CN102013823A - Transformer-free solar inverter topological structure based on MMC - Google Patents

Transformer-free solar inverter topological structure based on MMC Download PDF

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CN102013823A
CN102013823A CN2010102337098A CN201010233709A CN102013823A CN 102013823 A CN102013823 A CN 102013823A CN 2010102337098 A CN2010102337098 A CN 2010102337098A CN 201010233709 A CN201010233709 A CN 201010233709A CN 102013823 A CN102013823 A CN 102013823A
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voltage
standard
transformer
mmc
inverter
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CN2010102337098A
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Chinese (zh)
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张坤
张跃平
李太峰
杨洋
王振
胡涛
赵淑玉
魏西平
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荣信电力电子股份有限公司
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Publication of CN102013823A publication Critical patent/CN102013823A/en

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J3/381Dispersed generators
    • H02J3/382Dispersed generators the generators exploiting renewable energy
    • H02J3/383Solar energy, e.g. photovoltaic energy
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M7/00Conversion of ac power input into dc power output; Conversion of dc power input into ac power output
    • H02M7/42Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal
    • H02M7/44Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal by static converters
    • H02M7/48Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode
    • H02M7/483Converters with outputs that each can have more than two voltages levels
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M7/00Conversion of ac power input into dc power output; Conversion of dc power input into ac power output
    • H02M7/42Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal
    • H02M7/44Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal by static converters
    • H02M7/48Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode
    • H02M7/493Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode the static converters being arranged for operation in parallel
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M7/00Conversion of ac power input into dc power output; Conversion of dc power input into ac power output
    • H02M7/42Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal
    • H02M7/44Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal by static converters
    • H02M7/48Conversion of dc power input into ac power output without possibility of reversal by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode
    • H02M7/483Converters with outputs that each can have more than two voltages levels
    • H02M2007/4835Converters with outputs that each can have more than two voltages levels comprising a plurality of cells, each including a switchable capacitor, the capacitors having a nominal charge voltage which corresponds to a given fraction of the input voltage, the capacitors being selectively connected in series to determine the instantaneous output voltage
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A30/00Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation
    • Y02A30/60Planning or developing urban green infrastructure
    • Y02A30/62Integration of district energy or distributed or on-site energy generation, e.g. combined heat and power generation or solar energy, in city layout
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion electric or electronic aspects
    • Y02E10/563Power conversion electric or electronic aspects for grid-connected applications

Abstract

The invention relates to a transformer-free solar inverter topological structure based on an MMC, which comprises a photocell array, a direct-current converting circuit and an inverter consisting of a plurality of standard power units, wherein a direct-current voltage generated by the photocell array is converted into a stable direct-current voltage through the direct-current converting circuit to be used as a direct-current side voltage of each standard power unit in the inverter, the synthesis of a three-phase alternating-current voltage is realized through controlling the on and the off of a switching element of each power unit so as to directly achieve the purpose of high-voltage output and access power grid. The invention has the advantages of realization of high-voltage output by adopting a superpositioning manner of the standard power units without arranging a transformer at the synchronization side of a photovoltaic system, low cost, space saving, simple structure and high response speed.

Description

一种基于MMC的无变压器太阳能逆变器拓扑结构 One kind of solar MMC transformerless inverter topologies based

技术领域 FIELD

[0001 ] 本发明涉及一种基于MMC (Modular Multilevel Converter)模块化多电平逆变器的 [0001] The present invention relates based MMC (Modular Multilevel Converter) modular multilevel inverter

无变压器太阳能逆变器拓扑结构。 Solar transformerless inverter topologies.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 在当前能源紧缺的时代,光伏发电作为可再生能源被普遍认可和大力发展。 [0002] In the current era of energy shortage, the photovoltaic power generation as a renewable energy is widely recognized and actively developed. 中国对光能的开发相对落后,技术正处于上升阶段,中国的国土面积大,太阳能年辐射量超过600kJ/cm2,每年地表吸收的太阳能相当于17万亿吨标准煤的能量,因此具有很好的发展前景。 China is relatively backward development of solar energy technology is on the rise, China's large land area, annual solar radiation of more than 600kJ / cm2, the annual surface absorbs solar energy equivalent to 17 trillion tons of standard coal, it has good prospects for development.

[0003] 光电池是将光能转化为电能的主要器件。 [0003] Photovoltaic cells are the main components to convert light energy into electrical energy. 光伏发电系统通常采用若干光电池组成的光电池阵列,以达到并网逆变器的较高输入电压。 PV systems typically employ an array of photovoltaic cells consisting of a plurality of photovoltaic cells to achieve a higher input voltage and the grid inverter.

[0004] 太阳能逆变器又可称为光伏逆变器,是将光能转化为电能的转换装置。 [0004] The solar inverter may be called a photovoltaic inverter, a converter converting light energy into electrical energy. 现有技术中的太阳能逆变器是将电池阵列合成的直流电压逆变成三相交流电,经过变压器后送入电网,具有变压器的设计方式,使设备投资大、占地多,成本高,生产周期长。 Prior art solar inverter is a DC voltage of reverse cell array synthesis into three-phase AC, after feeding power transformer, the transformer having a design approach of the equipment investment, area, high cost of production long life cycle.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0005] 本发明的目的是提供一种基于MMC的无变压器太阳能逆变器拓扑结构,该拓扑结构不用设置光伏发电系统并网侧的变压器,采用多个标准功率单元的叠加形式,实现高压输出;成本低,节省空间,结构简单,反应速度快。 [0005] The object of the present invention is to provide a free-based solar inverter transformer topology of MMC, the topology of the system without providing a photovoltaic grid side of the transformer, the standard form of a plurality of power superposition means, to achieve high voltage output ; low-cost, space-saving, simple structure, fast response.

[0006] 为实现上述目的,本发明通过以下技术方案实现: [0006] To achieve the above object, the present invention is achieved by the following technical solution:

[0007] —种基于MMC的无变压器太阳能逆变器拓扑结构,包括光电池阵列、直流变换电路、由多个标准功率单元构成的逆变器,光电池阵列产生的直流电压,经直流变换电路变换为稳定的直流电压后,作为逆变器中的各个标准功率单元的直流侧电压,通过控制各个功率单元开关器件的导通与关断,实现三相交流电压的合成,直接达到高压输出,并入电网。 [0007] - species MMC-based solar transformerless inverter topologies, including a DC voltage of a photovoltaic cell array, a DC converting circuit, a plurality of inverters by a standard power units, the light generated by the cell array, the DC converting circuit is converted into stabilized DC voltage, DC voltage of an inverter in each of the standard power units, each power unit by controlling the switching device is turned on and off, three-phase AC voltage to achieve the synthesis, directly to the high voltage output, incorporated grid.

[0008] 逆变器的功率单元采用MMC单元作为标准功率单元,标准功率单元采用半桥结构,上下两个IGBT串联,再并联一个直流电容;每个标准功率单元均设有太阳能电池板和直流变换电路,由太阳能电池板提供直流电压,经直流变换电路转换为稳定的直流电压。 [0008] The power inverter as a standard unit for MMC using the power unit, the power unit standard half-bridge configuration, two vertical IGBT in series and then in parallel with a DC capacitor; each standard power units have solar panels and DC conversion circuit, a DC voltage from the solar panels, the DC converting circuit into a stable DC voltage.

[0009] 逆变器为三相,每相由偶数η个标准功率单元组成,分为上下两组,每组的标准功率单元个数为η/2个,输出相电压电平阶梯数为n/2+l,线电压电平数为η+l;每相的输出端为上下两组标准功率单元的中点处,且输出端与每组单元之间以耦合或非耦合电感连接。 [0009] The three-phase inverters, each consisting of an even number of phase [eta] standard power unit is divided into two groups, each standard power unit number is η / 2 two output phase voltage levels to the number of steps n / 2 + l, the line number of voltage levels is η + l; at the midpoint of each phase output terminal of the vertical two sets of standard power unit, between the unit and the output of each coupled inductor to couple or connect.

[0010] 与现有技术相比,本发明的有益效果是: [0010] Compared with the prior art, the beneficial effects of the present invention are:

[0011] 1,无变压器配置,使得设备成本降低1/2。 [0011] 1, no transformer configuration, such that device costs 1/2.

[0012] 2,无变压器配置,使得设备体积减少1/2。 [0012] 2, no transformer configuration, such that the device volume reduction 1/2. [0013] 3,无变压器配置,使得设备重量减少1/2。 [0013] 3, no transformer configuration, such that the device weight reduction 1/2.

[0014] 4,无变压器配置,使得设备制造周期减少1/2。 [0014] 4, no transformer configuration, such that the device manufacturing cycle reduced by ½.

[0015] 5,无变压器配置,省掉了承载变压器的结构与空间。 [0015] 5, no transformer configuration, eliminating the need for the structure of the carrier and the space transformer.

[0016] 6,无变压器配置,省掉了连接变压器的高压电缆。 [0016] 6, no transformer configuration, eliminating the need for a high voltage cable connected to the transformer.

[0017] 7,无变压器配置,使得运输便利程度大大增强。 [0017] 7, transformerless configuration, so that greatly enhanced ease of transport.

[0018] 8,采用新型的MMC标准功率单元,控制策略简单可靠。 [0018] 8, using the new MMC standard power unit, the control strategy is simple and reliable.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0019] 图1是太阳能逆变器的拓扑结构示意图; [0019] FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a solar inverter topology;

[0020] 图2是太阳能逆变器的标准功率单元示意图; [0020] FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a standard unit of the solar power inverter;

[0021] 图3-1是功率单元输出状态为0状态的电流流向图; [0021] FIG. 3-1 is a power unit output state is state 0 the current flow diagrams;

[0022] 图3-2是功率单元输出状态为0状态的电流流向图; [0022] FIG. 3-2 is a power unit output state is state 0 the current flow diagrams;

[0023] 图4-1是功率单元输出状态为1状态的电流流向图; [0023] FIG. 4-1 is a state of the power unit output current flowing state of FIG 1;

[0024] 图4-2是功率单元输出状态为1状态的电流流向图。 [0024] FIG. 4-2 is a power unit output state is a state 1 the current flowing in FIG.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0025] 见图1,一种基于MMC的无变压器太阳能逆变器拓扑结构,包括光电池阵列、 直流变换电路、由多个标准功率单元构成的逆变器,光电池阵列产生的直流电压,经直流变换电路变换为稳定的直流电压后,作为逆变器中的各个标准功率单元的直流侧电压,通过控制各个功率单元开关器件的导通与关断,实现A、B、C三相交流电压的合成,直接达到高压输出,不经过变压器直接并入电网。 [0025] Figure 1, based on MMC transformerless inverter topologies solar, photovoltaic array comprises a DC voltage, DC converting circuit, a plurality of inverters by a standard power units, the light generated by the cell array, the DC after conversion circuit is converted into a stable DC voltage, DC voltage of an inverter in each of the standard power units, each power unit by controlling the switching device is turned on and off to achieve a, B, C of the three-phase AC voltage synthesis, directly to the high voltage output, the transformer directly without the grid. 该拓扑基于半桥串联技术,采用的功率单元类型为模块化多电平modular multilevel converter,称为MMC标准功率单元, 为半桥结构。 The series half-bridge topology based technology, the power unit of the type using a modular multi-level modular multilevel converter, known as the MMC standard power unit, a half-bridge configuration. 可以直接达到高压输出,直接并入电网,不需要变压器,使得成本大大降低,省掉了风机,承载变压器的结构与空间,省掉了变压器相关的高压电缆,结构紧凑,控制简捷,为太阳能发电提供了一种新的拓扑技术。 It can be achieved by direct high-voltage output, directly into the power grid, no transformer, dramatically reducing costs, eliminating the need for the fan, the bearing structure and the space transformer, eliminating the need for high voltage transformers associated with the cable, compact, simple control, solar power It provides a new topology.

[0026] 见图2,逆变器的标准功率单元采用半桥结构,由两个开关器件IGBT和直流侧电容C组成,IGBTl禾PIGBT2相串联,再并以直流电容C,并且IGBTl和IGBT2分别并联一个反接二极管Dl,D2。 [0026] Figure 2, power inverter unit standard half-bridge configuration, two switching devices and a DC capacitor C IGBT composition, IGBTl Wo PIGBT2 in series, and then to the DC capacitor C, respectively, and IGBTl and IGBT2 a reverse parallel diode Dl, D2. IGBTl与IGBT2的公共端,电容C与IGBT2的公共端作为每个单元的输出端,与其他单元相连。 IGBTl the common terminal and IGBT2, and the common terminal of the capacitor C as the output of each IGBT2 unit connected to the other units. 每个标准功率单元均设有太阳能电池板进行光伏发电提供直流电压,并采用直流变换电路变换为为稳定的直流电压。 Each power cell has a standard solar panel PV DC voltage, DC converting circuit and is converted into a DC voltage stability.

[0027] 逆变器为三相,每相由偶数η个标准功率单元组成,分为上下两组,每组的标准功率单元个数为η/2个,输出相电压电平阶梯数为n/2+l,线电压电平数为η+l;每相的输出端为上下两组标准功率单元的中点处,且输出端与每组单元之间以耦合或非耦合电感L连接。 [0027] The three-phase inverters, each consisting of an even number of phase [eta] standard power unit is divided into two groups, each standard power unit number is η / 2 two output phase voltage levels to the number of steps n / 2 + l, the line number of voltage levels is η + l; or coupling to couple inductor L is connected between the midpoint of each phase output terminal of the vertical two sets of standard power unit, and the output of each unit. 逆变器将单元直流侧合成的直流电压调制成交流的三相电压,由三个输出端输出,直接并入电网。 The inverter side DC voltage means the DC voltage into a three-phase combined modulated AC output from the three output terminals, directly into the grid. 逆变器的每组的标准功率单元个数称为逆变器级数,逆变器级数根据具体的实际情况需要确定。 Standard number of cells each of the power inverter stages called an inverter, the inverter stages determined according to the specific situation.

[0028] 控制IGBT的栅极电压使其导通或者关断,可以使单元具有不同的电路状态。 [0028] The control gate voltage of the IGBT to turn it on or off, the cell may have a different circuit states. 定义IGBTl关断,IGBT2导通为单元的0状态,此时电流可以经IGBT2正向流过(见图3-1),也可以经并联二极管D2反向流过(见图3-2)。 Defined IGBTl off, IGBT2 conduction state of the cell is 0, when the current can flow through the through IGBT2 forward (see FIG. 3-1), may be connected in parallel through reverse flow through the diode D2 (see FIG. 3-2). 定义IGBTl导通,IGBT2关断为单元的1状态,电流可以流经二极管Dl (见图4-2),此时电容充电;也可以流经IGBTl (见图4-1),此时电容放电。 IGBTl turned defined, of IGBT2 OFF state of the cell 1, a current can flow through the diode Dl (see FIG. 4-2), when charging the capacitor; IGBTl may flow through (see FIG. 4-1), then capacitor discharge .

[0029] 若变频器级数选择适当,变频器输出电压可达到电网级别,变频器将根据电网电压发出与电网同步的电压波形,并网发电。 [0029] When selecting an appropriate series inverter, the inverter output voltage reaches the level of the grid inverter generates a voltage waveform synchronized with the grid according to the grid voltage grid.

[0030] 光伏电池的阵列结构可以为集中型,串型,多串集中型等形式。 Array structure [0030] The photovoltaic cell may be a centralized type, string type, centralized multi-string like. 没有并网的升压变压器,也没有与变压器相关的风机、高压电缆、辅助电路,不需要承载变压器的结构与空间。 No step-up transformer and the network, there is no fan, high-voltage cables, auxiliary circuit associated with the transformer, the transformer does not need a space with the bearing structure. 每相上下桥臂由缓冲电抗相连,此电抗可为耦合电抗或者非耦合电抗。 Each phase upper and lower arms connected by a reactance buffer, the reactance may be electrically coupled or non-anti coupled reactance.

Claims (4)

1. 一种基于MMC的无变压器太阳能逆变器拓扑结构,其特征在于,包括光电池阵列、直流变换电路、由多个标准功率单元构成的逆变器,光电池阵列产生的直流电压, 经直流变换电路变换为稳定的直流电压后,作为逆变器中的各个标准功率单元的直流侧电压,通过控制各个功率单元开关器件的导通与关断,实现三相交流电压的合成,直接达到高压输出,并入电网。 1. Based on non-solar inverter topologies MMC transformer, characterized in that the photovoltaic array comprises a DC voltage, DC converting circuit, a plurality of inverters by a standard power units, the light generated by the cell array, the DC conversion after the circuit is converted into a stable DC voltage, DC voltage of an inverter in each of the standard power units, each power unit by controlling the switching device is turned on and off, three-phase AC voltage to achieve the synthesis, directly to the high voltage output , into the grid.
2.根据权利要求1所述的一种基于MMC的无变压器太阳能逆变器拓扑结构,其特征在于,逆变器的功率单元采用MMC单元作为标准功率单元,标准功率单元采用半桥结构,上下两个IGBT串联,再并联一个直流电容;每个标准功率单元均设有太阳能电池板和直流变换电路,由太阳能电池板提供直流电压,经直流变换电路转换为稳定的直流电压。 According to one of the claim 1, based on non-solar inverter topologies MMC transformer, characterized in that, the inverter power unit with the power unit as a standard MMC unit, the power unit with the standard half-bridge structure, the upper and lower two series IGBT, and then a DC capacitor connected in parallel; each standard power cell has a solar cell panel and a DC conversion circuit, a DC voltage from the solar panels, the DC converting circuit into a stable DC voltage.
3.根据权利要求2所述的一种基于MMC的无变压器太阳能逆变器拓扑结构,其特征在于,逆变器为三相,每相由偶数η个标准功率单元组成,分为上下两组,每组的标准功率单元个数为η/2个,输出相电压电平阶梯数为n/2+l,线电压电平数为η+l;每相的输出端为上下两组标准功率单元的中点处,且输出端与每组单元之间以耦合或非耦合电感连接。 According to one of the claims 2 based solar transformerless inverter topologies MMC, characterized in that the three-phase inverters, each consisting of an even number of η phase standard power unit is divided into two groups , number of cells each power standard is η / 2 th, the output phase voltage level of the step number n / 2 + l, the line number of voltage levels is η + l; end of each phase of the output power of the vertical two sets of standard midpoint unit, and between the output of each unit is connected or coupled inductor to couple.
4.根据权利要求1所述的一种基于MMC的无变压器太阳能逆变器拓扑结构,其特征在于,所述的光电池阵列采用太阳能电池板构成。 According to one of the claim 1, based on non-solar inverter topologies MMC transformer, characterized in that said optical cell array using the solar cell panel configuration.
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