径中的障碍物图像信息,接下来主控制器工控机对成熟果实图像及障碍物图像进行识别,并且解算出果实相对机械臂基坐标的空间位置坐标,获取水果抓取所需位姿信息,然后工控机13对采摘路径进行规划,并向采摘机械臂5的控制器(8轴运动控制卡)发送果实采摘指令。 Binocular camera 1 to acquire image information and the image information of the obstacle manipulator picking fruit picking path, fruit, then the main controller IPC mature fruit obstacle image and image recognition, and solves for the fruit to mechanical spatial coordinates of the position coordinates of the arm base, obtaining the desired fruit gripping posture information, and 13 pairs of picking IPC path planning, and picking robot arm controller (8-axis motion controller) sends commands fruit picking 5. 当采摘机械手2被机械臂5送到待摘果实附近时, 采摘机械手2上的位置传感器对采摘机械手与苹果的相对位置进行检测,当检测到果实已进入采摘机械手采摘范围时,直流伺服电机71正向转动,采摘机械手2开始抓取果实,压力传感器检测手指和果实之间的夹持力,并判断是否达到实验所给出的水果所能承受的力阈值。 When picking robot 2 is a robot arm 5 to be disengaged nearby fruit picking robot position sensors on the two pairs of picking robot to detect the relative position of the apple, when detecting that the fruit has entered the picking robot picking range, DC servo motor 71 forward rotation, the robot 2 starts picking fruit gripping, clamping force between the finger and the pressure sensor detects the fruit, and determines whether the force threshold fruit given experiment can bear. 若达到力阈值则直流伺服电机71停止转动,机械臂模拟人工采摘的上抬动作,完成果枝与果柄的分离。 If the force threshold is reached and the DC servo motor 71 stops rotating, the robot arm simulation of artificial elevation picking operation, complete separation of the stalk of the fruiting branches. 接下来采摘机械臂伸缩关节回缩,采摘机械手的手指张开,将果实放入水果接收篮3内,最后水果经水果下落管道4和漏斗缓冲节30缓慢地滑落到水果收集箱16内。 Next the picking robot arm retracted telescopic joint, picking robot fingers open, the fruits into the fruit within the basket receiver 3, and finally the fruit by fruit dropping funnel and conduit sections 430 buffer was slowly dropped to the fruit collection bin 16.

[0049] 重复执行以上过程,直到采摘范围里的水果全部采摘完毕,移动平台继续前进,并重复以上行走和果实采摘过程。 [0049] The above process is repeatedly performed until all of the fruit picking in the range of picking is completed, the mobile platform to move and walk and repeat the process of picking fruit. 如果前进过程中单目摄像机组件6和工业级超声波传感器检测到智能移动平台前进方向上有障碍物,工控机12就会将单目摄像机组件6检测的障碍物大小信息、超声波传感器与单目摄像机组件6检测的采摘机器人距离障碍物的深度信息、AHRS姿态方位参考系统7检测到的智能移动平台的航向角度以及路面的环境信息进行综合处理计算。 Obstructions, IPC 12 will be detected by the obstacle size information 6 assembly monocular camera, an ultrasonic sensor with a monocular camera, if the process proceeds monocular camera assembly 6 and industrial ultrasonic sensor detects the traveling direction of smart mobile platform 6 detects the picking robot assembly integrated process of calculating the depth information from the environment information of the obstacle, the detected heading angle 7 intelligent mobile platform AHRS attitude and road location reference system. 如果计算结果显示采摘机器人可以避障,则系统立刻启动避障程序,如果计算结果显示不能绕过障碍物,采摘机器人就立刻停止在原地并发出警报。 If the calculation results show that the robot can pick obstacle avoidance, the system will immediately start obstacle avoidance program, if the results can not be displayed around obstacles, picking robot immediately stops in place and an alarm. 当单目摄像机组件6检测到路面果树行特征丢失,即采摘机器人到达地头,立刻启动转弯程序,当再次检测到果树行特征时,采摘机器人继续跟踪行特征,并重复以上的水果采摘过程。 When the monocular camera unit 6 detects the road surface features fruit trees lost, namely picking robot reaches the edge of a field, start turning the program immediately when it detects features fruit trees again, picking robots continue to follow the line features, and repeat the above process of fruit picking.

[0050] 本世纪以来,我国人口老龄化问题日趋严重,而且随着工业的迅速发展,农业劳动力逐渐向工业及其他行业转移,农业劳动力短缺日趋严重且成本不断提高。 [0050] In this century, the problem of an aging population growing, and with the rapid development of industry, agriculture labor force gradually shifted to the industrial and other sectors, growing shortage of agricultural labor, and costs continue to increase. 水果的采摘是水果生产中最费力且耗时的环节之一,而且水果的采摘又属于劳动密集型作业。 Fruit picking fruit production is one of the most laborious and time-consuming aspects, and picking fruit and labor-intensive job. 以上多种因素给水果的收获带来了很大的困难,因此研究开发一种智能化的水果采摘装置势在必行。 Over a variety of factors to harvest the fruit has brought great difficulties, so the development of an intelligent fruit picking device is imperative. 本发明就是为了解决以上难题,本发明对降低果农的劳动强度、降低果树采摘成本、提高采摘效率、保证果实及时收获、保证果品质量具有重要意义,而且对于促进农村经济发展,提高我国农业机械的现代化、智能化水平,加速农业现代化进程有着重大的推动作用。 The present invention is made to solve the above problems, the present invention is of great significance to reduce the labor intensity of farmers, reduce fruit picking costs, improve picking efficiency, and ensure the fruit harvest time, to ensure fruit quality, but also to promote rural economic development, improve China's agricultural machinery modern, intelligent, to accelerate the process of modernization of agriculture has a major role in promoting.

[0051] 上面所述的实施例仅仅是对本发明的优选实施方式进行描述,并非对本发明的构思和范围进行限定,在不脱离本发明设计构思前提下,本领域中普通工程技术人员对本发明的技术方案做出的各种变型和改进,均应落入本发明的保护范围,本发明请求保护的技术内容已经全部记载在权利要求书中。 [0051] The embodiments described above are merely preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described, not for the spirit and scope of the present invention are defined, without departing from the design concept of the present invention is provided, those of ordinary engineering skill in the art of the present invention various technical solutions make variations and modifications shall fall within the scope of the present invention, the claimed technical contents of the present invention has been fully described in the claims.

Claims (6)

1. 一种轮式移动水果采摘机器人,包括机械执行装置和控制系统,其特征是: 所述机械执行装置包括轮式智能移动平台、采摘机械臂(5)和欠驱动采摘机械手(2)和电动滑台(8);所述轮式智能移动平台包括第一驱动轮总成(19)、第二驱动轮总成(20)、第一从动轮总成(23)、第二从动轮总成(24)、平台机架(21)、电机控制柜(15)、水果收集箱(16)以及侧面挡板(9),其中第一驱动轮总成(19)、第二驱动轮总成(20)、第一从动轮总成(23)、第二从动轮总成(24)与平台机架(21)之间采用螺栓联接,侧面挡板(9)用铆钉铆接平台机架(21)上,电机控制柜(15)固定在轮式智能移动平台的中部;水果收集箱(16)位于采摘机械臂(5)和电机控制柜(15)之间;所述第一驱动轮总成(19)和第二驱动轮总成(20)分别包括驱动轴(77)、轴承(78)、 减速器(79)、直流伺服电机 CLAIMS 1. A fruit picking wheeled mobile robot comprising a mechanical actuating device and a control system, characterized in that: said mechanical actuator means includes a wheeled platform, intelligent mobile picking arm (5) and underactuated picking robot (2), and electric stage (8); said wheel intelligent mobile platform assembly comprising a first drive wheel (19), a second drive wheel assembly (20), a first clutch assembly (23), the second driven wheel total to (24), platform chassis (21), the motor control cabinet (15), fruit collecting tank (16) and side flap (9), wherein the first drive wheel assembly (19), a second driving wheel assembly (20), a first clutch assembly (23), coupled between the second bolt driven wheel assembly (24) and the platform chassis (21), the side flap (9) with a rivet platform chassis (21 on), the motor control cabinet (15) is fixed in the middle of the wheel intelligent mobile platform; fruit collecting tank (16) located in the picking arm (5) and the motor control cabinet (15); said first drive wheel assembly (19) and the second drive wheel assembly (20) respectively comprise a drive shaft (77), a bearing (78), a speed reducer (79), the DC servo motor 80)、编码器(81)、轴承盖(82)、平键(83)、轴承座固定法兰(84)、轴承(85)、轴承座(86)、轴承盖(87)和轮毂联接法兰(76),第一从动轮总成(23)和第二从动轮总成(24)分别包括轴、轴承、轴承座、轴承盖、轴承座固定法兰和轮毂联接法兰;所述采摘机械臂(5)固定在轮式智能移动平台前端的电动滑台(8)上,采摘机械臂(5) 的结构包括大臂(26)、小臂(28)、伸缩臂、两个直流伺服舵机(25、27)、两个直流伺服电机(29、51)、水果下滑管道(4)和漏斗状缓冲节(30);所述伸缩臂的结构包括伸缩臂连接架(31)、第一套筒(32)、深沟球轴承(33)、滑槽(34)、深沟球轴承(35)、第二套筒(36)、直线轴承(37)、机械手连接框(38)、深沟球轴承(39)、直线轴承(40)、滑杆(41)、第一圆形滑块(42)、深沟球轴承(43)、水果接收篮固定架(44 )、第二圆形滑块(45 )、双向丝 80), the encoder (81), a bearing cap (82), the flat key (83), bearing a fixed flange (84), a bearing (85), bearing (86), a bearing cap (87) and a hub coupling method blue (76), a first clutch assembly (23) and a second driven wheel assembly (24) comprises a respective shaft, bearings, bearing, bearing cap, bearing a fixed flange and a hub flange coupled; said picking arm (5) fixed to the front end of the electric wheeled platform, intelligent mobile slide (8), the picking arm (5) comprises a boom structure (26), an arm (28), telescopic arm, two DC servo Actuator (25, 27), two DC servo motors (29, 51), the fruit falling duct section and funnel-shaped cushion (30) (4); the telescopic structure comprises a telescopic arm connected to the arm holder (31), the first a sleeve (32), deep groove ball bearings (33), the chute (34), deep groove ball bearings (35), a second sleeve (36), linear bearings (37), connected to the robot frame (38), deep groove ball bearing (39), linear bearings (40), the slider (41), a first circular slide (42), deep groove ball bearings (43), receiving the fruit basket holder (44), a second round shaped slider (45), two-way wire 杠(46 )、深沟球轴承(47 )、轴承盖(48 )、联轴器(49 )、电机固定法兰(50 )和直流伺服电机(51);所述电动滑台(8)包括直流伺服电机(52)、联轴器(53)、滑杆(54)、螺杆(55)、滑杆(56 )、轴承座(57 )、机械臂固定滑块(58 )、轴承座(59 )和电机固定架(60 );所述欠驱动采摘机械手(2)包括第一手指关节(61)、第一手指连杆(62)、第二手指关节(63)、手掌(64)、第二手指连杆(65)、连杆(66)、驱动杆(67)、联轴器(68)、下支撑杆(69)、下底盘(70)、直流伺服电机(71)、长连接杆(72)、上支撑杆(73)、中间法兰(74)和螺杆轴(75);手掌(64)与中间法兰(74)通过上支撑杆(73)进行联接;下底盘(70)与中间法兰(74 )通过下支撑杆(69 )进行联接,行程开关安装在下支撑杆(69 )与中间法兰(74 )的连接处;手指安装在手掌(64)上,两个手指平行对称布置;联轴 Bars (46), deep groove ball bearings (47), a bearing cap (48), the coupling (49), the motor mounting flange (50) and a DC servo motor (51); said electric stage (8) comprises DC servo motor (52), the coupling (53), the slider (54), a screw (55), the slider (56), bearing (57), the robotic arm is fixed a slider (58), bearing (59 ) and the motor holder (60); driving under the picking robot (2) comprises a first finger joint (61), the first finger link (62), the second finger joint (63), palm (64), Used link means (65), connecting rod (66), the drive rod (67), the coupling (68), the support rod (69), the chassis (70), DC servo motor (71), connecting rod length (72), the support bar (73), an intermediate flange (74) and the screw shaft (75); a palm (64) and the intermediate flange (74) by a supporting bar (73) is coupled; lower chassis (70) and the intermediate flange (74) carried by the support rod (69) is coupled, the trip switch mounted on the lower support rod (69) and the intermediate flange (74) at the connection; finger mounted on a palm (64), two parallel fingers symmetrically arranged; coupling (68)将螺杆轴(75)与直流伺服电机轴联接在一起,使得工作时伺服电机转动,将螺杆轴(75)的转动则转化为驱动杆(67)的上下运动;所述控制系统包括工控机(12)、8轴运动控制卡、数据采集卡、直流伺服电机、编码器、AHRS姿态方位参考系统(7)、单目摄像机组件(6)、双目摄像机(1)、工业级超声波传感器、力传感器、滑觉传感器、位置传感器、控制电路及电机控制柜。 (68) the screw shaft (75) and DC servo motor shaft coupled together, so that the work of the servo motor, the rotation of the screw shaft (75) is converted into the drive rod (67) up and down motion; said control system comprising IPC (12), 8-axis motion controller, data acquisition card, DC servo motor, an encoder, the AHRS attitude Heading reference system (7), monocular camera assembly (6), binocular camera (1), industrial ultrasonic sensor, a force sensor, and slip sensors, position sensors, control circuitry and motor control cabinet.
2.根据权利要求1所述的一种轮式移动水果采摘机器人,其特征在于所述轮式智能移动平台后端左侧设有工控机(12),轮式智能移动平台后端右侧设有锂电池供电箱(13),给工控机(12)供电的蓄电池(17)和逆变器(18)位于工控机(12)和锂电池供电箱(13)中间, 运动控制卡、数据采集卡、分别插装在工控机(12 )的PCI插槽内,双目摄像机(1)位于所述机械手连接框(38 )的上侧,智能移动平台前端设有AHRS姿态方位参考系统(7 )和单目摄像机组件(6)。 2. A wheel according to one of the mobile robotic fruit picking claim, wherein said left rear wheel intelligent mobile platform with IPC (12), right rear wheel intelligent mobile platform provided there lithium battery box (13), to the IPC (12) powered battery (17) and the inverter (18) located IPC (12) and a lithium battery box (13) intermediate, card motion control, data acquisition, card, are inserted in the IPC (12) PCI slot, binocular camera (1) located in the manipulator connecting frame (38) on the side of the front end of the platform is provided with smart mobile AHRS attitude location reference system (7) and monocular camera assembly (6).
3.根据权利要求1所述的一种轮式移动水果采摘机器人,其特征在于所述欠驱动采摘机械手(2)、螺杆轴(75)和驱动杆(67)的材料为45号钢,第一手指关节(61 )、第一手指连杆(62)、第二手指关节(63)、手掌(64)、第二手指连杆(65)、连杆(66)、下支撑杆(69)、下底盘(70)、长连接杆(72)、上支撑杆(73)和中间法兰(74)的材料均为尼龙。 3. A wheel according to one of the mobile robotic fruit picking claim, wherein said Underactuated picking robot (2), the material of the screw shaft (75) and a drive rod (67) is 45 steel, the a knuckle (61), a first finger link (62), the second finger joint (63), palm (64), a second finger link (65), connecting rod (66), the support rod (69) , the chassis (70), the long connecting rod (72), the material supporting bar (73) and the intermediate flange (74) are nylon.
4.根据权利要求1所述的一种轮式移动水果采摘机器人,其特征在于所述水果下滑管道(4 )内部有多个漏斗状缓冲节,缓冲节由软橡胶材料制成。 4. A wheel according to one of the mobile robotic fruit picking claim, wherein said fruit falling duct (4) with a plurality of funnel-shaped internal buffer section, a buffer section is made of soft rubber material.
5.根据权利要求1所述的一种轮式移动水果采摘机器人,其特征在于所述伸缩臂设置在采摘机械臂(5)末端关节处,伸缩臂还包括传动机构,传动机构由双向丝杠、圆形滑块、滑槽和滑杆等组成;伸缩臂的外部由第一套筒(32)和第二套筒(36)用螺栓联接在一起,第一套筒(32)上侧开有滑槽,下侧开有腰型通孔,第二套筒(36)上下两侧均开有滑槽;第一圆形滑块(42)的上下两侧分别装有一个深沟球轴承(35、43),深沟球轴承轴承卡在滑槽内, 第一圆形滑块(42)中间有内螺纹孔;第二圆形滑块(45)上侧装有深沟球轴承(33),轴承卡在滑槽内,下侧与水果接收篮固定架(44)相连接,第二圆形滑块(45)中间设有内螺纹孔。 5. A wheel according to one of the mobile robotic fruit picking claim, wherein said telescopic arm disposed on the picking arm (5) at the end of the joint, the telescopic arm further comprises a transmission mechanism, the transmission mechanism by a double screw , circular slider, and a slider chute, etc; outer telescopic arm is coupled by a first sleeve (32) and the second sleeve (36) bolted together, the (32) side of the first sleeve opening there chute, the side opening has an oblong through hole, the second sleeve (36) with both sides opened chute; circular upper and lower sides of the first slider (42) are provided with a deep groove ball bearing (35, 43), deep groove ball bearings card in the chute, a first circular slide (42) intermediate an inner threaded bore; a second circular slide (45) side with deep groove ball bearings ( 33), in the card bearing the chute, the receiving side with fruit basket holder (44) is connected to a second circular slide (45) is provided with an intermediate threaded hole.
6. 一种利用如权利要求1所述的一种轮式移动水果采摘机器人进行的水果采摘方法, 其特征在于包括以下步骤:水果采摘时,机械臂将采摘机械手送到果实附近;采摘机械手上的位置传感器检测采摘机械手与果实的相对位置,当检测到果实已进入采摘机械手采摘范围时,直流伺服电机正向转动,采摘机械手开始抓取果实,压力传感器检测手指和果实之间的夹持力,并判断是否达到实验所给出的水果所能承受的力阈值;若达到力阈值则采摘机械手停止运动,机械臂模拟人工采摘的上抬动作,完成果枝与果柄的分离;接下来采摘机械臂伸缩关节回缩,采摘机械手的手指张开,将果实放入水果接收篮内,最后水果经水果下落管道和缓冲漏斗缓慢地滑落到水果收集箱内。 A method of picking fruit such as one using the wheel mobile robot as claimed in claim fruit picking is performed, characterized by comprising the steps of: when the fruit picking, the robotic arm to a nearby fruit picking robot; picking robot arm a position sensor for detecting the relative position of the robot picking fruit, the fruit is detected when picking robot has entered the range of harvesting, the forward rotation of the DC servo motor, the robot picking the fruit begins to crawl, the clamping force between the finger and the pressure sensor detects fruit , and determines whether the force threshold fruit given experiment can bear; if the force threshold is reached the motion stops picking robot, picking robot arm simulation of artificial elevation operation, complete separation of the stalk of the fruiting branches; next picking machine telescopic joint arm retracted, the fingers open picking robot, receiving the fruit into fruit basket, and finally the fruit by fruit drop pipe and the surge hopper to fall slowly fruit collection box.

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