CN101995016B - Circulating fluidized bed boiler device using low calorific value coal gangue for post ignition - Google Patents

Circulating fluidized bed boiler device using low calorific value coal gangue for post ignition Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101995016B
CN101995016B CN2010105109676A CN201010510967A CN101995016B CN 101995016 B CN101995016 B CN 101995016B CN 2010105109676 A CN2010105109676 A CN 2010105109676A CN 201010510967 A CN201010510967 A CN 201010510967A CN 101995016 B CN101995016 B CN 101995016B
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China
Prior art keywords
heating
fluidized bed
bed
slag
heat exchanger
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Expired - Fee Related
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CN2010105109676A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101995016A (en
Inventor
卢啸风
何洪浩
季炫宇
王虎
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Chongqing University
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Chongqing University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a circulating fluidized bed boiler device using low calorific value coal gangue for post ignition, and belongs to a combustion system of a coal fired boiler. The device mainly comprises a hearth, a cyclone separator, a riser, a circulating ash heat exchanger, a header, a fluidized bed slag cooler and the like. The device is characterized in that: heat exchange and combustion are separated; the combustion is performed in a heat insulation region; a heating surface is arranged in a fluidized bed with finer particles; the device comprises a fine particle fluidized bed, a circulating ash heat exchanger and a fluidized bed slag cooler; the bottom part of the hearth is divided into two fluidizing regions; the flow direction of the bed material between the two fluidizing regions is changed by changing the fluidizing air parameter and slag discharge of the two fluidizing regions so as to fulfill the aim of adjusting the bed temperature; and both the hearth and the circulating ash heat exchanger are communicated with the fluidized bed slag cooler, so that the ash and the slag of the fluidized bed slag cooler can be independently discharged to greatly improve the adaptability of the boiler to fuels. The device has the main advantages of burning the fuels such as coal gangue with a low calorific value and the like and solving the problem of heavy wearing of the heating surface well.

Description

A kind of pure CFBB device that uses the low calorific value coal spoil
Technical field
The invention belongs to the coal-burning boiler combustion system, particularly a kind of pure CFBB device that uses the low calorific value coal spoil.
Background technology
At present, in coal in China exploitation and washing process, will produce 5~700,000,000 tons gangue every year, wherein only be taken as the fuel utilization less than 15% gangue, the gangue of remainder adopts circular cone or cheuch Dumpage type to be stacked loosely in around the mine naturally more.Why utilization rate is low for gangue, and its reason is that gangue is a kind of low heat value, high-ash inferior fuel, and when adopting the burning of ordinary cycle fluidized-bed combustion boiler, the existence wearing and tearing are big, combustion intensity is low, flue gas loss is big and evaporation capacity is difficult to problems such as assurance.By domestic existing patented technology, with uses that act as a fuel of low calorific value coal spoil, normally adopt and the mode of other fuel multifuel combustion, do not have a kind of pure CFBB device that uses the low calorific value coal spoil truly.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is intended to propose a kind of pure CFBB device that uses the low calorific value coal spoil; Can the efficient burning low heat value or the calorific value excursion at the various gangues of 4~12MJ/kg, and solve that the wearing and tearing that the CFBB that generally uses low heat value, ash coal kind exists are big, combustion intensity is low, flue gas loss is big and evaporation capacity is difficult to problems such as assurance.
The present invention realizes through following technical scheme:
A kind of pure CFBB device that uses the low calorific value coal spoil comprises burner hearth, burner hearth mid-board, cyclone separator, standpipe, circulating ash heat exchanger, header, fluidized bed slag cooler, fluidized bed slag cooler slag feed pipe, high temperature slag input valve and rotary slagging coutrol valve etc.Based on the thought of conducting heat and separating, adopt the burner hearth mid-board that burner hearth bottom is divided into coarse granule fluid bed and fine grained fluidisation bed two parts, and the air distribution plate of two fluid beds is on the different horizontal face with burning.Most of evaporating heating surface of boiler is arranged in fine grained fluidisation bed, circulating ash heat exchanger and the fluidized bed slag cooler, produces steam by hot ash and warm sludge heating.Gangue directly adds coarse granule fluid bed internal combustion, does not arrange any heating surface in the coarse granule fluid bed, adopts flame-proof thermal insulation material to cover all around, forms the combustion zone of a thermal insulation.
In the high-temperature ash that burning produces, the particle part that particle diameter is bigger is stayed in the coarse granule fluid bed, and another part is discharged with the form of end slag; And the relative smaller particles of particle diameter is then brought into upper furnace by flue gas, falls under gravity into fine grained fluidisation bed; The particle that particle diameter is littler is taken out of burner hearth by flue gas, forms circulating ash and flying dust.
Slag at the bottom of the high temperature that the coarse granule fluid bed is discharged, the slag inlet that gets into fluidized bed slag cooler via the fluidized bed slag cooler slag feed pipe cools off the storehouse, and this bottom, storehouse is furnished with porous plate formula air distribution plate, is furnished with main big slag delivery pipe on the air distribution plate.The warm sludge that gets into slag inlet cooling storehouse receives the fluidisation wind action; Carry out heat exchange with the lower fluidized wind of temperature on the one hand; On the other hand; Through the overflow impelling, little and thin slag good fluidity of quality is crossed dividing wall and is got into first water-cooled cooling storehouse, and the thick slag of greater particle size is then discharged through main big slag delivery pipe.Thin slag is successively through first and second water-cooled cooling storehouse, cooling under the acting in conjunction of fluidized wind and heating surface.Wherein, what arrange in first water-cooled cooling storehouse is evaporating heating surface, and version is buried tube type or coiled; What arrange in second water-cooled cooling storehouse is the water-cooled tube bank, and version is coiled.The last overflow of slag after being cooled gets into main scum pipe, and is discharged by the control of rotary slagging coutrol valve.Some unburnt fine breezes and the agstone and the hot-air that do not utilize fully return burner hearth through the returning charge blast pipe together.
The circulating ash heat exchanger that connects burner hearth and standpipe comprises a particle Heat Room and a refeed line, wherein is the bubbling fluidized bed state in the particle Heat Room, and is furnished with evaporating heating surface, and the heated face structure form is buried tube type or coiled.The high-temp circulating ash that cyclone separator separates all gets into the particle Heat Room, and the coal grain that does not wherein partly burn burns away, and after accomplishing heat exchange with heating surface, forms the low temperature ash, returns the fine grained fluidisation bed of burner hearth via the refeed line overflow; Simultaneously, the fluidized wind in the circulating ash heat exchanger also all returns burner hearth through refeed line.The circulating ash heat exchanger also has ash discharging hole, can unnecessary hot ash be entered fluidized bed slag cooler through ash discharging hole in case of necessity.
The circulating ash of returning in the particle Heat Room gets into the fine grained fluidisation bed that is furnished with heating surface, and heat exchange burns away.Fluidized wind through regulating coarse granule fluid bed and fine grained fluidisation bed reaches the bed drain purge to fluidized bed slag cooler, changes the flow direction of bed material between, thereby regulates burner hearth interior material balance, thermal balance and bed temperature.
Apparatus of the present invention combustion heat value excursion separately and do not need and the burning of other fuel mix at the various gangues of 4~12MJ/kg; The fluidising air velocity of apparatus of the present invention heating surface layout area is low, thereby has solved the big problem of heating surface wear; Adjusting through coarse granule fluid bed, fine grained fluidisation bed and circulating ash heat exchanger ash discharge slag mode effectively guides circulating of in-furnace dust slag, thereby has solved the adjustment of boiler to different calorific value gangues.Through the fluidized bed slag cooler that can produce high-temperature steam is set, reclaim the physics heat in the lime-ash significantly, improved boiler efficiency.
Description of drawings:
Fig. 1: use low calorific value coal spoil CFBB device overall structure sketch map;
The burner hearth bottom structure chart of Fig. 2: embodiment 1 and embodiment 2;
The burner hearth bottom structure chart of Fig. 3: embodiment 3 and embodiment 4;
Fig. 4: fluidized bed slag cooler structure chart;
First water-cooled cooling storehouse profile of Fig. 5: embodiment 1 and embodiment 3;
First water-cooled cooling storehouse profile of Fig. 6: embodiment 2 and embodiment 4;
Fig. 7: circulating ash heat exchanger structure figure;
The circulating ash heat exchanger A-A profile of Fig. 8: embodiment 1 and embodiment 3;
The circulating ash heat exchanger B-B profile of Fig. 9: embodiment 1 and embodiment 3;
The circulating ash heat exchanger A-A profile of Figure 10: embodiment 2 and embodiment 4;
The circulating ash heat exchanger B-B profile of Figure 11: embodiment 2 and embodiment 4;
Among the above-mentioned figure, 1 is burner hearth, and 1-1 is the coarse granule fluid bed, and 1-2 is a fine grained fluidisation bed, and 1-3 is the coarse granule fluidized bed air distribution plate; 1-4 is a fine grained fluidisation bed air distribution plate, and 2 is cyclone separator, and 3 is standpipe, and 4 is the circulating ash heat exchanger, and 4-1 is a circulating ash heat exchanger heating surface; 4-2 is a refeed line, and 4-3 is the particle Heat Room, and 5 is fluidized bed slag cooler, and 5-1 is main scum pipe, and 5-2 is the rotary slagging coutrol valve; 5-3 is second water-cooled cooling storehouse, and 5-4 is first water-cooled cooling storehouse, and 5-5 is a blast cap, and 5-6 is the fluidized bed slag cooler air compartment, and 5-7 is a porous plate formula air distribution plate; 5-8 is slag inlet cooling storehouse, and 5-9 is the big slag delivery pipe of accident, and 5-10 is main big slag delivery pipe, and 5-11 is the returning charge blast pipe, and 5-12 is first water-cooled cooling storehouse heating surface; 5-13 is second water-cooled cooling storehouse heating surface, and 5-14 is a dividing wall, and 6 is header, and 7 is high temperature slag input valve; 8 is the fluidized bed slag cooler slag feed pipe, and 9 is coarse granule fluid bed air compartment, and 10 is fine grained fluidisation bed air compartment, and 11 is circulating ash heat exchanger air compartment; 12 is the burner hearth mid-board, and 13 is framework, and 14 is heat-insulation layer, and 15 is flame retardant coating.
The specific embodiment:
Below in conjunction with Figure of description and embodiment apparatus of the present invention are further specified as follows:
Embodiment 1
Present embodiment a kind of pure uses CFBB device such as Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 4, Fig. 5, Fig. 7, Fig. 8 and shown in Figure 9 of low calorific value coal spoil, comprises burner hearth 1, cyclone separator 2, standpipe 3, circulating ash heat exchanger 4, fluidized bed slag cooler 5, header 6, high temperature slag input valve 7, fluidized bed slag cooler slag feed pipe 8, coarse granule fluid bed air compartment 9, fine grained fluidisation bed air compartment 10, circulating ash heat exchanger air compartment 11 and burner hearth mid-board 12.Burner hearth 1 bottom is divided into fine grained fluidisation bed 1-2 and coarse granule fluid bed 1-1 by burner hearth mid-board 12, is the adiabatic combustion district in the coarse granule fluid bed 1-1 wherein, arranges the coiled evaporating heating surface in the fine grained fluidisation bed 1-2; Two fluid beds all adopt blast cap formula air distribution plate, and respectively are furnished with corresponding fluidisation air compartment, and coarse granule fluidized bed air distribution plate 1-3 is than the high 0~600mm of fine grained fluidisation bed air distribution plate 1-4; Fluidized wind can independently be controlled, and the operational factor through regulating each fluidized wind and to the bed drain purge of fluidized bed slag cooler reaches a purpose that changes the flow direction of bed material between two fluid beds.The high-temp circulating ash that separates by cyclone separator 2; Get in the circulating ash heat exchanger 4 via standpipe 3; Carry out heat exchange with fluidized wind and circulating ash heat exchanger heating surface 4-1 and form the low temperature ash, fluidized wind together returns fine grained fluidisation bed 1-2 through refeed line 4-2 with circulating ash after heating up.Circulating ash heat exchanger heating surface 4-1 adopts buried tube type, and pipe passes wall and header 6 links.
Slag inlet cooling storehouse 5-8, first water-cooled cooling storehouse 5-4 and second water-cooled cooling storehouse 5-3 of fluidized bed slag cooler 5 are linked with coarse granule fluid bed 1-1, fine grained fluidisation bed 1-2 and circulating ash heat exchanger 4 respectively by fluidized bed slag cooler slag feed pipe 8; By high temperature slag input valve 7 control slag input amounts, each cools off the bottom, storehouse and also has slag-drip opening.Does not arrange heating surface in the slag inlet cooling storehouse 5-8, only high temperature furnace slag is cooled off and screen that air distribution plate is made up of polylith porous plate formula air distribution plate by fluidized wind; First water-cooled cooling storehouse heating surface 5-12 adopts buried tube type, and pipe passes wall and connects with header 6, and air distribution plate adopts blast cap formula air distribution plate; Second water-cooled cooling storehouse heating surface 5-13 adopts coiled, and pipe passes wall and connects with header 6, and air distribution plate adopts blast cap formula air distribution plate.Fluidized bed slag cooler respectively cools off the fluidized wind in storehouse after accomplishing heat exchange with lime-ash, carries in the parts of fine ash entering burner hearth and uses as secondary wind, and keep upper furnace fine particle concentration value.
Embodiment 2
Present embodiment a kind of pure uses CFBB device such as Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 4, Fig. 6, Fig. 7, Figure 10 and shown in Figure 11 of low calorific value coal spoil; Be that with embodiment 1 difference first water-cooled cooling storehouse heating surface 5-12 and circulating ash heat exchanger heating surface 4-1 all adopt coiled on the structure, all the other structures are identical with embodiment 1.
Embodiment 3
Present embodiment a kind of pure uses CFBB device such as Fig. 1, Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5, Fig. 7, Fig. 8 and shown in Figure 9 of low calorific value coal spoil; Be in the burner hearth bottom structure with embodiment 1 difference on the structure; Coarse granule fluidized bed air distribution plate 1-3 is than the low 0~600mm of fine grained fluidisation bed air distribution plate 1-4, and all the other structures are identical with embodiment 1.
Embodiment 4
Present embodiment a kind of pure uses CFBB device such as Fig. 1, Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 6, Fig. 7, Figure 10 and shown in Figure 11 of low calorific value coal spoil; Be in the burner hearth bottom structure with embodiment 1 difference on the structure; Coarse granule fluidized bed air distribution plate 13 is than the low 0~600mm of fine grained fluidisation bed air distribution plate 1-4; And first water-cooled cooling storehouse heating surface 5-12 and circulating ash heat exchanger heating surface 4-1 all adopt coiled, and all the other structures are identical with embodiment 1.

Claims (3)

1. pure CFBB device that uses the low calorific value coal spoil; Comprise burner hearth (1), coarse granule fluid bed (1-1), fine grained fluidisation bed (1-2), coarse granule fluidized bed air distribution plate (1-3), fine grained fluidisation bed air distribution plate (1-4), cyclone separator (2), standpipe (3), circulating ash heat exchanger (4), circulating ash heat exchanger heating surface (4-1), fluidized bed slag cooler (5), second water-cooled cooling storehouse (5-3), first water-cooled cooling storehouse (5-4), slag inlet cooling storehouse (5-8), first water-cooled cooling storehouse heating surface (5-12), header (6), high temperature slag input valve (7), fluidized bed slag cooler slag feed pipe (8), coarse granule fluid bed air compartment (9), fine grained fluidisation bed air compartment (10), circulating ash heat exchanger air compartment (11) and burner hearth mid-board (12); It is characterized in that: burner hearth mid-board (12) is divided into coarse granule fluid bed (1-1) and two zones of fine grained fluidisation bed (1-2) with burner hearth (1) bottom; Coarse granule fluidized bed air distribution plate (1-3) and fine grained fluidisation bed air distribution plate (1-4) are on two different levels of difference in height for ± 600mm, the high 600~1200mm of burner hearth mid-board (12); Coarse granule fluid bed (1-1) is not arranged any heating surface, is an adiabatic combustion district, all arranges evaporating heating surface in fine grained fluidisation bed (1-2) and the circulating ash heat exchanger (4); Coarse granule fluid bed (1-1), fine grained fluidisation bed (1-2) and circulating ash heat exchanger (4) are linked with slag inlet cooling storehouse (5-8), first water-cooled cooling storehouse (5-4) and second water-cooled cooling storehouse (5-3) respectively by fluidized bed slag cooler slag feed pipe (8), and by high temperature slag input valve (7) control lime-ash flow; First water-cooled cooling storehouse heating surface (5-12) is an evaporating heating surface, and connects with the outer economizer of this device, and heating surface working medium is from boiler feedwater.
2. a kind of pure CFBB device that uses the low calorific value coal spoil according to claim 1 is characterized in that, first water-cooled cooling storehouse heating surface (5-12) and circulating ash heat exchanger heating surface (4-1) are coiled.
3. a kind of pure CFBB device that uses the low calorific value coal spoil according to claim 1 is characterized in that, first water-cooled cooling storehouse heating surface (5-12) and circulating ash heat exchanger heating surface (4-1) are buried tube type.
CN2010105109676A 2010-10-19 2010-10-19 Circulating fluidized bed boiler device using low calorific value coal gangue for post ignition Expired - Fee Related CN101995016B (en)

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CN102221201A (en) * 2011-04-01 2011-10-19 张全胜 Equal-bed pressure cold slag fluidized bed of circulating fluidized bed boiler and operation method thereof
CN102287815A (en) * 2011-06-22 2011-12-21 清华大学 Device for regulating circulating ash flow of circulating fluidized bed boiler
CN102840577B (en) * 2011-06-23 2015-03-25 中国科学院工程热物理研究所 Circulation fluidized bed boiler having compact type external dual fluidized bed heat exchanger
CN102654285B (en) * 2011-12-12 2014-09-10 江苏靖隆合金钢机械制造有限公司 Composite slag feeding device for slag cooler
CN102537941A (en) * 2012-01-18 2012-07-04 太原锅炉集团有限公司 Circulating fluidized bed boiler technology for pure-burning low heating value coal gangue
CN103047643A (en) * 2013-01-30 2013-04-17 哈尔滨红光锅炉总厂有限责任公司 Energy-saving type circulating fluidized bed boiler for combusting lower-calorific value fuel
CN103090375B (en) * 2013-02-16 2015-05-20 滕州亿达华闻煤电化有限公司 Process for performing desulphurization by using slag of circulating fluidized bed boiler
CN103512029B (en) * 2013-10-14 2016-02-10 上海交通大学 The organic working medium boiler of coal-fired fluidized bed burning
CN104566977B (en) * 2014-12-24 2017-02-22 重庆大学 Conduction oil heating furnace with dual fluidized beds
CN105135426A (en) * 2015-09-08 2015-12-09 大同煤炭职业技术学院 Regulating method for material returning exception of circulating fluidized bed boiler
CN106838889B (en) * 2017-02-09 2019-09-27 重庆大学 A kind of circulating fluidized bed boiler of the interior circulation ash heat exchanger of band

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