CN102000970A - Bolt assembly and disassembly manipulator capable of moving with three degrees of freedom - Google Patents

Bolt assembly and disassembly manipulator capable of moving with three degrees of freedom Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102000970A
CN102000970A CN 201010282313 CN201010282313A CN102000970A CN 102000970 A CN102000970 A CN 102000970A CN 201010282313 CN201010282313 CN 201010282313 CN 201010282313 A CN201010282313 A CN 201010282313A CN 102000970 A CN102000970 A CN 102000970A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
bolt
motor
manipulator
driving
guide rail
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CN 201010282313
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102000970B (en
Inventor
孙恒辉
骆敏舟
朱德泉
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中国科学院合肥物质科学研究院
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Priority to CN2010102823132A priority Critical patent/CN102000970B/en
Publication of CN102000970A publication Critical patent/CN102000970A/en
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Publication of CN102000970B publication Critical patent/CN102000970B/en

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Abstract

The invention discloses a bolt assembly and disassembly manipulator capable of moving with three degrees of freedom. Moving elements of body, shoulders and arms are connected one another through guide rail sliding blocks, the movement of each element in a specified direction is limited, and the movement of a motor is transferred through a lead screw nut. A spring of a spanner head and a baffle plate are used for limiting the position of a bolt, a pressure sensor is used for measuring the axial force of the bolt, and the measured axial force is a basis for next operation. During disassembling or assembling the bolt, the pressure value detected by the pressure sensor arranged in the spanner head is used as the basis, the three moving elements are driven to ensure the precise positioning of the spanner head, and an elastic coupling for connecting the motor and a lead screw can ensure that the arms successfully realize flexible guide and positioning under the condition of certain butting error. The manipulator has the characteristics of compact structure and wide application range; and the manipulator has low positioning requirement of the bolt position so as to reduce the complexity of equipment and broaden the space of automatic application.

Description

But the bolt loading and unloading manipulator of three-degree-of-freedom motion

Affiliated field

The invention belongs to the robot application field, the particularly a kind of manipulator that can realize three-degree-of-freedom motion, high pulling torque loading and unloading bolt.

Technical background

Nuclear energy is present unique energy that reaches commercial Application, can substitute fossil fuel on a large scale, also is one of important means that realizes energy sustainable development.Yet nuclear radiation makes that to the mortal injury of human body can carry out remotely-controlled automated machine becomes the indispensable instrument of nuclear power station.Invention and design various automated machines with certain capacity of will be that various countries nuclear industry circle is paid much attention to, and is also of great advantage to developing China nuclear environment robot.

Some atomic power robot that developed countries is succeeded in developing is verified at the nuclear power station of locality, has obtained certain achievement.Wherein representative robot has: in the U.S., first manipulator that is used for nuclear industry of Argonne, the forties end laboratory development is named M1, and the later stage is developed Odex series nuclear environment robot; In Europe, France has developed and has been used for the robot that nuclear reactor is checked.More there are some robots really to realize far distance controlled, as the SAMSIN type of the U.S., the EMSM series of Germany, the MA23-SD series of France etc.These robots not only can walk under the controlling of computer, turn, can also cat ladder, even can cross the high barrier of 45cm, be mainly used in escape of radioactivity, the malfunctioning detection of systematic part, and the discarded nuclear device of decontamination and dismounting etc.

The present invention is an emphasis with the body frame for movement of bolt loading and unloading manipulator under the background of nuclear environment, has designed a kind of detachable or manipulator of tighting a bolt.This manipulator has three degree of freedom, has loaded hydraulic bolt driving end detachable or that tight a bolt simultaneously on the operational tip of manipulator.About manipulator can drive the hydraulic bolt driving end and realizes in three dimensions by self three degree of freedom, up and down, the three-degree-of-freedom motion of front and back, finish the task of appointment with this.

In existing disclosed technology, the content that bolt loading and unloading relates generally to is electronic basically or hydraulic spanner drives bolt and rotatablely moves realizing the concrete grammar of loading and unloading, or to the application study of electronic or hydraulic spanner system itself etc.

But the manipulator that is used under the nuclear environment loading and unloading bolt drives before bolt rotatablely moves with the task of realizing loading and unloading finishing, and need have the function of the required loading and unloading bolt position in accurate location.And in the process of the required loading and unloading bolt position in location, bolt loading and unloading manipulator and external environment condition get in touch maximum, the influence that is subjected to external environment condition is also maximum, it not only needs to rely on screw mandrel to transform the motor driving end that straight-line mode will load and unload bolt that rotatablely moves to be driven into assigned address, more needs to rely on the shaft coupling that connects motor and screw mandrel to compensate small docking location error between driving end and the bolt.It can load and unload any bolt in the Three Degree Of Freedom position and two main features can accurately aiming at bolt automatically in the three dimensions, is the main distinction with respect to the conventional bolt extracting tool, also is meaning of the present invention.Problem solved by the invention is that the bolt loading and unloading manipulator is applied to a main difficult point in the nuclear environment operation, the present invention is according to the bolt job requirements, invent out manipulator as far as possible with enough frees degree, to satisfy in the operation process requirement to the manipulator joint free degree, and don't have the too much free degree, increase the burden of control system.

In existing disclosed technology, through keyword " bolt loading and unloading " and " automatic manipulator " retrieval, relatively relevant have only patent publication No. CN1185199 " bolt and the manufacture method and the extracting tools of loading and unloading fast " (open day 1998.06.17, application number 96193859.5), mainly solve a kind of problem of bolt and extracting tool thereof of quick loading and unloading, it needs artificial manual operation, is not independent automation tools.And patent publication No. CN1365876 " mechanical finger with variable grasp force simulating human hand for robot device ", it can not finish the loading and unloading task of bolt.

Summary of the invention

The objective of the invention is: be difficult to problem at the mankind under the nuclear environment, invented and designed and a kind ofly can realize three-degree-of-freedom motion, can load and unload some bolts, have the robot device of certain capacity of will near the task occasion.This invention has lower, applied widely, the exportable high pulling torque loading and unloading of compact conformation, cost bolt, characteristics low to the positioning accuracy request of bolt position.

Technical scheme of the present invention is: designed a kind of manipulator that loads and unloads bolt under nuclear environment, it can realize three-degree-of-freedom motion.Manipulator drives the end effector motion by the three degree of freedom of self, thus about driving hydraulic pressure rotation motor on the end effector and track wrench head and realizing, up and down, the three-degree-of-freedom motion of front and back.This manipulator is converted into the rectilinear motion of each parts in conjunction with slide block guide rail with rotatablely moving of motor by the feed screw nut, adopts the hydraulic pressure rotation motor to be used for driving the driving end rotation, with the installation and removal bolt.

But the bolt loading and unloading manipulator of three-degree-of-freedom motion, the driving end that comprises the base, torso member, shoulder spare, arm member and the stubborn bolt that support whole manipulator, all adopt the mode of slide block guide rail combination to connect successively between described base, torso member, shoulder spare and the arm member, and realize each autokinesis by motor screw-nut body separately.

Torso member in the described device is responsible for the move left and right of manipulator, simultaneously as the supporting body of next stage parts shoulder, arm and driving end and top shoulder spare mechanical attachment.It is made up of two panes and a L shaped steel piece, and each pane makes up and following base mechanical attachment by slide block guide rail, and drives its motion by motor-driven feed screw nut's mode.

Shoulder spare in the described device is responsible for moving up and down of manipulator, simultaneously as the supporting body of next stage parts arm and driving end and following torso member mechanical attachment.It comprises a L shaped steel piece, by slide block guide rail combination respectively with top arm member and following torso member mechanical attachment.Screw mandrel also plays shoulder, arm and driving end applied in these parts and moves upward and the effect of balancing gravity, and itself and slide block guide rail are combined to form a support system.The mode that moves up and down by the feed screw nut of manipulator realizes.

Arm member in the described device is responsible for moving forward and backward of manipulator, and the supporting body as driving end makes up and following shoulder spare mechanical attachment by slide block guide rail simultaneously.Mainly be made up of a box body and a rotating shaft, the box body is connected with rotating shaft by bearing and end cap by slide block guide rail combination and following shoulder spare mechanical attachment.Rotating shaft plays the effect that connects driving end and hydraulic pressure rotation motor, and the moment that makes the hydraulic pressure rotation motor produce can be delivered on the driving end, to realize the function of loading and unloading bolt.

Described fixed motor part is used for motor is fixed on appointed positions, and guarantees motor, shaft coupling, screw mandrel three's reasonable connection, and the operation of assurance motor is not subjected to the interference of other side's upward forces and moment.Fixed part mainly comprises electric machine support, bearing, motor set bolt, yielding coupling and other elastic elements, pressure sensor, circuit board.Wherein, electric machine support is the U font, three motors will using in the device adopt four bolting on electric machine support, adopt motor nut and yielding coupling that the axle of motor is linked up with screw mandrel, the motion that is used to transmit motor realize manipulator about, up and down, the three-degree-of-freedom motion of front and back.Pressure sensor is used for detecting driving end and is disassembled contact force between the bolt, to judge duty between the two.

The bolt loading and unloading manipulator is realized the method for Three Degree Of Freedom work, comprises aiming at and two courses of work of loading and unloading of bolt of driving end and bolt.The purpose of design of manipulator is under operatorless situation, can drive the track wrench head automatically and move on the appointed positions, realizes the function that the bolt that requires is mounted and dismounted.The alignment procedures of driving end and bolt needs according to the anti-output quantity that solves each motor of kinematical equation the assigned address that manipulator is driven into torso member, shoulder spare, arm member respectively by three motors and screw mandrel again after obtaining the preliminary position of bolt.Feed screw nut's major function is the rectilinear motion that rotatablely moving of motor is converted into each parts in conjunction with slide block guide rail.Assigned address about the torso member of manipulator is responsible for driving hydraulic pressure rotation motor and track wrench head and is moved to along base upper rail direction (directions X), shoulder spare is responsible for driving the hydraulic pressure rotation motor and the track wrench head moves to assigned address up and down along the vertical direction (Z direction) with guide rail, and arm member is responsible for driving hydraulic pressure rotation motor and track wrench head move to front and back along the horizontal vertical direction (Y direction) with guide rail assigned address.By the motion of trunk with shoulder two parts, make hydraulic pressure rotation motor and track wrench head be able to freely-movable in a certain plane, the ability that the motion of arm member then provides hydraulic pressure rotation motor and track wrench head to move on the straight line perpendicular to this plane, so driving end can be screwed into or rotatablely moving of back-outing and seesawing with bolt.Motion with this three part realizes that spanner moves to the function of assigned address and demounting bolt.

The course of work of described bolt loading and unloading is: set driving end and tentatively aim at bolt, determine by the detected signal of pressure sensor whether driving end is on the position that needs, if not, then drive trunk, shoulder, accurately motion of arm continuation; If then the hydraulic pressure rotation motor begins rotation and drives driving end and the bolt rotation, after the installation or removal action of bolt is finished, the motor stall, the trunk of manipulator, shoulder, arm drive driving end and leave bolt, finish a cargo handling process.

Described motor coupler adopts yielding coupling, is in order to compensate the small rotational deformation that the relative motor shaft of screw mandrel takes place.In driving end and the bolt docking operation, the small site error of Cun Zaiing between the two, with the sleeve part of causing driving end envelope bolt head fully, and because this type of small site error is generally less than 1mm, can not solve along the method that X, Y, Z direction move by motor-driven manipulator trunk, shoulder, arm member.Therefore among the present invention, move on time to bolt with driving end, the active force between its sleeve part and the bolt head is delivered on the screw mandrel of each parts through slide block guide rail.Because feed screw nut's major function is the rectilinear motion that rotatablely moving of motor is converted into each parts in conjunction with slide block guide rail, otherwise therefore, the small rotational deformation that the rectilinear motion that each parts produces because of sleeve part and active force between the bolt head will force the relative motor shaft of screw mandrel to take place, this small rotational deformation compensates by the distortion of elasticity material module in the yielding coupling.The trunk of manipulator, shoulder, three parts of arm have been responsible for the motion of driving end on X, Y, Z direction separately, the motor of each parts has all attached a yielding coupling, can realize compensation to the small site error on X, Y, three directions of Z, make driving end aim at the position that can adapt to bolt when bolt has certain error flexibly.

The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: in terms of existing technologies, the bolt loading and unloading manipulator that can realize three-degree-of-freedom motion is a kind of by motor-driven, as to have certain flexibility three freedom degree manipulator docking facilities, has the characteristics of compact conformation, positioning requirements that cost is lower, applied widely, lower.This device has reduced the requirement to bolt loading and unloading manipulator riding position to a certain extent, increased the real work space and the independence of driving end, has expanded the range of application of manipulator, robot.It also can be applicable to vacuum, space, waits in the special environment under water at the characteristic that nuclear environment is used.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the stereogram of manipulator overall model displaying in use.

Fig. 2 is the manipulator three-dimensional composition diagram of base and torso member in use.

Fig. 3 is the manipulator three-dimensional composition diagram of trunk and shoulder spare in use.

Fig. 4 in use takes on three-dimensional composition diagram with arm member for manipulator.

Fig. 5 forms front elevational schematic for the slide block guide rail that adopts in the manipulator.

Fig. 6 forms schematic side view for the slide block guide rail that adopts in the manipulator.

Fig. 7 drives the schematic diagram that driving end moves along directions X for the manipulator torso member.

Fig. 8 drives the schematic diagram that driving end moves along the Z direction for manipulator shoulder spare.

Fig. 9 drives the schematic diagram that driving end moves along the Y direction for the mechanical arm parts.

The schematic diagram of loading and unloading bolt after Figure 10 finishes for driving end docks with bolt.

Figure 11 is the flow chart of demounting bolt in the manipulator course of work.

Figure 12 is the flow chart of assembling bolt in the manipulator course of work.

The specific embodiment

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing enforcement of the present invention is further explained:

Fig. 1 is the stereogram of manipulator overall model displaying in use.In Fig. 1: 1 is the hydraulic pressure rotation motor, and 2 is the manipulator base, and 3 is the manipulator torso member, and 4 is manipulator shoulder spare, and 5 is the mechanical arm parts, and 6 is socket head.

All adopt the mode of slide block guide rail combination to connect between the base of manipulator, trunk, shoulder, the arm member, limited unwanted moving between the parts on the one hand, guaranteed on the other hand on assigned direction, can move flexibly.On electric machine support, then by the bearings at two ends, nut and slide block are used to transmit the motion of motor to screw mandrel to the motor of each parts with four bolting.

Fig. 2 is the manipulator three-dimensional composition diagram of base and torso member in use.In Fig. 2: 7 for connecting the slide block guide rail combination of base and trunk, and 8 is the base motor, and 9 is the base electric machine support, and 10 is base motor yielding coupling, and 11 is the base screw mandrel, and 12 is the feed screw nut.Base motor and screw mandrel are used for driving torso member and move along directions X.

Fig. 3 is the manipulator three-dimensional composition diagram of trunk and shoulder spare in use.In Fig. 3: 13 for connecting the slide block guide rail combination of trunk and shoulder spare, and 14 is shoulder spare chief component L type member, and 15 is torso member screw mandrel support, 16 is the torso member screw mandrel, 17 is torso member screw mandrel coupling bearing, and 18 is the torso member motor coupler, and 19 is the torso member motor.The motor of torso member, shaft coupling and screw mandrel are used to drive shoulder spare and move along the Z direction.

Fig. 4 in use takes on three-dimensional composition diagram with arm member for manipulator.In Fig. 4: 20 for connecting the slide block guide rail combination of shoulder and arm member, 21 is shoulder spare motor, 22 is shoulder spare motor coupler, 23 is shoulder spare electric machine support, and 24 is shoulder spare screw mandrel, and 25 is shoulder spare feed screw nut, 26 for supporting the bearing of axostylus axostyle, 27 is pressure sensor, and 28 is spring, and 29 is spring stop.Shoulder spare motor, screw mandrel and nut are used for the actuating arm parts and move along the Y direction.Pressure sensor 27 is used for the pressure of detection springs, judges whether spanner is aimed at bolt, and whether bolt head a certain position in the driving end sleeve.

Fig. 5 is for being used to connect the slide block guide rail combination front elevational schematic of each parts in the manipulator.Fig. 6 is slide block guide rail combination schematic side view.In Fig. 5 and Fig. 6: 31 are the slider part in the slide block guide rail combination, 32 are the track segment in the slide block guide rail combination, 33 is little steel ball, slide block is concave character type, guide rail is hollow, and slide block contacts with guide rail by a lot of little steel balls, makes that slide block is limited to slide on guide rail, another effect of little steel ball is that the load of equably slide block being born is delivered on the guide rail, and it is more easy to make by motor screw-nut body driving torso member 3, shoulder spare 4 and arm member 5 motions.

Fig. 7 drives the schematic diagram that driving end moves along directions X for the manipulator torso member.In Fig. 7: motor 8 and screw mandrel 11 play the effect that drives torso member 3 and other next stage component movement, and 7 of slide blocks play the effect of restriction torso member 3 in the assigned direction motion.Their synergy finally makes driving end move along directions X.

Fig. 8 drives the schematic diagram that driving end moves along the Z direction for manipulator shoulder spare, and Fig. 9 drives the schematic diagram that driving end moves along the Y direction for the mechanical arm parts, and it is identical with the working method that Fig. 7 adopts.The schematic diagram of loading and unloading bolt after Figure 10 finishes for driving end docks with bolt.After the process of manipulator by Fig. 7-9 signal aimed at driving end 6 and bolt 30, the baffle plate 29 in the driving end 6 will at first contact with bolt 30, further power will be delivered on the pressure sensor 27 by spring 28, and detect the size of this power this moment.If driving end and bolt be not to connecting, detecting the value of pressure this moment so significantly is 0, therefore can judge whether butt joint puts in place with the size of this power.If accurately docking operation finishes, then hydraulic pressure rotation motor 1 entry into service drives driving end 6 demounting bolts 30.Bolt 30 is under the effect of driving end, and one side rotates, and the axis direction of an edge driving end moves.In this stage, bolt 30 is compression springs 28 further, and the force value that pressure sensor 27 records progressively increases, and when force value is stabilized in a certain value, can think that bolt has been dismantled to finish.When assembling bolt, go up the direction operation of a process just, and the force value that records should be to be stabilized near a certain minimum of a value.

Figure 11 is the flow chart of demounting bolt in the manipulator course of work.Its flow process is: tentatively determine the position---step 100 of bolt, in conjunction with motor, adopt trunk, shoulder, arm driving end to be driven into the position---step 110 that needs along the way of three dimensions three-degree-of-freedom motion; Do you determine whether accurately location---step 120 of driving end by the detected signal of the pressure sensor in the driving end? if not, then manipulator continues location---step 110, if, then the hydraulic pressure rotation motor begins to drive the driving end sleeve and bolt just changes---step 130, and judge according to the size that pressure sensor detects power whether bolt head moves to assigned address, whether dismounting finishes---step 140, after dismounting finishes, the hydraulic pressure rotation motor stops operating---step 160, the motor of arm member and screw mandrel drive the driving end sleeve and move backward along the Y direction, the driving end sleeve is separated with bolt---step 170, finish the process of a demounting bolt.

Figure 12 is the flow chart of assembling bolt in the manipulator course of work.Its flow process is: bolt 30 is placed in the driving end sleeve 6, preliminary the position---step 100 of determining bolt hole, in conjunction with code-disc in the motor, adopt trunk, shoulder, arm driving end to be driven into the position---step 110 that needs along the way of three dimensions three-degree-of-freedom motion; Do you determine whether accurately location---step 120 of driving end by the detected signal of the pressure sensor in the driving end? if not, then manipulator continues location---step 110, if, then the hydraulic pressure rotation motor begins to drive driving end sleeve and bolt counter-rotating---step 130, and judge according to the size that pressure sensor detects power whether bolt head moves to assigned address, whether assembling finishes---step 140, after assembling finishes, the hydraulic pressure rotation motor stops operating---step 160, the motor of arm member and screw mandrel drive the driving end sleeve and move backward along the Y direction, the driving end sleeve is separated with bolt---step 170, finish the process of an assembling bolt.

Obviously, those skilled in the art can be to of the present invention: but the bolt loading and unloading manipulator of three-degree-of-freedom motion carry out various changes and modification and do not break away from the spirit and scope of the present invention, as increase other corresponding frees degree.Like this, if of the present invention these are revised and modification belongs within the scope of claim of the present invention and equivalent technologies thereof, then the present invention also is intended to comprise these changes and modification interior.

Claims (7)

1. but the bolt loading and unloading manipulator of three-degree-of-freedom motion, the driving end (6) that comprises the base (2), torso member (3), shoulder spare (4), arm member (5) and the stubborn bolt that support whole manipulator, it is characterized in that: all adopt the mode of slide block guide rail combination to connect successively between described base (2), torso member (3), shoulder spare (4) and the arm member (5), and realize each autokinesis by motor screw-nut body separately.
2. but the bolt loading and unloading manipulator of three-degree-of-freedom motion according to claim 1 is characterized in that:
A), described shoulder spare (4) comprises a L shaped steel piece, by the slide block guide rail combination respectively with top arm member and following torso member mechanical attachment, realize moving up and down of manipulator driving end (6) by its motor screw-nut body;
B), described torso member (3) comprises two panes and a L shaped steel piece, each pane drives the move left and right that realizes manipulator by slide block guide rail combination and following base mechanical attachment by its motor screw-nut body;
C), described arm member (5) comprises a box body and a rotating shaft, the box body is by slide block guide rail combination and following shoulder spare mechanical attachment, be connected with rotating shaft by bearing and end cap, rotating shaft connects driving end and hydraulically powered rotation motor, and arm member (5) drives by its motor screw-nut body and realizes moving forward and backward of manipulator.
3. but the bolt loading and unloading manipulator of three-degree-of-freedom motion according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: described slide block guide rail combination comprises slide block and guide rail two parts, slide block is concave character type, and guide rail is hollow, and slide block contacts with guide rail by steel ball and is limited in sliding on the guide rail.
4. but the bolt loading and unloading manipulator of three-degree-of-freedom motion according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: described motor screw-nut body comprises motor, yielding coupling, leading screw, electric machine support and yielding coupling, electric machine support is the U font, motor is fixed on the electric machine support, motor links up by yielding coupling and leading screw, screw-nut structure with rotatablely moving of motor be converted into rectilinear motion realize manipulator driving end (6) in the space about, up and down, the three-degree-of-freedom motion of front and back.
But 5. the bolt loading and unloading manipulator of three-degree-of-freedom motion according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: described driving end (6) comprises pressure sensor (27), spring (28) and baffle plate (29); Described spring (28) and baffle plate (29) are in order to limit bolt position, and pressure sensor (27) is used to measure the axial force of bolt, and the axial force value that records is as the foundation of carrying out next step operation.
6. but the bolt loading and unloading manipulator of three-degree-of-freedom motion according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: in the described motor feed screw nut structure, motor and screw mandrel are coupled to each other by yielding coupling, after generable minor rotation is converted into rectilinear motion by screw mandrel on the yielding coupling structure, make driving end (6) when dismantling and assemble, certain flexibility can be arranged, with compensation driving end (6) and bolt (30) small site error between the two.
7. but the bolt loading and unloading manipulator of three-degree-of-freedom motion according to claim 4, it is characterized in that: in the described motor feed screw nut structure, motor and screw mandrel are coupled to each other by yielding coupling, after generable minor rotation is converted into rectilinear motion by screw mandrel on the yielding coupling structure, make driving end (6) when dismantling and assemble, certain flexibility can be arranged, with compensation driving end (6) and bolt (30) small site error between the two.
CN2010102823132A 2010-09-10 2010-09-10 Bolt assembly and disassembly manipulator capable of moving with three degrees of freedom CN102000970B (en)

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