CN101992855A - Airplane - Google Patents

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Publication number
CN101992855A
CN101992855A CN2009101634677A CN200910163467A CN101992855A CN 101992855 A CN101992855 A CN 101992855A CN 2009101634677 A CN2009101634677 A CN 2009101634677A CN 200910163467 A CN200910163467 A CN 200910163467A CN 101992855 A CN101992855 A CN 101992855A
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China
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acetylene
wing
flight
eductor
aircraft
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CN2009101634677A
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尚德敏
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尚德敏
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Priority to CN2009101634677A priority Critical patent/CN101992855A/en
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Abstract

The invention provided an airplane which is simple in structure, can fly safely, has higher efficiency and can start and take off automatically. The airplane comprises a square stand, a cabin, a wing assembly, a flying ejector, an ejection controller, an acetylene generator and a launching catapult. A left wing is arranged on the left side of the square stand; a right wing is arranged on the right side of the square stand; the flying ejector is horizontally arranged in the middle of the square stand; the cabinet is arranged below the stand; the acetylene generator is located below the cabinet; the launching catapult is located below the acetylene generator; the launching catapult is in a shape of a vertical cylindrical container with a downward opening and consists of an upper end socket and a cylinder; the cylinder is provided with an acetylene intake pipe and an igniter; a movable sleeve is arranged on the surface of an outer circle at the lower part of the cylinder; and the launching catapult is a vertical engine. The airplane is driven by the reactive force of air injection to the ground and takes off vertically from the ground.

Description

A kind of aircraft
Technical field
The present invention relates to aeronautical technology, relate in particular to a kind of aircraft.
Background technology
The definition of aircraft is: produce onward impulse by engine installation, produce lift, the aerocraft that overweights air that flies by fixed wing in atmospheric envelope.
The birth of aircraft is one of the most great invention of twentieth century.The mankind are just dreaming of to circle in the air in space as bird since ancient times.Before more than 2000 year, the kite of Chinese's invention, though can not be with space to the people, it can be called the founder of aircraft really.
Have a pair of brother in the U.S. beginning of this century, and they have made great contribution on the aircraft development history in the world, and they are exactly Lai Te brother.At that time, most of people think: the flight of the impossible dependence of aircraft self power.Lai Te brother does not believe this conclusion, from 1900 to 1902, their brother carried out more than 1000 glide and has taken a flight test, finally in 1903, produced first and relied on No. 1, the aircraft " aviator " that self power carries people to fly, and obtained to make a successful trial flight.Therefore they obtained US Congress's honorable mention in 1909.This is the human immense success that obtains on the history of aircraft development.On December 17th, 1903, the Lai Te brother drives the aircraft that they make, and has carried out that continue first, dynamic, steerable flight.
On December 10th, 1910, in Paris, FRA exhibition meeting, there is an airplane when performance, to crash, the cabin that chaufeur is dished out and burnt.But this airplane but causes the very big concern of people, because the new work engine that it uses, the designer is exactly the aviator, and he is the Romanian, is named as Henry section Anda, graduates from French Ecole De Technologie Superieur.His design-calculated driving engine is the driving engine with 50 horsepowers, makes fan promote air backward, sets up an afterburner simultaneously, and combustion gas is fully expanded in jet pipe, increases reaction thrust with this.Here it is the earliest flight eductor.
In later stage 1930's, the maximum of the propeller aeroplane of piston actuated is flat to fly speed per hour and has reached 700 kilometers, and near velocity of sound, the problem of sound barrier becomes increasingly conspicuous during underriding.States such as preceding Soviet Union, English, U.S., moral, meaning have carried out the research of flight eductor energetically.Germany design engineer Ao An obtained centrifugal type turbine flight eductor patent in 1934.On August 27 nineteen thirty-nine, peace difficult to understand is used his driving engine, makes the He-178 jet plane.
After the flight eductor was developed, scientists had been finished by the American through this work afterwards in more than 10 years finally with regard to further allowing aircraft break through the flight of sound barrier.
On October 14 nineteen forty-seven, in the Sang Gefeier area of California, USA, Bell Co. takes a flight test and can break through the aircraft of sound barrier.10 o'clock huge B-29 bombers hung a peculiarly shaped flivver and took off under the cabin morning.This flivver called after X-1 rocket aircraft.The X-1 aircraft is equipped with 4 rocket engines, and 2700 kilograms of total thrusts, the fuel of use are dangerous liquid hydrogen and alcohol.When the B-29 bomber it when putting down in the air, its 4 rocket engines are lighted a fire in succession, sound as thunderous.After aero-engine started 1 minute and 28 seconds, Mach number reached 1.0, and aircraft has reached velocity of sound.At this moment the fuel of X-1 aircraft is almost used up, and it is faster that speed becomes, and reaches Mach number 1.06, and height at this moment is 13000 meters.
1920's, aircraft began the carrying passenger, since the sixties, occurred some large transport airplanes and supersonic transport in the world, promoted the use of turbofan engine gradually.Famous amp-22, the Ilyushin-76 that has that the former Soviet Union produces; C-141 produced in USA, C-5A, Boeing-747; The space truck of France etc.Supersonic transport has the figure-144 of Great Britain and France's joint research and development " consonance " formula and the former Soviet Union.
The invention of aircraft makes air-transport industry obtain developing on an unprecedented scale, and has manyly had new source and channel for the required all raw materials of industrial development, has alleviated the degree of dependence of people to local natural resources greatly.
When earth depths was marched, aircraft also was widely used in geoexploration the mankind.People use and have equipped photographic camera or a kind of aircraft that is called the electronic machine of shoran system, can be rapidly and exactly to wide geographic areas, comprise dangerously steep and the ungetable place is surveyed and drawn.
The effect of aircraft in modern war is more surprising, and not only can be used for scouting, bomb, and also also very outstanding at aspects such as early warning, antisubmarine, clearances.In the Gulf War of early 1990s outburst, the huge power of aircraft is obvious to all.
The main flow driving engine of present generation aircraft is the flight eductor, and different according to principle of work and structure have several flight eductors, for example: turbine flight eductor, punching press flight eductor, pulse flight eductor, turbofan flight eductor etc.
Turbine flight eductor is made up of inlet channel, air compressor, combustion chamber, turbine and jet pipe five big parts.The effect of air compressor is to improve the air pressure that enters engine chamber, and it is by turbine drives.Turbine is subjected to the impact of the high-temperature high-pressure fuel gas of discharging from combustion chamber and high-speed operation, and it changes the kinetic energy of high-temperature high-pressure fuel gas into mechanical energy.Structurally there is weak link in the flight eductor, for example: the multistage thin compressor blade of high speed revolution inherently; Place the turbine blade of high-temperature fuel gas.For a long time, the flight eductor has problems on the stability and reliability of work always.Wherein relatively more outstanding has: compressor surge, air compressor hit bird, turbine superheat.During air compressor generation surge, the plenum ratio reduces greatly, and produces strong vibration and harsh noise, can damage engine parts when serious.Air compressor hits bird and damages, and causes airplane crash, is a global difficult problem.The working-blade of turbine comprises stator blade and rotor blade, is subjected to the impact and the aggressive action of high-temperature fuel gas for a long time, is subjected to the very big centnifugal force and the effect of aerodynamic torque simultaneously.Turbine blade is subjected to high temperature action simultaneously under the forceful action of complexity, very easily cause performance to descend or damage, and accidents caused.
In punching press flight eductor, there are not air compressor and turbine, the supercharging air that enters combustion chamber is to realize by the deceleration that high speed windstream enters behind the driving engine.Therefore, punching press flight eductor is simply more than turbine flight eductor, is made up of inlet channel (diffuser), combustion chamber and jet pipe.The advantage of this driving engine is: simple in structure, in light weight, cost is low.Shortcoming is: can not start voluntarily.
Pulse flight eductor adopts the intermittent combustion process, in the combustion chamber front portion, unidirectional damper is housed.After the combustion chamber ignition, the high-pressure gas of generation is closed unidirectional damper, and high-pressure gas sprays at a high speed from jet pipe simultaneously, produces thrust.After combustion gas was discharged, internal pressure of combustion chamber dropped to less than intake pressure, and air is opened unidirectional damper once more, begins new circulation.Pulse flight eductor causes the gas consumption rate height because intake pressure is low.
Turbofan flight eductor is similar to the agent structure of turbine flight eductor, and air compressor and turbine performance are basic identical, and contingent fault also is the same.
As seen, two problems appear in the development of aircraft: complicated aircraft costs an arm and a leg, and is out of order easily, and causing all over the world, airplane crash takes place frequently; Simple airplane efficiency is low, or can not start voluntarily, fails to enter the aviation main flow all the time.So far, also there is not a kind of like this aircraft: both simple in structure, safe and efficient again, and can start voluntarily, take off.
About the background technology of aircraft and aero-engine, in following monograph, have a detailed description:
1, Chen Shaozu, panoramic aircraft, Beijing: National Defense Industry Press, 2003.
2, Li Chengzhi, Li Xiaoning, field mountain, the dream of flight-aerospace development history outline, Beijing: aerospace university press, 2004.
3, Fang Changde, Ma Chunyan, development of Aeroengines course, Beijing: aircraft industry press, 2007.
4, Zhang Jin, Hong Jie, Chen Guang, modern aeroengine technology and development, Beijing: aerospace university press, 2006.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to provide a kind of aircraft, its simple in structure, flight safety has higher efficient again, and can start voluntarily, take off.For achieving the above object, the aircraft that the present invention provides, its structure comprises: square frame, cabin, wing assembly, flight eductor and injection controller, the left side of square frame is a port wing, the right side is a starboard wing, and square frame by-level is placed the flight eductor, and the frame below is the cabin.
Its structure also comprises acetylene gas generator, and acetylene gas generator is positioned at the below in cabin.
Its structure also comprises launching catapult, and launching catapult is positioned at the below of acetylene gas generator.
Square frame comprises four frames up and down: underframe, left frame, left frame and top frame, the middle part of top frame protrude upward a set collar.
The wing assembly comprises: left and right wing, left and right vertical rod, left and right pull bar, left and right extension spring; Starboard wing links to each other with the right side of square frame underframe by the right folding page or leaf; Starboard wing and right vertical rod vertical connection have a right pull bar that tiltedly draws between the two; Strain with the set collar at square frame top frame middle part mutually by right extension spring at right vertical rod top; The symmetrical configuration of port wing and starboard wing is identical.
The cabin is stand up columnar structured, and it is made of the coaming plate of top board, base plate and the tubular of circle; The coaming plate external diameter is 1 meter, highly is 1.2 meters; In the cabin, operating seat is high 0.3 meter, is water tank under the operating seat; On the base plate in cabin, a coolant outlet pipe is arranged, it and water tank join, and also have an acetylene freeing pipe, and external 3 arms respectively are provided with valve; The dead ahead of operating seat on the coaming plate in cabin, is a front window, and driver's observation is used; The below of front window is the chaufeur actuation means, comprises a guidance panel that takes the form of inclined plane and the control box under the guidance panel; Acetylene gas generator handling device, launching catapult handling device, flight eductor handling device are arranged on the guidance panel; Have in the control box: the electrical panel of the high-tension coil of injection controller circuit card, firing unit, electronic acetylene air inlet valve, and other control current consumer element; Being the top board in cabin on the chaufeur head, is rear window behind the chaufeur brain, also is that driver's observation is used; Rear window bottom on the outside face of coaming plate, is provided with yaw rudder; Yaw rudder is a flat board of placing vertically, and height is 0.6 meter, and length is 0.8 meter, and its stile is fixed on the vertical shaft, and this vertical shaft is by head bearing and another lower bearing, vertically is fixed on the outer wall of coaming plate in chaufeur dead aft; The upper end of this vertical shaft links to each other with rudder stock, chaufeur push-and-pull rudder stock, horizontal surface angle that just can the change of direction rudder.
Port wing and starboard wing respectively by folding below it and top extension spring, are connected with therebetween square frame; Folding can bend, and extension spring can be extended, that is, with respect to square frame, port wing and starboard wing can carry out rotating respectively around the axle of its folding limitedly; When port wing, starboard wing and square frame during at same horizontal surface, the hand of rotation of port wing and starboard wing all is that wing tip is downward, and promptly port wing rotates around left hinge shaft anticlockwise direction, and starboard wing is around right hinge shaft right-hand revolution; The aerofoil profile of port wing and starboard wing is a convexo-plane, and profile thickness is 12%, and the aspect of wing is a rectangle, and chord length is 300 centimetres, and the width of left and right wing respectively is 400 centimetres, and the dihedral angle of wing is 0 degree.
The profile of launching catapult is one and places the cylindrical container that Open Side Down vertically that its base portion is made up of upper cover and cylindrical shell; The air inlet pipe of a combustion gas acetylene is arranged on the top of cylindrical shell, the acetylene air inlet valve is arranged on the acetylene air inlet pipe; In the middle and upper part of cylindrical shell, a ventilation door is arranged; At the middle part of cylindrical shell, a firing unit is arranged; In the bottom of firing unit, a pressure platform is arranged, the pressure platform is a horizontal annular plane that is fixed on the barrel outer surface, the pressure platform is downward, acts on mutually with pressure spring; On the outer round surface of the bottom of cylindrical shell, a sleeve is arranged, its internal diameter is bigger slightly than the external diameter of cylindrical shell, and the outer round surface that sleeve can be close to cylindrical shell is free to slide, two all outside right angle of port flange up and down of sleeve, its upper overturning acts on mutually with pressure spring; When launching catapult was placed on ground, the following flange of sleeve and the lower port of cylindrical shell all were pressed on the ground; 1 meter of the external diameter of the cylindrical shell of launching catapult highly is 1.5 meters, and the height of sleeve is 0.5 meter, and the external diameter of the upper overturning of sleeve 17 is 1.2 meters, and the external diameter of following flange is 2 meters.
The basic structure of acetylene gas generator is to be made of water tank, get angry chamber and several turnover pipe; The chamber of getting angry is surrounded the indoor spherical calcium carbide of filling of getting angry by the upper cover of top board, coaming plate and the launching catapult of circle; On top board, a coolant inlet pipe is arranged, a flood valve is arranged on it, the water inlet and the water tank of coolant inlet pipe join, and water tank is arranged in the cabin of top board top; On top board, an acetylene freeing pipe is arranged, external 3 of acetylene freeing pipe goes out gas branch pipe, and 3 go out to be respectively equipped with on the gas branch pipe back fire suppressor and acetylene safety valve; Coaming plate is provided with charging-explosion door, blow-off pipe and foul valve.
The main body of flight eductor has two parts: cartouche and de Laval noz(zle); Inside from the import of cartouche,, an air reprint is arranged from import nearby, it carries out on-off control by electric actuator: cartouche standard-sized sheet or cartouche full cut-off; In the cartouche, the air reprint is a combustion chamber with interior space; The middle part of cartouche, an external combustion gas acetylene air inlet pipe has an acetylene air inlet valve on it; On the cartouche, near with the top of de Laval noz(zle) junction, the waste gate that can inwardly open is arranged, waste gate carries out on-off control by electric actuator, standard-sized sheet or full cut-off; On the cartouche, near with the bottom of de Laval noz(zle) junction, a firing unit is arranged; The import of de Laval noz(zle) is connected to the end port of cartouche, and to outlet, its of inner flow passage area experience is dwindled the process that afterwards enlarges earlier from the import of de Laval noz(zle); The alloy-steel plate manufacturing of high temperature high voltage resistant of flight eductor.
On the flight eductor of aircraft of the present invention, need carry out four parts of automatically controlled and be: air reprint, waste gate, acetylene air inlet valve, firing unit.
Injection controller is the control setup of flight eductor, and it is made up of two parts: injection controller circuit and flight eductor handling device; The injection controller circuit card is arranged in the control box in cabin, and flight eductor handling device is positioned on the guidance panel in cabin;
The injection controller circuit is to utilize three grades of sequential timers, drives three magnetic force electric switches in order, controls the device of above-mentioned four parts; Adopt three 555 integrated circuit, produce three sequential pulses, the mouth of the 3rd 555 integrated circuit is received the trigger end of first 555 integrated circuit, realizes unstable state work;
The timing resistor of above-mentioned three timer circuits and timing capacitor are to change by the flight eductor handling device that is located in the cabin, that is to say that the frequency of operation of flight eductor can be regulated.
Launching catapult is a vertical engine, utilizes jetly to ground-surface antagonistic force, drives aircraft, upwards takes off vertically from ground.Launching catapult collects combustion chamber and two kinds of functions of jet pipe in the same space: the moment of fuel ignition blast, it is as combustion chamber; Thereafter, it is again as jet pipe, sprays combustion gas at a high speed from the outlet of launching catapult, rushes at ground, utilizes antagonistic force, promotes launching catapult and rises vertically upward at a high speed.
As combustion chamber, it will bear High Temperature High Pressure, and launching catapult is the pressure container of a High Temperature High Pressure, and acetylene admission port, firing unit are arranged on it.
As jet pipe, launching catapult is provided with under the belly of aircraft vertically downward.The outlet of jet pipe, i.e. injection orifice is positioned at the lowest part of aircraft, and before taking off, injection orifice is buckled on the ground down.
Launching catapult is the power plant that takes off vertically of aircraft of the present invention, utilizes the fuel gas buring expanding gas to spray, and the antagonistic force of jet gas promotes aircraft and takes off fast.
The fuel that the present invention selects is acetylene, and acetylene has advantage and is: compare acetylene combustion gas temperature height with other fire gases, the acetylene explosion pressure is big, the acetylene combustion flame propagation speed, acetylene and air-blending explosive limits wide ranges, the acetylene ignition energy is little.With calcium carbide and water, produce acetylene by acetylene gas generator aboard, the supply combustion chamber that acts as a fuel, or provide by airborne acetylene cylinder.
Aircraft utilizes the take-off process of launching catapult to be:
1, by one on launching catapult ventilation door, fresh air enters, and waste gas is got rid of, and shuts the ventilation door then;
2, pass through the ventilation door at launching catapult, carry out in the renewal gas process of air and waste gas, gaseous tension equals ambient pressure in the launching catapult.
3, acetylene gas generator of the present invention is produced acetylene, supplies with launching catapult.In launching catapult, inject acetylene via the acetylene admission port.The acetylene amount of injecting will be considered launching catapult in-to-in amount of air, can inject acetylene by 9% of launching catapult inner space volume;
4, behind the injection acetylene, close launching catapult acetylene admission port, initial igniter, acetylene and Air mixing fire gases be combustion explosion at once;
5, acetylene and Air mixing gaseous combustion blast produces the high pressure-temperature combustion gas, lights pressure and can reach 1MPa.Huge external and internal pressure is poor, and combustion gas is outwards sprayed at a high speed from the outlet of launching catapult, rushes at ground, produces antagonistic force simultaneously, promotes launching catapult and aircraft, and built on stilts rises to the sky, and finishes to start and the process that takes off vertically.
Flight eductor of the present invention is to utilize jet antagonistic force, promotes aircraft and aloft flies.The concrete structure of flight eductor comprises: cylindrical shell, inlet valve, combustion chamber, acetylene admission port, firing unit, waste gate, jet pipe.The flight eductor utilizes acetylene combustion to expand, and promotes gas by jet pipe, sprays backward, produces thrust.The flight emitter construction is simple, and it does not have turbine, surge can not take place, and is not afraid of yet and hits bird.
The flight course of aircraft utilization flight eductor is:
1, air enters combustion-chamber space by admission port and inlet valve, and waste gas is discharged by the spout of waste gate and jet pipe;
2, because the door-plate of inlet valve rotates the sealing of combustion-chamber space front end.The door-plate rotation of waste gate, the sealing of combustion-chamber space rear end waste gate;
3, inject acetylene fuel to combustion-chamber space,, form fire gases with air-blending;
4, gas fuel combustion in the initial igniter, combustion chamber produces high-temperature high-pressure fuel gas and expansion rapidly;
5, high-temperature high-pressure fuel gas enters jet pipe from combustion chamber;
6, high-pressure gas sprays at a high speed from nozzle exit, produces thrust, promotes aircraft flight.
7, because the door-plate of inlet valve rotates, and the combustion-chamber space front end is opened, introduce fresh air.The door-plate rotation of waste gate, combustion-chamber space rear end waste gate is opened, and remainder of exhaust gas outwards discharges by waste gate and jet pipe.
Begin new round power cycle again.
Advantage of the present invention is:
1, the driving engine of aircraft of the present invention comprises launching catapult and flight eductor, adopts the high-energy fuel gas acetylene combustion, facilitates high speed jet, utilizes antagonistic force, promotes to take off and fly.Engine power is big, force of explosion is big, can promote airplane emergency and take off and flight fast;
2, aircraft system of the present invention is simple, and fault rate is low, and maintaining is convenient;
3, aircraft processing and manufacturing of the present invention is easy, and raw MAT'L is cheap, and is in light weight, and cost is low.
4, aircraft of the present invention can under static state start voluntarily.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the entire arrangement conceptual scheme of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the launching catapult constructional drawing of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the acetylene gas generator constructional drawing of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the launching catapult process chart of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is the flight emitter construction figure of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 6 is the flight eductor process chart of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 7 is the injection controller circuit diagram of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 8 is square frame and the wing assembly structure chart of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 9 is the engine room structure figure of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention;
Figure 10 is the startup flight course figure of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention.
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the present invention is described in further detail.
Fig. 1 has provided the entire arrangement scheme scheme drawing of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention.
The major part of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention is in the concrete deployment scenarios of aircraft, wherein, launching catapult 10 is tubular, vertically is positioned at the bottom of aircraft, and its upper cover is fixed under the floor in cabin 30 of aircraft, above the cabin 30 of aircraft is the underframe 85 of square frame, the left side of underframe 85 is a port wing, and the right side is a starboard wing 92, the top of underframe 85, in the middle of the just square square frame, placement be flight eductor 60.Flight eductor 60 horizontal positioned, its length is 5 meters, and external diameter is 0.8 meter, and with respect to square frame or wing, front and back sponson length is identical.Four limits of square frame outside face, 1 meter of every edge lengths.Cabin 30 is stand up columnar structured, and external diameter is 1 meter, highly is 1.2 meters.In the cabin 30, under the operating seat water tank 32.There is yaw rudder 46 in cabin 30 out of my cabin.
The profile of launching catapult 10 is the cylindrical shells that stand up, and 1 meter of cylindrical shell external diameter highly is 1.5 meters.The underfloor space in the upper cover of launching catapult 10 and cabin 30 is acetylene gas generators 38.In the bottom of cylindrical shell, a sleeve 17 is arranged, its internal diameter is bigger slightly than the external diameter of cylindrical shell, and its height is 0.5 meter.Sleeve 17 is enclosed within the outside face of cylindrical shell, and the outside face that can be close to cylindrical shell is free to slide, both easy fits.The all outwards vertical flange of the upper and lower port of sleeve 17, the external diameter of upper overturning is 1.2 meters, and the upper surface of upper overturning matches with pressure spring, and the external diameter of following flange is 2 meters, and bigger external diameter is placed vertically when ground, and stabilization is preferably arranged.There is a pressure platform 15 middle and lower part of the cylindrical shell of launching catapult 10, and pressure platform 15 is planar annulars that are fixed on the barrel outer surface.Pressure platform 15 is downward, by pressure spring 16, acts on mutually with sleeve 17.
When taking off, launching catapult 10 starts, and powerful gas jet action is in ground, and its antagonistic force rises aircraft vertically upward at a high speed; Vertex to be risen to starts flight eductor 60, and horizontal-jet produces horizontal thrust, and wing produces lift in air, and the pull-up aircraft rushes to blue sky.In the skyborne follow-on mission, rely on the thrust power of the flight eductor of pulsed to continue to advance.
Fig. 2 has provided the launching catapult constructional drawing of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention.
The launching catapult of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention is a short time, high-performance power plant, and it is used for aircraft and takes off vertically from ground.Combuster and two kinds of functions of jet pipe in the launching catapult, the profile of launching catapult 10 is one and places the cylindrical container that Open Side Down vertically that its base portion is made up of upper cover 11 and cylindrical shell 12.1 meter of launching catapult 10 external diameter highly are 1.5 meters.In the bottom of cylindrical shell 12, a sleeve 17 is arranged, its internal diameter is bigger slightly than the external diameter of cylindrical shell 12, and its height is 0.5 meter.The outside face that sleeve 17 can be close to cylindrical shell 12 is free to slide, both easy fits.The all outwards vertical flange of the upper and lower port of sleeve 17, the external diameter of upper overturning is 1.2 meters, the external diameter of following flange is 2 meters.On the top of cylindrical shell 12 an acetylene air inlet pipe is arranged, acetylene air inlet valve 13 is arranged on the acetylene air inlet pipe.In the middle and upper part of cylindrical shell 12, a ventilation door 18 is arranged, open ventilation door 18, through after a while, can realize the exchange fully of cylindrical shell 12 inside and outside gases.At the middle part of cylindrical shell 12, a firing unit 14 is arranged.Initial igniter 14 can be lighted cylindrical shell 12 in-to-in acetylene and Air mixing fire gases.On the cylindrical at the middle part of cylindrical shell 12, a pressure platform 15 is arranged, pressure platform 15 is planar annulars that are fixed on the barrel outer surface, and its internal diameter is identical with cylindrical shell 12 external diameters, and the two fixes.Pressure platform 15 one side downwards is the plane, acts on mutually with pressure spring 16; Pressure platform 15 upwards one side is fixed together with cylindrical shell 12 outside faces by gusseted.In the bottom of cylindrical shell 12, a sleeve 17 is arranged, its internal diameter is bigger slightly than the external diameter of cylindrical shell 12, and the outer round surface that sleeve 17 can be close to cylindrical shell 12 is free to slide.The upper overturning of sleeve 17 acts on mutually with pressure spring 16; When launching catapult was placed on ground, the following flange of sleeve 17 and the lower surface of cylindrical shell 12 all were pressed on the ground, and the two is on same horizontal surface.Sleeve 17 and pressure spring 16 are collectively referred to as elastic parts, the function of this elastic parts, the first: when launching catapult begins to go up to the air, pressure spring 16 promotes sleeve 17 downwards, utilize the force of inertia of the elastic force of spring 16 and sleeve 17 itself, sleeve 17 lift-off that lags behind, the following flange of sleeve 17 is than the lower port of cylindrical shell 12 built on stilts a little later.In this short time, though cylindrical shell 12 has begun lift-off, sleeve 17 does not also have rising, the outside spray leakage of combustion gas, thus to continue with bigger thrust, the long period promotes the launching catapult lift-off.When the upper overturning of sleeve 17 during near the lower port of cylindrical shell 12, sleeve 17 just begins to rise.When flying at a constant speed, when not having force of inertia, the following flange of sleeve 17 hangs down 0.4 meter than the lower port of cylindrical shell 12, and promptly at vertical direction, 0.1 meter long and cylindrical shell 12 outer round surface maintenance mated condition are arranged at sleeve 17 tops.
As seen from the above analysis, the principle of work of launching catapult figuratively speaking, is exactly foot-operated ground, and the rhaeboscelia of bending knee is earlier upwards takeoff then.If there is not the effect of going along with sb. to guard him to combustion gas of pressure spring 16 and sleeve 17, figuratively speaking, be exactly the rhaeboscelia process of not bending knee, but the upwards jumping of straight leg can not be jumped highly.The principle of work of launching catapult is the counteraction that utilizes ground-surface thrust, pops up fast.This and jet engine utilize jet process principle of conservation of momentum to advance, and are diverse.
Launching catapult is a high temperature and high pressure containers, should select the alloy-steel plate manufacturing of high temperature high voltage resistant.
Fig. 3 has provided the acetylene gas generator constructional drawing of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention.
The basic structure of the acetylene gas generator 38 of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention is to be made of water tank, get angry chamber and several turnover pipe.Get angry the chamber by the upper cover 11 of top board 33, coaming plate 34 and the launching catapult of circle surround the indoor spherical calcium carbide of filling of getting angry.Top board 33 is again the base plate in cabin 30, and coaming plate 34 is the coaming plates in cabin 30.On top board 33, a coolant inlet pipe is arranged, a flood valve 31 is arranged on it, it and water tank 32 join.On top board 33, an acetylene freeing pipe is arranged, external 3 arms of acetylene freeing pipe are respectively equipped with on 3 arms: supply with the back fire suppressor 36 of ejector acetylene, back fire suppressor 37, the acetylene safety valve 39 of supply eductor acetylene.The coaming plate 34 of acetylene gas generator 38 is provided with charging-explosion door 40, blow-off pipe and foul valve 35.By charging-explosion door 40, indoor to getting angry of acetylene gas generator 38, the spherical calcium carbide of packing into; By flood valve 31, the water in the water tank 32 slowly flow into get angry indoor; Water and calcium carbide react, and generate acetylene, by the acetylene freeing pipe, and the external arm of acetylene freeing pipe, supply with acetylene gas to launching catapult, flight eductor respectively, the gas generation process of Here it is acetylene gas generator 38.Water and calcium carbide react when generating acetylene, produce waste liquid and waste residue.The waste liquid that produces is by blow-off pipe and foul valve 35 dischargings; The waste residue that produces is manually removed by charging-explosion door 40.The function of charging-explosion door 40 has three: the calcium carbide that charges, stripping slag, blast release.If careless manipulation, acetylene gas generator is blasted, and the high pressure gas in the acetylene gas generator are pushed charging-explosion door 40 open, and outwards discharging can be protected the person and device security effectively rapidly.The effect of acetylene safety valve 39 is, bleeds off unnecessary acetylene gas, and is too high to prevent the acetylene gas generator internal pressure.
Fig. 4 has provided the launching catapult process chart of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention.
In Fig. 4-1, expression be dead work before starting.Launching catapult 10 vertically is placed on the ground 51, and the acetylene air inlet valve 13 on the cylindrical shell 12 of launching catapult is opened, and in the cylindrical shell 12 of launching catapult, injects the acetylene combustion gas.Inject the amount of acetylene, reach 9% o'clock of cylindrical shell 12 internal volumes, promptly acetylene accounts for acetylene and air gas mixture 9% o'clock, closes acetylene air inlet valve 13.
In Fig. 4-2, expression be start-up course.Start firing unit 14 on the cylindrical shell of launching catapult, light the acetylene fire gases in the cylindrical shell of launching catapult, pressure and temperature moment of the miscellaneous gas in the acetylene explosive combustion, the cylindrical shell of launching catapult raises, and pressure can reach 1MPa.
In Fig. 4-3, expression be that launching catapult takes off moment.High pressure mixed gas in the cylindrical shell of launching catapult applies application force on both direction: horizontal direction and vertical direction.Horizontal direction acts on cylindrical shell inwall all around, and it makes a concerted effort to cancel out each other.Vertical direction is downwards and makes progress, and acts on ground downwards, upwards affacts the end socket 11 of launching catapult.During the acetylene explosive combustion, pressure moment of the miscellaneous gas in the cylindrical shell of launching catapult can reach 1MPa, and when this pressure acted on the end socket 11 of launching catapult, the application force with 10 kilograms of every sq cms upwards boosted launching catapult very fast.When the lower port of the cylindrical shell of launching catapult during built on stilts, because the thrust of pressure spring 16, force of inertia effect with sleeve 17 itself, sleeve 17 also original place is not moving, the following flange of sleeve 17 does not slowly also have built on stilts, the interior high-pressure gas of cylindrical shell that is launching catapult also leaks, and continues to rise with the pushed at high pressure launching catapult.Just when the upper overturning of sleeve 17 during near the lower end of the cylindrical shell of launching catapult, sleeve 17 just begins rising, the following flange ability built on stilts of sleeve 17.When launching catapult upwards rose, 17 hysteresis a period of times of sleeve just rose, during this, sleeve 17 has been finished an important job, promptly owing to its effect of going along with sb. to guard him, in launching catapult took off initial one period blink, the high-pressure gas in the cylindrical shell of launching catapult was not to external leakage.Thereby launching catapult can obtain bigger thrust, and that ascends to heaven is higher.
In Fig. 4-4, launching catapult 10 is built on stilts 51, rises to the sky.The sleeve 17 of launching catapult 10, it is by the pressure spring pull-up.Aloft in the inertia motion at the uniform velocity, pressure spring upwards hauls sleeve 17, and the following flange of sleeve 17 is lower than about 0.4 meter of the lower port of the cylindrical shell of launching catapult.
Fig. 5 has provided the flight emitter construction figure of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention.
Flight eductor 60 is jet engines, and it is used to drive aircraft flight aloft.
The main body of flight eductor 60 has two parts: cartouche 65 and de Laval noz(zle) 62.Inside from the import 67 of cartouche 65,, an air reprint 66 is arranged from import 67 nearby, it carries out on-off control by electric actuator 70: cartouche standard-sized sheet or cartouche full cut-off.In the cartouche 65, air reprint 66 is a combustion chamber 71 with interior space.The middle part of cartouche 65, an external combustion gas acetylene air inlet pipe has an acetylene air inlet valve 64 on it.On the cartouche 65, near with the top of the junction of de Laval noz(zle) 62, the waste gate that can inwardly open 63 is arranged, waste gate 63 carries out on-off control by electric actuator 69, standard-sized sheet or full cut-off.On the cartouche 65, near with the bottom of the junction of de Laval noz(zle) 62, a firing unit 68 is arranged, it is used to light acetylene and air-blending fire gases in the cartouche 65.The import of de Laval noz(zle) 62 is connected to the end of cartouche 65, and to outlet 61, its inner flow passage sectional area experiences one and dwindles the process of afterwards amplifying earlier from the import of de Laval noz(zle) 62.The effect of de Laval noz(zle) 62 is: when the expansion phase of the detonation gas pressure in the cartouche 65 from 1MPa to about 0.2MPa, the air-flow that sprays from de Laval noz(zle) 62 is a supersonic airstream.Flight eductor 60 is power plants, bear High Temperature High Pressure, and therefore, flight eductor 60 will be used the alloy-steel plate manufacturing of high temperature high voltage resistant.
Fig. 6 has provided the flight eductor process chart of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention.
Flight eductor 60 of the present invention is aeroresonators, and it drives aircraft flight aloft.
In Fig. 6-1, represented the state that flight eductor 60 does not start as yet.Air reprint 66 in the cartouche 65 of flight eductor 60 is in cartouche passage full-gear.On the cartouche 65, near with the waste gate 63 of the junction of de Laval noz(zle) 62, also be in full-gear.This state can guarantee to fly eductor 60 inner spaces and outside atmosphere fully linked up, and guarantees that combustion chamber 71 inner airs of eductor 60 are fresh, do not have burnt gas to exist wherein.
In Fig. 6-2, represented flight eductor start-up course: the air reprint 66 in the cartouche is in and makes cartouche passage full-shut position; Waste gate 63 also is in full-shut position; Cartouche middle part, 64 conductings of acetylene air inlet valve are injected acetylene gas in the flight eductor, when acetylene gas reach flight injector interior space 9% the time, close acetylene air inlet valve 64; Initial igniter 68 subsequently, light the acetylene fire gases of flight injector interior, in the burning of blasting property of flight injector interior, and the combustion gas of flight injector interior moment generation High Temperature High Pressure, fuel gas temperature can reach 2300 ℃, and gaseous-pressure can reach 1MPa.The combustion gas of High Temperature High Pressure from the outlet 61 of de Laval noz(zle), outwards sprays at once, and the antagonistic force of generation promotes the flight eductor and advances.
In Fig. 6-3, represented the aloft ventilation state of flight eductor aloft, detail is: the air reprint 66 in the cartouche of flight eductor is in the passage full-gear; Waste gate 63 on the cartouche also is in full-gear.This state can guarantee that aloft injector interior and outside promptly carry out gas exchange, and promptly the in-to-in burnt gas mainly is discharged in the atmosphere by waste gate 63; The extraneous ozone of relative flow head-on by the import of flight eductor, enters into the injector interior space, has realized the thoroughly big exchange of new and old gas rapidly.
In Fig. 6-4, represented the jet propulsion state that the flight eductor flies aloft, detail is: the air reprint 66 in the cartouche is in full-shut position; Waste gate 63 also is in full-shut position; 64 conductings of acetylene air inlet valve are injected acetylene gas to flight in the eductor, when acetylene gas reach flight injector interior space 9% the time, close acetylene air inlet valve 64; Initial igniter 68, light the acetylene fire gases of flight injector interior, the burning of blasting property, the combustion gas of flight injector interior moment generation High Temperature High Pressure, high-temperature high-pressure fuel gas is from the outlet ejection of the de Laval noz(zle) of flight eductor, according to principle of conservation of momentum, the antagonistic force of generation promotes the flight eductor and advances.
In the flight eductor non-stop flight aloft, carry out repeatedly in Fig. 6-3 and the process in Fig. 6-4, explained.As stopping flight, proceed to till Fig. 6-3 process of being explained, no longer carry out Fig. 6-4 process of being explained, promptly no longer in the flight eductor, supply with acetylene and igniting blast.
Fig. 7 has provided the injection controller circuit diagram of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention.
On the flight eductor of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention, need carry out four parts of automatically controlled and be: air reprint, waste gate, acetylene air inlet valve, firing unit.
The injection controller circuit is to utilize three grades of sequential timers, drives three magnetic force electric switches in order, the device of four parts such as control air reprint, waste gate, acetylene air inlet valve, firing unit.Adopt three 555 integrated circuit, produce three sequential pulses, the mouth of the 3rd 555 integrated circuit is received the trigger end of first 555 integrated circuit, realizes unstable state work.
First 555 integrated circuit 120 for can reliable reset, prevents the influence disturbed, and all direct and V+ power supply of its reset terminal (pin 4) and power end (pin 8) joins.The ground terminal of integrated circuit 120 (pin one) ground connection, control end 125 (pin 5) prevents that by a capacity earth interfering signal from influencing the pulsewidth of pulse.The energizing signal of its trigger end 122 (pin two), from the output signal of the 3rd 555 integrated circuit 140, the trigging pulse that the differential circuit of being formed via resistance 121 and electric capacity 124 produces, about 1 microsecond of pulsewidth, following jumping is along working.When trigger end 122 (pin two) is triggered, and pulse voltage is lower than V+/3 o'clock, the upset of internal trigger comparator, mouth (pin 3) output high level.The inner open circuit of discharge end 127 (pin 7), power supply V+ begin by timing resistor 128 to timing capacitor 129 chargings.Be charged to 2V+/3 o'clock on the timing capacitor 129, the upset of threshold value end 126 (pin 6) in-to-in threshold value comparator, timing capacitor 129 discharges into earth potential rapidly, and mouth is got back to low level.Timing is about 1.1* timing resistor * timing capacitor.Timing resistor 128 is 2 megohms, and timing capacitor 129 is 0.1 Mfd Microfarads, and timing is about 0.2 second.The output signal of its mouth 123 is received the base stage of current amplifier tube 160 by resistance 162, this is a 3DK4 pipe, in its collector loop, a magnetic force electric switch 161 is arranged, the electric actuator of the air reprint of control flight eductor and the electric actuator of waste gate, standard-sized sheet air reprint simultaneously and waste gate 0.2 second, gas exchange was promptly carried out 0.2 second in injector interior and outside, and promptly the in-to-in burnt gas mainly is discharged in the atmosphere by waste gate; The extraneous ozone of relative flow head-on by the import of flight eductor, enters into the injector interior space.
Second 555 integrated circuit 130, the energizing signal of its trigger end 132 (pin two), from the output signal of first 555 integrated circuit 120, the trigging pulse that the differential circuit of forming via resistance and electric capacity produces.Timing was got 0.2 second.The mouth 133 of second 555 integrated circuit 130 is connected to an end of resistance 167, and the other end of resistance 167 is received the base stage of current amplifier tube 165, this is a 3DK4 pipe, in its collector loop, a magnetic force electric switch 166 is arranged, be used to open the acetylene air inlet valve of flight eductor, advanced acetylene gas 0.2 second.
The 3rd 555 integrated circuit 140, the energizing signal of its trigger end 142 (pin two), from the output signal of second 555 integrated circuit 130, the trigging pulse that the differential circuit of forming via resistance and electric capacity produces.Timing was got 0.1 second.The output signal of its mouth 143 is received the base stage of current amplifier tube 175 by resistance 177, this is a 3DK4 pipe, in its collector loop, the firing unit that a magnetic force electric switch 172 control flight eductors are arranged, light a fire by firing unit, light the acetylene fire gases of flight injector interior, the burning of blasting property, the combustion gas of flight injector interior moment generation High Temperature High Pressure, the combustion gas of High Temperature High Pressure is from the outlet ejection of the de Laval noz(zle) of flight eductor, the antagonistic force that produces promotes the flight eductor and advances cumulative hours 0.1 second.
Carry out above-mentioned three steps and amount to and used 0.5 second, that is to say, the eductor that flies each second carries out twice explosive combustion and jet propulsion, and the frequency of operation that can be called the eductor that flies is 2.The timing resistor of above-mentioned three timer circuits and timing capacitor can change, and that is to say that the frequency of operation of flight eductor can be regulated, thereby reach the purpose of regulating flight eductor power.The injection controller circuit of aircraft jet engine embodiment of the present invention, energising promptly starts.
Fig. 8 has provided square frame and the wing assembly structure chart of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention.
The square frame of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention and wing assembly, the wing assembly comprises: port wing 84, starboard wing 92, and left and right vertical rod, left and right pull bar, left and right extension spring.Square frame is a square structure, and it has four frames up and down, and the left side of its underframe 85 links to each other with port wing 84 by the left folding page or leaf; The right side of underframe 85 links to each other with starboard wing 92 by right folding page or leaf 87.Flight eductor 60 is placed at the center of square frame square structure.Starboard wing 92 and right vertical rod 89 vertical connections have a right pull bar 91 that tiltedly draws between the two.Port wing 84 is identical with the symmetrical configuration of starboard wing 92.In the square structure of square frame, four frames except underframe 85, also have left frame 88, left frame, top frame 82 up and down, and the middle part of top frame 82 protrudes upward a set collar 83.Set collar 83 is strained with right vertical rod 89 tops mutually to the right by right extension spring 90; Set collar 83 by Zola's spring 81, is strained with left vertical rod top left mutually.
Two wing-port wings 84 and starboard wing 92 with square frame therebetween, all are to link to each other with top extension spring by following folding, folding can be crooked, and extension spring can be extended, and that is to say, port wing 84 and starboard wing 92 with respect to square frame, are rotatable.When port wing 84, starboard wing 92 with square frame during at same horizontal surface, the hand of rotation of port wing 84, starboard wing 92 all is that wing tip is downward, promptly port wing 84 is around the rotation of left folding page or leaf anticlockwise direction, starboard wing 92 is around right folding page or leaf 87 right-hand revolutions.
The aerofoil profile of port wing 84 and starboard wing 92, just the cross sectional shape of wing is a convexo-plane, profile thickness is 12%.The aspect of wing is a rectangle, and chord length is 300 centimetres, and the width of left and right wing respectively is 400 centimetres, and the dihedral angle of wing is 0 degree.The horizontal side stability of aircraft is to guarantee by the cabin that hangs under the square frame and the weight of ejector.
The cross-section structure of port wing 84 and starboard wing 92 is inner skeleton and surperficial covering, and inner skeleton and surperficial covering are all made with high-intensity light body material-carbon fiber board and carbon cloth.
Fig. 9 has provided the engine room structure figure of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention.
The cabin is stand up columnar structured, and external diameter is 1 meter, highly is 1.2 meters.In the cabin, operating seat is high 0.3 meter, is water tank 32 under the operating seat.The base plate in cabin is the top board 33 of the chamber of getting angry of acetylene gas generator.Coaming plate 34 is the shared peripheral tube plates of cabin and acetylene gas generator.On the base plate in cabin, just on acetylene gas generator top board 33, a coolant inlet pipe is arranged, it and water tank 32 join; An acetylene freeing pipe is arranged, and external 3 arms respectively are provided with valve.The dead ahead of operating seat 104 on the coaming plate 34 in cabin, is a front window 101, and driver's observation is used.The below of front window 101 is chaufeur actuation means 102, comprises the guidance panel on an inclined-plane and the control box under the guidance panel.Have on the guidance panel: acetylene gas generator handling device, launching catapult handling device, flight eductor handling device.Have in the control box: the electrical panel of the circuit card of injection controller, the high-tension coil of firing unit, electronic acetylene air inlet valve, and other control current consumer element.Being the top board 42 in cabin on the chaufeur head, is rear window 43 behind the chaufeur brain, also is that driver's observation is used.Rear window 43 bottoms, the outside face of coaming plate 34 is provided with yaw rudder 46.Yaw rudder 46 is flat boards of placing vertically, and height is 0.6 meter, and length is 0.8 meter.Its stile is fixed on the vertical shaft, and this vertical shaft is by head bearing 45 and another lower bearing, vertically is fixed on the outer wall of coaming plate 34 in chaufeur dead aft.The upper end of said vertical shaft links to each other with rudder stock 44, chaufeur push-and-pull rudder stock 44, horizontal surface angle that just can change of direction rudder 46.
Figure 10 has provided the startup flight course figure of a kind of aircraft embodiment of the present invention.
What Figure 10-1 represented is aircraft standby for takeoff of the present invention, perfusion fuel process.
Aircraft of the present invention vertically stands on the ground, port wing and starboard wing horizontal development, and the spout of launching catapult is downward, is buckled on the ground surface platform of taking off of level.By the acetylene admission port, slowly in launching catapult, inject fuel acetylene, reach specified amount after, close the acetylene admission port.
What Figure 10-2 represented is that aircraft of the present invention starts the process of taking off vertically of launching.
Firing unit on the cylindrical shell of startup launching catapult, light the interior acetylene fire gases of cylindrical shell of launching catapult, the acetylene explosive combustion, the pressure and temperature moment rising of the miscellaneous gas in the cylindrical shell of launching catapult, the upper cover of launching catapult, be subjected to application force vertically upward, this power drives launching catapult and rises sheer from level ground fast, the delay of the elastic parts of being made up of pressure spring and sleeve is taken off, to combustion gas in the launching catapult, play the effect of going along with sb. to guard him of anti-leak, increased the impetus time that high-pressure gas makes progress to launching catapult.
Aircraft of the present invention is in launching the process of taking off vertically, and port wing and starboard wing no longer are horizontal developments.Because air resistance, port wing and starboard wing tilt sagging, and its angle of inclination is relevant with the tension spring tension of air resistance, port wing and starboard wing.In the process of taking off vertically, left and right sides wing symmetry is downward-sloping 2 benefits: the first reduces in the uphill process air to the resistance of wing; It two is the stability that increases vertically upward.If wing is not downward-sloping, in the uphill process, aircraft may be turned a somersault.
What Figure 10-3 represented is airplane catapult rising terminal point of the present invention, the process of lifting the flat-bed machine wing.
Terminal point at airplane catapult of the present invention just makes progress at airplane catapult, and the moment of the maximum height that takes off vertically, the aircraft upward velocity is zero, does not have relative motion between air and wing, does not also just have resistance.Under the tension spring tension effect of the left and right sides, port wing and starboard wing are accomplished to the excessive of horizontality from heeling condition.At this moment, pressure spring is in diastole state, and sleeve is suspended on pressure spring bottom, and 0.5 meter high sleeve has below 0.4 meter spout that is in launching catapult.
What Figure 10-4 represented is aircraft jet propulsion of the present invention, the horizontal flight process.
Aircraft of the present invention finish launch and the process that takes off vertically after, port wing and starboard wing also are transformed into horizontality from heeling condition, aircraft gets started the working process of flight eductor, carries out horizontal-jet and advances flight course.Flight injector interior fuel combustion produces high-temperature high-pressure fuel gas, sprays at a high speed from the spout of flight eductor, and its antagonistic force promotes aircraft and advances.Spray the related parameter that has of control circuit by change of flight, frequency of operation that can the change of flight eductor reaches the purpose of control flying speed and flying height.
The aircraft grounding of the present invention, the vertical landing process can be divided into following several stages:
1, reduce the frequency of operation of flight eductor, that is reduce the flight engine power, thereby reduce flying speed and reduce flying height;
2, under the low empty condition of low speed, close the flight eductor;
3, aircraft slowly vertically descends, and open double-vane produces the resistance to air, has limited the speed that aircraft descends;
4, at connected to chassis in a flash, be that the bottom flange of sleeve contacts to earth earlier, the top flange of sleeve upwards props up pressure spring, and the pressure spring platform that upwards withstands pressure, the result that a series of effects are transmitted, making the aircraft vertical landing is a kind of soft landing, has reduced the impulsive force that lands.

Claims (8)

1. aircraft, its structure comprises: square frame, cabin, wing assembly, flight eductor and injection controller, the left side of square frame is a port wing, the right side is a starboard wing, square frame by-level is placed the flight eductor, and the frame below is the cabin, it is characterized in that:
(1) its structure also comprises acetylene gas generator, and acetylene gas generator is positioned at the below in cabin;
(2) its structure also comprises launching catapult, and launching catapult is positioned at the below of acetylene gas generator;
(3) described square frame comprises four frames up and down: underframe, left frame, left frame and top frame, the middle part of top frame protrude upward a set collar.
2. according to the described a kind of aircraft of claim 1, it is characterized in that:
Described wing assembly, it comprises: left and right wing, left and right vertical rod, left and right pull bar, left and right extension spring; Starboard wing links to each other with the right side of square frame underframe by the right folding page or leaf; Starboard wing and right vertical rod vertical connection have a right pull bar that tiltedly draws between the two; Strain with the set collar at square frame top frame middle part mutually by right extension spring at right vertical rod top; The symmetrical configuration of port wing and starboard wing is identical.
3. according to the described a kind of aircraft of claim 1, it is characterized in that:
Described cabin, it is stand up columnar structured, it is made of the coaming plate of top board, base plate and the tubular of circle; The coaming plate external diameter is 1 meter, highly is 1.2 meters; In the cabin, operating seat is high 0.3 meter, is water tank under the operating seat; On the base plate in cabin, a coolant outlet pipe is arranged, it and water tank join, and also have an acetylene freeing pipe, and external 3 arms respectively are provided with valve; The dead ahead of operating seat on the coaming plate in cabin, is a front window, and driver's observation is used; The below of front window is the chaufeur actuation means, comprises a guidance panel that takes the form of inclined plane and the control box under the guidance panel; Acetylene gas generator handling device, launching catapult handling device, flight eductor handling device are arranged on the guidance panel; Have in the control box: the electrical panel of the high-tension coil of injection controller circuit card, firing unit, electronic acetylene air inlet valve, and other control current consumer element; Being the top board in cabin on the chaufeur head, is rear window behind the chaufeur brain, also is that driver's observation is used; Rear window bottom on the outside face of coaming plate, is provided with yaw rudder; Yaw rudder is a flat board of placing vertically, and height is 0.6 meter, and length is 0.8 meter, and its stile is fixed on the vertical shaft, and this vertical shaft is by head bearing and another lower bearing, vertically is fixed on the outer wall of coaming plate in chaufeur dead aft; The upper end of this vertical shaft links to each other with rudder stock, chaufeur push-and-pull rudder stock, horizontal surface angle that just can the change of direction rudder.
4. according to claim 1 or 2 described a kind of aircrafts, it is characterized in that:
Described port wing and starboard wing respectively by folding below it and top extension spring, are connected with therebetween square frame; Folding can bend, and extension spring can be extended, that is, with respect to square frame, port wing and starboard wing can carry out rotating respectively around the axle of its folding limitedly; When port wing, starboard wing and square frame during at same horizontal surface, the hand of rotation of port wing and starboard wing all is that wing tip is downward, and promptly port wing rotates around left hinge shaft anticlockwise direction, and starboard wing is around right hinge shaft right-hand revolution; The aerofoil profile of port wing and starboard wing is a convexo-plane, and profile thickness is 12%, and the aspect of wing is a rectangle, and chord length is 300 centimetres, and the width of left and right wing respectively is 400 centimetres, and the dihedral angle of wing is 0 degree; The cross-section structure of port wing and starboard wing is inner skeleton and surperficial covering, and inner skeleton and surperficial covering are all made with high-intensity light body material one carbon fiber board and carbon cloth.
5. according to the described a kind of aircraft of claim 1, it is characterized in that:
Described launching catapult, its profile are one and place the cylindrical container that Open Side Down vertically that its base portion is made up of upper cover and cylindrical shell; The air inlet pipe of a combustion gas acetylene is arranged on the top of cylindrical shell, the acetylene air inlet valve is arranged on the acetylene air inlet pipe; In the middle and upper part of cylindrical shell, a ventilation door is arranged; At the middle part of cylindrical shell, a firing unit is arranged; In the bottom of firing unit, a pressure platform is arranged, the pressure platform is a horizontal annular plane that is fixed on the barrel outer surface, the pressure platform is downward, acts on mutually with pressure spring; On the outer round surface of the bottom of cylindrical shell, a sleeve is arranged, its internal diameter is bigger slightly than the external diameter of cylindrical shell, and the outer round surface that sleeve can be close to cylindrical shell is free to slide, two all outside right angle of port flange up and down of sleeve, its upper overturning acts on mutually with pressure spring; When launching catapult was placed on ground, the following flange of sleeve and the lower port of cylindrical shell all were pressed on the ground; 1 meter of the external diameter of the cylindrical shell of launching catapult highly is 1.5 meters, and the height of sleeve is 0.5 meter, and the external diameter of the upper overturning of sleeve 17 is 1.2 meters, and the external diameter of following flange is 2 meters.
6. according to the described a kind of aircraft of claim 1, it is characterized in that:
Described acetylene gas generator, its basic structure are to be made of water tank, get angry chamber and several turnover pipe; The chamber of getting angry is surrounded the indoor spherical calcium carbide of filling of getting angry by the upper cover of top board, coaming plate and the launching catapult of circle; On top board, a coolant inlet pipe is arranged, a flood valve is arranged on it, the water inlet and the water tank of coolant inlet pipe join, and water tank is arranged in the cabin of top board top; On top board, an acetylene freeing pipe is arranged, external 3 of acetylene freeing pipe goes out gas branch pipe, and 3 go out to be respectively equipped with on the gas branch pipe back fire suppressor and acetylene safety valve; Coaming plate is provided with charging-explosion door, blow-off pipe and foul valve.
7. according to the described a kind of aircraft of claim 1, it is characterized in that:
Described flight eductor, its main body has two parts: cartouche and de Laval noz(zle); Inside from the import of cartouche,, an air reprint is arranged from import nearby, it carries out on-off control by electric actuator: cartouche standard-sized sheet or cartouche full cut-off; In the cartouche, the air reprint is a combustion chamber with interior space; The middle part of cartouche, an external combustion gas acetylene air inlet pipe has an acetylene air inlet valve on it; On the cartouche, near with the top of de Laval noz(zle) junction, the waste gate that can inwardly open is arranged, waste gate carries out on-off control by electric actuator, standard-sized sheet or full cut-off; On the cartouche, near with the bottom of de Laval noz(zle) junction, a firing unit is arranged; The import of de Laval noz(zle) is connected to the end port of cartouche, and to outlet, its of inner flow passage area experience is dwindled the process that afterwards enlarges earlier from the import of de Laval noz(zle); The alloy-steel plate manufacturing of high temperature high voltage resistant of flight eductor.
8. according to the described a kind of aircraft of claim 1, it is characterized in that:
Described injection controller, it is the control setup of flight eductor, it is made up of two parts: injection controller circuit and flight eductor handling device; The injection controller circuit card is arranged in the control box in cabin, and flight eductor handling device is positioned on the guidance panel in cabin;
The injection controller circuit is to utilize three grades of sequential timers, drives three magnetic force electric switches in order, the device of four parts such as control air reprint, waste gate, acetylene air inlet valve, firing unit; Adopt three 555 integrated circuit, produce three sequential pulses, the mouth of the 3rd 555 integrated circuit is received the trigger end of first 555 integrated circuit, realizes unstable state work;
First 555 integrated circuit, its reset terminal (pin 4) and power end (pin 8) are all directly joined with the V+ power supply, ground terminal (pin one) ground connection, and control end (pin 5) passes through a capacity earth.The energizing signal of its trigger end (pin two) is from the output signal of the 3rd 555 integrated circuit, via the trigging pulse of differential circuit generation; Timing is about 1.1* timing resistor * timing capacitor, and timing resistor is 2 megohms, and timing capacitor is 0.1 Mfd Microfarads, and timing is about 0.2 second; Its output end signal is received the base stage of current amplifier tube, this is a 3DK4 pipe, in its collector loop, a magnetic force electric switch is arranged, the electric actuator of the air reprint of control flight eductor and the electric actuator of waste gate, standard-sized sheet air reprint simultaneously and waste gate 0.2 second, gas exchange is carried out in injector interior and outside;
Second 555 integrated circuit, the energizing signal of its trigger end (pin two) is from the output signal of first 555 integrated circuit, via the trigging pulse of differential circuit generation; Timing was got 0.2 second; The mouth of second 555 integrated circuit is received the base stage of current amplifier tube, and this is a 3DK4 pipe, in its collector loop, a magnetic force electric switch is arranged, and is used to open the acetylene air inlet valve of flight eductor, advances acetylene gas 0.2 second;
The 3rd 555 integrated circuit, the energizing signal of its trigger end (pin two) is from the output signal of second 555 integrated circuit, via the trigging pulse of differential circuit generation; Timing was got 0.1 second; Its mouth is received the base stage of current amplifier tube, and this is a 3DK4 pipe, in its collector loop, the firing unit of a magnetic force electric switch control flight eductor is arranged, point of ignition 0.1 second;
The timing resistor of above-mentioned three timer circuits and timing capacitor are to change by the flight eductor handling device that is located in the cabin, that is to say that the frequency of operation of flight eductor can be regulated.
CN2009101634677A 2009-08-17 2009-08-17 Airplane Pending CN101992855A (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108845183A (en) * 2018-07-03 2018-11-20 西北工业大学 A kind of more electric Aircraft Cables impedance measurement methods

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108845183A (en) * 2018-07-03 2018-11-20 西北工业大学 A kind of more electric Aircraft Cables impedance measurement methods

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