CN102074967B - Method for controlling energy storage type wind power station with synchronization property - Google Patents

Method for controlling energy storage type wind power station with synchronization property Download PDF

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CN102074967B
CN102074967B CN2011100033302A CN201110003330A CN102074967B CN 102074967 B CN102074967 B CN 102074967B CN 2011100033302 A CN2011100033302 A CN 2011100033302A CN 201110003330 A CN201110003330 A CN 201110003330A CN 102074967 B CN102074967 B CN 102074967B
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energy
power
synchronous generator
virtual synchronous
storage battery
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CN2011100033302A
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CN102074967A (en
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毕大强
王思耕
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清华大学
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/76Power conversion electric or electronic aspects
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E70/00Other energy conversion or management systems reducing GHG emissions
    • Y02E70/30Systems combining energy storage with energy generation of non-fossil origin

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for controlling energy storage type wind power station control with a synchronization property, belonging to the technical field of wind power generation control. The method is characterized in that an energy storage battery system is configured at the alternating current side of the wind power station, a control strategy based on a synchronous generator model is adopted for the inverter of the energy storage battery system, and the wind power station and the energy storage battery system are equivalent to a virtual synchronous generator, thus the wind power station has a synchronization interface property. By utilizing the method disclosed by the invention, the output power of the wind power station is smooth, and the influence of the output power fluctuation of the wind power station on the power network frequency is reduced effectively; and the property of a synchronous generator is embodied to a power network, the system power balance can be maintained automatically according to the system loading fluctuation, thus the system voltage frequency is stable.

Description

A kind of energy storage type wind power plant control method with the characteristic of being incorporated into the power networks

Technical field

The invention belongs to the wind power generation control field, relate in particular to a kind of energy storage type wind power plant control method with the characteristic of being incorporated into the power networks.

Background technology

Wind energy meets the requirement of environmental protection plan as a kind of regenerative resource of cleaning, and the wind generating technology industry worldwide obtains develop rapidly, and in electrical network, the shared ratio of wind-force capacity of installed generator progressively improves.But because wind energy has randomness and intermittent characteristics, the large-scale wind power field is also strengthened gradually on the impact that Systems balanth causes.Simultaneously, also can become more violent because system loading changes the frequency change that causes, easily make the electrical network loss of stability.

For the problems referred to above, existing following control strategy is in order to reduce wind farm grid-connected impact on system.

Adopt the virtual synchronous generator thought in little electrical network field, namely by configuring energy-storage system in distributed power generation power supply DC side, and be equipped with combining inverter control algolithm based on the virtual synchronous generator model, make distributed power source embody the synchronous generator characteristic to large electrical network, for system frequency stability contributes.But research work at present and embodiment virtual synchronous generator not yet in effect regulating action to frequency.

By energy-storage system being disposed at the wind energy turbine set exit, can effectively stabilize the fluctuation of Power Output for Wind Power Field, improve Systems balanth, but this control strategy does not change the power electronics interface yet on the impact of electrical network, and still can the operation of Systems balanth and blower fan be exerted an influence when system loading fluctuates.

Therefore, expectation is by taking suitable control strategy to wind energy turbine set, the fluctuation that can stabilize Power Output for Wind Power Field, again can the attenuation systems load variations on the impact of the stability of a system, effectively improve wind farm grid-connected performance.

Summary of the invention

On deficiencies such as stability of a system impact are large, the present invention proposes a kind of energy storage type wind power plant control method with the characteristic of being incorporated into the power networks for the output power fluctuation of wind farm of describing in top technical background, load variations.

Technical scheme of the present invention is,. a kind of energy storage type wind power plant control method with the characteristic of being incorporated into the power networks, be used for energy storage type wind power plant is modeled to the virtual synchronous generator reaching the level and smooth purpose of Power Output for Wind Power Field, energy storage type wind power plant comprises wind energy turbine set and energy-storage battery system; The energy-storage battery system comprises energy-storage battery and inverter; By control inverter, be a virtual synchronous generator with wind energy turbine set equivalence together with the energy-storage battery system; It is characterized in that said method comprising the steps of:

Step 1: the reactive power, terminal voltage value and the frequency that gather energy storage type wind power plant output;

Step 2: with the collection capacity substitution virtual synchronous engine controller of step 1, obtain respectively energy-storage battery power command value and virtual synchronous generator excitation electromotive force value through power and frequency control device and excitation controller adjusting;

Step 3: gather energy-storage battery active power of output and inverter output current;

Step 4: with energy-storage battery active power command value, virtual synchronous generator excitation electromotive force value, energy-storage battery active power of output and inverter output current, substitution virtual synchronous generator Ontology Modeling formula obtains the terminal voltage of virtual synchronous generator;

Step 5: the terminal voltage that obtains the virtual synchronous generator in step 4 is fed the spatial vector pulse width modulation algorithm of inverter as synthetic modulating wave, export the voltage that is incorporated into the power networks with synchronous generator characteristic through modulation.

The wind energy plant of described wind energy turbine set is the direct-drive permanent-magnet synchronous generating set, and equivalence is a typhoon power generator group.

Described direct-drive permanent-magnet synchronous generating set comprises wind energy conversion system, magneto alternator, pusher side current transformer and net side converter.

Described energy-storage battery system is connected in the wind energy turbine set exit, and the control strategy of inverter adopts virtual synchronous generator control algorithm.

Described virtual synchronous generator control algorithm comprises virtual synchronous engine controller algorithm and virtual synchronous generator Ontology Modeling formula.

Described virtual synchronous generator Ontology Modeling formula adopts the second order electromechanical transient model of synchronous generator, comprises stator voltage equation and rotor mechanical equation.

Above-mentioned energy storage type wind power plant control method energy-storage battery is handled up power fluctuation that blower fan sends, thereby smooth wind power field power output; Can make the wind energy turbine set of configuration energy-storage battery embody the synchronous generator characteristic to electrical network, adjust self power output according to load fluctuation, keep the stability of a system.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is energy storage type wind power plant grid-connected system structure chart in the embodiment of the present invention.

Fig. 2 is virtual synchronous generator control schematic diagram in the embodiment of the present invention.

Fig. 3 is power and frequency control device schematic diagram in the embodiment of the present invention.

Fig. 4 is excitation controller schematic diagram in the embodiment of the present invention.

Fig. 5 is that in the embodiment of the present invention, Power Output for Wind Power Field is stabilized control simulation result figure;

Figure a is the wind speed oscillogram; Figure b is wind energy turbine set active power of output oscillogram; Figure c is Power Output for Wind Power Field and the energy-storage battery power schematic diagram of handling up; Figure d is the frequency oscillogram.

Fig. 6 is that in the embodiment of the present invention, wind energy turbine set realizes synchronous generator regulating characteristics simulation result figure;

Figure a, figure b are that virtual synchronous generator and electrical network are all the time by 1: 4 distribution load design sketch of each self-capacity; Figure c is the system frequency tendency chart; Figure d is system's output voltage waveform.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, preferred embodiment is elaborated.Should be emphasized that, following explanation is only exemplary, rather than in order to limit the scope of the invention and to use.

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, principle of the present invention and concrete execution mode are described.

As shown in Figure 1, wind farm grid-connected system is comprised of the wind turbine generator of turbo generator set, configuration energy-storage battery.Wherein, turbo generator set is in parallel by the turbo generator set of many equal capacity, forms thermal power plant input electrical network.

Wind turbine generator adopts the direct-drive permanent-magnet synchronous generating set, is comprised of wind energy conversion system, magneto alternator PMSG (permanent magnet synchronous generator), pusher side current transformer and net side converter.Unit is by the control to dipulse width modulated PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) current transformer, realize the maximal power tracing MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) of wind energy and the decoupling zero of system's active power and reactive power is controlled, make unit energy take full advantage of wind energy and run on unity power factor.

The energy-storage battery system is comprised of energy-storage battery and inverter, and the energy-storage battery system configuration exports in wind energy turbine set the place that is incorporated into the power networks, and than configuring energy-storage system in DC side, it has reduced the one-level energy conversion, and economy is better, and is convenient to centralized control.By the control to the energy-storage battery inverter, making wind energy turbine set equivalence together with energy-storage system is a virtual synchronous generator, as shown in the dotted line frame.

Fig. 2 is virtual synchronous generator control method schematic diagram.Main circuit adopts three-phase voltage-type inverter, allows energy in bidirectional flow; L i, C iBe respectively filter inductance and filter capacitor, R iBe line resistance (i=a, b, c).Subscript WT, Bat and VSG be corresponding wind energy turbine set, energy-storage battery and virtual synchronous generator respectively.U abcBe wind farm grid-connected voltage, i.e. the virtual synchronous generator voltage.By the control section collection place's of being incorporated into the power networks signal (reactive power, the terminal voltage that is incorporated into the power networks value and frequency) and control, and gather energy-storage battery active power of output, energy-storage battery inverter output current, obtain corresponding controlled quentity controlled variable and feed synchro generator model, synthetic virtual synchronous generator armature voltage, with its space vector pulse width modulation SVPWM as inverter (space vector pulse width modulation) algorithm modulated signal wave, inverter output voltage can obtain having the wind farm grid-connected voltage of synchronous generator characteristic after LC filtering.

Concrete implementation step is as follows:

1. by the reactive power Q at the control section collection place of being incorporated into the power networks, the terminal voltage that is incorporated into the power networks value U and frequency f;

2. calculate energy-storage battery power command value P TWith virtual synchronous generator excitation electromotive force E 0

Virtual synchronous engine controller algorithm comprises power and frequency control device and excitation controller.

Fig. 3 is the power and frequency control device of virtual synchronous generator.This controller gathers the variable quantity of the place's frequency that is incorporated into the power networks with reference to synchronous generator speed regulator principle design, through controlling the power command value P that obtains energy-storage battery T, feed synchro generator model.In the situation that the energy-storage battery capacity allows, this power and frequency control device can realize that power stabilizes and the frequency modulation and voltage modulation dual-use function, and its concrete control principle is:

1) power is stabilized function.For ease of analyzing, the taking into account system load does not have the situation of fluctuation, f=f at this moment N=50Hz, Δ P=0.P NBe wind farm grid-connected power command value, also as the specified active power value of virtual synchronous generator, to be wind energy turbine set control the value of active power after low-pass filtering of output by maximal power tracing MPPT to its value, filtering the power high frequency composition larger to electric network influencing.The power command value P of energy-storage battery T=P N-P WT, realized stabilizing active power of wind power field.

2) frequency regulation function: introduce the static difference coefficient R of generator:

R = - f 2 - f 1 P 2 - P 1 = - Δf ΔP R * = - Δf / f N ΔP / P N = R P N f N - - - ( 1 )

R *Be perunit value, P N, f NActive power when being respectively specified operation and frequency; (P 1, f 1) and (P 2, f 2) be respectively the new stable operating point that system reaches after system stable operation point and burden with power change after the power adjustments effect.Formula (1) is introduced Proportional coefficient K P=1/R realizes the once adjustment to frequency, when system loading fluctuates, causes frequency variation Δ f that is:, and it acts on controller, and making the power adjustments amount that energy-storage system is born is Δ P, obtains the command value P that prime mover is exerted oneself ref, it deducts the power that wind energy turbine set is exported, and obtains the power command value P of energy-storage battery T

Fig. 4 is the excitation controller of virtual synchronous generator.This controller gathers wind farm grid-connected reactive power with reference to the voltage-regulation characteristics design of synchronous generator, obtains synchronous generator exciting electromotive force E through controlling 0:

Definition voltage difference coefficient δ:

δ = - V 2 - V 1 Q 2 - Q 1 = - ΔV ΔQ δ * = - ΔV / V N ΔQ / Q N = δ Q N V N - - - ( 2 )

In formula, δ * is perunit value, QN, the reactive power when VN is respectively specified operation and voltage; (Q1, Vi) is respectively system stable operation point with (Q2, V2) and changes with load or burden without work the new stable operating point that rear system reaches after the poor effect of voltage accent.

By getting Proportional coefficient K Q=δ is incorporated into the voltage difference coefficient in excitation controller, and the generator reactive electric current is descended with system voltage to be increased, and is conducive to keep the power system stability operation; And can by the artificial value of adjusting difference coefficient, make generating set in parallel have unified voltage-idle characteristic (δ *Value is consistent).Like this, the generating set of parallel running just can be according to the reactive power of rated capacity reasonable distribution load, keeping system voltage stabilization.

In Fig. 4, Q is the reactive power that the virtual synchronous generator that records is carried to electrical network.When the System Reactive Power load change, Q departs from rated reactive power Q N, obtain terminal voltage command value U by difference coefficient ref, with the virtual synchronous generator voltage U that records abcRelatively, through the PI controller, obtain synchronous generator exciting electromotive force E oAct on the virtual synchronous generator, thereby realize the closed-loop control to the virtual synchronous generator voltage.

3. gather energy-storage battery active power of output P eWith inverter output current I L

4. calculate virtual synchronous generator voltage U abc

Virtual synchronous generator Ontology Modeling formula shown in Fig. 2 adopts the second order electromechanical transient model of synchronous generator:

E 0 = U abc + I L R a + j I L X s - - - ( 3 )

J dΩ dt = M T - M e - - - ( 4 )

Formula (3) is the stator voltage equation; Formula (4) is the rotor mechanical equation.Wherein: U abcBeing the virtual synchronous generator voltage, is also generator voltage; R a, X sBe armature resistance and synchronous reactance; I LBe the inverter output current; J is moment of inertia; Ω is mechanical angle speed; M T, M eBe respectively machine torque and the electromagnetic torque of prime mover.By electrical degree and mechanical angle concern ω=p Ω, get number of pole-pairs p=1, and take the synchronous rotary axle as reference axis, obtain adopting the equation of rotor motion that represents with electrical degree:

J dω dt = J d ( ω - ω N ) dt = M T - M e = 1 ω ( P T - P e ) ω = dθ dt - - - ( 5 )

ω wherein NBe synchronous electric angular speed; θ is electrical degree; P eBe energy-storage battery active power, the while is as the electromagnetic power of generator; P TBe the energy-storage battery power command value, the while is as the mechanical output of prime mover.

5. synthesize virtual synchronous generator armature voltage U abc

Concrete grammar is: obtain the real-time angular velocity omega of virtual synchronous generator by formula (5), its integration is obtained phase angle, vectorial as reference with the excitation electric gesture, its first phase is 0 °, the phase place of excitation electric gesture A phase vector is ω t, it is got SIN function, and multiply by the excitation electric gesture E that is obtained by excitation controller 0, obtain A phase excitation electric gesture vector.In like manner, respectively the phase angle is lagged behind 120 ° and 240 °, can obtain excitation electric gesture B phase and C phase vector, so far obtain the virtual synchronous generator excitation electromotive force E in formula (3) 0, namely obtain the terminal voltage U of virtual synchronous generator by synchronous generator stator voltage equation (3) abc, send into inverter as the modulation voltage of space vector pulse width modulation SVPWM inverter, export the voltage that is incorporated into the power networks with synchronous generator characteristic through modulation.

Be illustrated in figure 5 as Power Output for Wind Power Field and stabilize control simulation result figure.The band burden with power 100kW of system, load or burden without work 75kVar.It is the wind speed waveform that Power Output for Wind Power Field shown in Figure 5 is stabilized the figure a that controls in simulation result figure; It is the wind energy turbine set active power of output that Power Output for Wind Power Field shown in Figure 5 is stabilized the figure b that controls in simulation result figure; Power Output for Wind Power Field shown in Figure 5 is stabilized P in the figure c that controls in simulation result figure g, P WTAnd P BatCorresponding wind farm grid-connected power respectively, Power Output for Wind Power Field and the energy-storage battery power of handling up; It is system frequency that Power Output for Wind Power Field shown in Figure 5 is stabilized the figure d that controls in simulation result figure.

As seen from Figure 5, wind energy turbine set due to the variation of wind speed, causes the larger active power feedthrough system of its output pulsation after adopting maximal power tracing MPPT control strategy, to the stability generation considerable influence of electrical network.By the configuration energy-storage system, the power fluctuation of wind energy turbine set of can handling up fast makes the meritorious level and smooth of wind energy turbine set injected system, and system frequency is stable.

As shown in Figure 6, wind energy turbine set realizes synchronous generator regulating characteristics simulation result figure.System's band rated load: meritorious 100kW, idle 75kVar.Burden with power constantly reduced 10% at 2 seconds, constantly recovered in 3 seconds.The power that subscript Load correspondence provides to load, the corresponding electrical network of Grid (turbo generator set) provides power, and the corresponding virtual synchronous generator of VSG provides power.By adjusting Proportional coefficient K in virtual synchronous generator control link P, K Q, make the static difference coefficient R of its corresponding generator *With voltage difference coefficient δ *Consistent with Steam Turbine respectively, can make virtual synchronous generator and the Steam Turbine can be according to the meritorious and reactive power of each self-capacity reasonable distribution load.With reference to actual Steam Turbine regulating characteristics, choose R *=0.05, δ *=0.03.

In Fig. 6 a, 6b, make virtual synchronous generator and electrical network all the time by 1: 4 distribution load of each self-capacity; By Fig. 6 c, 6d as seen, the frequency of system presents opposite trend with the meritorious change of load, has embodied the sagging adjustment characteristic of synchronous generator, realized the once adjustment to frequency, and reactive power is substantially unaffected, and System Reactive Power is balance all the time, and voltage magnitude is stable.

The above; only for the better embodiment of the present invention, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited to this, anyly is familiar with those skilled in the art in the technical scope that the present invention discloses; the variation that can expect easily or replacement are within all should being encompassed in protection scope of the present invention.Therefore, protection scope of the present invention should be as the criterion with the protection range of claim.

Claims (6)

1. energy storage type wind power plant control method with the characteristic of being incorporated into the power networks is used for energy storage type wind power plant is modeled to the virtual synchronous generator reaching the level and smooth purpose of Power Output for Wind Power Field, and energy storage type wind power plant comprises wind energy turbine set and energy-storage battery system; The energy-storage battery system comprises energy-storage battery and inverter; By control inverter, be a virtual synchronous generator with wind energy turbine set equivalence together with the energy-storage battery system; It is characterized in that said method comprising the steps of:
Step 1: the reactive power, terminal voltage value and the frequency that gather energy storage type wind power plant output;
Step 2: with the collection capacity substitution virtual synchronous engine controller of step 1, obtain respectively energy-storage battery power command value and virtual synchronous generator excitation electromotive force value through power and frequency control device and excitation controller adjusting;
Step 3: gather energy-storage battery active power of output and inverter output current;
Step 4: with energy-storage battery active power command value, virtual synchronous generator excitation electromotive force value, energy-storage battery active power of output and inverter output current, substitution virtual synchronous generator Ontology Modeling formula obtains the terminal voltage of virtual synchronous generator;
Described virtual synchronous generator Ontology Modeling formula adopts the second order electromechanical transient model of synchronous generator:
E · 0 = U · abc + I · L R a + j I · L X s - - - ( 3 )
J dΩ dt = M T - M e - - - ( 4 )
Formula (3) is the stator voltage equation; Formula (4) is the rotor mechanical equation; Wherein: U abcBeing the virtual synchronous generator voltage, is also generator voltage; R a, X sBe armature resistance and synchronous reactance; I LBe the inverter output current; J is moment of inertia; Ω is mechanical angle speed; M T, M eBe respectively machine torque and the electromagnetic torque of prime mover;
Step 5: the terminal voltage that obtains the virtual synchronous generator in step 4 is fed the spatial vector pulse width modulation algorithm of inverter as synthetic modulating wave, export the voltage that is incorporated into the power networks with synchronous generator characteristic through modulation.
2. a kind of energy storage type wind power plant control method with the characteristic of being incorporated into the power networks according to claim 1, the wind energy plant that it is characterized in that described wind energy turbine set is the direct-drive permanent-magnet synchronous generating set, and equivalence is a typhoon power generator group.
3. a kind of energy storage type wind power plant control method with the characteristic of being incorporated into the power networks according to claim 2, is characterized in that described direct-drive permanent-magnet synchronous generating set comprises wind energy conversion system, magneto alternator, pusher side current transformer and net side converter.
4. a kind of energy storage type wind power plant control method with the characteristic of being incorporated into the power networks according to claim 1 is characterized in that described energy-storage battery system is connected in the wind energy turbine set exit, and the control strategy of inverter adopts virtual synchronous generator control algorithm.
5. a kind of energy storage type wind power plant control method with the characteristic of being incorporated into the power networks according to claim 4, is characterized in that described virtual synchronous generator control algorithm comprises virtual synchronous engine controller algorithm and virtual synchronous generator Ontology Modeling formula.
6. a kind of energy storage type wind power plant control method with the characteristic of being incorporated into the power networks according to claim 5, it is characterized in that described virtual synchronous generator Ontology Modeling formula adopts the second order electromechanical transient model of synchronous generator, comprises stator voltage equation and rotor mechanical equation.
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