CN101983589B - Curing process of flue-cured tobacco - Google Patents

Curing process of flue-cured tobacco Download PDF

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CN101983589B
CN101983589B CN2010105631350A CN201010563135A CN101983589B CN 101983589 B CN101983589 B CN 101983589B CN 2010105631350 A CN2010105631350 A CN 2010105631350A CN 201010563135 A CN201010563135 A CN 201010563135A CN 101983589 B CN101983589 B CN 101983589B
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tobacco leaf
tobacco
bulb temperature
dry
leaf
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CN101983589A (en
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罗定棋
张永辉
谢强
谢云波
何余勇
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张永辉
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Abstract

The invention discloses a curing process of flue-cured tobacco and belongs to the technical field of the curing technology of tobacco leaves. According to the curing characteristic of the leaves of the zhongyan 103, the temperature and the humidity, the curing process of tobacco leaf of the invention divides the whole process of the curing of tobacco leaves into five steps, namely firing-up and temperature control, yellowing of tobacco leaves, transition, colour setting of tobacco leaves and stem-drying of tobacco leaves, wherein the five steps have the three stages of yellowing stage, colour setting stage and stem-dring stage, thus the quality of the cured tobacco leaves is greatly increased. The curing process has high maneuverability and can obviously increase the tobacco leaf quality and high-class leaf ratio of flue-cured tobacco and reduce the rate of green tobacco; the ratios of high-class leaf and middle-class leaf in the cured tobacco leaves are increased by more than 10.65%, the ratio of the tobacco leaf with different colors is reduced by more than 1.67%, the ratio of tobacco leaves of which upper and middle parts are green is reduced by more than 7%; the output value is increased by more than 11.75%; and the cured tobacco leaves are bright-coloured and oily, the chemical composition tends to be coordinated, the sugar-nicotine ratio, the nitrogen-nicotine ratio and the total nicotine all meet the chemical composition quality evaluation standard of the crude tobacco; and the style characteristic of the zhongyan 103 is fully displayed, and the incomes of tobacco farmers are increased.

Description

A kind of baking process of flue-cured tobacco
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of baking process of flue-cured tobacco, particularly flue-cured tobacco cultivars is the baking process of middle cigarette 103.
Background technology
Baking is one of important measures of leaf tobacco production, and the fresh tobacco leaf of field results must could embody its good quality and higher commodity value through baking.At present; Baking of flue-cured tobacco technology is generally the syllogic baking process; Be about to bake process and be divided into flavescence, fixation, dried muscle three phases, yellowing stage: the dry bulb origin temp is 32~35 ℃, and temperature is 36~38 ℃ between changing yellow stage; 40~42 ℃ of temperature are accomplished in flavescence, and wet-bulb temperature is lower 1~4 ℃ than dry-bulb temperature; The fixation stage: 54~55 ℃ of dry-bulb temperatures, 38~40 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature; The dried muscle stage: 67~68 ℃ of dry-bulb temperatures, 40~42 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature promptly change requirement according to each stage tobacco leaf; The set point of temperature humidity index; Carry out heat supply and suitable ventilation, quality of tobacco is effectively embodied, and can integrate with international baking advanced level.
The tobacco flue-curing characteristic is restricted by multiple factors such as kind, soil, weather, and wherein most important factor is a kind, and different flue-cured tobacco cultivars have different baking properties.Middle cigarette 103 is new flue-cured tobacco varieties of Chinese tobacco breeding research (north) center seed selection.At present, also do not have to be directed against specially the report of the baking process of middle cigarette 103 these kinds, and middle cigarette 103 adopts traditional syllogic baking process; The baking back is gone up the medium grade cigarette ratio and is merely about 65.7%; The blue or green ratio of the little band of middle and upper part tobacco leaf is high, reaches more than 25.6%, and the variegated cigarette ratio of upper tobacco leaf is big; Reach more than 5.36% the style characteristic of cigarette 103 in can not embodying.
Summary of the invention
Goal of the invention of the present invention is: to the problem of above-mentioned existence, the baking process of cigarette 103 in a kind of suitable baking is provided, thus the outward appearance and the interior quality of cigarette 103 in improving.
The technical scheme that the present invention adopts is such: a kind of baking process of flue-cured tobacco may further comprise the steps:
The first step, temperature control on fire: after the tobacco leaf shove charge, igniting, the temperature changing speed with 2-3 ℃/h is raised to 34-36 ℃ with dry-bulb temperature then, and the temperature changing speed with 1 ℃/h is raised to 36-37 ℃ with dry-bulb temperature afterwards, wet-bulb temperature 32-34 ℃; The control index in this step: 4 centimetres of the lower tobacco leaf blade tip flavescence of base frame, about middle part tobacco leaf blade tip flavescence 7cm, about 10 centimetres of upper tobacco leaf blade tip flavescence, reach this target after, change next baking stage over to;
In second step, the tobacco leaf yellowing stage: the dry-bulb temperature of lower tobacco leaf is risen to 38-40 ℃, and wet-bulb temperature rises to 34-35 ℃; The dry-bulb temperature of middle and upper part tobacco leaf is risen to 39-40 ℃, and wet-bulb temperature rises to 35-36 ℃, and programming rate is for being 1 ℃/h; The control index in this step: the lower tobacco leaf of base frame is near the blue veins pornographic movie, middle part tobacco leaf pornographic movie blue veins, three pairs of big offshoots end flavescence of upper tobacco leaf, the deliquescing of base frame tobacco leaf;
In the 3rd step, transition stage: the dry-bulb temperature of lower tobacco leaf is risen to 42-48 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h, and wet-bulb temperature rises to 39-40 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h; Middle and upper part tobacco leaf dry-bulb temperature is risen to 42-44 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h, and wet-bulb temperature rises to 36-38 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h; This control index: the lower tobacco leaf of top platform is near the blue veins pornographic movie in stage, middle part tobacco leaf blue veins pornographic movie, the big offshoot flavescence on the upper tobacco leaf master pulse; Top platform tobacco leaf feels like jelly.
In the 4th step, the tobacco leaf fixation stage: the temperature control criterion of lower tobacco leaf and middle and upper part tobacco leaf is identical, is dry-bulb temperature and reaches 54-55 ℃, and wet-bulb temperature reaches 38-40 ℃; Programming rate: 1 ℃/h of lower tobacco leaf, middle and upper part tobacco leaf be with 0.5 ℃ of-0.7 ℃/h, or adopt for the middle and upper part tobacco leaf and to heat up 1 ℃ in 2 hours; This step is being controlled index: top platform tobacco leaf mesophyll is dry.
In the 5th step, the dried muscle stage of tobacco leaf: the temperature control criterion of lower tobacco leaf and middle and upper part tobacco leaf is identical, is dry-bulb temperature and reaches 65-68 ℃, and wet-bulb temperature 40-43 ℃, programming rate is 1 ℃/h; The control index in this step: top platform tobacco leaf master pulse is absolutely dry.
As preferably: in the 3rd step, when middle and upper part tobacco leaf dry-bulb temperature is 42 ℃, prolong baking 12 hours.
As preferably: in the 4th step, when dry-bulb temperature is 54 ℃, prolong stoving time 8-12 hour.
As preferably: whole bake process adopts flue-cured tobacco humiture automatic control system to carry out assist control.
In sum; Owing to adopted technique scheme, the invention has the beneficial effects as follows: on the basis of traditional tobacco leaf syllogic baking process, creatively according to 103 tobacco leaf characteristic and the quality of cigarette in the flue-cured tobacco cultivars; The overall process of middle cigarette 103 tops, middle part, lower tobacco leaf baking is divided into five step three phases according to factors vary such as temperature, humidity; And according to each stage tobacco leaf variation requirement, regulation humiture index is carried out heat supply and suitable ventilation; Quality of tobacco is effectively embodied, and can integrate with international baking advanced level.Easy and simple to handle, security insurance, workable that the present invention has, the advantage that can keep that the tobacco leaf fixation is stable, the leaf-shrinkage degree is good, oil content and tobacco incense tolerance increases substantially.The technical scheme of baking process is workable; Can obviously improve the baking quality of tobacco and the first-class cigarette ratio of cigarette 103 in the flue-cured tobacco cultivars; Reduce blue smoke rate, after the baking, go up medium tobacco leaf ratio and improve more than 10.65%; Variegated cigarette ratio reduces more than 1.67%, and the blue or green ratio of the little band of middle and upper part tobacco leaf reduces more than 7%; The output value increases more than 11.75%; Cured tobacco leaf gloss is bright-coloured, and is glossy, and chemical composition is tending towards coordinating, and sugared alkali ratio, nitrogen base ratio, total nicotine all meet former fuming composition quality evaluation criterion, cigarette 103 style characteristics in can demonstrating fully.
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is done detailed explanation.
In order to make the object of the invention, technical scheme and advantage clearer,, the present invention is further elaborated below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment.Should be appreciated that specific embodiment described herein only in order to explanation the present invention, and be not used in qualification the present invention.
Embodiment 1:
A kind of baking process of flue-cured tobacco may further comprise the steps:
The first step, after the tobacco leaf shove charge, igniting; Temperature changing speed with 2.5 ℃/h is raised to 35 ℃ with dry-bulb temperature then, and the temperature changing speed with 1 ℃/h is raised to 36.5 ℃ with dry-bulb temperature afterwards, 33 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature; Make 4 centimetres of the lower tobacco leaf blade tip flavescence of base frame, about middle part tobacco leaf blade tip flavescence 7cm, about 10 centimetres of upper tobacco leaf blade tip flavescence; After reaching this target, change next baking stage over to;
In second step, the tobacco leaf yellowing stage: the dry-bulb temperature of lower tobacco leaf is risen to 39 ℃, and wet-bulb temperature rises to 34.5 ℃; The dry-bulb temperature of middle and upper part tobacco leaf is risen to 39.5 ℃, and wet-bulb temperature rises to 35.5 ℃, and programming rate is for being 1 ℃/h; The lower tobacco leaf that makes base frame is near the blue veins pornographic movie, middle part tobacco leaf pornographic movie blue veins, three pairs of big offshoots end flavescence of upper tobacco leaf, the deliquescing of base frame tobacco leaf;
In the 3rd step, transition stage: the dry-bulb temperature of lower tobacco leaf is risen to 45 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h, and wet-bulb temperature rises to 39.5 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h; Middle and upper part tobacco leaf dry-bulb temperature is risen to 43 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h, and wet-bulb temperature rises to 37 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h; In the time of 42 ℃, prolong baking 12 hours during the baking of middle and upper part leaf, the lower tobacco leaf that makes the top platform is near the blue veins pornographic movie, middle part tobacco leaf blue veins pornographic movie, the big offshoot flavescence on the upper tobacco leaf master pulse; Top platform tobacco leaf feels like jelly;
In the 4th step, the tobacco leaf fixation stage: lower tobacco leaf and the equal dry-bulb temperature of middle and upper part tobacco leaf reach 54.5 ℃, 39 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature; Programming rate: lower tobacco leaf is with 1 ℃/h, and the middle and upper part tobacco leaf at 54 ℃, prolongs stoving time 8 hours with 0.6 ℃/h, makes top platform tobacco leaf mesophyll all dry;
In the 5th step, the dried muscle stage of tobacco leaf: dry-bulb temperature reaches 67 ℃, 42 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature, and identical index is adopted in the temperature control of lower tobacco leaf and middle and upper part tobacco leaf, and programming rate is 1 ℃/h, makes top platform tobacco leaf master pulse absolutely dry dry to full stove.
Whole bake process adopts flue-cured tobacco humiture automatic control system to carry out assist control, and controller is provided by Xi'an Senwas Electronic Engineering Co., Ltd., product type MJKY-A type.
Adopt above baking method, the flue cured tobacco quality and the economic benefit that obtain are seen table 1, compare with embodiment 4, and medium tobacco leaf ratio improves 12.6% on the middle cigarette 103 baking back tobacco leaves; Variegated cigarette ratio reduces 1.89%, and the blue or green ratio of the little band of middle and upper part tobacco leaf reduces 9.3%; The output value increases by 12.92%.
Embodiment 2
The first step, after the tobacco leaf shove charge, igniting, the temperature changing speed with 2 ℃/h is raised to 34 ℃ with dry-bulb temperature then, and the temperature changing speed with 1 ℃/h is raised to 36 ℃ with dry-bulb temperature afterwards, 32 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature.5 centimetres of the lower tobacco leaf blade tip flavescence of base frame, about middle part tobacco leaf blade tip flavescence 6.5cm, 10 centimetres of upper tobacco leaf blade tip flavescence, reach this target after, change fire and get into next baking stage;
In second step, the tobacco leaf yellowing stage: during the lower tobacco leaf baking dry-bulb temperature is risen to 38 ℃, wet-bulb temperature rises to 34 ℃; The dry-bulb temperature of middle and upper part tobacco leaf is risen to 39 ℃, and wet-bulb temperature rises to 35 ℃, and programming rate is for being 1 ℃/h, and the lower tobacco leaf that makes base frame is near the blue veins pornographic movie, middle part tobacco leaf pornographic movie blue veins, three pairs of big offshoots end flavescence of upper tobacco leaf, the deliquescing of base frame tobacco leaf;
In the 3rd step, transition stage: the dry-bulb temperature of lower tobacco leaf is risen to 42 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h, and wet-bulb temperature rises to 39 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h; Middle and upper part tobacco leaf dry-bulb temperature is risen to 42 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h; Wet-bulb temperature rises to 37 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h; In the time of 42 ℃, prolong baking 12 hours when the middle and upper part leaf toasts, the lower tobacco leaf that makes the top platform is near the blue veins pornographic movie; Middle part tobacco leaf blue veins pornographic movie, the big offshoot flavescence on the upper tobacco leaf master pulse; Top platform tobacco leaf feels like jelly;
In the 4th step, the tobacco leaf fixation stage: dry-bulb temperature reaches 54 ℃, 38 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature.Programming rate: lower tobacco leaf is with 1 ℃/h, and the middle and upper part tobacco leaf at 54 ℃, prolongs stoving time 8 hours with 0.7 ℃/h, makes top platform tobacco leaf mesophyll dry;
In the 5th step, the dried muscle stage of tobacco leaf: dry-bulb temperature reaches 65 ℃, 40 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature, and identical index is adopted in the temperature control of lower tobacco leaf and middle and upper part tobacco leaf, and programming rate is 1 ℃/h, the baking target in this step: top platform tobacco leaf master pulse reaches dried entirely.
Whole bake process adopts flue-cured tobacco humiture automatic control system to carry out assist control, and controller is provided by Xi'an Senwas Electronic Engineering Co., Ltd., product type MJKY-A type.
Adopt above baking method, the flue cured tobacco quality and the economic benefit that obtain are seen table 1, compare with embodiment 4, and medium tobacco leaf ratio improves 10.65% on the middle cigarette 103 baking back tobacco leaves, and variegated cigarette ratio reduces 1.67%, and the blue or green ratio of the little band of middle and upper part tobacco leaf reduces 7%; The output value increases by 11.75%.
Embodiment 3
The first step, after the tobacco leaf shove charge, igniting, the temperature changing speed with 3 ℃/h is raised to 36 ℃ with dry-bulb temperature then, and the temperature changing speed with 1 ℃/h is raised to 37 ℃ with dry-bulb temperature afterwards, 34 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature.Make 4 centimetres of the lower tobacco leaf blade tip flavescence of base frame, about middle part tobacco leaf blade tip flavescence 7cm, about 10 centimetres of upper tobacco leaf blade tip flavescence, reach this target after, change next baking stage over to.In second step, the tobacco leaf yellowing stage: the dry-bulb temperature of lower tobacco leaf is risen to 40 ℃, and wet-bulb temperature rises to 35 ℃; The dry-bulb temperature of middle and upper part tobacco leaf is risen to 40 ℃, and wet-bulb temperature rises to 36 ℃, and programming rate is for being 1 ℃/h.The lower tobacco leaf that makes base frame is near the blue veins pornographic movie, middle part tobacco leaf pornographic movie blue veins, three pairs of big offshoots end flavescence of upper tobacco leaf, the deliquescing of base frame tobacco leaf.In the 3rd step, transition stage: the dry-bulb temperature of lower tobacco leaf is risen to 48 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h, and wet-bulb temperature rises to 40 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h; Middle and upper part tobacco leaf dry-bulb temperature is risen to 44 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h, and wet-bulb temperature rises to 38 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h.When toasting, the middle and upper part leaf in the time of 42 ℃, prolongs baking 12 hours.The lower tobacco leaf that makes the top platform is near the blue veins pornographic movie, middle part tobacco leaf blue veins pornographic movie, the big offshoot flavescence on the upper tobacco leaf master pulse; Top platform tobacco leaf feels like jelly.In the 4th step, the tobacco leaf fixation stage: dry-bulb temperature reaches 55 ℃, 38 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature.Programming rate: lower tobacco leaf is with 1 ℃/h, and the middle and upper part tobacco leaf at 54 ℃, prolongs stoving time 8 hours with 0.5 ℃/h.Make top platform tobacco leaf mesophyll all dry.
In the 5th step, the dried muscle stage of tobacco leaf: dry-bulb temperature reaches 68 ℃, 43 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature, and identical index is adopted in the temperature control of lower tobacco leaf and middle and upper part tobacco leaf, and programming rate is 1 ℃/h.Make top platform tobacco leaf master pulse absolutely dry dry to full stove.
Whole bake process adopts flue-cured tobacco humiture automatic control system to carry out assist control, and controller is provided by Xi'an Senwas Electronic Engineering Co., Ltd., product type MJKY-A type.
Adopt above baking method, the flue cured tobacco quality and the economic benefit that obtain are seen table 1, compare with embodiment 4, and medium tobacco leaf ratio improves 13.33% on the middle cigarette 103 baking back tobacco leaves, and variegated cigarette ratio reduces 2.66%, and the blue or green ratio of the little band of middle and upper part tobacco leaf reduces 10.4%; The output value increases by 14.31%.
Cigarette 103 effects in embodiment 4 traditional syllogic baking process bakings
Bake process is divided into flavescence, fixation, dried muscle three phases; Yellowing stage: the dry bulb origin temp is 32 ℃; With 0.5 ℃/h the changing yellow stage temperature is raised to 38 ℃, steady temperature flavescence, 42 ℃ of temperature are accomplished in flavescence; Wet-bulb temperature is lower 1~4 ℃ than dry-bulb temperature, and the little band green grass or young crops of top platform tobacco leaf pornographic movie blue veins, master pulse are felt like jelly; The fixation stage: programming rate heated up 1 ℃ in average about 3 hours, and wet-bulb temperature should be controlled at 38 ℃, makes the abundant flavescence of cigarette muscle; After this programming rate can add near 1 ℃ of intensification in 1 hour, and wet-bulb temperature remains on 39 ℃.At 54-55 ℃, 40 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature make tobacco leaf reach parent roll and do; The muscle stage: 67 ℃ of dry-bulb temperatures, 42 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature make top platform tobacco leaf master pulse absolutely dry dry to full stove.
Adopt above baking method, medium tobacco leaf ratio is 65.7% on the middle cigarette 103 baking back tobacco leaves, and variegated cigarette ratio is 5.36%, and the blue or green ratio of the little band of middle and upper part tobacco leaf is 25.6%; 1935.22 yuan of per mu yield values.
Table 1: the flue cured tobacco quality and the economic efficiency contrast table that adopt different process to obtain
Go up medium tobacco leaf ratio Variegated cigarette ratio The blue or green ratio of the little band of middle and upper part tobacco leaf The per mu yield value
Embodiment 1 78.3% 3.47% 16.3% 2185.25 unit
Embodiment 2 76.35% 3.69% 18.6% 2162.61 unit
Embodiment 3 79.03% 2.70% 15.2% 2212.15 unit
Embodiment 4 65.7% 6.36% 25.6% 1935.22 unit

Claims (4)

1. the baking process of a flue-cured tobacco is characterized in that: may further comprise the steps:
The first step, temperature control on fire: after the tobacco leaf shove charge, igniting, the temperature changing speed with 2-3 ℃/h is raised to 35 ℃-36 ℃ with dry-bulb temperature then, and the temperature changing speed with 1 ℃/h is raised to 36-37 ℃ with dry-bulb temperature afterwards, and wet-bulb temperature is raised to 32-33 ℃;
In second step, the tobacco leaf yellowing stage: the dry-bulb temperature of lower tobacco leaf is risen to 38-40 ℃, and wet-bulb temperature rises to 34-35 ℃; The dry-bulb temperature of middle and upper part tobacco leaf is risen to 39-40 ℃, and wet-bulb temperature rises to 35-36 ℃, and programming rate is 1 ℃/h;
In the 3rd step, transition stage: the dry-bulb temperature of lower tobacco leaf is risen to 42-48 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h, and wet-bulb temperature rises to 39-40 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h; Middle and upper part tobacco leaf dry-bulb temperature is risen to 42-44 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h, and wet-bulb temperature rises to 36-38 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h;
In the 4th step, the tobacco leaf fixation stage: the temperature control criterion of lower tobacco leaf and middle and upper part tobacco leaf is identical, is dry-bulb temperature and reaches 54-55 ℃, and wet-bulb temperature reaches 38-40 ℃; Programming rate: 1 ℃/h of lower tobacco leaf, middle and upper part tobacco leaf be with 0.5 ℃ of-0.7 ℃/h, or adopt for the middle and upper part tobacco leaf and to heat up 1 ℃ in 2 hours;
In the 5th step, the dried muscle stage of tobacco leaf: the temperature control criterion of lower tobacco leaf and middle and upper part tobacco leaf is identical, is dry-bulb temperature and reaches 65-68 ℃, and wet-bulb temperature reaches 40-43 ℃, and programming rate is 1 ℃/h.
2. according to the baking process of the said a kind of flue-cured tobacco of claim 1, it is characterized in that: in the 3rd step, when middle and upper part tobacco leaf dry-bulb temperature is 42 ℃, prolong baking 12 hours.
3. according to the baking process of the said a kind of flue-cured tobacco of claim 1, it is characterized in that: in the 4th step, when dry-bulb temperature is 54 ℃, prolong stoving time 8-12 hour.
4. according to the baking process of the said a kind of flue-cured tobacco of claim 1, it is characterized in that: whole bake process adopts flue-cured tobacco humiture automatic control system to carry out assist control.
CN2010105631350A 2010-11-29 2010-11-29 Curing process of flue-cured tobacco CN101983589B (en)

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