CN102116859A - Indoor positioning perception system - Google Patents

Indoor positioning perception system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102116859A
CN102116859A CN2009102625923A CN200910262592A CN102116859A CN 102116859 A CN102116859 A CN 102116859A CN 2009102625923 A CN2009102625923 A CN 2009102625923A CN 200910262592 A CN200910262592 A CN 200910262592A CN 102116859 A CN102116859 A CN 102116859A
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radio frequency
microprocessor
emission
controller
ultrasonic
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
雷明
朱雪生
逄盈盈
富饶
翟伟伟
蔡宇玉
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Qingdao Haiersoft Co Ltd
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Qingdao Haiersoft Co Ltd
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Priority to CN2009102625923A priority Critical patent/CN102116859A/en
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Abstract

The invention relates to a positioning system, in particular to an indoor positioning system which comprises a radio frequency signal emitter, a controller, an ultrasonic receiver and a microprocessor, wherein the radio frequency signal emitter, the controller and the ultrasonic receiver are respectively and electrically connected with the microprocessor; and wireless communication is adopted between the radio frequency signal emitter and the controller as well as between the controller and the ultrasonic receiver. The system is simple in structure, low in cost and high in positioning precision and can be widely applied to various indoor positioning fields.

Description

The indoor positioning sensory perceptual system
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of positioning system, relate in particular to a kind of indoor locating system.
Background technology
People more and more need all places service now, and it uses major part all is to be used for outdoor location.Along with the continuous development of technology, computing power constantly strengthens and more and more miniaturization of hardware, and the user can use them whenever and wherever possible, and it is more and more important that the indoor location service also becomes.
Quick increase along with communication service and data service, people increase day by day to the demand of location with navigation, especially in the indoor environment of complexity, in environment such as hospital, airport, convention halls, warehouse, supermarket, library, underground parking, usually need to determine that the personnel at all levels is in indoor position.But be subjected to the restriction of conditions such as positioning time, bearing accuracy and indoor complex environment, fairly perfect location technology also can't be used at present well.
Indoor positioning can be used for intelligent environment and man-machine interaction process.Robot does housework, and must accurately distinguish the orientation of oneself, otherwise robot can not finish the housework that owner arranges well.Different with those robots of working out of doors, can't receive the faint satellite-signal that global position system GPS sends at the domestic robot of indoor activity, therefore this robotlike who makes people design can not well satisfy the demand.
Along with mobile device and development of internet technology, location-based service is more and more important in our life.Only develop the indoor positioning sensory perceptual system of superior performance, the realization that location-based service can be comprehensive, complete.
At present, the outdoor GPS that utilizes mostly positions, and outdoor positioning system has satisfied the needs of outdoor location well.But when carrying out indoor positioning, because after signal penetrates the wall of buildings, a little less than signal intensity becomes very, and indoor barrier is more, the environment more complicated, therefore outdoor positioning system is when being used for indoor positioning, and locating accuracy can not satisfy user's demand, even can not position.
Along with the development of computer hardware technique, developed the blank of some indoor positioning sensory perceptual systems at present both at home and abroad, exist the testing program of some indoor positioning technology, but their the emphasis difference of dealing with problems is specific as follows:
1. indoor GPS is located cognition technology: the GPS positioning system is when outdoor location, can satisfy people's needs well, but as GPS during in office work, because signal is subjected to the influence of various objects in buildings and the indoor environment, a little less than signal became very, it was very difficult wanting to reach with outdoor the same signal intensity.In order to obtain higher signal sensitivity, just needing increases a large amount of utility appliance, and A-GPS (Assisted-GPS) technology provides possibility for the solution of this problem.But, indoor environment is smaller, generally can not surpass 10 meters length, in order to distinguish the object that is positioned well, bearing accuracy must be very high, but the indoor GPS positioning system only can reach the bearing accuracy of 5m~30m when the location, its bearing accuracy can not satisfy the requirement of indoor positioning preferably.
2. infrared technology: infrared technology is by launching infrared signal in certain time interval, infrared receiver receives these infrared rays then, according to algorithm or arrive the be positioned position of object of angle algorithm computation time of arrival.Infrared ray is straight line, short distance transmitting signal, and it is not very high being subjected to sunshine interference and degree of accuracy easily, is difficult to be applied in the indoor positioning sensory perceptual system.This system requirements is positioned linear visual between object and the infrared transmitter, and this just has been confined to its application only indoor scope and must have guaranteed that the target of being monitored is opaque.When using the infrared ray location, need be in each room and the corridor infrared receiver is installed, cost is than higher.The infrared ray location technology also is applied to robot system, by fixing infrared camera and a lot of infrared light emission equipment collaboration work, reaches the purpose of location.But infrared ray can not penetrate barrier, and bearing accuracy is poor, and its outfit requires more complicated.
3. Bluetooth technology (Bluetooth): this technology is a kind of Radio Transmission Technology of short distance low-power consumption, supports point-to-point, the speech of putting multiple spot and data service.Can realize that the short-distance wireless between the distinct device is interconnected.At the suitable bluetooth local area network access point of indoor installation, the basic network connection mode of network configuration one-tenth, just can obtain user position information based on the multi-user, realize utilizing the purpose of Bluetooth technology location.Use Bluetooth technology to realize that the shortcoming of indoor positioning is that present bluetooth devices and equipment price are relatively more expensive, propagation distance is shorter, and is subjected to noise easily.
4. based on the indoor positioning technology of WLAN: use wireless local area network technology to realize indoor positioning, need an amount of wireless base station be installed at room area, and the position of these base stations is known.By the base station of using a group can communicate by letter each other, and, carry out user's location by measuring received signal intensity indication (RSSI:Received Signal Strength Indicator) between them, signal arrival angle (AOA:Angle of Arrival), signal arrival time difference (TDOA:Time Difference of Arrival) or time of arrival (toa) (TOA).In this system, each user and one group of fixing base station communicate, the position that the user is calculated by the RSSI that records or TOA, AOA in the base station.This type systematic can utilize existing WLAN devices, only needs several base stations.The shortcoming of this system be cost of equipment than higher, and all equipment must support WLAN standard, bearing accuracy is not very high.
Summary of the invention
Technique effect of the present invention can overcome above-mentioned defective, and a kind of indoor positioning sensory perceptual system is provided, and it is based on ultrasound wave and radio-frequency technique combination, and indoor positioning is effective.
For achieving the above object, the present invention adopts following technical scheme: it comprises emission of radio frequency signals device, controller, ultrasonic receiver, microprocessor, and emission of radio frequency signals device, controller, ultrasonic receiver are electrically connected with microprocessor respectively; Radio communication between emission of radio frequency signals device and the controller and between controller and the ultrasonic receiver.
Controller comprises radio frequency signal receiver and ultrasonic transmitter.Pass through the RS485 bus communication between emission of radio frequency signals device and the ultrasonic receiver.Pass through the RS232 serial communication between emission of radio frequency signals device and the microprocessor.
Because the interior space is the space of a multiple person cooperational, its positioning system should be able to be followed the tracks of a plurality of objects, distinguishes its identity exactly, realizes multiple target tracking.In this system, the emission of radio frequency signals device can be launched a plurality of radio frequency coded signals, launches a kind of uniquely identified radiofrequency signal constantly at each.The emission of radio frequency signals device regularly sends radiofrequency signal to each controller.Because each controller receives only the uniquely identified radiofrequency signal, when having only the signal identification of radiofrequency signal that the emission of radio frequency signals device sends and controller reception identical, controller just sends ultrasonic signal.
Ultrasonic receiver is fixed on the indoor ceiling, and controller is placed in the object that needs the location.Find range according to TDOA or TOA algorithm.The ultrasound wave that needs computing controller to send arrives the time of ultrasonic receiver, and this just needs the synchronous of controller and ultrasonic receiver.Here use radiofrequency signal to realize that hyperacoustic transmitting-receiving is synchronous.
In order to realize accurate in locating, need calculate and from the ultrasonic emitting to the ultrasound wave, receive this section time interval.Suppose that it is t that radio frequency is propagated the time that needs in air 0, the aerial travel-time of ultrasound wave is t 1, hyperacoustic speed is V, controller to the distance of ultrasonic receiver is so: d=Vt 1
Here V is hyperacoustic speed, when reality is used, can not obtain t 0, t 1Exact value, but can obtain t 0+ t 1Under normal indoor temperature and humidity situation, hyperacoustic speed 340m/s, radio frequency speed 3X10 8M/s.Because radio frequency speed is much larger than hyperacoustic speed, can think that the required time of radiofrequency signal short-distance transmission is zero, the emission of radio frequency signals device is prepared to receive data by bus notice ultrasonic receiver to the controller emitting radio frequency signal simultaneously, realizes that with this ultrasonic transmission/reception is synchronous.
After ultrasonic receiver acquisition range data, the coordinate position that how to calculate target relates to the problem of a location algorithm.The TOA ranging technology generally is to utilize signal to arrive the needed time of ultrasonic receiver, according to the distance between definite node of time.Native system utilizes radio frequency different with ultrasonic propagation velocity, by detecting the time of ultrasonic signal to ultrasonic receiver, the distance to signal source is calculated by the time.Based on known signal velocity, can directly be converted into distance to the time.Because the speed of radio frequency is very fast, can use the TOA algorithm to position here.
The emission of radio frequency signals device adopts the F05R model.Radio frequency signal receiver adopts the J04V model.Ultrasonic transmitter comprises the piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic sensor, and it adopts the TCT40-16T model.Ultrasonic receiver comprises the piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic sensor, and it adopts the TCT40-16R model.Microprocessor adopts the ATMEGA48 model.
This apparatus structure is simple, cost is low, and the bearing accuracy height, can be widely used in various indoor positioning field.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a modular structure synoptic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a planimetric coordinates synoptic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is a three-dimensional coordinate synoptic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is a ultrasonic transmitter schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is a ultrasonic receiver schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 6 is an emission of radio frequency signals device schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 7 is a radio frequency signal receiver schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 8 is a communication bus schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 9 is a microprocessor schematic diagram of the present invention.
Embodiment
This device comprises emission of radio frequency signals device, controller, ultrasonic receiver, microprocessor, and emission of radio frequency signals device, controller, ultrasonic receiver are electrically connected with microprocessor respectively; Radio communication between emission of radio frequency signals device and the controller and between controller and the ultrasonic receiver.
Controller comprises radio frequency signal receiver and ultrasonic transmitter.Pass through the RS485 bus communication between emission of radio frequency signals device and the ultrasonic receiver.Pass through the RS232 serial communication between emission of radio frequency signals device and the microprocessor.The emission of radio frequency signals device adopts the F05R model.Radio frequency signal receiver adopts the J04V model.Microprocessor adopts the ATMEGA48 model.
Ultrasonic transmitter select for use the TCT40-16T model the piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic sensor.
The schematic diagram of ultrasonic transmitter as shown in Figure 4, produce the square wave of 40KHz by microprocessor, deliver to the SOUT port of ultrasonic transmitter, and 3 pairs of 40KHz frequency signals of chip IC of the CD4049 model by the back nurse one's health, so that ultrasonic sensor produces resonance.
Triode Q1 adopts 9014 models, and it constitutes monofier, and the oscillator signal of microprocessor output sends ultrasound wave through the amplification promotion ultrasonic sensor of chip IC 3.
The circuit theory diagrams of ultrasonic receiver as shown in Figure 5.Ultrasonic receiver adopts the piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic sensor with the TCT40-16R model of emission pairing, and the function of mainly finishing is that the ultrasound wave modulating pulse is become the alternating voltage signal, through operational amplifier IC5A, IC5B and IC6B amplification ratio.It is low level pulse signal that the output terminal SIN of ultrasonic receiver produces by the high level saltus step, gives microprocessor as look-at-me and further handles.
The distance of surveying for making is enough big, and the ultrasound wave receiving terminal circuit must carry out multistage amplification.Ultrasonic sensor receives faint signal, amplifies through being ac-coupled to amplifier IC5A, and its enlargement factor is: I1=R8/R7=40.Signal after the amplification further amplifies through being ac-coupled to amplifier IC5B, and its enlargement factor is I2=R10/R9=40.Total enlargement factor is: I=I1*I2=1600.After the two-stage amplification, the feeble signal that receives is carried out 1600 times amplification, signal is given amplifier IC6B more then, and output signal is received by microprocessor, is further handled by microprocessor at last.
The emission of radio frequency signals device is mainly finished the emission of radiofrequency signal, and concrete radio frequency coding work is handled by microprocessor.Radio-frequency transmissions adopts the F05R type emission of radio frequency signals device chip J3 of 315/433MHz frequency range, and schematic diagram as shown in Figure 6.Produce the radio frequency coding by microprocessor, export to the 3rd pin of chip J3, handle emission by chip J3 then; The 4th pin can external antenna when using, and strengthens launching effect.
Radio frequency signal receiver is mainly finished the reception of radiofrequency signal, and concrete radio frequency decoding work is handled by microprocessor.Radio frequency signal receiver adopts J04V model chip J2, and principle is shown in Figure 7.
Chip J2 receives after the radiofrequency signal, sends the pin PD3 of microprocessor to, is decoded by microprocessor.
By the RS485 bus communication, the mode of connection is the bus type topological structure between emission of radio frequency signals device and the ultrasonic receiver, generally can articulate nearly 32 nodes on same bus.General employing is the master-slave communication mode in RS485 bus communication network, i.e. a plurality of slaves of main frame band.In the process that communicates, need between the asynchronous serial transceiver controller (USART) of communicating pair, increase by a chip IC 4.
The characteristic of chip IC 4 is: adopt single power supply+5V work, rated current is 300 μ A, adopts the half duplex communication mode.It finishes the function that Transistor-Transistor Logic level is converted to the RS485 level.
As shown in Figure 8, first pin of chip IC 4 links to each other with the pin PD0/RXD of microprocessor, is used to receive data.The 4th pin of chip IC 4 links to each other with the pin PD1/TXD of microprocessor, is used to send data.The pin DE of chip IC 4, RE short circuit link to each other with the PC5 mouth of microprocessor.When the R/T end was high level, chip IC 4 was used to send data, when the R/T end is low level, was used to receive data.
Microprocessor is whole core of hardware system, as shown in Figure 9, is responsible for hyperacoustic transmission of control and reception, and the transmitting and receiving of radiofrequency signal.
Can drive hyperacoustic emission by the square-wave signal that microprocessor produces 40kHz, ultrasonic transmit circuit links to each other with the pin PD6 of microprocessor.The ultrasound wave receiving circuit links to each other with the pin PD2 of microprocessor, when receiving ultrasound wave, produces external interrupt, and microprocessor changes Interrupt Process over to.
The emission of radio frequency signals device links to each other with the pin PD3 of microprocessor, and microprocessor produces the needed pulse of chip J3, sends chip J3 to, and emission of radio frequency signals is gone out then.Radio frequency signal receiver links to each other with the pin PD3 of microprocessor, and microprocessor is decoded to the coded pulse that is received.
Microprocessor communicates by RS232 serial ports and emission of radio frequency signals device, is responsible for receiving data, then the data that receive is handled and calculated the coordinate of controller.
In order to realize accurate in locating, need calculate and from the ultrasonic emitting to the ultrasound wave, receive this section time interval.Suppose that it is t that radio frequency is propagated the time that needs in air 0, the aerial travel-time of ultrasound wave is t 1, hyperacoustic speed is V, transmitting node to the distance of receiving node is so: d=Vt 1
Here V is hyperacoustic speed, when reality is used, can not obtain t 0, t 1Exact value, but can obtain t 0+ t 1Under normal indoor temperature and humidity situation, hyperacoustic speed 340m/s, radio frequency speed 3X10 8M/s.Because radio frequency speed is much larger than hyperacoustic speed, can think that the required time of radiofrequency signal short-distance transmission is zero, Control Node is prepared to receive data by bus notice receiving node to the transmitting node emitting radio frequency signal simultaneously, realizes that with this ultrasonic transmission/reception is synchronous.
In 2-d position measurement, select from two nearest range informations that the ultrasound wave receiving node is received of object, suppose that A, B nodal distance ultrasonic emitting node are nearest, as shown in Figure 2:
If the distance between 2 of A, the B is m, the coordinate of receiving node B is (0,0), the coordinate of receiving node A be (0, m).If the coordinate of ultrasonic emitting node O be (x, y), transmitting node O to the used time of receiving node A be t 1, to the used time of receiving node B be t 2, then: | OA|=Vt 1, | OB|=Vt 2
Can obtain according to the range formula between 2 o'clock:
v t 1 = ( x - 0 ) 2 + ( y - m ) 2 v t 2 = ( x - 0 ) 2 + ( y - 0 ) 2
Two formula in the system of equations are found the solution, can obtain:
y = ( v t 2 ) 2 - ( v t 1 ) 2 + m 2 2 m
x = ( v t 2 ) 2 - y 2
In three-dimensional position measuring, the coordinate of transmitting node represents with three values, be assumed to be (x, y, z).The coordinate that A is ordered be (0,0, h), the coordinate that B is ordered be (0, m, h), the coordinate that C is ordered be (n, 0, h), the coordinate that D is ordered be (n, m, h).Record transmitting node to time of receiving node A be t 1, transmitting node to the time of receiving node B be t 2, transmitting node to the time of receiving node C be t 3, transmitting node to the time of receiving node D be t 4, as shown in Figure 3:
Can in the hope of, | EA|=Vt 1, | EB|=Vt 2, | EC|=Vt 3, | ED|=Vt 4, in fact, choose the three-dimensional coordinate that three ultrasound wave receiving nodes just can calculate transmitting node E.
v t 1 = ( x - 0 ) 2 + ( y - 0 ) 2 + ( z - h ) 2 v t 2 = ( x - 0 ) 2 + ( y - m ) 2 + ( z - h ) 2 v t 3 = ( x - n ) 2 + ( y - 0 ) 2 + ( z - h ) 2 v t 4 = ( x - n ) 2 + ( y - m ) 2 + ( z - h ) 2
Choose from top system of equations that wherein three equations just can be in the hope of the three-dimensional coordinate of ultrasonic emitting node E.
x = ( v t 1 ) 2 - ( v t 3 ) 2 + n 2 2 n
y = ( v t 1 ) 2 - ( v t 2 ) 2 + m 2 2 m
z = h - ( v t 1 ) 2 - x 2 - y 2
Try to achieve the three-dimensional coordinate of ultrasonic emitting node, not only can determine the planimetric coordinates of transmitting node, but also can determine that the height and position of transmitting node changes.For example when definite people sits down this action, can judge the variation of height, can determine its this action of whether sitting down according to the Z coordinate of transmitting node.

Claims (9)

1. an indoor positioning sensory perceptual system is characterized in that comprising emission of radio frequency signals device, controller, ultrasonic receiver, microprocessor, and emission of radio frequency signals device, controller, ultrasonic receiver are electrically connected with microprocessor respectively; Radio communication between emission of radio frequency signals device and the controller and between controller and the ultrasonic receiver.
2. indoor positioning sensory perceptual system according to claim 1 is characterized in that controller comprises radio frequency signal receiver and ultrasonic transmitter.
3. indoor positioning sensory perceptual system according to claim 2 is characterized in that between emission of radio frequency signals device and the ultrasonic receiver by the RS485 bus communication.
4. indoor positioning sensory perceptual system according to claim 3 is characterized in that between emission of radio frequency signals device and the microprocessor by the RS232 serial communication.
5. indoor positioning sensory perceptual system according to claim 3 is characterized in that the emission of radio frequency signals device adopts the F05R model.
6. indoor positioning sensory perceptual system according to claim 3 is characterized in that radio frequency signal receiver adopts the J04V model.
7. indoor positioning sensory perceptual system according to claim 3 is characterized in that ultrasonic transmitter comprises the piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic sensor, and it adopts the TCT40-16T model.
8. indoor positioning sensory perceptual system according to claim 3 is characterized in that ultrasonic receiver comprises the piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic sensor, and it adopts the TCT40-16R model.
9. indoor positioning sensory perceptual system according to claim 3 is characterized in that microprocessor adopts the ATMEGA48 model.
CN2009102625923A 2009-12-31 2009-12-31 Indoor positioning perception system Pending CN102116859A (en)

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CN102909721A (en) * 2012-11-01 2013-02-06 李木 Multi-track robot capable of locating and operating target object and control method thereof
CN102941569A (en) * 2012-11-01 2013-02-27 李木 Single-rail robot capable of locating and operating target object and control method thereof
CN102975662A (en) * 2012-11-13 2013-03-20 上海交通大学 Ultrasonic wave reversing radar system based on time difference of arrival (TDOA)
CN102981159A (en) * 2012-11-13 2013-03-20 上海交通大学 Ultrasonic wave range-measurement system based on time difference of arrival (TDOA)
CN103064078A (en) * 2012-12-25 2013-04-24 中国科学院上海微系统与信息技术研究所 The method used for measuring distances of moving target on ground by acoustic shock compound sensor
CN103761638A (en) * 2014-01-27 2014-04-30 林兴志 Logistics storage management device based on multi-space position information overlapping positioning
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CN104076347A (en) * 2014-06-29 2014-10-01 湖北汽车工业学院 Vehicle space locating system based on ultrasonic waves
CN104297728A (en) * 2014-10-22 2015-01-21 成都西可科技有限公司 Indoor ultrasonic positioning system and positioning method
CN105044674A (en) * 2015-06-10 2015-11-11 国网山东省电力公司泰安供电公司 Acoustic positioning method for warehousing system
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CN105510917A (en) * 2015-12-22 2016-04-20 浙江大学 Indoor centimeter-level positioning system based on split ultrasound combination of radio frequency
CN105738905A (en) * 2016-05-16 2016-07-06 北京信息科技大学 Indoor positioning system and method for reducing blind areas
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CN102909721A (en) * 2012-11-01 2013-02-06 李木 Multi-track robot capable of locating and operating target object and control method thereof
CN102975662A (en) * 2012-11-13 2013-03-20 上海交通大学 Ultrasonic wave reversing radar system based on time difference of arrival (TDOA)
CN102981159A (en) * 2012-11-13 2013-03-20 上海交通大学 Ultrasonic wave range-measurement system based on time difference of arrival (TDOA)
CN103878761A (en) * 2012-12-24 2014-06-25 李木 Multi-track robot capable of positioning via magnetic fields and control method of multi-track robot
CN103064078A (en) * 2012-12-25 2013-04-24 中国科学院上海微系统与信息技术研究所 The method used for measuring distances of moving target on ground by acoustic shock compound sensor
CN103761638A (en) * 2014-01-27 2014-04-30 林兴志 Logistics storage management device based on multi-space position information overlapping positioning
CN103761638B (en) * 2014-01-27 2016-09-28 林兴志 Logistic storage managing device based on multiple spatial locations information superposition location
CN104076347A (en) * 2014-06-29 2014-10-01 湖北汽车工业学院 Vehicle space locating system based on ultrasonic waves
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CN105510917B (en) * 2015-12-22 2019-06-18 浙江大学 A kind of indoor centimeter-level positioning system based on seperated combination of ultrasound radio frequency
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