CN102071495A - Figured sea-island super-fine fiber, and preparation method thereof and synthetic leather preparing process method using same - Google Patents

Figured sea-island super-fine fiber, and preparation method thereof and synthetic leather preparing process method using same Download PDF

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CN102071495A
CN102071495A CN2010105546023A CN201010554602A CN102071495A CN 102071495 A CN102071495 A CN 102071495A CN 2010105546023 A CN2010105546023 A CN 2010105546023A CN 201010554602 A CN201010554602 A CN 201010554602A CN 102071495 A CN102071495 A CN 102071495A
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island
fiber
synthetic leather
spinning
component
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CN2010105546023A
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CN102071495B (en
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曾跃民
于洪涛
吴发庆
王荣
于复海
徐德胜
李革
杨典军
赵春湖
曹培利
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烟台万华超纤股份有限公司
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Abstract

The invention relates to a figured sea-island super-fine fiber, and a preparation method and a synthetic leather preparing process method using the same, which belong to the technical field of leather and leather manufacture methods. The figured sea-island super-fine fiber is characterized in that the weight percentage ratio of island components of the fiber to sea components of the fiber is 50 percent to 80 percent/50 percent to 20 percent, wherein the island components are polyamide (PA) 6 or polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and the sea components are polyolefins or phospholamban (PLB) or polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH). The preparation method comprises the steps of slice drying and melting, composite spinning, oiling and falling into a barrel, drafting curling and drying cutting. The synthetic leather preparing method comprises the following steps that: 1. the components are sequentially prepared into a single-layer fiber net, a composite layer fiber net, needle-punched non-woven cloth and needle-punched non-weaving cloth; 2.soakage and coagulation are sequentially carried out on the non-weaving cloth, the non-weaving cloth is washed, so that a synthetic leather impregnated substrate is formed, repeated soaking squeezing, azeotropic distillation and drying are sequentially carried out, so the synthetic leather is obtained. The synthetic leather produced by the invention has the advantages of excellent mechanical performance, excellent dyeing performance, excellent dyefastness, better production controllability, economy and environment protection. Compared with natural leather and products of the natural leather, the synthetic leather has the advantages that use performance such as durability, weatherability, antibacterium mothproofing, dyefastness and the like of products is much superior to that of the natural leather and the products of the natural leather.

Description

Island ultrafine fiber, its preparation method and the process of utilizing its preparation synthetic leather

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of process that is applicable to island ultrafine fiber, its preparation method that toluene extraction type superfine fiber chemical leather is used and utilizes its preparation synthetic leather, belong to synthetic leather and manufacture method technical field thereof.

Background technology

The use for synthetic leather superfine fibre is divided into figured type and figured type not.The figured type superfine fibre is not the island component with PA6 (polyamide) usually, polyethylene is a sea component, adopt single screw rod bi-component mixed melting composite spinning method, utilize the incompatibility of two kinds of high polymer moltens in the fibre section, to form the island distribution, the island bicomponent composite fibre that obtains forms superfine fibre afterwards through the chemolysis extraction in road later.Owing to adopt two component slices of incompatibility on single screw rod, to adopt blend compound, therefore the island number of island phase is uncontrollable and the island is vertically discrete mutually in the gained single fiber, follow-up fiber number and the length of opening the superfine fibre of fine back formation cannot not be fixing with uneven, non-technology control aspect of deciding the island technology is very difficult, as the deployment conditions of the ratio between the component of island, island component, the coupling of melt flow stream shear viscosity in the spinning drafting process and control etc.These factors all directly have influence on diameter, length, quantity and their the irregular distributed degrees thereof etc. of island component fibre, separating effect between the island etc., thereby also directly influence the performance and the quality of its synthetic leather goods, it is poor that emphasis is embodied in batch quality stability of synthetic leather, the residual height of sea component, and dyeability is poor, the mechanical property fluctuation is big etc., the product specification of producing is low, influences the expansion of the Application Areas of synthetic leather product, especially aspect garment industry.The figured type composite ultrafine fiber is state-of-the-art in the world a kind of production superfine fibre technology.Adopt twin-screw, bi-component, each component is respectively walked the fusion measurement flow way system of each, and two bursts of melt compound backs in composite spinneret pack are extruded from spinneret orifice and formed the fabric of island-in-sea type composite ultrafine fiber then.The figured islands-in-sea fiber is used for traditional textile and synthetic leather industry, generally with PA6 (polyamide) or PET terylene) be island component, with COPET (alkali solubility polyester) is extra large component, and the follow-up alkali decrement process that adopts in traditional textile or synthetic leather industry realizes opening fine super-refinement.This mode is possessing the feature of environmental protection (opening fibre without toluene or dimethylbenzene) preferably aspect the production synthetic leather, but also bring a series of problem, because the change of opening fine mode, need brand-new synthetic leather production line and supporting alkali recycling and processing device, the synthetic leather production line that existing toluene is extracted system out can't use, need brand-new investment, one-time investment is very big, owing to exist a large amount of different auxiliary agents to use in the synthetic leather process, there is a very big difficult problem in alkali recyclings etc., therefore cause production cost very high.Generally speaking, the alkaline resistance properties of polyurethane is bad, therefore need the special superior polyurethane of alkaline resistance properties just can carry out the production and processing of synthetic leather, the fiber opening process of product not only influences out fine effect, also damage the performance of polyurethane simultaneously, because the controllability of production technology requires height, production cost is than traditional toluene extraction type synthetic leather height, the quality of product is not good based on toluene extraction type synthetic leather yet, has influenced the promotion and application of this type of product technology yet.

And adopt traditional toluene extraction type technology, and carry out the exploitation of figured type superfine fibre and the production of follow-up synthetic leather thereof, still there are not relevant report and product at present.

The non-relatively figured type superfine fiber chemical leather of figured type superfine fiber chemical leather, possess more superior mechanical property and dyeability, market application foreground is wide, especially at clothes, high-end market segment such as automobile is than the better physical and chemical performance of natural leather, product homogeneity, gas permeability and weather-resistant property.

Summary of the invention

It is low to the objective of the invention is to the island constituent content that solves in the non-figured islands-in-sea micro staple fiber of existing use for synthetic leather, island component plucked, be difficult for out fibre, it is poor to open fine back superfine fibre dyeability, serial problem such as poor mechanical property, also avoided simultaneously big based on the equipment investment of alkali decrement process production superfine fiber chemical leather existence, the production cost height, problems such as product quality is not high, provide a kind of open at existing toluene the island ultrafine fiber produced under the slim system with and preparation method thereof, a kind of process of utilizing this island ultrafine fiber to prepare synthetic leather also is provided simultaneously.

The present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:

Island ultrafine fiber, special character is that the percentage by weight of island component and sea component is 50%-80%: 50%-20% in this fiber, wherein the island component is PA6 (polyamide) or PET (polyester), and sea component is TPO or PLB (PLA) or PVOH (polyvinyl alcohol);

Preferred PE of TPO in the described sea component (polyethylene) or PS (polystyrene) or PP (polypropylene)

The preparation method of above-mentioned island ultrafine fiber, special character is specifically to may further comprise the steps:

1, chip drying and fusion: sea, island component are carried out chip drying respectively, wherein do not need extra dried, be controlled at 20-100PPM for sea component PLB (PLA) or PVOH (polyvinyl alcohol) chip drying moisture content for the sea component TPO; Requiring moisture content for island component PA6 (polyamide) is 20-100PPM, and requiring moisture content for island component PET (polyester) is 20-50PPM; The sea that drying is good, island component slices are put in separately the spinning storage tank by feeding system respectively, enter in separately the screw extruder melted by heating and extrude through feeding system, form spinning melt through separately fondant filter again, enter spinning manifold by melt pipe and carry out spinning;

Wherein the island component is at screw extruder, melt pipe, and each regional temperature control of spinning manifold is very crucial, and concrete temperature is controlled as follows:

2, composite spinning: enter the measuring pump that the spinning melt of spinning manifold at first enters separately and measure according to the island component ratio, wherein sea component percentage by weight in island is controlled to be 50%-80%: 50%-20%, the island number is 37 islands, enter composite spining module then, finally, form the compound tow of island structure by spraying in the spinnerets;

3, the bucket that oils: through the lateral blowing cooling forming, each the spinning station doubling of back that oils forms the silk bucket through coiler device, sunflower roller from the compound tow of spinnerets ejection;

Wherein the winding speed of spinning is 500-2000m/min, and the intrafascicular former silk size of preceding spinning is 12-16dtex;

4, drawing-off is curled: according to the capacity of post-spinning production line crimper, tow process creel boundling with some silks bucket, enter the drawing-off of twice drawing-off groove then, the total draft multiple is 3-4.5 times, drawing temperature is controlled at 75-200 ℃, through the nervous typing of 100-150 ℃ of vapours, enter crimper again and curl then, wherein the crimpness of fiber is a 15-25/inch;

5, the dry cut-out: the tow after curling enters the finish spray equipment, again through the drying box dryness finalization that relaxes, the temperature in drying box three districts is respectively 85-95 ℃, 95-105 ℃, 105-115 ℃, what at last that drying is good tow cut into 38mm or 51mm decides the island staple fibre, finally by the baling press packing, the fiber number of finished fiber single fiber is controlled at 2.5-6.0dtex.

Among the above-mentioned preparation method, the adjustment of island component ratio depends primarily on the distributing homogeneity of island component in sea component and the needs of follow-up synthetic leather product design, but surpass certain limit, island component adhesion appears easily even the island occurs to be compounded to form skin-core structure compound, can't form the island composite fibre, spinnability also descends thereupon.

Among the above-mentioned preparation method, resulting is the figured type composite superfine staple, according to the difference of composite spining module design, can be 37 islands, 51 islands even more.

Utilize above-mentioned island ultrafine fiber to prepare the process of synthetic leather, its special character is to comprise following concrete steps:

1, at first, through the shredding cotton, adopt carding machine to be carded to the single layer fibre net the above-mentioned island ultrafine fiber that obtains, after form the composite bed fibre web through cross lapping machine; Fibre web by platform acupuncture, adds up needling density 1000-2000 pin/cm through follow-up some needing machines 2It is 0.21-0.28g/cm that the back forms density 3Needle punched non-woven fabrics; After needle punched non-woven fabrics passed through 130-160 ℃ hot-air heat treatment again, through 30-80 ℃ calender roll-in, the formation apparent density was 0.29-0.36g/cm 3Needle fabric;

2, then, through the polyurethane solutions dipping, the non-weaving cloth behind the dipping is 25-35% in concentration with the non-weaving cloth that obtains, and temperature is fully to solidify in 25-35 ℃ DMF (dimethyl formamide) aqueous solution; In 40-95 ℃ water, fully wash then and form synthetic leather dipping base material; The dipping base material soaks in 85 ℃ of toluene solutions then repeatedly, the pressure roller squeezing is handled and decided island micro staple fiber sea component to extract, and makes it to realize the super-refinement of fiber.Base material after toluene is extracted out fully enters azeotropic distillation in 90 ℃ the water, and the residual toluene of base material is removed, and last, base material carries out drying in 120-150 ℃ multi-region air oven.Preparing the width of cloth of going out is 142-146cm, and density is 0.36-0.41g/cm 3, the average fineness of opening the island ultrafine fiber of fine back formation is the island ultrafine fiber synthetic leather base cloth that 0.03-0.1dtex, every fibre bundle contain 37 superfine fibres.

The solvent of described polyurethane solutions is DMF (dimethyl formamide), and solid content is 19-23%; This polyurethane mainly is by 4, and 4-methyl diphenylene diisocyanate and polyol reaction obtain, and wherein the percentage by weight of polyalcohol is 50-80%, and described polyalcohol is that 100% polyethers, optimum are polytetramethylene ether diol;

The synthetic leather base cloth that obtains among the above-mentioned preparation method is carried out the test of the residual and polyurethane content of polyethylene, and the result is 38-50% for polyurethane content, and polyethylene is residual to be 0.2-0.6%.

The sand paper that utilizes 180-800 order granularity carries out the flour milling of positive and negative to the above-mentioned superfine fiber chemical leather base cloth that obtains, and very short matte is played on the surface, forms the suede base cloth.

The island ultrafine fiber that the present invention produces is mainly used in the making synthetic leather, this synthetic leather product with at present relatively based on non-island ultrafine fiber products obtained therefrom, possess more superior mechanical property, dyeability and dyefastness, has better production controllability, more economical manufacturing cost and environmental requirement are more suitable for using in matte class, dyeing class synthetic leather and goods thereof.With natural leather and goods thereof relatively, far be superior to natural leather and goods on the wearability such as durability of products, weather fastness, antibiotic mothproof, dyefastness.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1: island ultrafine fiber manufacturing process flow diagram of the present invention;

Fig. 2: PA6/PE island ultrafine fiber cross-sectional structure figure

The specific embodiment

Embodiment 1 (deciding the island micro staple fiber)

With PA6 (polyamide) as the island component, through the super-dry moisture 100PPM of being controlled at that guarantees to cut into slices, PE (polyethylene) is as sea component, put into respectively in the storage tank separately, enter separately screw extruder melted by heating, filtration through feeding system, be transported to spinning manifold through melt pipe then.The island component is as follows in each regional temperature control:

The spinning melt that enters spinning manifold is metered into composite spining module through measuring pump separately, wherein the island component ratio is controlled to be PA6: PE=60: 40, the island number is 37 islands, extrude the compound monofilament of formation through spinnerets, through the lateral blowing cooling, oil, curl and store in the silk bucket through the sunflower roller, before the winding speed of spinning be 800m/min, the intrafascicular former silk size of preceding spinning is 15dtex.

Through the creel boundling, through two road drawing-off groove drawing-offs, the total draft multiple is 3.5 times then with the tow of the silk bucket of some, and drawing temperature is 75 degree.Tow after the drawing-off enters crimper and curls through the nervous typing of 100 ℃ of vapourss, and crimpness is 19/inch, enters the finish spray equipment then, is sent to the drying box dryness finalization that relaxes, and the temperature in drying box three districts is 85 ℃, and 95 ℃, 105 ℃.The tow that drying is good is cut to the staple fibre of 51mm, and through baling press packing finished product, the fiber number of finished fiber single fiber is controlled at 4.5dtex at last.

Every technical indicator that gained is decided the island micro staple fiber sees Table 1, and the island cross-sectional structure is seen Fig. 2.

Table 1:PA6/PE decides island micro staple fiber technical indicator

Project Test result The island ratio PA6∶PE=60∶40 Island quantity (individual) 37 Fiber number (dtex) 4.5 Intensity (cN/dtex) 3.8 Elongation at break (%) 40 Oil content (%) 0.6 Moisture content (%) 1.1

Fibre length (mm) 51 Crispation number (individual/inch) 19

Embodiment 2 (deciding the island micro staple fiber)

With PET (polyester) as the island component, through the super-dry moisture 30PPM of being controlled at that guarantees to cut into slices, PE (polyethylene) puts into respectively in the storage tank separately as sea component, enter separately screw extruder melted by heating, filtration through feeding system, be transported to spinning manifold through melt pipe then.The island component is as follows in each regional temperature control:

The spinning melt that enters spinning manifold is metered into composite spining module through measuring pump separately, wherein the island component ratio is controlled to be PET: PE=50: 50, the island number is 37 islands, extrude the compound monofilament of formation through spinnerets, through the lateral blowing cooling, oil, curl and store in the silk bucket through the sunflower roller, before the winding speed of spinning be 500m/min, the intrafascicular former silk size of preceding spinning is 16dtex.

Through the creel boundling, through two road drawing-off groove drawing-offs, the total draft multiple is 3.0 times then with the tow of the silk bucket of some, and drawing temperature is 95 ℃.Tow after the drawing-off enters crimper and curls through the nervous typing of 150 ℃ of vapourss, and crimpness is 15/inch, enters the finish spray equipment then, is sent to the drying box dryness finalization that relaxes, and the temperature in drying box three districts is 95 ℃, and 105 ℃, 115 ℃.The tow that drying is good is cut to the staple fibre of 38mm, and through baling press packing finished product, the fiber number of finished fiber single fiber is controlled at 6.0dtex at last.

Embodiment 3 (deciding the island micro staple fiber):

With PA6 (polyamide) as the island component, through the super-dry moisture 80PPM of being controlled at that guarantees to cut into slices, PS (polystyrene) is as sea component, put into respectively in the storage tank separately, enter separately screw extruder melted by heating, filtration through feeding system, be transported to spinning manifold through melt pipe then.The island component is as follows in each regional temperature control:

The spinning melt that enters spinning manifold is metered into composite spining module through measuring pump separately, wherein the island component ratio is controlled to be PA6: PS=80: 20, the island number is 37 islands, extrude the compound monofilament of formation through spinnerets, through the lateral blowing cooling, oil, curl and store in the silk bucket through the sunflower roller, the winding speed of spinning is 1000m/min, and the intrafascicular former silk size of preceding spinning is 12dtex.

The tow of the silk bucket of some through the creel boundling, is entered the drawing-off of twice drawing-off groove then, and the total draft multiple is 3.0 times, and drawing temperature is 200 ℃.Tow after drawing-off enters crimper again and curls through the nervous typing of 120 ℃ of vapourss, and crimpness is 15/inch; Enter the finish spray equipment then, be sent to the drying box dryness finalization that relaxes, the temperature in drying box three districts is 90 ℃, 100 ℃, and 110 ℃.The tow that drying is good is cut to the staple fibre of 51mm, and through the baling press packing, the fiber number of finished fiber single fiber is controlled at 4.5dtex at last.

Embodiment 4 (deciding the island micro staple fiber):

With PA6 (polyamide) as the island component, through the super-dry moisture 60PPM of being controlled at that guarantees to cut into slices, PE (polyethylene) is as sea component, put into respectively in the storage tank separately, enter separately screw extruder melted by heating, filtration through feeding system, be transported to spinning manifold through melt pipe then.The island component is as follows in each regional temperature control:

The spinning melt that enters spinning manifold is metered into composite spining module through measuring pump separately, wherein the island component ratio is controlled to be PA6: PE=50: 50, the island number is 37 islands, extrude the compound monofilament of formation through spinnerets, through the lateral blowing cooling, oil, curl and store in the silk bucket through the sunflower roller, the winding speed of spinning is 1500m/min, and the intrafascicular former silk size of preceding spinning is 12dtex.

Through the creel boundling, through two road drawing-off groove drawing-offs, the total draft multiple is 4.5 times then with the tow of the silk bucket of some, and drawing temperature is 75 ℃.Tow after the drawing-off enters crimper and curls through the nervous typing of 110 ℃ of vapourss, and crimpness is 22/inch, enters the finish spray equipment then, is sent to the drying box dryness finalization that relaxes, and the temperature in drying box three districts is 85 ℃, and 95 ℃, 105 ℃.The tow that drying is good is cut to the staple fibre of 51mm, and through baling press packing finished product, the fiber number of finished fiber single fiber is controlled at 2.5dtex at last.

Embodiment 5 (deciding the island micro staple fiber):

With PA6 (polyamide) as the island component, through the super-dry moisture 50PPM of being controlled at that guarantees to cut into slices, PE (polyethylene) is as sea component, put into respectively in the storage tank separately, with black Masterbatch (PA6 is a carrier) through the 3rd component feeding system, enter separately screw extruder melted by heating, filtration through feeding system together, be transported to spinning manifold through melt pipe then.The island component is as follows in each regional temperature control:

The spinning melt that enters spinning manifold is metered into composite spining module through measuring pump separately, wherein the island component ratio is controlled to be PA6: Masterbatch: PE=57: 3: 40, the island number is 37 islands, extrude the compound monofilament of formation through spinnerets, through the lateral blowing cooling, oil, curl and store in the silk bucket through the sunflower roller, the winding speed of spinning is 2000m/min, and the intrafascicular former silk size of preceding spinning is 15dtex.

Through the creel boundling, through two road drawing-off groove drawing-offs, the total draft multiple is 3.5 times then with the tow of the silk bucket of some, and drawing temperature is 80 ℃.Tow after the drawing-off enters crimper and curls through the nervous typing of 130 ℃ of vapourss, and crimpness is 25/inch, enters the finish spray equipment then, is sent to the drying box dryness finalization that relaxes, and the temperature in drying box three districts is 95 ℃, and 105 ℃, 110 ℃.The tow that drying is good is cut to the staple fibre of 51mm, and through baling press packing finished product, the fiber number of finished fiber single fiber is controlled at 4.5dtex at last, and this fiber is opened fine back through toluene and formed black silk micro staple fiber.

Embodiment 6 (synthetic leather base cloth):

PA6 (island component) that obtains from embodiment 1 and the figured type micro staple fiber of low density polyethylene (LDPE) PE (sea component) 60/40 through the shredding cotton, adopt carding machine to be carded to the single layer fibre net, after form the composite bed fibre web through cross lapping machine.Fibre web by platform acupuncture, adds up needling density 1000 pins/cm through follow-up some needing machines 2It is 0.21g/cm that the back forms density 3Needle punched non-woven fabrics.Needle punched non-woven fabrics through 30 ℃ calender roll-in, forms apparent density 0.29g/cm again through after 130 ℃ the hot-air heat treatment 3Needle fabric.

The non-weaving cloth that obtains is through polyurethane solutions (solvent is DMF, and solid content is 19%) dipping, and this polyurethane mainly is by 4, and 4 '-methyl diphenylene diisocyanate and polyol reaction obtain, wherein the percentage by weight 50% of polyalcohol.The polyalcohol that polyurethane adopts is 100% polytetramethylene ether diol, non-weaving cloth is 25% in DMF concentration after the polyurethane impregnated, fully solidify in the aqueous solution that temperature is 25 ℃, multi-region rinsing bowl at 40C fully washs formation synthetic leather dipping base material then, the dipping base material repeatedly immersion in 85 ℃ of toluene solutions then/pressure roller squeezing is handled and is decided island micro staple fiber polyethylene sea component to extract, and makes it to realize the super-refinement of fiber.Base material after toluene is extracted out fully enters 90 ℃ of azeotropic distillations in the water, and the residual toluene of base material is removed, and last, base material carries out drying in 120-150 ℃ multi-region air oven.Preparing the width of cloth of going out is 142cm, and density is 0.36mm, and the average fineness of superfine fibre is 0.03dtex, and every superfine fibre bundle contains the island ultrafine fiber synthetic leather base cloth of 37 superfine fibres.

Base cloth is carried out the test of the residual and polyurethane content of polyethylene, and the result is about 38% for polyurethane content, and polyethylene is residual to be 0.2%.

The sand paper that utilizes 400 order granularities then carries out the flour milling of positive and negative to the superfine fiber chemical leather base cloth, and very short matte is played on the surface, forms the suede base cloth.

Embodiment 7 (synthetic leather base cloth)

PA6 (island component) that obtains from embodiment 4 and the figured type micro staple fiber of low density polyethylene (LDPE) PE (sea component) 50/50 through the shredding cotton, adopt carding machine to be carded to the single layer fibre net, after form the composite bed fibre web through cross lapping machine.Fibre web by platform acupuncture, adds up needling density 2000 pins/cm through follow-up some needing machines 2It is 0.28g/cm that the back forms density 3Needle punched non-woven fabrics.Needle punched non-woven fabrics through 80 ℃ calender roll-in, forms apparent density 0.36g/cm again through after 160 ℃ the hot-air heat treatment 3Needle fabric.

The non-weaving cloth that obtains is through polyurethane solutions (solvent is DMF, and solid content is 23%) dipping, and this polyurethane mainly is by 4, and 4 '-methyl diphenylene diisocyanate and polyol reaction obtain, wherein the percentage by weight 80% of polyalcohol.The polyalcohol that polyurethane adopts is 100% polytetramethylene ether diol, non-weaving cloth is 35% in DMF concentration after the polyurethane impregnated, fully solidify in the aqueous solution that temperature is 35 ℃, fully wash at 95 ℃ multi-region rinsing bowl then and form synthetic leather dipping base material, the dipping base material repeatedly immersion in 85 ℃ of toluene solutions then/pressure roller squeezing is handled and is decided island micro staple fiber polyethylene sea component to extract, and makes it to realize the super-refinement of fiber.Base material after toluene is extracted out fully enters 90 ℃ of azeotropic distillations in the water, and the residual toluene of base material is removed, and last, base material carries out drying in 120-150 ℃ multi-region air oven.Preparing the width of cloth of going out is 146cm, and density is 0.41mm, and the average fineness of superfine fibre is 0.03dtex, and every superfine fibre bundle contains the island ultrafine fiber synthetic leather base cloth of 37 superfine fibres.

Base cloth is carried out the test of the residual and polyurethane content of polyethylene, and the result is about 50% for polyurethane content, and polyethylene is residual to be 0.6%.

The sand paper that utilizes 800 order granularities then carries out the flour milling of positive and negative to the superfine fiber chemical leather base cloth, and very short matte is played on the surface, forms the suede base cloth.

Embodiment 8 (synthetic leather base cloth):

The figured type micro staple fiber of PA6 (island component)/low density polyethylene (LDPE) PE (sea component)/Masterbatch=57/40/3 that obtains from embodiment 5 through the shredding cotton, adopts carding machine to be carded to filament web, after form fibre web through cross lapping machine.Fibre web by platform acupuncture, adds up needling density 1500 pins/cm through follow-up some needing machines 2It is 0.25g/cm that the back forms density 3Needle punched non-woven fabrics.Needle punched non-woven fabrics through 80 ℃ calender roll-in, forms apparent density 0.32g/cm again through after 150 ℃ the hot-air heat treatment 3Needle fabric.

The non-weaving cloth that obtains is through polyurethane solutions (solvent is DMF, and solid content is 21%) dipping, and this polyurethane mainly is by 4, and 4 '-methyl diphenylene diisocyanate and polyol reaction obtain, and wherein the percentage by weight of polyalcohol is 65%.The polyalcohol that polyurethane adopts is 100% polytetramethylene ether diol, non-weaving cloth is 30% in DMF concentration after the polyurethane impregnated, fully solidify in the aqueous solution that temperature is 30 ℃, fully wash at 70 ℃ multi-region rinsing bowl then and form synthetic leather dipping base material, the dipping base material repeatedly immersion in 85 ℃ of toluene solutions then/pressure roller squeezing is handled and is decided island micro staple fiber polyethylene sea component to extract, and makes it to realize the super-refinement of fiber.Base material after toluene is extracted out fully enters 90 ℃ of azeotropic distillations in the water, and the residual toluene of base material is removed, and last, base material carries out drying in 120-150 ℃ multi-region air oven.Preparing the width of cloth of going out is 145cm, and density is 0.38mm, and the average fineness of superfine fibre is 0.07dtex, and every superfine fibre bundle contains the island ultrafine fiber synthetic leather base cloth of 37 superfine fibres.

Base cloth is carried out the test of the residual and polyurethane content of polyethylene, and the result is about 45% for polyurethane content, and polyethylene is residual to be 0.4%.

The sand paper that utilizes 180 order granularities then carries out the flour milling of positive and negative to the superfine fiber chemical leather base cloth, and very short matte is played on the surface, forms the suede base cloth.

Comparative example 9 (synthetic leather base cloth):

(PA6 (island component) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) PE (sea component) 50/50 non-decided the island micro staple fiber to adopt conventional non-island ultrafine fiber, fiber number is 5.5dtex, length is 51mm), through the shredding cotton, adopt carding machine to be carded to the single layer fibre net, after form the composite bed fibre web through cross lapping machine.Fibre web by platform acupuncture, adds up needling density 1000 pins/cm through follow-up some needing machines 2It is 0.21g/cm that the back forms density 3Needle punched non-woven fabrics.Needle punched non-woven fabrics through 60 ℃ calender roll-in, forms about 600g/m again through after 135 ℃ the hot-air heat treatment 2, thickness is 2.00mm, apparent density 0.30g/cm 3Needle fabric.

(solvent is DMF to the non-weaving cloth that obtains through polyurethane solutions, solid content is 19%) dipping, this polyurethane mainly is by 4,4 '-methyl diphenylene diisocyanate and polyol reaction obtain, the polyalcohol that polyurethane adopts is 100% polytetramethylene ether diol, and polyalcohol content is 80%.Non-weaving cloth is 35% in DMF concentration after the polyurethane impregnated, fully solidify in the aqueous solution that temperature is 35 ℃, fully wash at 40-95 ℃ multi-region rinsing bowl then and form synthetic leather dipping base material, the dipping base material repeatedly immersion in 85 ℃ of toluene solutions then/pressure roller squeezing is handled and is decided island micro staple fiber polyethylene sea component to extract, and makes it to realize the super-refinement of fiber.Base material after toluene is extracted out fully enters 90 ℃ of azeotropic distillations in the boiling water, and the residual toluene of base material is removed, and then, base material carries out drying in 120-150 ℃ multi-region air oven.Preparing the width of cloth of going out at last is 145cm, and thickness is 1.6mm, and the average fineness of superfine fibre is 0.005dtex (average island number is 500 a/root), and every superfine fibre bundle contains the non-island ultrafine fiber synthetic leather base cloth of 500 superfine fibres.

Base cloth is carried out the test of the residual and polyurethane content of polyethylene, and the result is about 44% for polyurethane content, and polyethylene is residual to be 2.5%.

The sand paper that utilizes 400 order granularities then carries out the flour milling of positive and negative to the superfine fiber chemical leather base cloth, and very short matte is played on the surface, forms the suede base cloth.

Comparative example 10 (synthetic leather base cloth):

Utilize the conventional non-island black silk superfine fibre (the non-figured type micro staple fiber of PA6 (island component)/low density polyethylene (LDPE) PE (sea component)/Masterbatch=47/50/3) of deciding, through the shredding cotton, adopt carding machine to be carded to filament web, after form fibre web through cross lapping machine.Fibre web by platform acupuncture, adds up needling density 1000 pins/cm through follow-up some needing machines 2It is 0.23g/cm that the back forms density 3Needle punched non-woven fabrics.Needle punched non-woven fabrics through 60 ℃ calender roll-in, forms about 600g/m again through after 150 ℃ the hot-air heat treatment 2, thickness is 2.00mm, apparent density 0.30g/cm 3Needle fabric.

The non-weaving cloth that obtains is through the polyurethane mixed solution (carbon black color paste that wherein adds 3 parts of weight ratios, color sizing vector is this polyurethane) (solvent is DMF, solid content is 19%) dipping, this polyurethane mainly is by 4,4 '-methyl diphenylene diisocyanate and polyol reaction obtain, the polyalcohol that polyurethane adopts is 100% polytetramethylene ether diol, and polyalcohol content is 80%.Non-weaving cloth is 35% in DMF concentration after the polyurethane impregnated, fully solidify in the aqueous solution that temperature is 35 ℃, fully wash at 40-95 ℃ multi-region rinsing bowl then and form synthetic leather dipping base material, the dipping base material repeatedly immersion in 85 ℃ of toluene solutions then/pressure roller squeezing is handled and is decided island micro staple fiber polyethylene sea component to extract, and makes it to realize the super-refinement of fiber.Base material after toluene is extracted out fully enters 90 ℃ of azeotropic distillations in the boiling water, and the residual toluene of base material is removed, and then, base material carries out drying in 120 ℃ air oven.Preparing the width of cloth of going out at last is 145cm, and thickness is 1.6mm, and the average fineness of superfine fibre is 0.005dtex (average island number is 500 a/root), and every superfine fibre bundle contains the non-island ultrafine fiber synthetic leather base cloth of 500 superfine fibres.

Base cloth is carried out the test of the residual and polyurethane content of polyethylene, and the result is about 44% for polyurethane content, and polyethylene is residual to be 1.8%.

The sand paper that utilizes 400 order granularities then carries out the flour milling of positive and negative to the superfine fiber chemical leather base cloth, and very short matte is played on the surface, forms the suede base cloth.

Embodiment 11 (synthetic leather dyeing):

Embodiment 6-8 is obtained figured type suede base cloth and the non-figured type suede of comparative example 9-10 base cloth dyes according to following condition: bath raio 1: 25, dyestuff 5%owf, the dye liquor pH value is controlled at 4-9, dyestuff adopts neutral premetallized dyes, after overflow high temp dyeing and the drying, this suede is carried out softener handle then 120 ℃ of oven dry.The flour milling napping that suede after the oven dry adopts 800 order grit papers to carry out positive and negative is handled, thereby guarantees that matte shows and high-grade outward appearance, has and writes benefit and fine and smooth soft hand feeling significantly.

The performance comparison of various products sees Table two:

Claims (10)

1. island ultrafine fiber is characterised in that the percentage by weight of island component and sea component is 50%-80%:50%-20% in this fiber, and wherein the island component is polyamide or polyester, and sea component is TPO or PLA or polyvinyl alcohol.
2. according to the described island ultrafine fiber of claim 1, it is characterized in that the TPO in the described sea component is polyethylene or polystyrene or polypropylene.
3. the preparation method of island ultrafine fiber is characterised in that specifically may further comprise the steps:
1), chip drying and fusion: sea, island component are carried out chip drying respectively, wherein do not need extra dried, be controlled at 20-100PPM for sea component PLA or polyvinyl alcohol chip drying moisture content for the sea component TPO; Requiring moisture content for island component polyamide is 20-100PPM, and requiring moisture content for island component polyester is 20-50PPM; The sea that drying is good, island component slices are put in separately the spinning storage tank by feeding system respectively, enter in separately the screw extruder melted by heating and extrude through feeding system, form spinning melt through separately fondant filter again, enter spinning manifold by melt pipe and carry out spinning;
2), composite spinning: enter the measuring pump that the spinning melt of spinning manifold at first enters separately and measure according to the island component ratio, wherein island, sea component percentage by weight are controlled to be 50%-80%: 50%-20%, the island number is 37 islands, enter composite spining module then, finally, form the compound tow of island structure by spraying in the spinnerets;
3), bucket oils: through the lateral blowing cooling forming, each the spinning station doubling of back that oils forms the silk bucket through coiler device, sunflower roller from the compound tow of spinnerets ejection;
Wherein the winding speed of spinning is 500-2000m/min, and the intrafascicular former silk size of preceding spinning is 12-16dtex;
4), drawing-off is curled: according to the capacity of post-spinning production line crimper, tow process creel boundling with some silks bucket, enter the drawing-off of twice drawing-off groove then, the total draft multiple is 3.0-4.5 times, drawing temperature is controlled at 75-200 ℃, through the nervous typing of 100-150 ℃ of vapours, enter crimper again and curl then, wherein the crimpness of fiber is a 15-25/inch;
5), the dry cut-out: the tow after curling enters the finish spray equipment, again through the drying box dryness finalization that relaxes, the temperature in drying box three districts is respectively 85-95 ℃, 95-105 ℃, 105-115 ℃, what at last that drying is good tow cut into 38mm or 51mm decides the island staple fibre, finally by the baling press packing, the fiber number of finished fiber single fiber is controlled at 2.5-6.0dtex.
4. according to the preparation method of the described island ultrafine fiber of claim 3, it is characterized in that the island component is at screw extruder, melt pipe in the step 1), the concrete temperature control in each zone of spinning manifold is as follows:
5. utilize island ultrafine fiber to prepare the process of synthetic leather, it is characterized in that comprising following concrete steps:
1), at first, through the shredding cotton, adopt carding machine to be carded to the single layer fibre net the above-mentioned island ultrafine fiber that obtains, after form the composite bed fibre web through cross lapping machine; Fibre web by platform acupuncture, adds up needling density 1000-2000 pin/cm through follow-up some needing machines 2It is 0.21-0.28g/cm that the back forms density 3Needle punched non-woven fabrics; After needle punched non-woven fabrics passed through 130-160 ℃ hot-air heat treatment again, through 30-80 ℃ calender roll-in, the formation apparent density was 0.29-0.36g/cm 3Needle fabric;
2), then, through the polyurethane solutions dipping, the non-weaving cloth behind the dipping is 25-35% in concentration with the non-weaving cloth that obtains, and temperature is fully to solidify in 25-35 ℃ DMF (dimethyl formamide) aqueous solution; In 40-95 ℃ water, fully wash then and form synthetic leather dipping base material; The dipping base material soaks in 85 ℃ of toluene solutions then repeatedly, the pressure roller squeezing is handled and decided island micro staple fiber sea component to extract, and makes it to realize the super-refinement of fiber; Base material after toluene is extracted out fully enters azeotropic distillation in 90 ℃ the water, and the residual toluene of base material is removed, and last, base material carries out drying in 120-150 ℃ multi-region air oven; Preparing the width of cloth of going out is 142-146cm, and density is 0.36-0.41g/cm 3, the average fineness of opening the island ultrafine fiber of fine back formation is the island ultrafine fiber synthetic leather base cloth that 0.03-0.1dtex, every fibre bundle contain 37 superfine fibres.
6. according to the described process of utilizing island ultrafine fiber to prepare synthetic leather of claim 5, the solvent that it is characterized in that described polyurethane solutions is a dimethyl formamide, and solid content is 19-23%; This polyurethane is by 4, and 4 '-methyl diphenylene diisocyanate and polyol reaction obtain, and wherein the percentage by weight of polyalcohol is 50-80%.
7. connect according to the described process of utilizing island ultrafine fiber to prepare synthetic leather of claim 6, it is characterized in that described polyalcohol is 100% polyethers.
8. according to the described process of utilizing island ultrafine fiber to prepare synthetic leather of claim 7, it is characterized in that described polyalcohol is a polytetramethylene ether diol.
9. according to the described process of utilizing island ultrafine fiber to prepare synthetic leather of claim 5, it is characterized in that, the above-mentioned synthetic leather base cloth that obtains is carried out the test of the residual and polyurethane content of polyethylene, and the result is 38-50% for polyurethane content, and polyethylene is residual to be 0.2-0.6%.
10. according to the described process of utilizing island ultrafine fiber to prepare synthetic leather of claim 5, it is characterized in that, the sand paper that utilizes 180-800 order granularity carries out the flour milling of positive and negative to the above-mentioned superfine fiber chemical leather base cloth that obtains, and the short flannel face is played on the surface, forms suede.
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