CN101947630A - Controlled-forging controlled-cooling processing technology of bearing ring prepared by GCr15 - Google Patents

Controlled-forging controlled-cooling processing technology of bearing ring prepared by GCr15 Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101947630A
CN101947630A CN 201010283808 CN201010283808A CN101947630A CN 101947630 A CN101947630 A CN 101947630A CN 201010283808 CN201010283808 CN 201010283808 CN 201010283808 A CN201010283808 A CN 201010283808A CN 101947630 A CN101947630 A CN 101947630A
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bearing ring
temperature
forging
finished
semi
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CN 201010283808
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101947630B (en
Inventor
雷建中
扈林庄
梅亚莉
高元安
仇亚军
叶健熠
张延芳
王智勇
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洛阳轴研科技股份有限公司
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Abstract

The invention relates to a controlled-forging controlled-cooling processing technology of a bearing ring prepared by GCr15, comprising the following steps of: quenching the bearing ring in cooling fluid at final forging temperature of 850-950 DEG C and at fluid outlet temperature of 350-550 DEG C; when heating the bearing ring to the temperature of 450-550 DEG C, after preserving the temperature for 1h-3h, discharging the bearing ring from a boiler and cooling the bearing ring to room temperature; when heating the bearing ring to the temperature of 650-690 DEG C again, preserving the temperature for 1h; when continuously heating the bearing ring to the temperature of 740-780 DEG C, after preserving the temperature for 2-3h, cooling the bearing ring to the temperature of 680-690 DEG C and preserving the temperature for 2-4 hours; finally, when cooling the bearing ring to the temperature of 550-600 DEG C at the speed of 10 DEG C/h, cooling o the bearing ring to the room temperature along with the boiler by air; quenching a machined semi-finished bearing ring; when heating to the temperature of 810-830 DEG C, after preserving the temperature for 45-60min, discharging the machined semi-finished bearing ring from the boiler and quenching the machined semi-finished bearing ring in oil; and when heating the machined semi-finished bearing ring to the temperature of 160-200 DEG C after being quenched, preserving the temperature of the machined semi-finished bearing ring for 4h, discharging the machined semi-finished bearing ring from the boiler and cooling the machined semi-finished bearing ring to the room temperature by air. According to the invention, carbides, martensite crystals and austenite crystals of the bearing ring are refined, network carbides are improved or eliminated and impact ductility and fatigue life are improved.

Description

GCr15 makes the control of bearing ring and forges the control cold machining process
Technical field
The invention belongs to bearing heat treatment technics field, especially a kind of GCr15 makes the control of bearing ring and forges the control cold machining process.
Background technology
High-carbon-chromium bearing steel GCr15 (1.0-C 1.5-Cr) is constructed as follows by weight percentage:
C:0.90~1.05%, Si:0.55~0.65%, Mn:1.00~1.10%, Cr:1.35~1.50%, Mo ≯ 0.10%, P ≯ 0.025%, S ≯ 0.025%, Ni ≯ 0.30%, Cu ≯ 0.25%, Ni+Cu ≯ 0.50%, all the other are Fe and unavoidable impurities.
GCr15 is that various countries use maximum bearing steel kinds for many years, because GCr15 has characteristics such as rolling contact fatigue function admirable, hardness height and wearability are good.But the continuous casting GCr15 bearing steel that China produces is owing to be subjected to the restriction of production equipment, and the high temperature diffusion annealing time is not enough far away, thus netted, the banded carbide of bearing steel often all the reaching the standard grade of GB/T18254 standard-required, even severe overweight.
Along with the requirement of bearing service life and reliability is more and more higher, the size of its carbide and austenite crystal there is higher requirement.But can there be a certain amount of thick eutectic carbide in GCr15 steel its internal crystallization tissue in the process of making bearing ring, will cause the rolling fatigue life of bearing ring and obdurability significantly to reduce like this.Its carbide of GCr15 bearing ring, martensitic structure and austenite crystal under conventional processing technology is all bigger than normal simultaneously, can not reach the intensity of bearing ring finished product and the best fit of toughness, has also restricted the rolling fatigue life and the obdurability of bearing ring.
How reducing thick eutectic carbide that bearing ring produces in manufacturing process, improve the intensity and the toughness of bearing ring, is the great research topic that each Production of bearing enterprise faces.
Summary of the invention
For addressing the above problem, the invention provides the control forging control cold machining process that a kind of GCr15 makes bearing ring, forging process, forging after annealing operation and the machined semi-finished product heat treatment step that the control cold machining process is mainly reflected in bearing ring forged in this control, control by these operations, refinement the carbide of bearing ring, martensitic structure and austenite crystal, improve or eliminated net carbide, after subsequent heat treatment, can improve the impact flexibility and the fatigue life of bearing ring.
For achieving the above object, the present invention adopts following technical scheme:
The control cold machining process is forged in the control of described GCr15 making bearing ring, and forging process, forging after annealing operation and the machined semi-finished product heat treatment step that control cold machining process is mainly reflected in bearing ring forged in this control, and described each operation division is as follows:
1. the forging process of bearing ring
The final forging temperature of making the GCr15 of bearing ring is controlled at 850~950 ℃, then the bearing ring forging is put into the cooling fluid quenching, the liquid temp that goes out of bearing ring forging is controlled at 350~550 ℃, come out of the stove behind insulation 1h~3h when after the fluid bearing ring forging being put into constant temperature oven and being heated to 450~550 ℃, the bearing ring forging of coming out of the stove is placed on the job shop air cooling to room temperature;
2. forge the after annealing operation
Subsequently the bearing ring forging is placed on insulation 1h when being heated to 650~680 ℃ in the annealing furnace, and then begin cooling behind the time insulation 2~3h that is heated to 740~780 ℃, insulation 2~4h when being cooled to 680~690 ℃, when being cooled to 550~600 ℃ with the speed of 30 ℃/h at last with the stove air cooling to room temperature;
3. machined semi-finished product heat treatment step
Forge after mach semi-finished product bearing ring needs through Quenching Treatment, the semi-finished product bearing ring is placed on comes out of the stove behind the time insulation 45~60min that is heated to 810~830 ℃ in the glowing furnace and at oil quenching, Quenching Treatment finishes the semi-finished product bearing ring to be placed on when being heated to 160~200 ℃ in the tempering furnace again and comes out of the stove air cooling to room temperature behind the insulation 4h.
Because adopt aforesaid technical scheme, the present invention has following advantage:
1, by GCr15 be swaged into bearing ring forging process, forge the after annealing operation and be machined to half-finished heat treatment step after, can make the bearing ring carbide refinement and suppress the formation of thick carbide network, the carbide particle size obviously reduces, average particle size particle size reduces more than 40%, can obtain 1 grade carbide network tissue.
2, can make the bearing ring grain refinement, autstenitic grain size is more than 10 grades.
3, bearing ring can improve the impact flexibility of bearing behind grain refinement, carbide refinement, and the notched bar impact strength after the refinement can improve more than 50%.
, bearing ring can increase substantially the contact fatigue life of bearing behind grain refinement, carbide refinement, contact fatigue life can improve more than 40% after the refinement.
The specific embodiment
Total processing technology of being made bearing ring by GCr15 has been known to those skilled in the art, but the control meeting of each operation is different, forging process, forging after annealing operation and the machined semi-finished product heat treatment step that the control cold machining process is mainly reflected in bearing ring forged in control of the present invention, and described each operation division is as follows:
1. the forging process of bearing ring
The final forging temperature of making the GCr15 of bearing ring is controlled at 850~950 ℃, then the bearing ring forging is put into the cooling fluid quenching, the liquid temp that goes out of bearing ring forging is controlled at 350~550 ℃, come out of the stove behind insulation 1h~3h when after the fluid bearing ring forging being put into constant temperature oven and being heated to 450~550 ℃, the bearing ring forging of coming out of the stove is placed on the job shop air cooling to room temperature.
By above-mentioned forging process, the bearing ring forging can be separated out temperature range by net carbide rapidly and be suppressed the netted of carbide and separate out when structural transformation, after simultaneously being as cold as lower temperature soon, along with degree of supercooling increases, can reduce pearlite pelletizing diameter and refine pearlite sheet interlayer spacing, reduce the proeutectoid carbide size, being incubated also again, air cooling to room temperature allows carbide disperse tiny separating out, thereby reach the purpose of abolishing net carbide, obtain superfine lamellar pearlite tissue, for subsequently spheroidizing provides good Preparedness Directorate.
2. forge the after annealing operation, or be called the spheroidizing operation
Subsequently the bearing ring forging is placed on insulation 1h when being heated to 650~680 ℃ in the annealing furnace, and then begin cooling behind the time insulation 2~3h that is heated to 740~780 ℃, insulation 2~4h when being cooled to 680~690 ℃, when being cooled to 550~600 ℃ with the speed of 30 ℃/h at last with the stove air cooling to room temperature.
By above-mentioned spheroidizing operation, the bearing ring forging can obtain a little granular or the globular pearlite tissue, and bearing ring forging hardness is reduced, and is convenient to follow-up machined.Compare with conventional annealing technology and can significantly improve bearing ring forging spherodized structure credit rating and to shorten the time organize nodularization.
3. machined semi-finished product heat treatment step
Forge after mach semi-finished product bearing ring needs through Quenching Treatment, the semi-finished product bearing ring is placed on comes out of the stove behind the time insulation 45~60min that is heated to 810~830 ℃ in the glowing furnace and at oil quenching, Quenching Treatment finishes the semi-finished product bearing ring to be placed on when being heated to 160~200 ℃ in the tempering furnace again and comes out of the stove air cooling to room temperature behind the insulation 4h.
Because bearing ring forging original structure is thinner, the carbide decentralization is big more, the carbide of tiny dispersion incorporates austenite when helping quenching heating, adopt and suitably reduce quenching temperature, keeping a part of undissolved carbide inhibition austenite crystal in heating process grows up, thereby obtain tiny quenched martensite tissue and very thin autstenitic grain size, thereby improve bearing intensity, toughness and contact fatigue life.
Can the Control Shaft bearing ring obtain tiny, the even martensite tempered structure of quenching by above-mentioned machined semi-finished product heat treatment step, the tempering rear bearing lasso of quenching has thinner grain size, refinement the carbide network tissue more than 1 grade, the carbide average particle size particle size of heat treatment rear bearing lasso is not more than 0.35um.
Compare with the sample that common process is handled such as the sample of the bearing ring that is of a size of φ 55mm * φ 30mm * 10mm after handling through above-mentioned three operations, it is as follows by the metallographic structure comparative analysis:
Quench 3 grades of tempered martensites, but 1 grade of refinement;
Autstenitic grain size is 10~11 grades, refinement 2 grades;
Can obtain 1 grade carbide network tissue, refinement 1~1.5 grade;
The carbide average particle size particle size is not more than 0.35um, and common process processing back carbide average particle size particle size is not more than 0.57um, and average particle size particle size reduces more than 40%;
Specified contact fatigue life (L of the present invention 10* 10 7) be 0.839, and the rated life time (L that common process is handled 10* 10 7) be 0.567, contact fatigue life can improve more than 48%;
Impact flexibility of the present invention (α κ) is 40.5J/cm, and the impact flexibility (α κ) after the processing of conventional common process is 25J/cm, and the notched bar impact strength after the refinement can improve more than 61%.
Compare with the sample that common process is handled such as the sample of the bearing ring that is of a size of φ 85mm * φ 40mm * 22mm after handling through above-mentioned three operations again, it is as follows by the metallographic structure comparative analysis:
Quench 3 grades of tempered martensites, but 1 grade of refinement;
Autstenitic grain size is 10~11 grades, refinement 2 grades;
Can obtain 1 grade carbide network tissue, refinement 1~1.5 grade;
The carbide average particle size particle size is for being not more than 0.30um, and common process is handled back carbide average particle size particle size and is not more than 0.57um, and average particle size particle size reduces more than 40%;
Specified contact fatigue life (L of the present invention 10* 10 7) be 0.899, and the impact flexibility (α κ) after the processing of conventional common process is 0.567, contact fatigue life can improve more than 59%;
Impact flexibility of the present invention (α κ) is 39J/cm, and the impact flexibility (α κ) after the processing of conventional common process is 25J/cm, and the notched bar impact strength after the refinement can improve more than 56%.

Claims (1)

1. the control cold machining process is forged in the control of a GCr15 making bearing ring, it is characterized in that: forging process, forging after annealing operation and the machined semi-finished product heat treatment step that control cold machining process is mainly reflected in bearing ring forged in this control, and described each operation division is as follows:
1. the forging process of bearing ring
The final forging temperature of making the GCr15 of bearing ring is controlled at 850~950 ℃, then the bearing ring forging is put into the cooling fluid quenching, the liquid temp that goes out of bearing ring forging is controlled at 350~550 ℃, come out of the stove behind insulation 1h~3h when after the fluid bearing ring forging being put into constant temperature oven and being heated to 450~550 ℃, the bearing ring forging of coming out of the stove is placed on the job shop air cooling to room temperature;
2. forge the after annealing operation
Subsequently the bearing ring forging is placed on insulation 1h when being heated to 650~680 ℃ in the annealing furnace, and then begin cooling behind the time insulation 2~3h that is heated to 740~780 ℃, insulation 2~4h when being cooled to 680~690 ℃, when being cooled to 550~600 ℃ with the speed of 30 ℃/h at last with the stove air cooling to room temperature;
3. machined semi-finished product heat treatment step
Forge after mach semi-finished product bearing ring needs through Quenching Treatment, the semi-finished product bearing ring is placed on comes out of the stove behind the time insulation 45~60min that is heated to 810~830 ℃ in the glowing furnace and at oil quenching, Quenching Treatment finishes the semi-finished product bearing ring to be placed on when being heated to 160~200 ℃ in the tempering furnace again and comes out of the stove air cooling to room temperature behind the insulation 4h.
CN2010102838087A 2010-09-17 2010-09-17 Controlled-forging controlled-cooling processing technology of bearing ring prepared by GCr15 CN101947630B (en)

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CN102430455A (en) * 2011-10-26 2012-05-02 李姝霖 Ball-milling tank capable of bearing high pressure and resisting abrasion, and manufacturing method thereof
CN102500739A (en) * 2011-09-28 2012-06-20 杭州孚锐机械有限公司 Manufacturing method for forging outer ring of outer ring sleeve of wheel hub by permeating rare earth
CN102589740A (en) * 2012-01-16 2012-07-18 成都天马铁路轴承有限公司 Testing method for temperature variation of tampering core part of forging piece for large-section bearing inner and outer rings
CN102628096A (en) * 2012-04-23 2012-08-08 人本集团有限公司 Thermal processing process of bearing ring
CN102756070A (en) * 2012-07-18 2012-10-31 浙江天马轴承股份有限公司 Forging method of bearing ring
CN102925657A (en) * 2012-11-06 2013-02-13 武汉理工大学 Rolling deformation quenching composite reinforcing method of middle carbon alloyed steel bearing ring piece
CN103320583A (en) * 2012-03-21 2013-09-25 宝山钢铁股份有限公司 Heat treatment technique for spheroidization annealing of GCr15 bearing steel
CN103484619A (en) * 2013-09-26 2014-01-01 无锡阳工机械制造有限公司 Heat treatment method of GCr15 bearing steel
CN103484618A (en) * 2013-09-26 2014-01-01 无锡阳工机械制造有限公司 Heat treatment method of GCr15 steel
CN103866106A (en) * 2014-03-12 2014-06-18 安徽利达汽车轴承制造有限公司 Quench tempering deformation control method of bearing ring
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CN105154654A (en) * 2015-08-31 2015-12-16 安庆银亿轴承有限公司 Annealing process of air conditioner bearing cover
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CN105414901A (en) * 2015-12-15 2016-03-23 常熟市常轴轴承有限公司 Forging technology of rolling bearing ring
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CN109261864A (en) * 2018-09-29 2019-01-25 中国航发哈尔滨轴承有限公司 A kind of Cronidur30 high nitrogen stainless steel bearing ring blank forging manufacturing process
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CN108396125B (en) * 2018-04-23 2019-08-30 洛阳Lyc轴承有限公司 A kind of processing technology of carburizing steel railway bearing forging crystal grain refinement
CN108486468A (en) * 2018-05-02 2018-09-04 本钢板材股份有限公司 A kind of high-carbon low-alloy bearing steel ring and its heat-treatment technology method
CN109261864A (en) * 2018-09-29 2019-01-25 中国航发哈尔滨轴承有限公司 A kind of Cronidur30 high nitrogen stainless steel bearing ring blank forging manufacturing process
CN110218846A (en) * 2019-06-27 2019-09-10 洛阳Lyc轴承有限公司 A kind of high-carbon-chromium bearing steel emulsion normalizing processing method
CN111014530A (en) * 2019-12-28 2020-04-17 中国航发哈尔滨轴承有限公司 Forging method of BG801 steel bearing ring

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