CN102007814B - Heater for fluids - Google Patents

Heater for fluids Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102007814B
CN102007814B CN200880121652.3A CN200880121652A CN102007814B CN 102007814 B CN102007814 B CN 102007814B CN 200880121652 A CN200880121652 A CN 200880121652A CN 102007814 B CN102007814 B CN 102007814B
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
heater
described
heating
fluid
heating element
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Application number
CN200880121652.3A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102007814A (en
Inventor
P·卡顿
T·T·黄
T·朗
U·卡尔施
Original Assignee
考特克斯·特克斯罗恩有限公司及两合公司
麦斯特卡尔本汽车有限公司
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Priority to EP2007011278 priority Critical
Priority to EPPCT/EP07/011278 priority
Application filed by 考特克斯·特克斯罗恩有限公司及两合公司, 麦斯特卡尔本汽车有限公司 filed Critical 考特克斯·特克斯罗恩有限公司及两合公司
Priority to PCT/EP2008/000476 priority patent/WO2009080128A1/en
Publication of CN102007814A publication Critical patent/CN102007814A/en
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Publication of CN102007814B publication Critical patent/CN102007814B/en

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M25/00Engine-pertinent apparatus for adding non-fuel substances or small quantities of secondary fuel to combustion-air, main fuel or fuel-air mixture
    • F02M25/08Engine-pertinent apparatus for adding non-fuel substances or small quantities of secondary fuel to combustion-air, main fuel or fuel-air mixture adding fuel vapours drawn from engine fuel reservoir
    • F02M25/0854Details of the absorption canister
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M25/00Engine-pertinent apparatus for adding non-fuel substances or small quantities of secondary fuel to combustion-air, main fuel or fuel-air mixture
    • F02M25/08Engine-pertinent apparatus for adding non-fuel substances or small quantities of secondary fuel to combustion-air, main fuel or fuel-air mixture adding fuel vapours drawn from engine fuel reservoir
    • F02M2025/0863Engine-pertinent apparatus for adding non-fuel substances or small quantities of secondary fuel to combustion-air, main fuel or fuel-air mixture adding fuel vapours drawn from engine fuel reservoir with means dealing with condensed fuel or water, e.g. having a liquid trap
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M25/00Engine-pertinent apparatus for adding non-fuel substances or small quantities of secondary fuel to combustion-air, main fuel or fuel-air mixture
    • F02M25/08Engine-pertinent apparatus for adding non-fuel substances or small quantities of secondary fuel to combustion-air, main fuel or fuel-air mixture adding fuel vapours drawn from engine fuel reservoir
    • F02M2025/0881Engine-pertinent apparatus for adding non-fuel substances or small quantities of secondary fuel to combustion-air, main fuel or fuel-air mixture adding fuel vapours drawn from engine fuel reservoir with means to heat or cool the canister

Abstract

To improve environmental protection from hydrocarbon emissions particularly from vehicles a heater (1) for fluids comprising heating elements (2, 2') of an electrically conductive monolith, wherein the heater (1) comprises a passageway for the fluid to be heated with a defined flow direction of the fluid during heating operation, the heater (1) comprising at least two heating elements (2, 21) arranged side by side inside the passageway, so that they are arranged in parallel with respect to the fluid flow, is proposed improved in that one of the at least two heating elements is a controlled heating element (21), which has a slightly larger heating power, and a temperature sensor (19) is provided at or close to the downstream end (23) of the controlled heating element (2'), and wherein the temperature sensor (19) is connected to a control means (11) for temperature control during heating operation of the heater (1); and a method of operating such a heater (1).

Description

Heater for fluid

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of heater for fluid, a kind of a kind of like this fuel vapour storage of heater and method of reclaimer and a kind of like this heater of operation of comprising, this heater comprises and conducts electricity the heating element of monolithic, wherein, heater comprises the path for fluid to be heated, this fluid has the fluid flow direction of restriction during heating operation, heater is included at least two heating elements that are arranged side by side in path, thereby they are arranged abreast with respect to fluid is mobile.

Background technology

The heater of this kind is learnt from US 2007/0056954A1.Specifically, wherein with regard to be intended to reduce from the vapo(u)rability of motor vehicles, distribute for regard to the purge heater (purge heater) of fuel vapour storage and reclaimer, a kind of like this application of heater has been described.Disclosed purge heater can comprise a plurality of electrical heating elements, and these heating elements are connected on power supply, as being for example connected on the battery of automobile.Purge heater can for example comprise that conductivity ceramics is as heating element.

Selectively, purge heater can comprise conductive carbon, is preferably porous monolithic carbon.Such porous monolithic carbon is for example disclosed in US 2007/0056954A1.These monolithic carbon heating elements have channel design, and this channel design allows air to flow through heating element, and thereby allow the enhancing heat that directly arrives the scavenging air (purge air) sucking from atmosphere to transmit.

The important use of such heater is fuel vapour storage and reclaimer, to reduce, from the vapo(u)rability of motor vehicles, distributes.The fuel vapour storage and the reclaimer that comprise fuel vapour storage tank were exactly known in the art before for many years.The Fuel Petroleum highly volatile using in multiple internal combustion engine.The occurrence cause distributing from the vapo(u)rability of fuel vapour with the vehicle of internal combustion engine is mainly the ventilation (venting) of vehicle fuel tank.When vehicle parking, the variation of temperature or pressure makes the air that is loaded with hydrocarbon (hydrocarbons) overflow from fuel tank.A part in fuel is inevitably evaporated in the air in fuel tank, and thereby presents the form of steam.If the air distributing from fuel tank is allowed to not dispose and flows to atmosphere, will inevitably take away this fuel vapour thereupon.About distributing how many fuel vapours from the fuel system of vehicle, exist some government regulations.

Conventionally, in order to prevent from entering the fuel vapour loss in atmosphere, the fuel tank of automobile is ventilated in tank by conduit, and this tank comprises suitable fuel absorbing material, as activated carbon.High surface area active carbon granule is widely used, and absorbs fuel vapour provisionally.

In vehicle parking longer period of time and when vehicle is just when refuelling and the air that is loaded with steam are being discharged (refuelling distributes) from fuel tank, comprise that the fuel vapour storage of fuel vapour storage tank (so-called canister) and recovery system must tackle fuel vapour and distribute.

In the fuel recovery system for European market, it is not major issue conventionally that refuelling distributes, because these refuellings distribute generally, by canister, does not discharge.Yet in the storage of integrated form fuel vapour and recovery system for North America market, these refuellings distribute also discharges by canister.

Natural quality due to the absorbent in canister is clear that very much, and canister has limited fill volume.Generally it is desirable for and make canister there is very high carbon working capacity, yet, also it is desirable for and for purpose of design, make canister there is smaller volume.In order to guarantee that typically canister has enough carbon working capacitys all the time under the operation of internal combustion engine, certain negative pressure discharges by the fuel vapour of canister the inside that port is applied to tank from the suction system of engine.By means of this, allow surrounding air enter tank from surrounding air entry port, to pick up captive fuel vapour and it is discharged to the induction mnifold that port is carried to engine suction system by fuel vapour.During this tank cleaning model, the fuel vapour of storing in canister burns in internal combustion engine.

Although current fuel vapour storage and recovery system are very effective, but still exist the remnants that are directed to the hydrocarbon in atmosphere and distribute.These so-called " spill and distribute " (round the clock breathing loss, Diurnal Breathing Loss, DBL) be diffused drive, particularly when existing high hydrocarbon concentration gradient between the atmosphere breather port at canister and absorbent.When likely reducing hydrocarbon concentration gradient, spill and distribute and can be significantly reduced.Fully aware of, this can realize by increasing the working capacity of canister.

Yet, be also noted that the hydrocarbon that is only stored in the certain percentage in canister can be effectively cleaned or discharge during cleaning model.The automobile that this is restricted for scavenging period, may be problem, and for example, in electronic hybrid vehicle, wherein the operator scheme of internal combustion engine is relatively short.

About so-called flexible fuel (flexi fuel), produce another problem, this flexible fuel comprises the ethanol of significant quantity.Ethanol is high-volatile fuel, and it has higher vapour pressure.For example, so-called E10 fuel (10% ethanol) is current has the highest steam generation on market.This means, the fuel vapour that canister sucks from fuel tank is high.On the other hand, during the normal wash pattern of conventional canister, only have the suction fuel vapour of certain percentage to discharge.As a result of, the fuel vapour capacity of common canister exhausts than very fast.Thereby the spilling to distribute of the canister loading completely increases to the degree that surmounts the emission value being provided by law conventionally.

For the cleaning improving during cleaning model, remove speed, proposed several steam storages and retracting device, these steam storages and retracting device use so-called purge heater.By means of the surrounding air being directed in tank by surrounding air entry port is heated, improve significantly the efficiency of removing of the hydrocarbon of catching in the micropore of absorbent.

For example, US 6,230, and 693B1 discloses a kind of evaporation emission control system, and this evaporation emission control system is by providing auxiliary tank to reduce the amount of the fuel vapour distribute from vehicle, operate together with the storage tank of this auxiliary tank and evaporation emission control system.Storage tank comprises the first sorbing material, and has the breather port being communicated with it.Auxiliary tank comprises outer cover, the first and second passages, heater and connector.In outer cover, the second sorbing material contacts completely with heater.During the regeneration stage of the operation of control system, heater can be used to the scavenging air that heats the second sorbing material and pass through.This makes the second and first sorbing material can more easily be released in the fuel vapour of their absorption during the former memory phase of operation, thereby they can be by after-flame during internal combustion.

In addition,, according to US 6,230, the storage tank of 693 evaporation emission control system comprises connected by flow channel two fuel vapour chambers side by side.Specifically, in fact the separation of tank means flow restriction.Because it is very low to flow through the driving pressure of tank, so flow restriction is remained to minimum, be that an important design is considered.

Summary of the invention

The object of this invention is to provide a kind of heater for fluid, with a kind of fuel vapour storage and reclaimer, this heater comprises and conducts electricity the heating element of monolithic, wherein, heater comprises the path for fluid to be heated, this fluid has the fluid flow direction of restriction during heating operation, heater is included at least two heating elements that are arranged side by side in path, thereby they are arranged abreast with respect to fluid is mobile, this heater is simple at design aspect, compact and reliable, and allow easy and effective controlled operation, this fuel vapour storage and reclaimer have improved fuel recovery efficiency.Another object is to provide a kind of method that is used for operating a kind of like this heater, and the method allows easy and effective controlled operation.

These and other objects are realized by the heater for fluid, this heater comprises and conducts electricity the heating element of monolithic, wherein, heater comprises the path for fluid to be heated, this fluid has the fluid flow direction of restriction during heating operation, heater is included at least two heating elements that are arranged side by side in path, thereby they are arranged abreast with respect to fluid is mobile, it is characterized in that, one at least two heating elements is controlled heat element, this controlled heat element has slightly large heating power, near and set temperature transducer at the downstream end place of controlled heat element or it, and wherein, temperature sensor is connected on control device, during the heating operation of heater, for temperature, control.

Arrangement according to the invention not only guarantees a kind of like this improvement of safety of heater but also guarantee its efficiency improvement.The layout with the temperature sensor of heating element (it has slightly large heating power) has guaranteed that heater is effectively controlled for maximum temperature, thereby prevent the overheated of heater, prevent on the one hand the danger of catching fire, allow on the other hand to control the temperature that approaches maximum temperature, thereby improve the efficiency of heater.At the downstream end place of heating element or near the temperature sensor arranging it, impact of change of fluid flow is minimized, that is, significantly reduce changes in flow rate for the adverse effect of the heating properties of heater.

With advantage of the present invention described above, comprise the storage of a kind of fuel vapour and reclaimer according to heater of the present invention, for example, for thering is the automobile of cycling (gasoline/electric combination drive) of engine, be effective especially.Driving for such kind, is typically, when being switched to electric driving, and engine shutdown, the scavenging air that passes fuel vapour storage and reclaimer flows and presents quick variation from high to low.For conventional design heater, this quick variation that scavenging air flows causes high overheated danger to fuel vapour storage and reclaimer, this causes significant fire hazard, or heater need to control to the temperature far below critical temperature, thereby bad recyclability is provided.Yet for this purposes, because the petrolic operating time reduces, recyclability is crucial.

Useful especially, a fail-safe embodiment of the present invention is characterised in that, at least two heating elements are one another in series and are electrically connected, and controlled heat element has the resistance larger than other heating element.

Can select embodiment to be characterised in that for one, at least two of heating element are connected in parallel to each other and are electrically connected, and controlled heat element has the resistance less than other heating element.

Other useful embodiment of the present invention is characterised in that, heater comprises the heating element more than two, and heating element together in groups, wherein, the heating element of one group is one another in series and is electrically connected, and each group of heating element electrical connection in parallel each other, wherein, the group that comprises controlled heat element has than other of heating element organizes little resistance, and controlled heat element has the resistance larger than other heating element of same group, or it is characterized in that, heater comprises the heating element more than two, and heating element together in groups, wherein, the heating element of one group is connected in parallel to each other and is electrically connected, and each group of heating element in series electrical connection each other, wherein, the group that comprises controlled heat element has than other of heating element organizes large resistance, and controlled heat element has the resistance less than other heating element of same group.

According to heater of the present invention preferred embodiment, be characterised in that, heating element comprises conductive carbon monolithic, this conductive carbon monolithic is porous carbon monolithic, this porous carbon monolithic has honeycomb, when porous carbon monolithic has the passage of channel size between 100 μ m and 2000 μ m, more particularly, when porous carbon monolithic and path in the perpendicular cross section of flow path in have between 30% and 60% open area (open area) time, this honeycomb especially allows the major part of fluid stream by the described monolithic in path.

If heating element is arranged to all-in resistance and is no more than 2.5 ohm, be preferably and be no more than 1 ohm, more preferably approximately 0.8 ohm, can obtain in thering is the typical automotive environment of conventional 12V DC power supply according to the special superperformance of heater of the present invention.

When temperature sensor is thermistor, in the situation that temperature sensor connects short circuit, according to heater of the present invention, especially can prevent the danger of catching fire.

Above and other object is comprised fuel vapour storage and the reclaimer of above-mentioned heater and is realized by being used for operating the method for above-mentioned heater or fuel vapour storage and reclaimer in vehicle environmental by a kind of, the method comprises the steps: to obtain refuelling signal, and the oil tank of vehicle that this refuelling signal designation is communicated with heater fluid is by refuelling; With after refuelling from engine start, to heating installation power supply be not more than 45 minutes/24 hours, be preferably approximately 30 minutes/24 hours, respond the temperature signal from temperature sensor simultaneously, control to the electric power of heater.

In a preferred embodiment of the method according to this invention, described method also comprises the steps: to obtain fuel level signal from fuel quantity ga(u)ge; If drop to predetermined reading with fuel level signal indication fuel level, stop to heating installation power supply, wherein, predetermined reading is 1/3 of fuel tank capacity, is preferably 1/4 of fuel tank capacity.Under low like this fuel level, the fuel vapour of generation can not cause enlarging markedly of pressure in case.Correspondingly, the steam load of fuel vapour storage and reclaimer is lower, and under any ambient temperature, not by means of heating, organic efficiency is just enough.And when fuel tank is by refuelling, and fuel vapour while flowing through canister with high flow capacity in integrated form system, due to the exothermic effect between adsorption cycle, adopts the cold carbon bed in tank, the efficiency that reduces to distribute of canister is far better.

If ambient temperature below predetermined value, is preferably below-7 ℃, more preferably below-10 ℃, also can save by stop realizing energy to heating installation power supply under all operations were condition.At low like this temperature, the fuel vapour producing in fuel tank is fewer, even and fuel vapour storage and reclaimer in the situation that not heating, will be also enough effective.

When being supplied to the control of the electric power of heater, comprise when being supplied to the electric power of heater and carrying out pulse width modulation, can make the Minimal energy loss by heat abstractor, and thereby can save electric power.

In a particularly preferred embodiment, described method is further comprising the steps of: carry out at least one test cycle; And, if meet one or more in following condition, stop to heating installation power supply, and fault-signal is sent to onboard diagnostic system: in temperature sensor circuit, detect fault; The fail self-test that heater is controlled; The increase that detects the resistance of monolithic heater element arrangement surmounts predetermined value; And supply voltage surpasses predetermined maximum, or drop to below predetermined minimum value.More preferably, the fault detecting in temperature sensor circuit comprises following one: the open circuit of thermistor circuit; The short circuit of thermistor circuit; And undesirable heat sensitive resistor contact.Consider that inappropriate operation (particularly not controlled heat) may cause the fact of fire hazard, this embodiment can guarantee improved fail-safety operation.

The detection that the resistance of monolithic heater element arrangement increases is that one of each heating element lost efficacy or departed from the indication connecting.This still anticipates the soon indication of operation failure of the storage of heater and fuel vapour and reclaimer (as this equipment of state has been used the words of above-mentioned heater).Adopt this embodiment of the method according to this invention, can meet the legal requiremnt of the On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) of distributing control appliance.

The temperature being controlled so as at temperature sensor place when the electric energy to heater is approximately 132 ℃ to approximately 145 ℃, while being preferably to approximately 140 ℃, obtains best recyclability and safety operation.

Accompanying drawing explanation

By the mode of non-limiting example, the present invention is described with reference to the accompanying drawings, in the accompanying drawings:

Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram according to heater of the present invention, comprising the cabling scenario of a simplification;

Fig. 2 represents the amplification view of two adjacent heater element end segments;

Fig. 3 is illustrated in the cutaway view in the plane of indicating in Fig. 2; And

Fig. 4 represents the cutaway view through canister, and this canister comprises according to heater of the present invention.

Embodiment

Fig. 1 schematically describes according to an embodiment of the invention for the heater of fluid, and this heater generally refers to by numeral 1.Heater 1 comprises and conducts electricity the heating element 2 of monolithic.Can be well for fuel vapour storage and reclaimer 3 shown in Fig. 4 according to heater 1 of the present invention.Fuel vapour storage and reclaimer 3 are called a canister conventionally like this, and are typically used as a part for the emission control system of the motor vehicles with the engine of using gasoline.This diagram is schematically, and each element does not draw in proportion.

Cleaning port 6 on the internal combustion engine (also not shown) that fuel vapour storage and reclaimer or canister 3 comprise the steam entry port 4 being connected on fuel tank (not shown) and the breather port 5 being communicated with atmosphere and be connected to motor vehicles.The canister 3 use in pelletized form absorbent of activated carbon form are filled.

Between the down period of the engine of motor vehicles, canister 3 is connected on the fuel tank of motor vehicles through steam entry port 4, and is connected with atmosphere through breather port 5.In the engine operation cycle period of automobile, will and clean between port 6 and set up flow path in breather port 5.Internal combustion engine cleans port 6 a certain amount of air of the burning Indoor Combustion at internal combustion engine is drawn into by canister 3 through breather port 5 from atmosphere, cleans thus the absorbent of canister 3, and the hydrocarbon of removing from canister is supplied to the combustion chamber of engine.In the drawings, the inlet air flow path of arrow indication during the cleaning of canister 3.What term in the context of the present specification " downstream " and " upstream " related to is the air-flow during the cleaning of canister 3 all the time, its flow direction by fluid during heating operation and defining.

Canister 3 comprises the first steam storage chamber 7, the second steam storage chamber 8 and the 39 steam storage chamber.The first steam storage chamber 7 with regard at hydrocarbon to regard to the air-flow of the loading duration of canister 3, be immediately following the steam storage chamber after steam entry port 4, and be also maximum steam storage chamber.

By Fig. 4, be it is evident that, steam storage chamber 7,8,9 has circular cross section, and presses each other concentric relation and arrange.The first steam storage chamber 7 is around steam storage chamber 8 and 9.Immediately following after breather port 5, at the upstream side place of the 3rd steam storage chamber 9, be furnished with purge heater chamber 10, this purge heater chamber 10 is also cylindrical shape, i.e. circular cross section.

Purge heater chamber 10 at its upstream positive place has two and enters opening 12, and these two enter opening 12 and allow surrounding air to be drawn in purge heater chamber 10.Purge heater chamber 10 has the surrounding wall 13 of comparison thin-walled, and this surrounding wall 13 is designed to, and from the thermal radiation of heater 1, can be delivered in surrounding's carbon bed of the first steam storage chamber 7.The surrounding wall 13 of heater 1 is defined for the path of fluid, and this fluid is by the air stream of heater 1.

As can be easily seen from Fig. 1 and 4, heater 1 preferably includes four heating elements 2, and these four heating elements 2 are arranged side by side in the heater chamber 10 that forms path.With respect to passing through the Air Flow of heater chamber 10, each heating element 2 is arranged abreast.

Heating element 2 can be cylindrical shape, and comprises conductive porous carbon monolithic, as for example synthetic carbon monolithic.The method of manufacturing such carbon monolithic heating element 2 is disclosed in document US 2007/0056954A1 generally, and in more detail at paragraph [0013] in [0024], the document is thus by reference to comprising.Carbon monolithic is porous carbon monolithic, and this porous carbon monolithic has the major part of permission fluid stream by honeycomb (cell) structure of described monolithic.Each heating element 2 provides and allows gaseous fluid to flow in a longitudinal direction by the continuous vertical passage (not shown) of each heating element 2.Passage in porous carbon monolithic can have the size between 100 μ m and 2000 μ m.Porous carbon monolithic heating element and path in the perpendicular cross section of flow path in there is the area of opening between 30% and 60%.

Suitably typical heating element 2 can have the typical length of diameter and the about 50mm of about 10mm.Each heating element 2 operates as resistive heating element.In the preferred embodiment illustrating in the drawings, four electrical heating elements 7 are in series electrically connected, and be connected on control and switching device shifter 11, this control and switching device shifter 11 are connected to as on the generator of vehicle and the power supply of battery by negative, positive power line 14 and 15 again.

Heating element 2 is connected on control and switching device shifter 11 through power line 16 and copper connector 17.The interconnection of each heating element 2 is provided by connector 18.The layout of each heating element 2 provides and is not more than 2.5 ohm, is preferably the all-in resistance of approximately 0.8 ohm.For the heating power of about 75 watts is provided under the supply voltage of 13.7V, require the power adjustments of certain kind.

The proper method of controlling supply electric power is pulse width modulation (PWM).The major advantage of this method is the low power loss in control and switching device shifter 11.Although some auxiliary electrical element of PWM operation requirements, so that the unfavorable feedback in vehicle power net minimizes and provide Electro Magnetic Compatibility (EMC), control and switching device shifter 11 itself may be more cheap.In addition, can save for otherwise the space of the huge heat abstractor that needs and may ventilating, aspect cost and requisite space, there is whole advantage.

Yet, also can use conventional current adjuster circuit, but require cooling.If the heat distributing can be used for some other object, conventional current adjusting is also favourable.

A heating element in each heating element 2 has the heating power slightly larger than other heating element 2.This heating element definition controlled heat element 2 '.The temperature sensor of thermistor 19 forms be arranged on controlled heat element 2 ' downstream end 23 places or its near.Temperature sensor 19 is connected on control device 11 through wire 20 and 21, during the heating operation of heater 1, for temperature, controls.Four heating elements 2,2 that are connected in series ' illustrated embodiment in, controlled heat element 2 ' the have length slightly larger than other heating element 2, for example 53mm.Owing to thering is identical diameter and thereby thering is identical cross-sectional area, controlled heat element 2 ' the have resistance slightly larger than other heating element 2.Preferably, thermistor 19 be mounted to from controlled heat element 2 ' the about 50mm in end, upstream 22, corresponding with the position of the downstream end 23 of other heating element 2, controlled heat element 2 ' downstream end section in opening in, as represented more in detail in Fig. 2 and 3.This layout only guarantees the temperature that thermistor 19 is surveyed at the hottest part place of heater.

Control and switching device shifter 11 are also connected on onboard diagnostic system through data wire 24, and through for example CAN bus 25, are connected on other device of vehicle.Certainly, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that other suitable wiring is also feasible.

Heating element 2 will only just activate during the cleaning operation of fuel vapour storage and reclaimer 3, as described in greater detail below.As explained above, between the down period of automobile, the fuel vaporization in fuel tank is in the air space above the maximum filling level of fuel tank.This air that is loaded with steam flow in canister 3 through steam entry port 4.During the refuelling of automobile, wherein internal combustion engine is also shut down conventionally, and in so-called integrated system, the fuel being pumped in fuel tank causes the Air Flow through steam entry port 4, and the flow of this Air Flow is corresponding with the flow of refuelling.Correspondingly, the air that is loaded with hydrocarbon is by delivering in the carbon bed of canister 3 up to the flow pump of 60 liters/min.Activated carbon in canister absorbs hydrocarbon, and hydrocarbon molecule is trapped in the internal microcellular structure of carbon.The air having purified more or less will be discharged from breather port 5.Owing to following the exothermic effect of absorption, if carbon bed is cold, the absorption efficiency under such high flow capacity is better.Therefore,, for the demand of refuelling, the heating operation that suppresses heater 1 under the low fuel liquid level of fuel tank is favourable.

In the operation cycle period of the internal combustion engine of vehicle, according to fuel vapour storage of the present invention and reclaimer 3, be set to cleaning model.Surrounding air is drawn into purge heater chamber 10 through entering opening 12 from breather port 5 by the internal combustion engine of vehicle.During cleaning, by the generator of vehicle or battery to heating element 2 supply of electrical energy.Air passes and walks around heating element 2 and flows, and is heated to thus 150 ℃ below but is under any circumstance no more than the temperature of 150 ℃.Meanwhile, the radiations heat energy being distributed by heating element 2 heats surrounding's carbon bed of the first steam storage chamber 7.Heated air flows through the 3rd steam storage chamber 9.On its road, surrounding air loads the hydrocarbon by storing in carbon bed.This air stream, as by the arrow in Fig. 4 is indicated, flows into and flows through the carbon bed of the first steam storage chamber 7, and finally through cleaning port 6, is sucked into cleaning pipeline (purging line), and this cleaning pipeline leads to internal combustion engine.

The method that operates in the heater 1 using in fuel vapour storage and reclaimer 3 in vehicle environmental comprises the steps: to obtain refuelling signal by CAN bus 25, and this refuelling signal designation oil tank of vehicle is refuelling.Such signal can obtain from surveying the fuel tank cap switch of the fuel tank cap (fuel cap) of closing.If this signal exists, heater 1 will be powered and be not more than 45 minutes from the startup of engine in 24 hours, was preferably every 24 hours approximately 30 minutes, responded the electric power that controls to heater 1 from the temperature signal of temperature sensor 19 simultaneously.About embodiment described above, thermistor 19 is calibrated to the temperature of 140 ℃, to provide the best between organic efficiency and fail safe to take into account.

And, fuel level signal will also obtain from fuel quantity ga(u)ge by CAN bus 25, and if fuel level signal indication fuel level drops to predetermined reading, be preferably 1/4 of fuel tank capacity, owing to above describing for refuelling, heater 1 will not be powered.

If ambient temperature, below predetermined value, for example, below-10 ℃, to heater 1 power supply, can realize energy and save by stopping under all operations were condition.External temperature signal also can provide through CAN bus 25, or otherwise obtains from motor management system.Control and switching device shifter 11 were preferably for example carrying out at least one test cycle before heater 1 power supply, and if there are following one or more situations, stop to heater 1 power supply, and fault-signal is sent to onboard diagnostic system through data wire 24: in the circuit of thermistor 19 and wire 20 and 21, detect fault; The fail self-test of heater controller 11, or the increase that detects the resistance of monolithic heating element 2 surmounts predetermined value, thereby the inefficacy of indication in one of each heating element 2, as the monolithic or depart from of breaking connects; Etc..The heating element 2 damaging or disengaging connect the canister 3 that will make as an emission control system part lost efficacy, and failure condition need to be indicated to driver.Preferably, will start limp-home (limp-home) pattern, to allow driver to go home and to take automobile to repair shop.

The fault detecting in temperature sensor circuit 19,20,21 comprises a kind of in following situation: the open circuit of wiring 20,21; The short circuit of thermistor 19; And undesirable heat sensitive resistor 19 contacts.Consider that inappropriate operation (particularly not controlled heat) may cause the fact of fire hazard, this embodiment guarantees improved fail-safety operation.

In addition, at supply voltage, surpass predetermined maximum voltage value, or drop in the situation below predetermined minimum voltage value, will be by controlling and switching device shifter 11 stop to heater 1 power supply, to avoid looking like overheated and so on damage or fault.

When the electric energy to heater 1 is approximately 132 ℃ to approximately 145 ℃ by controlling the temperature being controlled at temperature sensor 19 places with switching device shifter 11, while being preferably to approximately 140 ℃, obtain best recyclability and safety operation, thereby any part that prevents the heater 1 that contacts with air/gasoline vapour mixture is constantly over 150 ℃.

Claims (10)

1. one kind is used for operating the method for the heater (1) of fluid in vehicle environmental, described heater (1) comprises and conducts electricity the heating element (2 of monolithic, 2 '), described heater (1) comprises for treating the path of heated fluid, this fluid has the fluid flow direction of restriction during heating operation, described heater (1) is included at least two heating elements (2 that are arranged side by side in described path, 2 '), thereby they are arranged abreast with respect to fluid stream, an only heating element in described at least two heating elements is controlled heat element (2 '), this controlled heat element (2 ') has slightly large heating power, and at the downstream end (23) of described controlled heat element (2 '), locate or be provided with near it temperature sensor (19) of the temperature that is connected to survey described controlled heat element with described controlled heat element, described temperature sensor (19) is connected on control device (11), during the heating operation of described heater (1), for temperature, control, described at least two heating elements (2, 2 ') being one another in series is electrically connected, and described controlled heat element (2 ') has than the large resistance of other heating element (2), described method comprises the steps:
I) obtain refuelling signal, the oil tank of vehicle that this refuelling signal designation is communicated with described heater (1) fluid is by refuelling, and
Ii) after refuelling from engine start, to described heater (1) power supply be not more than 45 minutes/24 hours,
Respond the temperature signal from temperature sensor (19) simultaneously, control the electric power that is supplied to described heater (1).
2. method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, step I i) power supply be approximately 30 minutes/24 hours.
3. method according to claim 1, further comprising the steps of:
Iii) from fuel quantity ga(u)ge, obtain fuel level signal, and
Iv) if described fuel level signal indication fuel level drops to predetermined reading, stop to described heater (1) and power.
4. method according to claim 3, is characterized in that, step I v) described predetermined reading be 1/3.
5. method according to claim 1, further comprising the steps of
V) if ambient temperature below predetermined value, stops powering to described heater (1) under all operations were condition.
6. method according to claim 5, is characterized in that, step v) described temperature be-10 ℃.
7. method according to claim 1, further comprising the steps of: to carry out at least one test cycle; If with meet one or more in following condition, stop to heater (1) power supply, and fault-signal sent to onboard diagnostic system:
A) in temperature sensor circuit, detect fault,
B) fail self-test of the control device of heater (11),
C) increase that detects the resistance that monolithic heating element (2,2 ') arranges surmounts predetermined value, and
D) supply voltage surpasses predetermined maximum, or drops to below predetermined minimum value.
8. method according to claim 7, is characterized in that, the fault detecting in temperature sensor circuit comprises a kind of in following situation:
The open circuit of-thermistor circuit,
The short circuit of-thermistor circuit, and
The contact of-undesirable heat sensitive resistor.
9. method according to claim 1, wherein, the electric power that is supplied to described heater (1) is controlled so as to, and the temperature of locating at described temperature sensor (19) is 132 ℃ to 145 ℃.
10. according to the method described in claim 1 to 9 any one, wherein, the control that is supplied to the electric power of described heater (1) comprises carries out pulse width modulation to being supplied to the electric power of described heater (1).
CN200880121652.3A 2007-12-20 2008-01-23 Heater for fluids CN102007814B (en)

Priority Applications (3)

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EP2007011278 2007-12-20
EPPCT/EP07/011278 2007-12-20
PCT/EP2008/000476 WO2009080128A1 (en) 2007-12-20 2008-01-23 Heater for fluids

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