CN101973824B - Fertilizer capable of improving tobacco soil and promoting growth of root - Google Patents

Fertilizer capable of improving tobacco soil and promoting growth of root Download PDF

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CN101973824B
CN101973824B CN2010105250359A CN201010525035A CN101973824B CN 101973824 B CN101973824 B CN 101973824B CN 2010105250359 A CN2010105250359 A CN 2010105250359A CN 201010525035 A CN201010525035 A CN 201010525035A CN 101973824 B CN101973824 B CN 101973824B
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fertilizer
soil
tobacco
root
leaf
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CN101973824A (en
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叶协锋
谢会川
徐宸
陈文�
王勇
马啸
杨超
杨永锋
刘清华
马京民
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Henan Agricultural University
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Abstract

The invention relates to a fertilizer capable of improve the tobacco soil and promote the growth of roots. The fertilizer comprises the following components by weight percent: 60-90% of humus type organic carrier, 4-10% of rooting powder or root growth promoter, 2-5% of plant growth hormone, 2-5% of potassium sulfate and 2-10% of secondary element/trace element fertilizer. By using the fertilizer of the invention, the soil can be improved, the soil organic matters can be increased, the soil organic and inorganic composites can be improved, the water-stable aggregate structure is easy to form, the supply of soil nutrients can be coordinated, the growth of plant roots can be promoted, the effectiveness of nutrients in soil can be increased, the potassium content of plant tissues can be increased, the organic matters of the tobacco soil can be increased, the effectiveness of nutrients in the tobacco soil can be increased, the growth of tobacco can be promoted, the potassium content of tobacco leaves can be increased, the quality of the flue-cured tobacco leaves can be improved, and the fragrance of tobacco leaves can be increased. By using a defined amount of the fertilizer of the invention, the absorption of the flue-cured tobacco to heavy metals such as arsenic can be reduced, the heavy metal enrichment factor of the flue-cured tobacco can be reduced and the contents of heavy metals such as arsenic in soot and smoke can also be reduced.

Description

The short root manure of vega soil improvement
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of fertilizer field, be specifically related to the short root manure of a kind of vega soil improvement.
Background technology
Tobacco is that the higher extraordinary leaf of a kind of economic worth is used cash crop, and China is world production the first big country, annual plantation tobacco more than 140 ten thousand hm 2, yield of tobacco reaches more than 170 ten thousand t, and consumption accounts for 1/3 of the world.Tobacco tax revenue and profit account for about 10% of state revenue, for the healthy and rapid development of national economy has been made significant contribution.But for a long time, owing to be subjected to the restriction of land resources, the most of vega of China adopts the continuous cropping mode for a long time, often only pay attention to aborning the input of chemical fertilizer, support combination and ignored using with the usefulness in soil of fertilizer, cause soil compaction, the soil fertility decline, organic content reduces, the vega soil fertility descends year by year, soil nutrient supply imbalance and chemical fertilizer utilization ratio are low, thereby cause tobacco leaf chemical composition imbalance, perfume quantity deficiency and tobacco leaf industrial utilization poor etc., seriously hindered the further raising of China's quality of tobacco.
In recent years; people's health perception, environmental consciousness improve constantly; day by day serious global energy dilemma and chemical fertilizer excessively use the series of problems that degradation brings under environmental pollution, the soil fertility; so that no matter be fertilizing soil; improve Variation of Integrated Soil Fertility; or protection of the environment, realize Sustainable development, to the research of fertilizer with use and all become the from now on inexorable trend of ecological agriculture development.Using of China's tobacco-growing soil fertilizer experienced from paying attention to ignoring again to the process of paying attention to, five sixties of 20th century cigarette quality is good, fertilizer almost is unique source of manure of tobacco, afterwards a large amount of uses of chemical fertilizer make the cigarette quality degradation, until the mid-80 begins to advocate fertilizer inorganic fertilizer compounding application, cigarette quality just begins to take a turn for the better, and using of fertilizer is still people's outline so far.The present domestic applying organic manure, inorganic that in succession in cured tobacco production, carried out--organicly join the test of executing, using bio-bacterial manure part replacing fertilizer, and obtain certain increasing of quality and production effect.Liu Weiqun etc. studies show that using in right amount cake fertilizer can significantly increase soil microbe quantity, strengthen soil enzyme activities, stimulate cigarette strain root growth, and play a positive role at the aspects such as sensory evaluating smoking's quality that improve tobacco leaf; The fertilizer inorganic fertilizer of Han Jinfeng etc. is joined and is executed test and also show, uses cake fertilizer to improving the tobacco leaf visual appearance, increasing fragrance and improve jealous effect larger, can improve yield of tobacco and first-class cigarette ratio, and take cake fertilizer nitrogen account for total amount of nitrogen 20% as good.Yet, fertilizer is when playing a positive role, can promote the mineralising of the fixing and tobacco growing later stage soil nitrogen of tobacco growing Nitrogen In Soils element in early stage, these two results exactly with the dislocation of the need nitrogen rule of cigarette strain, can some chemical ingredientss of tobacco be had a negative impact, the nicotine content of tobacco leaf exceeds standard during excessive using, and chemical ingredients is inharmonious, particularly the middle and lower part tobacco leaf.In addition, along with the development of industry, aquaculture, so that fertilizer source is increasingly extensive, but the objectionable constituent such as the contained heavy metal of this type of fertilizer, microbiotic, pesticide residue also increase increasingly, and more complicated various.Apply this type of fertilizer in the vega and will cause tobacco leaf heavy metal, the farming harmful substance contents such as residual to increase, make cigarette and can enter human body by suction, be detrimental to health.So fertilizer has dual character at the raising cigarette quality, and is prudent especially when using.
The flue-cured tobacco Term Fertilization is improper at present is the main limiting factor that China's most of cigarette district quality of tobacco further improves, tobacco produces and has the requirement that utilization rate of fertilizer is low, cigarette quality does not reach " the suitable product of high-quality ", for using separately in a large number of nitrogen in the leaf tobacco production, phosphorus, potassium nutrition, affect the problem that the yield of flue-cured tobacco quality improves, How to choose is applicable to the fertilizer of vega, and then improve utilization rate of fertilizer, improve quality of tobacco and improve edatope, be the key issue that improves quality of tobacco.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention provides a kind ofly can be coordinated the vega soil nutrient supply and improve edatope and improve the short root manure of vega soil improvement of quality of tobacco.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the technical solution used in the present invention is:
The short root manure of a kind of vega soil improvement, contain following weight per-cent composition: Humus organic carrier 60~90%, root-inducing powder or promoter 4~10%, plant growth hormones 2~5%, vitriolate of tartar 2~15%, in, trace element fertilizer 2~10%.
Described Humus organic carrier is at least a in humic acids, ammonium humate, Sodium salts humic acids, potassium humate, xanthohumic acid, peat, brown coal, the weathered coal.Peat claims again the peat composed of rotten mosses or claims mud coal that its solid matter is mainly by the plant residue of decomposition and complete humified soil ulmin and mineral substance do not form fully.Contain abundant resource of humic acid in China's peat resource, according to incompletely statistics, have approximately 60% to be to belong to high humic acid peat (humic acids content is greater than 35%) in the peat resource; Middle humic acids peat (humic acids content 25~35%) accounts for 30%; Low humic acids peat (humic acids content 15~25%) accounts for 10%.Brown coal have another name called the bavin coal, are the minimum pit coals of degree of coalification, and a kind of brownish black, lacklustre grizzle between peat and pitch coal contains the humic acids that dissolves in the alkali lye.Weathered coal, exposure are in the earth's surface or bury coal seam in superficial part, and after the weathering, very significantly change has all occured for its chemistry and physical properties, and the coal in this a part of coal seam is called weathered coal; The brown coal of the public crow element in Datong District, Lingshi County, Taiyuan Wu Jiashan, Pingxiang Ma Shan, Luliang, the Inner Mongol, Hegang, Heilungkiang and Qitaihe all are that free humic acid content reaches 50%, ash content is less than 20% high-quality weathered coal, also have Jincheng, Shanxi, Gongyi, Henan, Turpan, Xinjiang etc. to locate to contain in the weathered coal a considerable amount of xanthohumic acids.
Described root-inducing powder or promoter are at least a in ABT1 number to ABT10 number; Or be indolebutyric acid potassium.
The ABT root-inducing powder, a kind of wide spectrum of being succeeded in developing by Chinese forest-science academy, efficient, compound plant-growth regulator, the ABT root-inducing powder has been researched and developed out 10 kinds of models.ABT1, ABT2, ABT3, ABT4, be for No. 5 alcoholic solvent, ABT6 number, No. 7, No. 8, No. 9, No. 10 is water solvent.
Described plant growth hormones is the IAA(indolylacetic acid), at least a in 4-chloro-IAA, 5-hydroxyl-IAA, naphthylacetic acid, indolebutyric acid, phytokinin, zeatin, the Plant hormones regulators,gibberellins.IAA can obviously improve the potassium content of tobacco leaf, reduces nicotine content.
In described, trace element fertilizer is at least a in fertiliser containing magnesium, boron fertilizer, molydbenum fertilizer, zinc fertilizer, copper fertilizer, manganese fertilizer, the siliceous fertilizer, can select in one or more according to the situation of planting cigarette zone or soil, trace element fertilizer.Generally speaking, do not introduce a large amount of chlorine elements in, trace element fertilizer all can use.Common fertiliser containing magnesium has sal epsom, fused(calcium magnesium)phosphate, ground dolomite etc.; Boron fertilizer has borax, boric acid etc.; Molydbenum fertilizer has ammonium molybdate, Sodium orthomolybdate; Zinc fertilizer has zinc sulfate etc.; The fertile copper sulfate of copper, Basic Chrome Sulphate, Red copper oxide; Manganese fertilizer has manganous sulfate, manganese ore powder etc.; Siliceous fertilizer has water glass etc.
The preparation method of the short root manure of described vega soil improvement is: evenly mixes by described proportioning after getting various raw material pulverizing, or routinely technique granulation after evenly mixing.
Improve soil aeration, be conducive to the synthetic of nicotine.Soil aeration situation and water regime also affect plant to the absorption of nutrient.
Method of application is: use as base manure, row replacement or spread manuer in holes all can, consumption is 300~600kg/hm 2
The present invention has actively useful effect:
1. fertilizer of the present invention can be improved soil, improve the soil organism, promote plant root system development, improve nutrient availability in the soil, improve the plant tissue potassium content, can increase the tobacco-growing soil organic matter, improve nutrient availability in the tobacco-growing soil, promote tobacco root to grow, improve potassium content of tobacco leaf, improve the quality of cured tobacco leaf, and increase fragrance content.
2. fertilizer of the present invention is applied to vega and can effectively alleviates owing to the single chemical fertilizer of long-term application causes that the trace element of tobacco-growing soil reduces, utilization rate of fertilizer reduces, the problem such as out of proportion of soil nutrient, utilization ratio, the trace element of soil and fertilizer are improved, meet flue-cured tobacco to the nutritional needs of nutrient situation.
3. vega is used fertilizer of the present invention and can be improved the field soil microclimate environment, be conducive to soil organic and the improvement of inorganic complex and the formation of water stability crumb structure, thereby the gas permeability of soil and retentiveness are strengthened, amount of cure improves, increase the activity of soil microbe quantity and enzyme, improve on the whole physics and chemistry and the biological nature of tobacco-growing soil; Simultaneously, can also promote the cigarette strain the output of growing, improve tobacco leaf, increase the perfume quantity of tobacco leaf and improve the tobacco leaf chemical quality.
4. vega is used fertilizer of the present invention and can be promoted tobacco root to grow, increase the root amount, flue-cured tobacco root system development and tobacco leaf growth, disease resistance, Major Economic, tobacco leaf chemical composition and sucking quality have close relationship, along with the heavy increase of root, the tobacco leaf growth is accelerated, the resistance of virus disease is strengthened, and tobacco leaf chemical composition is tending towards coordinating simultaneously, the tobacco leaf quality improvement of smokeing panel test.
5. humic acid substance is combined the humic acid fertilizer that forms in the fertilizer of the present invention with N, P, K, can prevent that soil is to the solubility phosphorus fixation, reduce the loss of N and K, both improved the utilization ratio of phosphate fertilizer, nitrogenous fertilizer and potash fertilizer, reach the purpose that not only improves soil but also improve quality of tobacco.
6. but use an amount of heavy metal class materials such as fertilizer fixed arsenic of the present invention in the soil, reduce flue-cured tobacco to absorption and the individual plant arsenic content of arsenic etc., the arsenic content in the long-pending coefficient of richness of flue-cured tobacco and cigarette ash, the flue gas is reduced.
Description of drawings
The short root manure amount of application of the different vega soil improvement of Fig. 1 is on the impact of the neutral aroma component total amount of flue-cured tobacco;
The short root manure amount of application of the different vega soil improvement of Fig. 2 is on the impact of the neutral aroma component total amount of flue-cured tobacco (removal neophytadiene);
The short root manure amount of application of the different vega soil improvement of Fig. 3 is on the impact of the neutral aroma component phenylalanine of flue-cured tobacco class;
The short root manure amount of application of the different vega soil improvement of Fig. 4 is on the impact of neutral brownization of aroma component of flue-cured tobacco product type;
The short root manure amount of application of the different vega soil improvement of Fig. 5 is on the impact of the neutral aroma component class of flue-cured tobacco west cypress alkanes;
The short root manure amount of application of the different vega soil improvement of Fig. 6 is on the impact of the neutral aroma component carotenoids of flue-cured tobacco.
Embodiment
1 one kinds of short root manures of vega soil improvement of embodiment contain following weight per-cent composition: xanthohumic acid 70%, ABT5 8%, IAA 4%, vitriolate of tartar 10%, zinc sulfate 8%.Evenly mix various raw materials by described proportioning, or routinely technique granulation after evenly mixing.
2 one kinds of short root manures of vega soil improvement of embodiment contain following weight per-cent composition: xanthohumic acid 80%, ABT15 3%, IAA 3%, vitriolate of tartar 5%, zinc sulfate 7%.Evenly mix various raw materials by described proportioning, or routinely technique granulation after evenly mixing.
3 one kinds of short root manures of vega soil improvement of embodiment contain following weight per-cent composition: xanthohumic acid 60%, ABT5 10%, IAA 5%, vitriolate of tartar 15%, zinc sulfate 10%.Evenly mix various raw materials by described proportioning, or routinely technique granulation after evenly mixing.
4 one kinds of short root manures of vega soil improvement of embodiment contain following weight per-cent composition: xanthohumic acid 90%, ABT5 4%, IAA 2%, vitriolate of tartar 2%, zinc sulfate 2%.Evenly mix various raw materials by described proportioning, or routinely technique granulation after evenly mixing.
5 one kinds of short root manures of vega soil improvement of embodiment contain following weight per-cent composition: humic acids 80%, ABT6 6%, 5-hydroxyl-IAA 3%, vitriolate of tartar 12%, copper sulfate 9%.Evenly mix various raw materials by described proportioning, or routinely technique granulation after evenly mixing.
6 one kinds of short root manures of vega soil improvement of embodiment contain following weight per-cent composition: humic acids 70%, ABT7 8%, naphthylacetic acid 4%, vitriolate of tartar 10%, copper sulfate 8%.Evenly mix various raw materials by described proportioning, or routinely technique granulation after evenly mixing.
7 one kinds of short root manures of vega soil improvement of embodiment contain following weight per-cent composition: ammonium humate 65%, ABT8 5%, indolebutyric acid 5%, vitriolate of tartar 15%, borax 10%.Evenly mix various raw materials by described proportioning, or routinely technique granulation after evenly mixing.
8 one kinds of short root manures of vega soil improvement of embodiment contain following weight per-cent composition: potassium humate 70%, ABT6 10%, Plant hormones regulators,gibberellins 5%, vitriolate of tartar 5%, ammonium molybdate 10%.Evenly mix various raw materials by described proportioning, or routinely technique granulation after evenly mixing.
9 one kinds of short root manures of vega soil improvement of embodiment contain following weight per-cent composition: Sodium salts humic acids 85%, ABT2 4%, zeatin 3%, vitriolate of tartar 5%, ammonium molybdate 3%.
10 1 kinds of short root manures of vega soil improvement of embodiment contain following weight per-cent composition: peat 80%, ABT8 4%, 4-chloro-IAA 2%, vitriolate of tartar 11%, water glass 3%.
11 1 kinds of short root manures of vega soil improvement of embodiment contain following weight per-cent composition: brown coal 90%, ABT8 4%, phytokinin 2%, vitriolate of tartar 2%, manganous sulfate 2%.
12 1 kinds of short root manures of vega soil improvement of embodiment contain following weight per-cent composition: weathered coal 85%, ABT9 5%, indolebutyric acid 3%, vitriolate of tartar 4%, manganous sulfate 3%.
13 1 kinds of short root manures of vega soil improvement of embodiment contain following weight per-cent composition: potassium humate 80%, ABT10 5%, 5-hydroxyl-IAA 4%, vitriolate of tartar 7%, boric acid 4%.
14 1 kinds of short root manures of vega soil improvement of embodiment contain following weight per-cent composition: ammonium humate 60%, ABT3 10%, IAA 5%, vitriolate of tartar 15%, boric acid 4%, zinc sulfate 6%.
15 1 kinds of short root manures of vega soil improvement of embodiment contain following weight per-cent composition: peat 70%, ABT4 5%, IAA 5%, vitriolate of tartar 10%, ammonium molybdate 5%, zinc sulfate 5%.
15 1 kinds of short root manures of vega soil improvement of embodiment contain following weight per-cent composition: peat 40%, xanthohumic acid 40%, ABT2 4%, naphthylacetic acid 3%, vitriolate of tartar 8%, water glass 2%, zinc sulfate 3%.
Embodiment carried out the short root manure field of soil improvement application effect in Jiaxian County, tafelberg in 16 2007 years to be tested.Experimental cultivar is Zhongyan-100, and soil is cinnamon soil.If two processing are respectively contrast (CK, normal fertilising, purity nitrogen 45kg/hm 2, N:P 2O 5: K 2O=1:2:3) and use the short root manure of soil improvement (xanthohumic acid accounts for 80%, accounts for 5% root-inducing powder ABT6 number, and growth hormone (IAA) accounts for 2%, and vitriolate of tartar (potassium oxide content 50%) accounts for 10%, and zinc sulfate accounts for 3%) 300kg/hm 2, join and execute conventional fertilizer, make the nitrogen, phosphorus, the potassium composition that apply satisfy N:P 2O 5: K 2O=1:2:3.Interpretation of result is as follows:
(1) the short root manure of soil improvement is on the impact of cigarette strain root growth
The short root manure of table 1 soil improvement is on the impact of cigarette strain root growth
Process Root long (cm) Root dry weight (g)
Contrast 49.20 4.698
Root manure is urged in soil improvement 66.75 8.516
As known from Table 1, the root of contrast is long to be 49.20cm, uses behind the short root manure of soil improvement that root is long to be 66.75cm, and contrast has increased 17.55cm.Root dry weight is processed maximum with the short root manure of soil improvement, be 8.516g, contrasts to be 4.698g.This shows, uses soil improvement and urgees to have promoted cigarette strain Root growth behind the root manure.
(2) the short root manure of soil improvement is on the impact of tobacco-growing soil organic matter
Table 2 is used the short root manure of soil improvement to the impact (g/kg) of tobacco-growing soil organic content
Process After the fertilising After the results
Contrast 21.81 21.43
Root manure is urged in soil improvement 22.50 22.19
As known from Table 2, the soil organic matter content of contrast is 21.81g/kg, and using the short root manure of soil improvement to process soil organic matter content is 22.50 g/kg, and contrast has increased by 0.71 g/kg.After the cigarette strain results, the organic content of contrast is 21.43 g/kg, and the soil organic matter content that uses the short root manure of soil improvement to process is 22.19 g/kg, and contrast has increased by 0.76 g/kg.This shows, uses the organic content that has improved tobacco-growing soil behind the short root manure of soil improvement.
(3) the short root manure of soil improvement is on the impact of cured tobacco leaf potassium content
The short root manure of table 3 soil improvement is on the impact (K of potassium content of tobacco leaf +, %)
Process Upper leaf Middle leaf The bottom leaf
Contrast 1.02 1.26 1.31
Root manure is urged in soil improvement 1.27 1.66 1.73
As known from Table 3, the potassium content of cured tobacco leaf is the highest to use the short root manure of soil improvement to process, and the potassium content of upper leaf, middle leaf and bottom leaf is respectively 1.02%, 1.26% and 1.31%; The potassium content of tobacco leaf of contrast has increased by 0.25%, 0.40% and 0.42% respectively.This shows, uses the potassium content that has obviously improved tobacco leaf behind the short root manure of soil improvement.
Embodiment 17 2007.4 carry out the pot experiment of the short root manure application effect of soil improvement~October at Agricultural University Of He'nan's scientific and educational park.The soil process is air-dry and cross 0.5 mm~1.0 mm mesh screens, and every basin fills native 20 kg, and every basin is executed pure N 3g, and phosphorus, potash fertilizer sowing amount satisfy N:P 2O 5: K 2O=1:2:3, soil improvement urgees to fill basin behind root manure (xanthohumic acid accounts for 80%, accounts for 5% root-inducing powder ABT6 number, and growth hormone (IAA) accounts for 2%, and vitriolate of tartar (potassium oxide accounts for 50%) accounts for 10%, and zinc sulfate accounts for 3%) and other fertilizer and the abundant mixing of soil.Consumption according to the short root manure of soil improvement is different, and it is 5 processing that test is divided into, and is followed successively by: CK:0g/ basin, T1:18 g/ basin, T2:23 g/ basin, T3:28 g/ basin, and T4:33 g/ basin, other cultivation management measure is identical with the sound tobacco production technology.Interpretation of result is as follows:
(1) different treatment is on the impact of cigarette Aromatic Matter Contents after roasting
Fragrance is to estimate one of the core content of inherent quality of tobacco leaf and important indicator.Tobacco leaf fragrance substances content and its aroma quality are closely related, by analyzing tobacco leaf fragrance substances content, can compare objective, accurately evaluation to quality of tobacco.
Fig. 1~6th to the analysis of the neutral aroma component of flue-cured tobacco, wherein analyzed the fragrance total amount, removed fragrance total amount, phenylalanine class, brownization product type, class west cypress alkanes, carotenoids behind the neophytadiene.
As seen from Figure 1, different Rate of Humic Acids are variant on the impact of the neutral aroma component total amount of flue-cured tobacco.The variation tendency of the neutral aroma component total amount of flue-cured tobacco variation tendency is from bottom leaf>upper leaf>middle leaf, between processing, bottom leaf and middle leaf are T3>T1>T2>T4>CK, the upper leaf variation tendency is T2>T4>CK>T1>T3, but as shown in Figure 2, that removes neutral aroma component aroma component total amount behind the neophytadiene is changed to upper leaf>middle leaf>bottom leaf, variation tendency also becomes bottom leaf T2>T3>T1>T4>CK between processing, middle leaf becomes T2=T3>T1>CK>T4, and upper leaf is T2>T3=T1>CK>T4.
Fig. 3 has analyzed the variation tendency of phenylalanine class, variation tendency is identical with total amount variation tendency behind the removal neophytadiene between the position, be upper leaf>middle leaf>bottom leaf, variation tendency is that bottom leaf and upper leaf are T2>T3>T1>T4>CK between processing, and middle leaf is T3>T2>T1>T4>CK.
The primitive reaction type of brownization product is the series reaction process that occurs through heating between aminocompound and reducing sugar or other carbonyl compound.This reaction product is the important sources that consists of the flavour ingredients such as processed food and tobacco.Fig. 4 has analyzed the variation tendency of brownization product type, variation tendency is identical with total amount variation tendency behind the removal neophytadiene between the position, be upper leaf>middle leaf>bottom leaf, variation tendency is that middle leaf and upper leaf are T2>T3>T1>T4>CK between processing, and the bottom leaf is T1>T4>T3>T2>CK.
Class west cypress alkyl compound belongs to the monocyclic diterpene compounds, is present in the fresh tobacco leaf with tasteless substance at first, through overmodulation and ageing, can form the aroma components such as multiple aldehyde, ketone, exists quantity larger in tobacco leaf such as solanone, gives a kind of smoke of pure and mild ketone.It has the fragrance of fresh carrot sample, and it is fragrant to increase tobacco, makes the plentiful pure and mild exquisiteness of flue gas, plays an important role in tobacco flavor.Fig. 5 has analyzed the variation tendency of class west cypress alkanes, variation tendency is bottom leaf>middle leaf>upper leaf between the position, variation tendency is bottom leaf T2>T3>T1>T4>CK between processing, and middle leaf T3>T2>T1>T4>CK, upper leaf are T1>T3>CK>T2>T4.
Carotenoid is the important fragrance precursor of tobacco leaf, and the aroma substance that quite a few is arranged is the degraded product of carotene, and wherein many compounds (such as jononeionone, trans-Damascenone and isophorone etc.) are aroma components important in the tobacco.Fig. 6 has analyzed the variation tendency of carotenoids, variation tendency is identical with brownization product type variation tendency between the position, be bottom leaf>middle leaf>upper leaf, variation tendency is bottom leaf T3>T2>T1>T4>CK between processing, middle leaf T2>T1>T3>T4>CK, upper leaf are T2>CK>T4>T3>T1.
Synthesizing map 1~6 can find out that upper leaf fragrance content and middle leaf fragrance component content are higher than bottom leaf aroma component, and variation tendency totally is that T2 processing variation trend and T3 processing variation trend approach between processing, for best; Secondly be T1, contrast minimum, illustrate and use the total amount that both can increase flavor matter composition in the cured tobacco leaf behind the humic acid, can suitably regulate according to the odour characteristics of different geographical tobacco leaf and the variation of each aroma component content again, this is to outstanding characteristic tabacco fragrance style, and stable raising Aroma Quality of Flue-cured is very favourable.
(2) different treatment is on the impact of cigarette routine chemical components content after roasting
Glucide and quality of tobacco in the tobacco leaf have close relationship, and in the certain amplitude scope, sugared content is high, and then quality of tobacco is good.Tobacco leaf after the modulation is because a large amount of hydrolysis of polymeric carbohydrate (such as starch) in modulation process have accumulated higher sugared content.But the too high acid base equilibrium that then affects flue gas of sugar amount can make smoke flat, and fragrance is not enough, and total quality is not good.Concerning tobacco product, starch is on the detrimentally affect of flue gas mass formation: the one, affect combustionvelocity and combustion completion; The 2nd, in combustion processes, produce and stick with paste burnt flavour, make fragrant jealous the degenerating of tobacco.So from tobacco product, do not wish that starch content is too high.As shown in Table 4, nicotine, total nitrogen and starch content all decrease.Be it can also be seen that by table 4 processing total reducing sugar, the reducing sugar content contrast of using the short root manure of soil improvement all increase to some extent.Processing the tobacco leaf reducing sugar for four has increased respectively 6.98%, 5.57%, 6.01% and 4.00% with the contrast of total reducing sugar odds ratio, shows that using the short root manure of soil improvement can make tobacco leaf inherence chemical ingredients more coordinate.The results of analysis of variance shows, use tobacco leaf chemical quality that the short root manure of soil improvement processes compared with the control majority reached conspicuous level, and partially disposed reaches utmost point conspicuous level compared with the control.
Embodiment 18 Carry out pot experiment at Agricultural University Of He'nan's scientific and educational park in 2008, and adopted the polyethylene flowerpot of 400 mm * 340 mm.The soil process is air-dry and cross 0.5 mm~1.0 mm mesh screens, and every basin fills native 20 kg, and every basin is executed pure N 3g, N:P 2O 5: K 2O=1:2:3, soil improvement urgees to fill basin behind root manure (xanthohumic acid accounts for 80%, accounts for 5% root-inducing powder ABT6 number, and growth hormone (IAA) accounts for 2%, and vitriolate of tartar (potassium oxide content 50%) accounts for 10%, and zinc sulfate accounts for 3%) and other fertilizer and the abundant mixing of soil.Consumption according to the short root manure of soil improvement is different, and it is 5 processing that test is divided into, and be followed successively by: CK:0g/ basin, T1:18 g/ basin, T2:23 g/ basin, T3:28 g/ basin, T4:33 g/ basin is with sodium arseniate (Na 3AsO 412H 2O) be source of pollution, each is processed and all adds pure arsenic 45 mgkg -1Other cultivation management measure is identical with the sound tobacco production technology.
The short root manure of table 5 soil improvement is poisoned the impact of Chemical Compositions of Flue-cured Tobacco Harmony on arsenic
Root manure consumption (g/ basin) is urged in soil improvement The nitrogen base ratio Sugar alkali ratio Sugar nitrogen ratio Potassium chlorine ratio
CK 4.030 b BC 47.654 d C 11.790 c C 12.500 b BC
T1 2.540 c C 54.798 c BC 21.276 a A 10.798 c C
T2 7.293 a A 116.939 a A 16.197 b B 12.247 bc BC
T3 2.822 c C 26.896 e D 9.568 c C 13.398 b B
T4 5.079 b B 61.189 b B 12.199 c C 16.287 a A
(1) the short root manure of soil improvement is poisoned the impact of Chemical Compositions of Flue-cured Tobacco Harmony on arsenic
The Harmony of Chemical Compositions of Flue-cured Tobacco and the quality of tobacco leaf are in close relations.Keep suitable ratio just to meet the requirement of High Quality Tobacco between sugar nitrogen, nitrogen base, sugared alkali, the potassium chlorine.As can be seen from Table 5, soil improvement is urged the root manure processing and is compared with CK, and the sugared alkali ratio of processing T4, nitrogen base ratio and sugared nitrogen the ratio all remarkable or utmost point are markedly inferior to CK, and potassium chlorine is higher than CK than then, and other is processed each index and then is difficult to find out regularity.Process the increase of the sugared nitrogen ratio of T4, sugared alkali ratio and nitrogen base ratio, derive from the reduction of total sugar content and the increase of nicotine content, this is conducive to Harmony improvement between sugared alkali and the nitrogen base, and improves its pungency, strength etc.Potassium chlorine ratio is an index judging the incendivity quality, and the increase of potassium chlorine ratio also is conducive to the combustible raising of tobacco leaf.
The capacity that the short root manure amount of application of different soil improvements is poisoned Tobacco Absorbing arsenic amount to arsenic is different.As can be seen from Table 6, increase along with the short root manure amount of application of soil improvement in the soil, arsenic content residual in the soil increases successively, and the residual rate of arsenic in soil improves successively, processes the above difference of processing Arsenic in Soil residual quantity and CK of T3 and has reached utmost point conspicuous level.Arsenic in CK and the T1 soil, is also decreased by the suction rate up to 39.82% and the above raising of processing with the short root manure amount of application of soil improvement of 40.00%, T3 by Tobacco Absorbing.
As seen from the above, increased soil organic matter content after using the short root manure of soil improvement, improved the validity of potash fertilizer, promoted cigarette strain Root growth, significantly improved potassium content of tobacco leaf, improve simultaneously the Aromatic Matter Contents of tobacco leaf, improved the Harmony of tobacco leaf chemical composition, reduced the absorption to arsenic.

Claims (5)

1. root manure is urged in a vega soil improvement, is made by the raw material of following weight per-cent:
Humus organic carrier 60~90%
Root-inducing powder 4~10%
Plant growth hormones 2~5%
Vitriolate of tartar 2~15%
In, trace element fertilizer 2~10%;
Described root-inducing powder is at least a in ABT1, ABT2, ABT3, ABT4, ABT5, ABT6, ABT7, ABT8, ABT9, ABT10 number of Chinese forest-science academy development.
2. the short root manure of vega soil according to claim 1 improvement is characterized in that, described Humus organic carrier is at least a in xanthohumic acid, humic acids, ammonium humate, Sodium salts humic acids, potassium humate, peat, brown coal, the weathered coal.
3. the short root manure of vega soil according to claim 1 improvement is characterized in that, described plant growth hormones is at least a in IAA, 4-chloro-IAA, 5-hydroxyl-IAA, naphthylacetic acid, indolebutyric acid, phytokinin, zeatin, the Plant hormones regulators,gibberellins.
4. the short root manure of vega soil according to claim 1 improvement is characterized in that, described in, trace element fertilizer is at least a in fertiliser containing magnesium, boron fertilizer, molydbenum fertilizer, zinc fertilizer, copper fertilizer, manganese fertilizer, the siliceous fertilizer.
5. the short root manure of vega soil according to claim 1 improvement is characterized in that, the preparation method of the short root manure of described vega soil improvement is: evenly mix by described proportioning after getting various raw material pulverizing, or routinely technique granulation after evenly mixing.
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