CN101967071B - Salt-restraining special fertilizer for seashore solonchak rapes and production process thereof - Google Patents

Salt-restraining special fertilizer for seashore solonchak rapes and production process thereof Download PDF

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CN101967071B
CN101967071B CN2010105130840A CN201010513084A CN101967071B CN 101967071 B CN101967071 B CN 101967071B CN 2010105130840 A CN2010105130840 A CN 2010105130840A CN 201010513084 A CN201010513084 A CN 201010513084A CN 101967071 B CN101967071 B CN 101967071B
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fertilizer
parts
salt
solonchak
restraining
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CN101967071A (en
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陈效民
李孝良
于群英
王晓洋
王德生
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南京农业大学
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Abstract

The invention relates to a salt-restraining special fertilizer for seashore solonchak rapes, comprising the following materials in parts by weight: 250-300 parts of organic fertilizers, 150-200 parts of humic acids, 130-170 parts of monoammonium phosphate, 200-220 parts of urea and 150-200 parts of saline and alkaline improved conditioners. The salt-restraining special fertilizer for the seashore solonchak rapes is prepared by the following steps of: uniformly mixing grinded crop straws, rice chaff and waste liquid residues of a gourmet powder factory, and then piling up; adding a fibrinolysis compound bacterial agent, uniformly stirring and mixing, and piling up to obtain the organic fertilizers; sequentially adding the monoammonium phosphate, the urea, the humic acids, the organic fertilizers and the saline and alkaline improved conditioners to a stirrer and stirring; and then feeding into a rotary drum granulator for granulation so as to obtain a finished product, i.e. the salt-restraining special fertilizer for the seashore solonchak rapes. In the preparation of the salt-restraining special fertilizer, the organic wastes obtained from agricultural and industrial production are effectively used as raw materials, a certain amount of the humic acids and agricultural gypsums are added and a scientific formula and a unique production process are adopted; in addition, the prepared novel fertilizer is applied to the seashore solonchak rapes and other crops and plays an important role.

Description

Salt-restraining special fertilizer for seashore solonchak rapes and production technique thereof

Technical field

The invention belongs to agriculture production and use the fertilizer technology field, relate in particular to a kind of salt-restraining special fertilizer for seashore solonchak rapes and production technique thereof.

Background technology

The soil salinization is a global problem that affects agricultural sustainable development and ecotope.The area of whole world salinization soil accounts for 1/3 of earth land area according to statistics.In China, the saline soil scale is quite large, and 537.4 ten thousand hectares of salinization soils are approximately arranged in 100,000,000 hectares of arable lands, also has in addition the saline-alkali wasteland of 4408.8 ten thousand hectares to be distributed in northwest, North China, northeast and the area such as coastal.Research marine solonchak salt tolerant crop special fertilizer is one of effective measure of administering saline soil, and to regulating and the agroecological environment of Reclamation of coastal saline soil and boosting agricultural yield, and the Sustainable development of coastal region husbandry production is significant.

(1) the major obstacle factor of marine solonchak

(1) the saline and alkaline plant physiology arid that causesIt is saline and alkaline more that saline-alkali soil contains solubility, and soil solution concentration is high, and soil water potential is low.During lower than the root flow of water, crop root not only can not absorb moisture from soil when soil water potential, can ooze out the moisture of self come on the contrary, the reverse osmosis phenomenon occurs.Although have water in soil this moment, crop can not absorb, and causes the plant physiology arid, causes plant growth bad, withered death when serious. (2) the direct toxic action of salinity.When in saline-alkali soil, some ionic concn is too high, general crop all had direct toxic action.Na particularly 2CO 3And NaHCO 3When increasing Deng basic salt, can corrode the fibrous tissue of plant on the one hand, the receptivity that increases on the other hand sodium makes protein become sodium protein, and nutrient balance is damaged, and has particularly reduced NO 3 -, PO 4 3-, Ca 2+, Fe 2+Deng absorption, cause seedling that hungry symptom occurs. (3) soil nutrient is unbalanced.The marine solonchak soil parent material is littoral sediment, is rich in potassium, and the soil organism, nitrogen, phosphorus and trace element deficiency, soil nutrient is unbalanced. (4) soil physical properties worsens.A certain amount of solubility salinity, especially sodium salt in soil can make that grogs disperses, structure deteriorate, and muddy hard when dried when causing soil wet, permeability is bad, and tilth worsens, and has a strong impact on cultivating quality. (5) water of soil, fertilizer, gas, thermal conditions are inharmonious.Marine solonchak is often high because of ground water table, and soil moisture is many, makes soil " send out cloudy ", " tremble with fear ", has a strong impact on that crop emerges and growth of seedling, and the also activity of unfavorable microorganism has simultaneously directly affected organic decomposition and the conversion of nutrient.

(2) improving effect of humic acid organic fertilizer to the saltings

Humic acid fertilizer is take the more peat of humic acids massfraction, brown coal, weathered coal as main raw material, adds a certain amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium or the made fertilizer of some trace element.Humic acid fertilizer contains a large amount of organic matters, has the characteristics of organic fertilizer, contains again available nutrient simultaneously, has some feature of chemical fertilizer concurrently, is a kind of multi-functional organic-inorganic compound manure.

Humic acid fertilizer contains a large amount of organic matters and organic colloid, can be with the structureless soil particle cementation that disperses together, form chance water and be difficult for loose water-stable granule, thereby soil porosity is increased, unit weight reduces, soil aeration, water-permeable and soil moisture conservation are strengthened, and tilth improves, and stronger, the barren marine solonchak of improvement grittiness is had good effect.Humic acids has higher cation exchange capacity, usually can reach 300 ~ 500 cmol (+)/kg, uses on marine solonchak, can be to the Na in soil +, Ca 2+, Cl -Deng having very strong exchange capacity and adsorption, reduce chloride concentration in soil, reduce salinity to the harm of crop, and can strengthen the surge capability of soil.

The humans such as Huang Qiang are regularly got the method that the top layer soil sample is measured its specific conductivity and buried the salinity sensor probe at different depths underground, within crop growing season, the soil solution saltiness of having monitored organic fertilizer farmland different depths changes, result shows that the field application of organic fertilizers can obviously reduce the upper soll layer salt accumulation, and the drip washing to the upper soll layer salinity of being conducive to pour water.Pour water and make fertilizer process depths, residential quarter soil salt content to descend rapidly; Application of organic fertilizers can make the salt accumulation process of dark soil before pouring water slow down; Fertilizer is processed the 60cm dark soil solution salinity decrease of residential quarter and is remained on very low level.

Humic acid organic fertilizer itself contains the available nutrient of some amount, but and mineral nutrient element in activating soil, improve nutrient availability.Humic acids can also stimulate root system development, increases the contact area of root system and fertilizer and increases root system secretion organic acid quantity, thereby improve root system to the utilization ratio of difficultly soluble nutrient.

At present the retardation of growth factor of marine solonchak crop had understanding more clearly, how traditional method presses down salt by irrigating the desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching or lowering of watertable, and cost is high and still can produce the seasonal accumulation of salt in the surface soil.Rape has certain salt tolerance, the larger area plantation is arranged in the marine solonchak area, but traditional fertilising custom mostly is inorganic fertilizer, does not only press down the effect of salt, also can cause the soil salt accumulation, and too much rate of fertilizer application also can cause the eutrophication of water body on every side.Therefore explore and to produce salt-restraining special fertilizer for seashore solonchak rapes significant.

Summary of the invention

Goal of the invention:The invention provides a kind of salt-restraining special fertilizer for seashore solonchak rapes and production technique thereof.This fertilizer effectively utilizes the organic waste of industrial and agricultural production as raw material, add certain humic acids and gypsum for agriculture, adopt formula and unique production technique of science, produced new-type fertilizer, be applied to marine solonchak rape and other crop, have important effect.The suitable base manure of doing the marine solonchak rape of this special fertilizer uses.

Technical scheme:Salt-restraining special fertilizer for seashore solonchak rapes, calculating by weight comprises: 250 ~ 300 parts of fertilizers, 150 ~ 200 parts of humic acidss, 130 ~ 170 parts of monoammonium phosphates, 200 ~ 220 parts, urea, 150 ~ 200 parts of saline and alkaline improvement amendments.Described 150 ~ 200 portions of saline and alkaline improvement amendments are comprised of gypsum, attapulgite and borax, and wherein borax accounts for 1~2 weight part, and all the other press (8 ~ 9) by gypsum and attapulgite: the weight ratio configuration of (1 ~ 2) forms.

The method for preparing salt-restraining special fertilizer for seashore solonchak rapes, preparation process is: the waste liquid slag of the crop material, rice chaff and the Gourmet Powder Factory that pulverize is mixed rear accumulation by the weight proportion of 1:1:2; Add composite cellulose decomposition bacteria (provided by Agricultural University Of Nanjing, main component is cellulose-decomposing bacterium, genus bacillus, yeast and mould) by 1% ~ 2% of heap body weight, mix; When heap temperature rises to 55 ~ 65 ℃, carry out turning, through 14 ~ 17 days, the heap body reached the state of becoming thoroughly decomposed, and water content 26 ~ 35%, obtains fertilizer at this moment; According to the parts by weight ratio, add in stirrer successively by the order of monoammonium phosphate, urea, humic acids, fertilizer, saline and alkaline improvement amendment and stir, after mixing, be fed to granulation in rotary drum granulator; Fertilizer after granulation is packed through screening, and salt-restraining special fertilizer for seashore solonchak rapes gets product.

In salt-restraining special fertilizer for seashore solonchak rapes of the present invention, effective constituent comprises the organic molecule nutritive ingredients such as the micronutrient element such as the macronutrient such as organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and boron and amino acid, and contains marine solonchak and press down the salt component gypsum.

Organic matter has the vital role of improving soil physico-chemical property.China's marine solonchak is subjected to seawater influence, and Soil structure is loose, is rich in potassium and organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus lack, and is unfavorable for growing of rape.Therefore applying organic manure, improve soil organic matter content, can improve Soil structure, coordinates water, fertilizer, gas, heat in soil, creates good edatope.

The Main Function of nitrogen is to strengthen nourishing and growing, and improves photosynthesis, promotes the assimilation of nitrogen and the formation of protein.Grow when nitrogen is not enough weak, leaf is little and thin, and look shallow, and fallen flowers are serious, and flower is little.During serious nitrogen stress, growth may stop, and blade is caducous; The prosperous length of branches and leaves when nitrogen is too much, bud differentiation is bad, and is remaining green when it is due to become yellow and ripe ripe late, yields poorly, poor quality.

Phosphorus is to form nucleus and plasmic main component.Have the tissue of impelling ripe, improve that the plant body is cold-resistant, drought resisting, saline-alkaline tolerance, impel to produce new root, be conducive to bud and form and improve the flower quality.When phosphorus element lacks, young sprout and radicula impaired development, leaf, bud differentiation are bad, cold-resistant, drought resisting, anti-salt property weaken.

Boron is many-sided in the effect of tree in body, it and cell fission, and in cell, the transhipment of the formation of tartaric acid and glucide is relevant.Boron is bloomed to rape good promoter action.Boron also has the promotion root system development, strengthens the effect of resistance against diseases.Root during boron deficiency, stem vegetative point are withered, blade variable color or deformity, and petiole, vein matter are crisp easily broken, and root growth dies down, and bud differentiation is bad.

Gypsum is for saline-alkali soil conditioner commonly used, and by ion exchange, sodium ion in the drip washing topsoil, and the native accumulation of salt in the surface soil of inhibition table reach the effect of coastal saline soil improvement.And calcium ion promotes soil aggregate to form by cementation, reaches the effect of improvement Soil structure, coordinates water, fertilizer, gas, heat in soil, creates good edatope.

Special fertilizer of the present invention is to determine various nutrient proportionings according to the obstruction factor of rape dietetic alimentation feature and marine solonchak, and nutrient element can the balance supply, and plant recovery of nutrient improves greatly, and is remarkable to promoter action, the synergistic effect of growth of rape.

Next is according to fertilizer effect test and soil testing result, we have determined that the supply ratio of sea front solonchak rapeseed cultivation npk nutrient can be controlled to be 3:2, and in addition, rape is also comparatively responsive to micronutrient boron, when making special fertilizer, add appropriate micronutrient boron in additive.Determined accordingly special fertilizer formula (in formula, the proportioning of various compositions is calculated according to the mass fraction).

Fertilizer 250~300 Humic acids 150~200 Monoammonium phosphate 130~170 Urea 200~220 Saline and alkaline improvement amendment 150~200

Described 150 ~ 200 portions of saline and alkaline improvement amendments are comprised of gypsum, attapulgite and borax, wherein borax accounts for 1~2 weight part, all the other press (8 ~ 9) by gypsum and attapulgite: the weight ratio configuration of (1 ~ 2) forms, this saline and alkaline improvement amendment has restraining effect preferably to sodium ion in the marine solonchak topsoil, and nitrogen is had good controlled-release function.

Beneficial effect:At first, due to the decomposition of organic matter and the adsorption of Attapulgite, nitrogen nutrition has certain controlled-release effect, thereby can effectively reduce the number of times that topdresses, and simultaneously, the utilization ratio of nitrogen significantly improves.Secondly, in this special fertilizer, organic composition can significantly improve the physical properties of soil, on the basis of fertilizing soil, promotes the rapeseed plants robust growth, promotes bud differentiation, thereby improves yield of rape.Compare with habits fertilization, marine solonchak is used this special fertilizer rape and is on average increased production 10%.The 3rd, contain the amino acid more than 1% in this special fertilizer, in being manured into soil, ecotope that not only can activating soil, and can directly being absorbed by rape root has significant promotion and regulatory function to the growth of rape.The 4th, use this special fertilizer, can significantly reduce Na in the marine solonchak top layer +And Cl -Content on average decreases by more than 10%, and can improve breeding time rhizosphere soil organic content more than 0.5%.And the degree that causes harm of rape disease and pest is lower, reduces control number of times and dosing, in saving of labor's abridged edition, reduces the malicious secondary residual quantity of chemical prevention.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the production technological process of fertilizer.

Fig. 2 is the salt-restraining special fertilizer for seashore solonchak rapes production technological process.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with specific examples, further set forth the present invention.Should be understood that these embodiment only for the present invention will be described, do not consist of the restriction to the claim scope, other alternative means that it may occur to persons skilled in the art that are all in claim scope of the present invention.

Described saline and alkaline improvement amendment is comprised of gypsum, attapulgite and borax, and wherein borax accounts for 2kg, and all the other press (8 ~ 9) by gypsum and attapulgite: the weight ratio configuration of (1 ~ 2) forms

Embodiment 1:

Fertilizer 300 kilograms Humic acids 150 kilograms Monoammonium phosphate 160 kilograms Urea 200 kilograms Saline and alkaline improvement amendment 190 kilograms

Preparation process is: the waste liquid slag of the crop material, rice chaff and the Gourmet Powder Factory that pulverize is mixed rear accumulation by the weight proportion of 1:1:2; Add composite cellulose decomposition bacteria (provided by Agricultural University Of Nanjing, main component is cellulose-decomposing bacterium, genus bacillus, yeast and mould) by 1% ~ 2% of heap body weight, mix; When heap temperature rises to 55 ~ 65 ℃, carry out turning, through 14 ~ 17 days, the heap body reached the state of becoming thoroughly decomposed, and water content 26 ~ 35%, obtains fertilizer at this moment; According to the parts by weight ratio, add in stirrer successively by the order of 160 kilograms of monoammonium phosphates, 200 kilograms, urea, 150 kilograms of humic acidss, 300 kilograms of fertilizers, 190 kilograms of saline and alkaline improvement amendments and stir, after mixing, be fed to granulation in rotary drum granulator; Fertilizer after granulation is packed through screening, and salt-restraining special fertilizer for seashore solonchak rapes gets product.

Embodiment 2:

Fertilizer 250 kilograms Humic acids 180 kilograms Monoammonium phosphate 130 kilograms Calcium superphosphate 100 kilograms Urea 200 kilograms Saline and alkaline improvement amendment 140 kilograms

After preparing raw material in proportion, take the granulation of rotary drum method.In granulation process, regulate the granulation effect by moisture, make it to meet the standard of national compound organic and inorganic fertilizer.Above-mentioned two formula consumptions can be produced 1000 kilograms of finished product special fertilizers, and nutrient is 12-8-0, and organic and amino acid whose content is respectively more than 20% and 1%, and gypsum content is more than 10%, and borax 2kg.On the marine solonchak of moderate degree of salinity, execute this rape with base manure mode mu and press down 50 kilograms of salt special fertilizers, under other cultivation management measure same case, can strengthen the rape salinity and alkalinity resistance, on average increase production 10% than traditional fertilization, can significantly reduce simultaneously rape and show Na in soil breeding time +And Cl -Content on average decreases by more than 10%, and raising rhizosphere soil organic content breeding time is more than 0.5%.

Embodiment 3

Fertilizer 300 kilograms Humic acids 200 kilograms Monoammonium phosphate 170 kilograms Urea 220 kilograms Saline and alkaline improvement amendment 200 kilograms

Preparation process is: the waste liquid slag of the crop material, rice chaff and the Gourmet Powder Factory that pulverize is mixed rear accumulation by the weight proportion of 1:1:2; Add composite cellulose decomposition bacteria (provided by Agricultural University Of Nanjing, main component is cellulose-decomposing bacterium, genus bacillus, yeast and mould) by 1% ~ 2% of heap body weight, mix; When heap temperature rises to 55 ~ 65 ℃, carry out turning, through 14 ~ 17 days, the heap body reached the state of becoming thoroughly decomposed, and water content 26 ~ 35%, obtains fertilizer at this moment; According to the parts by weight ratio, add in stirrer successively by the order of 170 kilograms of monoammonium phosphates, 220 kilograms, urea, 200 kilograms of humic acidss, 300 kilograms of fertilizers, 200 kilograms of saline and alkaline improvement amendments and stir, after mixing, be fed to granulation in rotary drum granulator; Fertilizer after granulation is packed through screening, and salt-restraining special fertilizer for seashore solonchak rapes gets product.On the marine solonchak of moderate degree of salinity, execute this rape with base manure mode mu and press down 50 kilograms of salt special fertilizers, under other cultivation management measure same case, can strengthen the rape salinity and alkalinity resistance, on average increase production 12% than traditional fertilization, can significantly reduce simultaneously rape and show Na in soil breeding time +And Cl -Content on average decreases by more than 11%, and raising rhizosphere soil organic content breeding time is more than 0.5%.

Embodiment 4

Fertilizer 250 kilograms Humic acids 150 kilograms Monoammonium phosphate 130 kilograms Urea 200 kilograms Saline and alkaline improvement amendment 150 kilograms

Preparation process is: the waste liquid slag of the crop material, rice chaff and the Gourmet Powder Factory that pulverize is mixed rear accumulation by the weight proportion of 1:1:2; Add composite cellulose decomposition bacteria (provided by Agricultural University Of Nanjing, main component is cellulose-decomposing bacterium, genus bacillus, yeast and mould) by 1% ~ 2% of heap body weight, mix; When heap temperature rises to 55 ~ 65 ℃, carry out turning, through 14 ~ 17 days, the heap body reached the state of becoming thoroughly decomposed, and water content 26 ~ 35%, obtains fertilizer at this moment; According to the parts by weight ratio, add in stirrer successively by the order of 130 kilograms of monoammonium phosphates, 200 kilograms, urea, 150 kilograms of humic acidss, 250 kilograms of fertilizers, 150 kilograms of saline and alkaline improvement amendments and stir, after mixing, be fed to granulation in rotary drum granulator; Fertilizer after granulation is packed through screening, and salt-restraining special fertilizer for seashore solonchak rapes gets product.On the marine solonchak of moderate degree of salinity, execute this rape with base manure mode mu and press down 50 kilograms of salt special fertilizers, under other cultivation management measure same case, can strengthen the rape salinity and alkalinity resistance, on average increase production 11% than traditional fertilization, can significantly reduce simultaneously rape and show Na in soil breeding time +And Cl -Content on average decreases by more than 12%, and raising rhizosphere soil organic content breeding time is more than 0.5%.

Claims (2)

1. salt-restraining special fertilizer for seashore solonchak rapes, it is characterized in that calculating by weight comprising: 250 ~ 300 parts of fertilizers, 150 ~ 200 parts of humic acidss, 130 ~ 170 parts of monoammonium phosphates, 200 ~ 220 parts, urea, 150 ~ 200 parts of saline and alkaline improvement amendments, described 150 ~ 200 portions of saline and alkaline improvement amendments are comprised of gypsum, attapulgite and borax, wherein borax accounts for 1~2 weight part, and all the other press (8 ~ 9) by gypsum and attapulgite: the weight ratio configuration of (1 ~ 2) forms; Described fertilizer prepares by the following method: the waste liquid slag of the crop material, rice chaff and the Gourmet Powder Factory that pulverize is mixed rear accumulation by the weight proportion of 1:1:2; Add composite cellulose decomposition bacteria by 1% ~ 2% of heap body weight, mix; When heap temperature rises to 55 ~ 65 ℃, carry out turning, through 14 ~ 17 days, the heap body reached the state of becoming thoroughly decomposed, and water content 26 ~ 35%, obtains fertilizer at this moment.
2. the method for preparing the described salt-restraining special fertilizer for seashore solonchak rapes of claim 1 is characterized in that preparation process is:
(1) the waste liquid slag of the crop material, rice chaff and the Gourmet Powder Factory that pulverize is mixed rear accumulation by the weight proportion of 1:1:2;
(2) add composite cellulose decomposition bacteria by 1% ~ 2% of heap body weight, mix;
(3) when heap temperature rises to 55 ~ 65 ℃, carry out turning, through 14 ~ 17 days, the heap body reached the state of becoming thoroughly decomposed, and water content 26 ~ 35%, obtains fertilizer at this moment;
(4) according to the parts by weight ratio, add in stirrer successively by the order of monoammonium phosphate, urea, humic acids, fertilizer, saline and alkaline improvement amendment and stir, after mixing the finished product salt-restraining special fertilizer for seashore solonchak rapes.
CN2010105130840A 2010-10-20 2010-10-20 Salt-restraining special fertilizer for seashore solonchak rapes and production process thereof CN101967071B (en)

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