CN101943682A - Distributed device and method for monitoring mechanical failures in real time based on array sound transmitter - Google Patents

Distributed device and method for monitoring mechanical failures in real time based on array sound transmitter Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101943682A
CN101943682A CN 201010274901 CN201010274901A CN101943682A CN 101943682 A CN101943682 A CN 101943682A CN 201010274901 CN201010274901 CN 201010274901 CN 201010274901 A CN201010274901 A CN 201010274901A CN 101943682 A CN101943682 A CN 101943682A
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China
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signal
fault
sensor
host computer
real
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CN 201010274901
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CN101943682B (en
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童敏明
童紫原
刘永春
唐守锋
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中国矿业大学
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Abstract

The invention provides a distributed device and method for monitoring mechanical failures in real time based on an array sound transmitter. The device comprises an array sound transmission sensor, a preamplifier, a band-pass filter, a multichannel high-speed AD converter, a single chip, a 485 bus and a PC. The method is characterized in that the array sound transmission sensor is installed on the mechanical parts needing to be detected, such as the end cover of the mechanical bearing, the failure signal output by the sound transmission sensor is firstly amplified by the preamplifier, then filtered by the band-pass filter and finally sampled at high speed and subjected to AD conversion, then the single chip transmits the signal to the PC via the bus and the PC carries out a series of processing on the signal, including high-pass filter, envelope analysis, low-pass filter, failure identification and failure indication. The invention can not only realize real-time monitoring of the mechanical failures but also realize monitoring of a plurality of machines or a plurality of monitoring points of a system and save cost.

Description

Distributed machinery fault real-time monitoring device and method based on the array acoustic transmitter
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind ofly, be particularly useful for the monitoring of mechanical faults such as mechanical bearing, machining tool fracture based on the real-time monitoring device and the method for calibrate AE sensor to the total system mechanical fault.
Background technology
The acoustic current launching failure detects and has obtained developing widely and using in the commercial production field with its good monitoring characteristic, utilize the acoustic emission can be to diagnosing malfunctions such as machining center cutter, mechanical bearings, to the power station Nondestructing Detection of Pressure Vessels, when fault produces, acoustic emission signal significantly increases in the signal energy of a certain special frequency band, generally at high band very, more much higher than general mechanical vibration frequency, as to adopt time-domain analysis and frequency-domain analysis to acoustic emission signal to combine method failure judgement.In most cases be monolithic processor controlled mode in the industry spot, cause production efficiency not high easily, the significant wastage of human and material resources resource, and also a complete workflow waterline needs a lot of failure detectors.Given this designed with PC as the array calibrate AE sensor of host computer, RS485 communication interface distributed monitoring system as slave computer, each calibrate AE sensor is carried out the collection of remote monitoring and real time data, thereby reach the rationalization setting of production equipment and the very big raising of detection efficiency.
Summary of the invention
Technical matters: the objective of the invention is at the problem that exists in the prior art, provide a kind of simple in structure, method is easy, easily realize, cost is low, quick and precisely, and effective distributed machinery fault real-time monitoring device and method based on the array acoustic transmitter.
Technical scheme: pick-up unit of the present invention is by the array calibrate AE sensor, prime amplifier, bandpass filter, the multi-channel high-speed AD converter, single-chip microcomputer, the RS-485 bus, Hi-pass filter, the Envelope Analysis device, low-pass filter, Fault Identification device and indicating fault are formed, four tunnel output signals of array calibrate AE sensor are directly passed through by prime amplifier and bandpass filter, through amplification filtering after be input to single-chip microcomputer after the multi-channel high-speed AD conversion, single-chip microcomputer at first carries out pre-service and information fusion to four road signals, signal after will merging then sends host computer to by 485 buses and carries out analysis and judgement, host computer carries out filtering to signal, spectrum analysis, Fault Identification is carried out fault demonstration and warning at last.
Described each sensor head all is to be combined by the calibrate AE sensor of different resonance frequencies, forms array-type sensor, in order to increase the frequency band range of fault detect; This device adopts the Distributed Detection method, and a plurality of slave computers are connected on the host computer through 485 buses and carry out signal Processing; Described calibrate AE sensor, prime amplifier, information acquisition card constitute by integration module; The fault ripple signal that sends from acoustic emission source arrives sensor array after medium is propagated, after receiving signal, four sensor heads export electric signal, four road signals are respectively after amplification filtering, import IN0~IN3 end of ADC0809 respectively, the OE end of ADC0809, ALE end and START hold respectively the P3.3 with the mega16 single-chip microcomputer, P3.4 is connected with the P3.5 pin, the ADDA of ADC0809 is connected with the P3.6 pin of mega16 single-chip microcomputer, ADDB and ADDC are connected to the P3.7 pin of mega16 single-chip microcomputer, D0~D7 of ADC0809 is connected the P3.0 of mega16 with P0.0~P0.7 pin of mega16 respectively, P3.1 and P3.2 respectively with 1 of MAX485,4 and 2,3 pins are connected.In fact and do not meet the standard of RS232 the output signal of single-chip microcomputer, adopt the serial communication interface of RS232/RS485 to connect, simultaneously, when carrying out the RS232/RS485 conversion, communication system is carried out photoelectricity and isolate for the antijamming capability that improves system and the reliability of work; Host computer is a PC that fft analysis software is installed.
The present invention is based on the positioning and orienting method of the distributed machinery fault real-time monitoring device of array acoustic transmitter:
A, at the positions such as bearing of mechanical system the array calibrate AE sensor is installed, sensor is gathered the fault-signal of machine operation in real time;
B, fault-signal through amplify, Filtering Processing form have in certain frequency band output fault-signal, fault-signal is sent into single-chip microcomputer through high-speed sampling;
C, single-chip microcomputer filter the undesired signal of special frequency channel according to the signal of the frequency range individual processing particular sensor of undesired signal, and the particular sensor signal that will handle then and other sensor signals merge;
After d, single-chip microcomputer are received the host computer order, the digital quantity signal after merging is sent to host computer by 485 buses;
Whether e, host computer carry out judging fault to exist after high-pass filtering, Envelope Analysis, low-pass filtering etc. handle to the fault-signal that receives from bus, if any fault generation Realtime Alerts and demonstrate the exact position and fault type.
Beneficial effect: the invention reside in and adopt array calibrate AE sensor and distributed network structure monitoring network, the calibrate AE sensor of different resonance frequencies is combined expansion and is measured bandwidth, shows with specific frequency for different mechanical faults; Distributed network structure is used for that whole work system is carried out multiple spot and monitors the supervisory system of dispersion, centralized data analysis in real time.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the definition synoptic diagram of acoustic emission signal parameter of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the total synoptic diagram of system architecture of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is a slave computer part schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is apparatus of the present invention workflow diagrams.
Embodiment
This device is made up of host computer and slave computer, host computer 21 is connected by 485 buses 36 with slave computer 23, host computer 21 is made of computer that digital signal processing software is installed and fault display part, and digital signal processing comprises links such as high-pass filtering, Envelope Analysis, low-pass filtering and Fault Identification; Slave computer comprises calibrate AE sensor 31, prime amplifier 32, bandpass filter 33, multi-channel high-speed A/D converter 34 and single-chip microcomputer 35, wherein: the output terminal of calibrate AE sensor 31 is connected with prime amplifier 32 input ends, prime amplifier 32 output terminal connecting band bandpass filters 33, the output signal of bandpass filter 33 reaches single-chip microcomputer 35 through high-speed AD sampling 34, single-chip microcomputer 35 is sent to BAS bus 37 with mechanical fault information through 485 bus interface 36, and BAS bus 37 is connected with host computer by the RS232/RS48522 converter.
The array calibrate AE sensor: this device sensor head adopts four calibrate AE sensors that model is SR40, four center sensor frequencies are respectively 160kHz, 200kHz, 240kHz and 280kHz, calibrate AE sensor converts AE to electric signal in the machine works process, in order to prevent that sneaking into of noise from adopting prime amplifier and wave filter to carry out amplification and filtering respectively, the signal after the conditioning is fit to subsequent treatment and analysis.
Prime amplifier: impedance matching and signal to sensor output and subsequent process circuit amplify, because the acoustic emission voltage magnitude is little, frequency distribution is wide, and signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio) is low, and this device is selected the prime amplifier of high S/N and high-gain for use.Described prime amplifier model is PAI.
Bandpass filter: the output signal of prime amplifier contains a large amount of power frequency interference signals and irrelevant high-frequency electrical noise, select the bandpass filter that good transmission characteristic and good cutoff frequency are arranged for use in passband, the electric signal of four sensor head outputs is 160kHz, 200kHz, 240kHz and 280kHz through centre frequency respectively, frequency span is 80kHz, rejects power frequency and ultrahigh frequency interference effectively through bandpass filter.
Analog to digital conversion: this device adopts ADC0809 high-speed multiple channel AD conversion chip, four road signals are input to the IN0~IN3 input end of chip respectively, by single-chip microcomputer signal is carried out pre-service after the high-speed sampling, at first signal specific is carried out noise filtering, reject the noise of special frequency band, secondly four road signals are carried out information fusion, form elementary fault-signal, fault-signal after will merging at last is sent to output terminal, waits for reading of host computer.
PC is communicated by letter with slave computer: signal is transferred to bus through the AD conversion by the atmega16 single-chip microcomputer and gets on, in fact and do not meet the standard of RS232 the output signal of single-chip microcomputer, therefore adopt the serial communication interface of RS232/RS485 to connect, simultaneously, when carrying out the RS232/RS485 conversion, communication system is carried out photoelectricity and isolate for the antijamming capability that improves system and the reliability of work.The hardware circuit of serial communication interface adopts the UART mode; The communication mode that host computer inquiry, slave computer interrupt and the inquiry dual mode combines is adopted in the realization of software.The slave computer part provides serial port mode 2 and mode 3 combinations in serial port break in service mode.When host computer need send or receive the slave computer data, slave computer received or sends with interrupt mode; When slave computer as required when host computer is replied data or host computer down-transmitting data slave computer enter the inquiry mode communication module, with position, communication mark position to wait for response of host.Single-chip microcomputer can not initiatively send data in this system toward the RS485 bus on, must wait for the instruction of host computer transmission, and any moment can only have a single-chip microcomputer to be in transmit status, but all single-chip microcomputers must be in accepting state; Prepare for carrying out to receive or send as if slave computer, just return from interrupt routine, prepare in master routine, the wait host computer is got in touch with slave computer once more, makes slave computer enter serial port once more and interrupts.
Host computer: it is that the Lab View analysis software of platform is handled real time data and shown in real time that system adopts based on WindowsXP.System also has functions such as Data Update storage, fault diagnosis expert system, system management, online help, historical record inquiry, analysis.And can expand according to customer requirements.The test parameter that adopts has event count, Ring-down count, energy, amplitude, rise time and duration.The acoustie emission event numerical table shows the number that cracks, an event signal is represented with the identical pulse signal of a plurality of width, adopt resonant energy factor diagnostic method to differentiate the situation of mechanical fault, fault releases energy when producing acoustic emission, and its acoustic emission wave that sends has the frequency band of broad, thereby have in the resonance region that part energy drops on sensor and cause sensor resonance, fault is serious more, and detected energy is just big more.The size that releases energy is relevant with the order of severity of fault.
Monitoring method based on the real-time local supervising and measuring equipment of distributed machinery fault of array acoustic transmitter adopts the Distributed Detection method, and a plurality of slave computers are connected on the host computer through 485 buses and carry out signal Processing; Described host computer adopts Lab view that signal is analyzed with Windows as platform, by fft analysis software, comprises that Envelope Analysis, Fault Identification etc. are handled real time data and shows that in real time concrete grammar may further comprise the steps:
A, at the positions such as bearing of mechanical system the array calibrate AE sensor is installed, sensor is gathered the fault-signal of machine operation in real time;
B, fault-signal through amplify, Filtering Processing form have in certain frequency band output fault-signal, fault-signal is sent into single-chip microcomputer through high-speed sampling;
C, single-chip microcomputer filter the undesired signal of special frequency channel according to the signal of the frequency range individual processing particular sensor of undesired signal, and the particular sensor signal that will handle then and other sensor signals merge;
After d, single-chip microcomputer are received the host computer order, the digital quantity signal after merging is sent to host computer by 485 buses;
Whether e, host computer carry out judging fault to exist after high-pass filtering, Envelope Analysis, low-pass filtering etc. handle to the fault-signal that receives from bus, if any fault generation Realtime Alerts and demonstrate the exact position and fault type.

Claims (7)

1. real-time local supervising and measuring equipment of distributed machinery fault based on the array acoustic transmitter, it is characterized in that: this device is made up of host computer and slave computer, host computer (21) is connected by 485 buses (36) with slave computer (23), host computer (21) is made of computer that digital signal processing software is installed and fault display part, and digital signal processing comprises links such as high-pass filtering, Envelope Analysis, low-pass filtering and Fault Identification; Slave computer comprises calibrate AE sensor (31), prime amplifier (32), bandpass filter (33), multi-channel high-speed A/D converter (34) and single-chip microcomputer (35), wherein: the output terminal of calibrate AE sensor (31) is connected with prime amplifier (32) input end, prime amplifier (32) output terminal connecting band bandpass filter (33), the output signal of bandpass filter (33) reaches single-chip microcomputer (35) through high-speed AD sampling (34), single-chip microcomputer (35) is sent to BAS bus (37) with mechanical fault information through 485 bus interface (36), and BAS bus (37) is connected with host computer by RS232/RS485 (22) converter.
2. the real-time local supervising and measuring equipment of distributed machinery fault based on the array acoustic transmitter according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described calibrate AE sensor (31) is combined by the calibrate AE sensor of different resonance frequencies, form array-type sensor, in order to increase the frequency band range of fault detect, according to the signal of the frequency range individual processing particular sensor of undesired signal, will get rid of the particular sensor signal of undesired signal and the signal of other sensor heads again and merge.
3. the real-time local supervising and measuring equipment of distributed machinery fault based on the array acoustic transmitter according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described prime amplifier (32) model is PAI.
4. the real-time local supervising and measuring equipment of distributed machinery fault based on the array acoustic transmitter according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described bandpass filter (33) comprises amplifier LF444AF, feedback resistance and capacitance group.
5. the real-time local supervising and measuring equipment of distributed machinery fault based on the array acoustic transmitter according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described high-speed AD sampling (34) model is ADC0809.
6. the real-time local supervising and measuring equipment of distributed machinery fault based on the array acoustic transmitter according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described single-chip microcomputer model is atmega16.
7. the monitoring method of the real-time local supervising and measuring equipment of distributed machinery fault based on the array acoustic transmitter as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that adopting the Distributed Detection method, a plurality of slave computers are connected on the host computer through 485 buses and carry out signal Processing; Described host computer adopts Lab view that signal is analyzed with Windows as platform, by fft analysis software, comprises that Envelope Analysis, Fault Identification etc. are handled real time data and shows that in real time concrete grammar may further comprise the steps:
A, at the positions such as bearing of mechanical system the array calibrate AE sensor is installed, sensor is gathered the fault-signal of machine operation in real time;
B, fault-signal through amplify, Filtering Processing form have in certain frequency band output fault-signal, fault-signal is sent into single-chip microcomputer through high-speed sampling;
C, single-chip microcomputer filter the undesired signal of special frequency channel according to the signal of the frequency range individual processing particular sensor of undesired signal, and the particular sensor signal that will handle then and other sensor signals merge;
After d, single-chip microcomputer are received the host computer order, the digital quantity signal after merging is sent to host computer by 485 buses;
Whether e, host computer carry out judging fault to exist after high-pass filtering, Envelope Analysis, low-pass filtering etc. handle to the fault-signal that receives from bus, if any fault generation Realtime Alerts and demonstrate the exact position and fault type.
CN2010102749011A 2010-09-07 2010-09-07 Distributed mechanical failures real time monitoring device based on array sound transmitter and method therefor CN101943682B (en)

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Cited By (11)

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CN102759574A (en) * 2012-08-07 2012-10-31 上海奥达光电子科技有限公司 Sound emission intelligent sensor
CN103149862A (en) * 2013-02-05 2013-06-12 中国矿业大学 Automatic sound emission monitoring method and automatic sound emission monitoring device
CN105021706A (en) * 2015-07-16 2015-11-04 郑州磨料磨具磨削研究所有限公司 Grinding wheel broken state early warning recognition device and method
CN105788199A (en) * 2016-05-20 2016-07-20 太仓鼎诚电子科技有限公司 BAS (Brake Assist System) monitoring system
WO2017121338A1 (en) * 2016-01-14 2017-07-20 东莞帕姆蒂昊宇液态金属有限公司 Method and apparatus for determining whether product is crystallized, and detection device
CN107911802A (en) * 2017-12-01 2018-04-13 中国电子科技集团公司第二十二研究所 Wireless communication system and method applied to shield machine roller cutter status monitoring
CN108195941A (en) * 2017-12-29 2018-06-22 郑州智谷工业技术有限公司 A kind of rock fracture sound emission on-line monitoring system
WO2018113415A1 (en) * 2016-12-23 2018-06-28 舍弗勒技术股份两合公司 Rolling bearing detection method and device
WO2018218457A1 (en) * 2017-05-27 2018-12-06 深圳瀚飞科技开发有限公司 Online detection system based on single-chip microcomputers, and control method therefor
CN110118943A (en) * 2019-04-11 2019-08-13 华中科技大学 A kind of broadband ultrasonic probe, ultrasonic receiver and its application
CN110926784A (en) * 2019-12-10 2020-03-27 上海欧秒电力监测设备有限公司 GIS circuit breaker fault on-line monitoring device based on sound

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Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102759574A (en) * 2012-08-07 2012-10-31 上海奥达光电子科技有限公司 Sound emission intelligent sensor
CN102759574B (en) * 2012-08-07 2016-05-18 上海奥达光电子科技有限公司 A kind of sound emission intelligence sensor
CN103149862A (en) * 2013-02-05 2013-06-12 中国矿业大学 Automatic sound emission monitoring method and automatic sound emission monitoring device
CN105021706A (en) * 2015-07-16 2015-11-04 郑州磨料磨具磨削研究所有限公司 Grinding wheel broken state early warning recognition device and method
WO2017121338A1 (en) * 2016-01-14 2017-07-20 东莞帕姆蒂昊宇液态金属有限公司 Method and apparatus for determining whether product is crystallized, and detection device
CN105788199A (en) * 2016-05-20 2016-07-20 太仓鼎诚电子科技有限公司 BAS (Brake Assist System) monitoring system
WO2018113415A1 (en) * 2016-12-23 2018-06-28 舍弗勒技术股份两合公司 Rolling bearing detection method and device
WO2018218457A1 (en) * 2017-05-27 2018-12-06 深圳瀚飞科技开发有限公司 Online detection system based on single-chip microcomputers, and control method therefor
CN107911802A (en) * 2017-12-01 2018-04-13 中国电子科技集团公司第二十二研究所 Wireless communication system and method applied to shield machine roller cutter status monitoring
CN107911802B (en) * 2017-12-01 2020-10-27 中国电子科技集团公司第二十二研究所 Wireless communication system and method applied to shield machine hob state monitoring
CN108195941A (en) * 2017-12-29 2018-06-22 郑州智谷工业技术有限公司 A kind of rock fracture sound emission on-line monitoring system
CN110118943A (en) * 2019-04-11 2019-08-13 华中科技大学 A kind of broadband ultrasonic probe, ultrasonic receiver and its application
CN110926784A (en) * 2019-12-10 2020-03-27 上海欧秒电力监测设备有限公司 GIS circuit breaker fault on-line monitoring device based on sound

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