CN102064356B - Battery management system - Google Patents

Battery management system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102064356B
CN102064356B CN 201010598624 CN201010598624A CN102064356B CN 102064356 B CN102064356 B CN 102064356B CN 201010598624 CN201010598624 CN 201010598624 CN 201010598624 A CN201010598624 A CN 201010598624A CN 102064356 B CN102064356 B CN 102064356B
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China
Prior art keywords
battery
management system
bus
battery management
connected
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CN 201010598624
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102064356A (en
Inventor
刘洋成
洛志宏
韦凯
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深圳市佳华利道新技术开发有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage
    • Y02E60/12Battery technologies with an indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation

Abstract

The invention relates to a battery management system which comprises a main controller (1) connected with an internal CAN bus (2) and more than one slave controller (3), wherein each slave controller is connected with a corresponding battery module (5) and a corresponding battery equalizer (4) pairwise; the main controller is also connected with an external CAN bus (6), and both the internal CAN bus and the external CAN bus comprise respective independent CAN communication modules. Furthermore, in the battery management system, the slave controllers and the battery equalizers are provided with independent interfaces connected with the battery modules, an independent AD sampling chip in each slave controller adopts an isolated DC-DC power supply, the communication between the independent AD sampling chips and a microprocessor is isolated by an optical coupler, the main controller monitors the current of a battery pack by using a double-range Hall current sensor. Thus, the structure of the management system is safe and reliable, interference among the AD sampling chip, the microprocessor and the battery equalizer is avoided, and the test requirement of current measurement under two different conditions is met.

Description

A kind of battery management system

Technical field

The present invention relates to battery and battery management, be specifically related to a kind of battery management system that especially is applied to the automobile power management.

Background technology

Battery management system is the key of electrokinetic cell application and new-energy automobile industry development.In electric automobile, electric bicycle and battery-operated motor cycle; Battery management system is responsible for gathering the data of cell in the battery pack (voltage, electric current and temperature); The electric weight of cell between the operating state of estimating battery group, balancing battery group, implement heat management, battery system failure diagnosis and warning etc., and with car on other parts or system carry out data communication.And existing battery management system has following defective or deficiency:

The security requirement of (1) battery management system is even more important; And on the basis of realizing dissimilar multiple functions, also want and external communication; The work under bad environment of while automobile; Often be under the interference of strong electromagnetic and pulse current, but because the inside and outside communication of existing battery management system is not isolated, so safety and reliability are not enough;

(2) conventional battery management system is for reducing line; General slave controller can adopt unified interface to be connected with battery module in integrated back with battery equalizer; When battery equalizer is worked; The monomer battery voltage data that the battery management slave controller records will receive the interference of euqalizing current, possibly send wrong battery voltage information.In addition, during monomer battery voltage sampling (AD sampling), microcontroller often directly links to each other with battery, and this interface that just causes microcontroller externally to connect communication all need increase buffer circuit, to satisfy electrical safety;

In the (3) existing system; Adopt range to satisfy the transducer of the maximum charging and discharging currents of battery pack, cause when the little electric current of battery pack discharges and recharges, measurement data is inaccurate; Can not satisfy the accurately requirement of estimation of SOC(system on a chip) (SOC), be unfavorable for the optimal control of hybrid vehicle;

In the (4) existing system; Adopt the balanced mode of conductive discharge formula; Can and be packaged together from control module is integrated equalizing circuit, the waste of energy of preciousness is fallen in this meeting on the one hand, causes the too high possibility of monitoring balanced inefficacy of temperature on the other hand owing to radiating condition in the module is bad.Perhaps adopt from the battery pack power taking through the mode of direct current (DC)-direct current (DC) converter to the low battery charge of capacity, complex structure, cost are higher.

Summary of the invention

The technical issues that need to address of the present invention are; How a kind of battery management system is provided; The structure safety and reliability; Further avoid or alleviate between AD sampling, microprocessor and battery equalizer three disturbing, further satisfy the test needs under two kinds of different situations of current measurement, further make equaliser structure simple and efficiency is high.

Technical problem of the present invention solves like this: make up a kind of battery management system; Connect N battery module that is composed in series successively by an above cell; Comprise a master controller and pass through internal controller LAN (Controller Area Network; Be called for short CAN) N slave controller being connected with its communication of bus, each said battery module respectively with an interconnective slave controller and corresponding a connection of battery equalizer, said master controller also is connected with outside CAN bus communication; Said inner CAN bus and outside CAN bus all comprise independent CAN communication module separately, and N is the arbitrary natural number greater than 1.

According to battery management system provided by the invention, said slave controller and battery equalizer are connected with said battery module through interface separately.

According to battery management system provided by the invention, also comprise modulus separately (AD) sampling A of corresponding connection with each said battery module, said sampling A is electrically connected with corresponding slave controller through optocoupler communication buffer circuit separately; Further:

Said sampling A power end is electrically connected the DC power supply with said master controller and slave controller isolated from power;

The DC power supply of said isolation includes, but are not limited to DC-to-dc (DC-DC) power supply that preferred input connects said master controller and slave controller power supply.

According to battery management system provided by the invention, also comprise the battery pack current sample circuit of the employing M range Hall current sensor that is electrically connected with said master controller, M is the natural number greater than 1; Further:

Said battery pack current sample circuit is electrically connected with said master controller through M bar passage;

Wherein: M preferred 2.

According to battery management system provided by the invention, N is arbitrary natural number of 2 to 14, is no more than 14, and said master controller is provided with different inside CAN bus addresss with each slave controller; Said master controller also is provided with outside CAN bus address.

According to battery management system provided by the invention; Said battery equalizer comprise with said battery module in L+1 successively the cell of series connection is connected cooperate L successively series capacitance and be used to switch L said electric capacity with preceding L or after the individual parallelly connected successively one by one control switch of said cell of L, L is the arbitrary natural number greater than 1.

According to battery management system provided by the invention, it is automobile power cell management system or Battery Management System for Hybrid Electric Vehicle that said battery management system includes, but are not limited to.

Battery management system provided by the invention; Adopt the independent separately CAN bus of (4) to carry out inside and outside communication; Further (2) slave controller and battery equalizer have all independently that interface is connected with battery module, slave controller adopts AD sampling A independently, adopt isolation DC-DC power supply to its supply power, communication between AD sampling A and the slave controller microprocessor is through light-coupled isolation; The (3) master controller has adopted the Hall current sensor monitoring battery pack current with many measuring ranges; The (4) battery equalizer has adopted switching capacity electric voltage equalization pattern, thereby makes the management system structural safety reliable, has further avoided disturbing between AD sampling, microprocessor and battery equalizer three; Further satisfied the test needs under two kinds of different situations of current measurement, made further also that at last equaliser structure is simple and efficiency is high.

Description of drawings

Further the present invention is elaborated below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and specific embodiment:

Fig. 1 is a specific embodiment of the invention power battery management system electrical block diagram;

Fig. 2 is master controller and a slave controller electricity theory diagram in the battery management system shown in Figure 1;

Fig. 3 is a switching capacity voltage battery equalizer electricity principle schematic in the battery management system shown in Figure 1;

Fig. 4 is a master controller main program flow sketch map in the battery management system shown in Figure 1;

Fig. 5 is a master controller battery pack current sampling routine schematic flow diagram in the battery management system shown in Figure 1.

Embodiment

At first, specific embodiment of the invention power battery management system hardware configuration is described:

As shown in Figure 1, this power battery management system comprises: master controller 1, the independently individual slave controller 3 of N (N is 14 to the maximum) and the independently individual battery equalizer 4 of N (N is 14 to the maximum).Whether each slave controller 3 is corresponding with a battery equalizer 4, monitors a battery module 5, worked by the corresponding battery equalizer 4 of these slave controller 3 controls.Slave controller 3 all has independently interface (the thick arrow of the solid line among the figure with battery equalizer 4; Hollow arrow) connects with corresponding battery module 5; When battery equalizer 4 work; Through its stand-alone interface (the thick arrow of the solid line among the figure) each the series connection cell in the corresponding battery module 5 is carried out charge and discharge balancing, 3 of slave controllers pass through its stand-alone interface (hollow arrow among the figure) monitoring monomer battery voltage, temperature, the mistake control of having avoided mutual interference to cause.Master controller 1 connects the inside CAN bus 2 and outside CAN bus 6 with independent separately CAN communication module, is connected through inner CAN bus 2 between master controller 1 and the slave controller 3, and master controller 1 is connected with external system through outside CAN bus 6.Wherein:

(1) master controller 1 and slave controller 3

As shown in Figure 2, provide master controller 1 and be connected signal and their internal structure with a slave controller 3, wherein:

1. master controller

Master controller is the core of entire cell management system; Master controller comprises in the specific embodiment of the invention: the master controller microprocessor; I battery voltage sample circuit; The battery pack current sample circuit, II battery pack main circuit switch is control circuit extremely, the III fault alarm etc., and auxiliary circuit and IV are isolated communicating circuit.Wherein:

I battery voltage sample circuit

The battery voltage sample circuit adopts the Hall voltage transducer that battery pack and control circuit are isolated, and converts the battery pack terminal voltage in the microprocessor processes scope voltage in proportion, after filtering, is connected to the AD mouth of microprocessor;

The battery pack current sample circuit adopts the Hall current sensor with a plurality of range abilities that battery pack and control circuit are isolated; The top grade of current sensor (the first current sample passage) range ability should satisfy the maximum charging and discharging currents demand of battery pack, and the range ability of low-grade (the second current sample passage) then can be reduced into about 1/10th of high-grade range ability.At the battery set charge/discharge electric current hour; Select the second current sample passage that battery pack current is sampled; When the battery set charge/discharge electric current exceeds low-grade range ability; Select the first current sample passage that it is sampled, just can satisfy the requirement of battery pack SOC(system on a chip) SOC estimation and dynamical system control strategy fully the current data precision.

II battery pack main circuit switch and control circuit thereof

For realizing to battery-powered safe and reliable control; Battery switch comprises following device: be installed in series respectively in 2 in the HVDC contactor of battery pack both positive and negative polarity, for satisfying current-limiting resistance and the precharge switch that electric capacity pre-charging functions and battery anode contactor are in parallel installed with.When battery management system control battery switch is closed; For preventing capacitive load possibility pulse current therefore in the main circuit; The high voltage connector and the precharge switch of closed battery pack negative pole are charged to capacitive load through current-limiting resistance earlier; When load voltage and battery voltage near after just can closed battery anode high voltage connector, break off precharge switch, accomplish closed battery switch instruction.

The III fault alarm

Auxiliary circuits such as fault alarm comprise luminous warning circuit and battery pack insulation testing circuit, during each battery management system electrifying startup initialization, all need detect safeguards system safety to the battery pack insulation resistance.Battery pack breaks down or when receiving the fault message of slave controller, except output failure warning information on dynamical system CAN bus, also carry out sound, luminous warning through warning circuit when the battery management master controller detects.

IV is isolated communicating circuit

Isolating communicating circuit mainly is the two-way CAN bus communication function that satisfies the battery management master controller, comprises the DC-DC insulating power supply, photoelectric coupled device, CAN communication chip, common mode inhibition device.

2. slave controller 3

The slave controller 3 of battery pack has a plurality of, all is connected with master controller 1 through inner CAN bus 2, and Fig. 2 has only provided a slave controller electricity theory diagram.The flexibility that the battery management system that adopts this principal and subordinate's collecting and distributing type to control has greatly improved the battery pack layout; In practical application; Can battery pack be divided into some bags as required; Every bag comprises more than one battery module 5, each battery module 5 a corresponding slave controller 3 and battery equalizer 4.Slave controller comprises: from the control module microprocessor, and I monomer battery voltage sample circuit, auxiliary circuits such as II temperature sampling circuit, III SEQ.XFER, CAN bus are isolated communicating circuit.Wherein:

I monomer battery voltage sample circuit

The monomer battery voltage sample circuit; Provided the schematic diagram that three cells is carried out voltage sample among Fig. 2; Microprocessor is through sampling switch K1, the K2 of its connection of control, the conducting in turn of K3; Special-purpose AD sampling A is gathered the voltage of three cells successively, and the AD chip is supplied power through isolating the DC-DC power supply simultaneously, and the communication between the microprocessor is isolated through photoelectric coupled device; So realize the isolation of battery pack and control circuit, effectively improved security of system.

The II temperature sampling circuit

Each all leaves the plurality of temperature sensor interface from control module; Temperature sensor is positioned over the correct position in the battery case; Its output signal is input to the AD mouth of microprocessor after Filtering Processing, agreement transforms the back and exports to the battery management master controller through the CAN bus according to the rules.

Auxiliary circuits such as III SEQ.XFER

In the entire cell management system; J1939 communications protocol according to unified CAN bus; Each slave controller all has its unique encoding address; Through stirring 5 toggle switchs in the SEQ.XFER circuit address of slave controller can be set externally, make the battery case of itself and fixed position corresponding.The cell that detects in its corresponding battery module when slave controller breaks down; Or corresponding equalizing circuit is when breaking down; Not only to carry out sound, luminous warning through warning circuit simultaneously according to agreement to battery management master controller output fault message.

(2) battery equalizer 4

As shown in Figure 3; Battery equalizer 4 adopts the circuit form to three balanced electric capacity of four series-connected cell configurations in the specific embodiment of the invention; Its control switch is a four blade commutator, and its stiff end is electrically connected with said electric capacity, and the selecting side is electrically connected with said battery.Its operation principle is: each balanced electric capacity is used to shift the electric charge that links to each other in the serial connection charge battery between two batteries; The front and back conducting that does not stop along with switch; These electric capacity are balanced to same voltage with any number series connected battery array; And whether this balanced way does not receive battery strings in the influence of the state of charging; As long as there is voltage difference; Open balancing control circuit; Then the electric voltage equalization process will begin; Trend towards final all batteries and reach the balance of voltage; Suppose cell voltage <img file=" 201010598624X100002DEST_PATH_IMAGE001.GIF " he=" 24 " img-content=" drawing " img-format=" jpg " inline=" no " orientation=" portrait " wi=" 17 " ><img file=" 449591DEST_PATH_IMAGE002.GIF " he=" 24 " img-content=" drawing " img-format=" jpg " inline=" no " orientation=" portrait " wi=" 20 " ><img file=" 201010598624X100002DEST_PATH_IMAGE003.GIF " he=" 25 " img-content=" drawing " img-format=" jpg " inline=" no " orientation=" portrait " wi=" 18 " ><img file=" 63194DEST_PATH_IMAGE004.GIF " he=" 24 " img-content=" drawing " img-format=" jpg " inline=" no " orientation=" portrait " wi=" 20 " />; In the time of so above commutator is linked; <img file=" 692890DEST_PATH_IMAGE001.GIF " he=" 24 " img-content=" drawing " img-format=" jpg " inline=" no " orientation=" portrait " wi=" 17 " /> forwards electric charge on <img file=" 201010598624X100002DEST_PATH_IMAGE005.GIF " he=" 24 " img-content=" drawing " img-format=" jpg " inline=" no " orientation=" portrait " wi=" 20 " />; <img file=" 56000DEST_PATH_IMAGE002.GIF " he=" 24 " img-content=" drawing " img-format=" jpg " inline=" no " orientation=" portrait " wi=" 20 " /> forwards electric charge on <img file=" 267801DEST_PATH_IMAGE006.GIF " he=" 24 " img-content=" drawing " img-format=" jpg " inline=" no " orientation=" portrait " wi=" 21 " />, <img file=" 652907DEST_PATH_IMAGE003.GIF " he=" 25 " img-content=" drawing " img-format=" jpg " inline=" no " orientation=" portrait " wi=" 18 " /> electric charge is forwarded on <img file=" 201010598624X100002DEST_PATH_IMAGE007.GIF " he=" 25 " img-content=" drawing " img-format=" jpg " inline=" no " orientation=" portrait " wi=" 21 " />; When below commutator is linked the time; <img file=" 520631DEST_PATH_IMAGE005.GIF " he=" 24 " img-content=" drawing " img-format=" jpg " inline=" no " orientation=" portrait " wi=" 20 " /> forwards electric charge on <img file=" 546487DEST_PATH_IMAGE002.GIF " he=" 24 " img-content=" drawing " img-format=" jpg " inline=" no " orientation=" portrait " wi=" 20 " />; <img file=" 940690DEST_PATH_IMAGE008.GIF " he=" 22 " img-content=" drawing " img-format=" jpg " inline=" no " orientation=" portrait " wi=" 21 " /> forwards electric charge on <img file=" 958413DEST_PATH_IMAGE003.GIF " he=" 25 " img-content=" drawing " img-format=" jpg " inline=" no " orientation=" portrait " wi=" 18 " />; <img file=" 625017DEST_PATH_IMAGE007.GIF " he=" 25 " img-content=" drawing " img-format=" jpg " inline=" no " orientation=" portrait " wi=" 21 " /> forwards electric charge on <img file=" 392247DEST_PATH_IMAGE004.GIF " he=" 24 " img-content=" drawing " img-format=" jpg " inline=" no " orientation=" portrait " wi=" 20 " />; Like this; Commutator connects up and down with certain frequency; Electric charge is also constantly forwarded to the battery of low-voltage from high-tension battery; Reach the essentially identical state of all cell voltages at last; And as long as the switching that switch does not stop, the transfer of electric charge will be eliminated the pressure reduction between the battery.In real system, then use the ultralow conduction impedance field effect MOS power tube of complementary conducting up and down to come the equivalent substitute commutator, make that the resistance when equivalent switch is opened reduces, and then reduce energy consumption.

The second, software control procedure in the specific embodiment of the invention power battery management system is described:

The (1) main program

This main program operates in the master controller 1 in the microprocessor, and is specifically as shown in Figure 4, comprising: system initialization comprises powering on, loading procedure, environment being set and starting microprocessor input/outbound port; Carry out control command and detect the battery pack state through peripheral circuit; Judge according to testing result whether battery status is normal, do not break off battery output switch, warning, finish; Be then to export battery status information, receive the external system control command and allow its closure/disconnection battery output switch; Afterwards, judge the external control order of closure/disconnection battery output switch of reception, carry out respective action (comprising closure/disconnection/not conduct action) according to the state of battery output switch.

(2) battery pack current sampling routine

This sampling routine is detected battery pack state step or other interrupt call in the main program, specifically as shown in Figure 5, may further comprise the steps:

501) obtain the corresponding current sampled value of Hall current sensor through the second current sample passage that adopts little range;

502) do you judge that sampled value exceeds the range of the second current sample passage? Do not exceed and judge that then this sampled value is that actual current value is returned this value, skips steps 503) finish; Exceed and then get into next step;

503) current sampling data that obtains current sensor through the first current sample passage that uses wide range returns this value as actual current value, finishes.

At last, the above is merely preferred embodiment of the present invention, and all equalizations of being done according to claim scope of the present invention change and modify, and all should belong to the covering scope of claim of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. battery management system; Connect N battery module (5) that is composed in series successively by L+1 cell; It is characterized in that; Comprise a master controller (1) and N the slave controller (3) that is connected with its communication through inner CAN bus (2), each said battery module respectively with an interconnective slave controller and corresponding connection of a battery equalizer (4), said master controller also is connected with outside CAN bus (6) communication; Said inner CAN bus and outside CAN bus all comprise independent CAN communication module separately, and N is the arbitrary natural number greater than 1; Said battery equalizer (4) comprise with said battery module (5) in L+1 successively the cell of series connection is connected cooperate L successively series capacitance and be used to switch L said electric capacity with preceding L or after the individual parallelly connected successively one by one control switch of said cell of L, L is the arbitrary natural number greater than 1; This battery management system also comprises the sampling A of modulus separately of corresponding connection with each said battery module (5), and said sampling A is electrically connected with corresponding slave controller through optocoupler communication buffer circuit separately; Said sampling A power end is electrically connected the DC power supply with said master controller (1) and slave controller (3) isolated from power; The DC power supply of said isolation is the DC-DC power that input connects said master controller (1) and slave controller (3) power supply.
2. according to the said battery management system of claim 1, it is characterized in that said slave controller (3) and battery equalizer (4) are connected with said battery module (5) through interface separately.
3. according to the said battery management system of claim 1, it is characterized in that also comprise the battery pack current sample circuit of the employing M range Hall current sensor that is electrically connected with said master controller (1), M is the natural number greater than 1.
4. according to the said battery management system of claim 3, it is characterized in that said battery pack current sample circuit is electrically connected with said master controller (1) through M bar passage.
5. according to the said battery management system of claim 1, it is characterized in that N is arbitrary natural number of 2 to 14, said master controller (1) is provided with different inside CAN bus addresss with each slave controller (3).
6. according to the said battery management system of claim 1, it is characterized in that said battery management system is automobile power cell management system or Battery Management System for Hybrid Electric Vehicle.
CN 201010598624 2010-12-21 2010-12-21 Battery management system CN102064356B (en)

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