CN101960981B - Method for cultivating cherries and tomatoes - Google Patents

Method for cultivating cherries and tomatoes Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101960981B
CN101960981B CN201010521349A CN201010521349A CN101960981B CN 101960981 B CN101960981 B CN 101960981B CN 201010521349 A CN201010521349 A CN 201010521349A CN 201010521349 A CN201010521349 A CN 201010521349A CN 101960981 B CN101960981 B CN 101960981B
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cultivation
cherry
tomato
nutrient solution
matrix
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CN201010521349A
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CN101960981A (en
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刘卫红
瞿峰
朱忠贵
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镇江市京口区瑞京农业科技示范园
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    • Y02P60/216

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for cultivating cherries and tomatoes. The method comprises the steps of: cultivation preparation, seedling raising, planting, flower and fruit protection, rich water management and picking. The method has the advantages that: cultivation matrix bags are adopted for cultivating the cherries and the tomatoes without soil, so continuous cropping obstacles do not happen, the conditions of a greenhouse cannot be limited by seasons, and the production can be arranged for annual supply according to the market requirement; and the preparation of nutrient solution is adjusted according to different growth periods, optimal growth effect is achieved, the cherries and the tomatoes are vigorously grown, the yield is increased, the quality is improved, plant diseases and insect pests are reduced, the consumption of pesticide is reduced, and the environmental pollution is reduced.

Description

A kind of cultivation method of cherry and tomato
Technical field
The present invention relates to the cultivation method of a kind of cultivation method, particularly a kind of cherry and tomato.
Background technology
Cherry and tomato is a kind of indeterminate growth type cherry and tomato of introducing from Holland, and the fruit type is circular, cerise, and single fruit weight 10~20 grams, the plant strain growth gesture is strong, and the result is many, the greenhouse annually cultivating, reach 10 months vegetative period, and reach 8 months picking time.Cherry and tomato is with rich flavor, sour and sweet palatability, and gloss is bright-coloured, and is beautiful, very popular.
Tradition cherry and tomato greenhouse culture technique, because of its continuous cropping obstacle, high ambient temperature, high humidity, damage by disease and insect takes place serious, causes yielding poorly, poor quality, persticide residue height.
Summary of the invention
Goal of the invention: the objective of the invention is the deficiency at above-mentioned traditional greenhouse culture pattern, a kind of greenhouse soilless culture method of cherry and tomato is provided, fast growth, precocity and yielding ability height, cleanliness without any pollution improve the production modernization degree greatly.
Technical scheme: 1, a kind of cultivation method of cherry and tomato, the concrete steps of this method are as follows:
1) cultivation is prepared: with the cultivation matrix cultivation bag of packing into, put on the greenhouse culture groove according to the planting density standard; With greenhouse floor file cloth, and inside, greenhouse carried out disinfection;
2) grow seedlings: adopt the mixed-matrix of the peat composed of rotten mosses and perlite or the peat composed of rotten mosses and vermiculite to add water, the no soil pit dish of packing into is grown seedlings, and sows then, waters, and the vernalization of preserving moisture when 60%~70% seed hogback, moves to the greenhouse with the seedling dish;
3) field planting: planting-stock age is three leaves, one cores, and the cultivation matrix described in the step 1) is watered sufficient nutrient solution before field planting, and fertile transplanting of rice shoot band watered the cultivation matrix of sufficient nutrient solution to this;
4) flower and fruit protecting: handle soon open flower with drop-proof agent 20ppm~25ppm;
5) rich water quality management: the configuration nutrient solution, plant to be irrigated, early stage, the EC value of nutrient solution was about 2, and pH value is about 6, and along with fruit increases, the EC value brings up to 2.5, drips clear water every day one time;
6) gather: in time gather according to the market demand and cherry and tomato physical maturity degree.
Good for making as the cultivation matrix quality on cultivation basis, reduce damage by disease and insect and take place, the cultivation matrix described in the step 1) must be through disinfecting before putting into cultivation bag, and thimerosal is a formalin solution.
Cultivation matrix described in the step 1) comprises perlite, the peat composed of rotten mosses, or its mixed-matrix.
Planting density described in the step 1) is 2 strains/m 2~2.5 strains/m 2, guarantee that the growing space of plant is suitable in the future.
Sterilization described in the step 1) is ecological sterilization, directly utilizes weather conditions, economical and efficient.
Sterilization described in the step 1) is the pharmacy disinfection method, can make inner each position, greenhouse all obtain comprehensive, virus killing targetedly, and killing is more thorough.
The solute of the nutrient solution described in the step 5) comprises that calcium is joined, nitrogen phosphorus potassium magnesium and trace element are joined two kinds of mother liquors, mother liquor and irrigation water are mixed into described nutrient solution according to the 1:100 proportioning, when adopting nitric acid to regulate PH, two kinds of mother liquor amounts of taking equate, when adopting phosphoric acid to regulate PH, only take nitrogen phosphorus potassium magnesium and trace element and join mother liquor.
Constituent that calcium is joined and mass percent proportioning are nitrate of lime 8.75%~10%, potassium nitrate 1.38%~1.75%, ammonium nitrate 0%~0.75%, Fe-EDTA 0.088%, water 87.412%~89.412%; Constituent and mass percent proportioning that nitrogen phosphorus potassium magnesium and trace element are joined are potassium nitrate 2.58%~4.13%, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1.7%, potassium sulphate 3.31%~3.63%, magnesium sulfate 4.38%~4.94%, manganese sulphate 0.017%, zinc sulphate 0.0145%, borax 0.024%, copper sulphate 0.0019%, sodium molybdate 0.0012%, water 85.5914%~87.4114%.
Beneficial effect: advantage of the present invention is to utilize cultivation matrix bag soilless culture cherry and tomato, continuous cropping obstacle can not take place, and the condition in greenhouse can not be subject to seasonal restrictions, can be according to the market demand, and the year-round supply of arranging production; The configuration of nutrient solution is adjusted according to different growing stages, reaches the optimum growh effect, makes the cherry and tomato robust growth, increases output, improves quality, thereby damage by disease and insect is reduced, and the usage amount of agricultural chemicals reduces, and environmental pollution reduces.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, further illustrate the present invention, should understand these embodiment only is used to the present invention is described and is not used in and limit the scope of the invention, after having read the present invention, those skilled in the art all fall within the application's claims institute restricted portion to the modification of the various equivalent form of values of the present invention.
A kind of cultivation method of cherry and tomato, the concrete steps of this method are as follows:
1) cultivation is prepared: cultivation matrix can be selected perlite, the peat composed of rotten mosses or both mixed-matrixes for use, and cultivation matrix must carry out disinfection before using, and by the drip-irrigation system, uses the formalin thimerosal about 20 times; Cultivation bag selects for use the two-sided pollution-free vegetable growth special plastic film of the opaque or white black and white outside of milky to make, and cultivation bag is a pillow type, 100cm * 18cm * 13cm, the about 20L of volume, every bag of plantation 3~4 strain cherry and tomatos.To pack in the cultivation bag through the cultivation matrix matrix of disinfecting, and put on the greenhouse cultivating groove according to the planting density standard, planting density is generally 2 strains/m 2~2.5 strains/m 2, cultivating groove is North and South direction to be placed, and 1% the gradient is arranged, and before transplanting, offers 2~3 lateral apertures at the liftoff 3cm of sack drain-side~4cm place.
Ground in the greenhouse is smooth, and Bei Gaonan is low slightly, covers one deck black ground cloth then, isolated soil-borne disease insect pest.Sterilization can be used ecological sterilization, promptly utilizes the vexed canopy of high temperature to carry out the ecology sterilization in summer, and is general under the situation of fine day, gets final product about 7 days; Also can the with medicament sterilization, splashed with saturated limewater in places such as four jiaos in the greenhouse, dead angle, growth frame, cultivating groove, drip irrigation system, with 20% tpn aerosol 300g/667m 2Carry out disinfection.
2) grow seedlings: adopt no soil pit dish to grow seedlings, with the cave dish in homemade 50 caves, with the mixed-matrix of the peat composed of rotten mosses and perlite or the peat composed of rotten mosses and vermiculite, the matrix and the apparatus of growing seedlings must be sterilized, and available 0.5% liquor potassic permanganate soaks or 500 times of liquid of carbendazim of 50% are sprayed.Generally select the small fruit type kind of low temperature resistant, low light tolerance, indeterminate growth that disease resistance is strong for use, as the 72-68 of Holland, cherub, little holy peach etc., matrix adds suitable quantity of water before the sowing, mix the cave dish of packing into, about 1cm~the 1.5cm of sowing depth, cover one deck vermiculite or perlite above, broadcast the back and irrigate the vernalization of preserving moisture then with clear water.Preference temperature is about 25 ℃ before emerging, and when 60%~70% seed hogback, in time the seedling dish is moved on the frame of nursing young plants in hothouses and afforests.26 ℃~27 ℃ of seedling temperature in suitable daytime, night, temperature was 18 ℃~20 ℃.Note shading cooling between nursery stage, water and want even that seedling cotyledon is open and flat, when true leaf begins to grow, water 0.8ms/cm~1.2ms/cm complete nutrition liquid every other day one time.
3) field planting: planting-stock age is three leaves, one cores.Preceding 3~4 days of field planting is watered sufficient nutrient solution with cultivation matrix, during field planting rice shoot is watered adequate nutrition liquid, and band is fertile transplants, and the field planting degree of depth is advisable to reach cotyledonary node, and a large amount of irrigation the in two weeks after the field planting is in order to root growth.
4) flower and fruit protecting: handle soon open flower with drop-proof agent 20ppm~25ppm.The flowers are in blossom puts as two, three for one Honoka preface, carries out when all the other still are bud, and drop-proof agent is handled, and selects finely, can not be sprayed onto on the leaf when noting handling.
5) rich water quality management: the greenhouse uses a whole set of drip irrigation system to carry out nutrition liquid irrigation, uses special nutrient fluid formulated nutrient solution.Nutrient solution uses the high-concentration compound fertilizer material, disposes two mother liquor tanks of A, B, and the A jar is that calcium is joined, and the B jar is that nitrogen phosphorus potassium magnesium and trace element are joined, and table 1 is the amount that A jar, B jar respectively dispose required each straight fertilizer of adding of 1000kg mother liquor.Mother liquor and irrigation water are mixed into described nutrient solution according to the 1:100 proportioning, and when adopting nitric acid to regulate PH, two kinds of mother liquor amounts of taking equate, when adopting phosphoric acid to regulate PH, only take nitrogen phosphorus potassium magnesium and trace element and join.
Table 1: nutrient solution mother liquor prescription (A jar, each 1000kg of B jar)
Jar is not Composition Seedling stage consumption Picking time consumption The middle and later periods consumption of gathering
The A jar Nitrate of lime 87.5kg 87.5kg 100kg
? Potassium nitrate 17.5kg 13.8kg 17.5kg
? Ammonium nitrate 0kg 7.5kg 7.5kg
? Fe—EDTA 0.88kg 0.88kg 0.88kg
? Water 894.12kg 890.32kg 874.12kg
The B jar Potassium nitrate 40.8kg 41.3kg 25.8kg
? Potassium dihydrogen phosphate 17.0kg 17.0kg 17.0kg
? Potassium sulphate 36.3kg 36.3kg 33.1kg
? Magnesium sulfate 49.4kg 43.8kg 49.4kg
? Manganese sulphate 170g 170g 170g
? Zinc sulphate 145g 145g 145g
? Borax 240g 240g 240g
? Copper sulphate 19g 19g 19g
? Sodium molybdate 12g 12g 12g
? Water 855.914kg 861.014kg 874.114kg
Be control irrigation volume and irrigation concentration, each irrigated area is provided with 2 rich water test points, and detect every day, and content is amount, pH value, EC value, the NO of irrigation liquid and cultivation bag spillage 3 -Deng.Under the normal situation, the amount of spillage accounts for irrigates 15%~30% of liquid measure, and the spillage pH value is 6.0~6.5, and the EC of irrigation liquid and spillage differs and is no more than 0.4ms/cm~0.5ms/cm, the NO of spillage 3 -Concentration 250mg/L~500mg/L.Early stage, the EC value of nutrient solution was grasped about 2, and pH value is about 6, and along with increasing of fruit, the EC value brings up to 2.5, and the time of drip irrigation is also brought up to per hour 20~25min by initial per hour 8~12 min.Drip clear water every day 1 time.
6) gather: in time gather according to the market demand and cherry and tomato nature commodity maturity.
In the cultivation process of cherry and tomato, also should carry out following additional step in good time:
Plant management: adopt and go alone a seedling training type, when plant 20cm~25cm is high, hang rattan with the nylon rope or the rope made of hemp, one of lifting rope is tied up at the plant base portion, one hangs on the grown on top frame on suspension ring, later on cherry and tomato climing along lifting rope upwards around, remove all lateral buds simultaneously, prune and when side shoot 10 ㎝, to carry out.In time extract the old and feeble blade of bottom variable color, generally beat Lao Ye, side shoot carried out in the morning, tie up climing, should carry out in the afternoon around head.Note in time putting rattan.
Environment control: the cherry and tomato different growing is to the requirement difference of temperature humidity, as shown in table 2, should maintain in the optimum range as far as possible, take night insulation curtain insulation winter or heat, utilize summer the sunshade net to shade, help cooling by roll-up window, skylight, ventilating fan, roof spray etc.; When indoor humidity was too high, available forced ventilation was fallen wet, and also available heating heat extraction air falls wet; Humidity is crossed when hanging down, available roof spray humidification.Cherry and tomato belongs to happiness light crop, and during whole cultivation, as long as guarantee normal room temperature, reduction indoor temperature within reason should be seen light as much as possible.
Table 2: the cherry and tomato different growing is to the requirement of environmental condition
Breeding time Lowest temperature ℃ Thermophilic ℃ The highest temperature ℃ Relative moisture %
Seedling stage 15 20~30 34 80~85
Vegetative growth phase (round the clock) 18(8) 21(14)~24(17) 32(20) 70~80
Maturing stage (round the clock) 18(10) 23(14)~26(17) 30(20) 70~80
The main diseases pest control: the greenhouse disease insect pest takes place less, mainly contains insect pests such as disease such as gray mold, virus disease, leaf mold and aphid, trialeurodes vaporariorum, can adopt targetedly biopesticide or low-toxin farm chemicals to prevent and treat.

Claims (8)

1. the cultivation method of a cherry and tomato is characterized in that the concrete steps of this method are as follows:
1) cultivation is prepared: with the cultivation matrix cultivation bag of packing into, put on the greenhouse culture groove according to the planting density standard; With greenhouse floor file cloth, and inside, greenhouse carried out disinfection;
2) grow seedlings: adopt the mixed-matrix of the peat composed of rotten mosses and perlite or the peat composed of rotten mosses and vermiculite to add water, the no soil pit dish of packing into is grown seedlings, and sows then, waters, and the vernalization of preserving moisture when 60%~70% seed hogback, moves to the greenhouse with the seedling dish;
3) field planting: planting-stock age is three leaves, one cores, and the cultivation matrix described in the step 1) is watered sufficient nutrient solution before field planting, and fertile transplanting of rice shoot band watered the cultivation matrix of sufficient nutrient solution to this;
4) flower and fruit protecting: handle soon open flower with drop-proof agent 20ppm~25ppm;
5) rich water quality management: the configuration nutrient solution, plant to be irrigated, early stage, the EC value of nutrient solution was 2, and pH value is 6, and along with fruit increases, the EC value brings up to 2.5, drips clear water every day one time;
6) gather: in time gather according to the market demand and cherry and tomato physical maturity degree.
2. the cultivation method of a kind of cherry and tomato according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the cultivation matrix described in the step 1) must be through disinfecting before putting into cultivation bag, and thimerosal is a formalin solution.
3. the cultivation method of a kind of cherry and tomato according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the cultivation matrix described in the step 1) comprises perlite, the peat composed of rotten mosses, or its mixed-matrix.
4. the cultivation method of a kind of cherry and tomato according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the planting density described in the step 1) is 2 strains/m 2~2.5 strains/m 2
5. the cultivation method of a kind of cherry and tomato according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the sterilization described in the step 1) is ecological sterilization.
6. the cultivation method of a kind of cherry and tomato according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the sterilization described in the step 1) is the pharmacy disinfection method.
7. the cultivation method of a kind of cherry and tomato according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the solute of the nutrient solution described in the step 5) comprises that calcium is joined, nitrogen phosphorus potassium magnesium and trace element are joined two kinds of mother liquors, mother liquor and irrigation water are mixed into described nutrient solution according to 1: 100 proportioning, when adopting nitric acid to regulate PH, two kinds of mother liquor amounts of taking equate, when adopting phosphoric acid to regulate PH, only take nitrogen phosphorus potassium magnesium and trace element and join mother liquor.
8. the cultivation method of a kind of cherry and tomato according to claim 7, it is characterized in that: constituent that calcium is joined and mass percent proportioning are nitrate of lime 8.75%~10%, potassium nitrate 1.38%~1.75%, ammonium nitrate 0%~0.75%, Fe-EDTA 0.088%, water 87.412%~89.412%; Constituent and mass percent proportioning that nitrogen phosphorus potassium magnesium and trace element are joined are potassium nitrate 2.58%~4.13%, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1.7%, potassium sulphate 3.31%~3.63%, magnesium sulfate 4.38%~4.94%, manganese sulphate 0.017%, zinc sulphate 0.0145%, borax 0.024%, copper sulphate 0.0019%, sodium molybdate 0.0012%, water 85.5914%~87.4114%.
CN201010521349A 2010-10-27 2010-10-27 Method for cultivating cherries and tomatoes CN101960981B (en)

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