CN101939269B - Reduced-carbon footprint concrete compositions - Google Patents

Reduced-carbon footprint concrete compositions Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN101939269B
CN101939269B CN 200980101147 CN200980101147A CN101939269B CN 101939269 B CN101939269 B CN 101939269B CN 200980101147 CN200980101147 CN 200980101147 CN 200980101147 A CN200980101147 A CN 200980101147A CN 101939269 B CN101939269 B CN 101939269B
Authority
CN
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
co2
carbon footprint
concrete
water
carbonate
Prior art date
Application number
CN 200980101147
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Other versions
CN101939269A (en )
Inventor
B·R·康斯坦茨
A·扬斯
T·霍兰德
Original Assignee
卡勒拉公司
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B40/00Processes, in general, for influencing or modifying the properties of mortars, concrete or artificial stone compositions, e.g. their setting or hardening ability
    • C04B40/0028Aspects relating to the mixing step of the mortar preparation
    • C04B40/0039Premixtures of ingredients
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01FCOMPOUNDS OF THE METALS BERYLLIUM, MAGNESIUM, ALUMINIUM, CALCIUM, STRONTIUM, BARIUM, RADIUM, THORIUM, OR OF THE RARE-EARTH METALS
    • C01F11/00Compounds of calcium, strontium, or barium
    • C01F11/18Carbonates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01FCOMPOUNDS OF THE METALS BERYLLIUM, MAGNESIUM, ALUMINIUM, CALCIUM, STRONTIUM, BARIUM, RADIUM, THORIUM, OR OF THE RARE-EARTH METALS
    • C01F5/00Compounds of magnesium
    • C01F5/24Magnesium carbonates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2103/00Function or property of ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone
    • C04B2103/0004Compounds chosen for the nature of their cations
    • C04B2103/002Compounds of elements having a valency of 2
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2103/00Function or property of ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone
    • C04B2103/0068Ingredients with a function or property not provided for elsewhere in C04B2103/00
    • C04B2103/0086Chelating or complexing agents
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2111/00Mortars, concrete or artificial stone or mixtures to prepare them, characterised by specific function, property or use
    • C04B2111/00017Aspects relating to the protection of the environment

Abstract

本发明提供了碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物及其制备和使用方法。 The present invention provides a reduction in carbon footprint concrete compositions and their preparation and use. 所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的方面包括CO2截存碳酸盐化合物,其可存在于所述混凝土的水硬水泥和/或骨料组分中。 The reduced carbon footprint aspect concrete composition comprising a CO2 sequestering carbonate compound, which may be present in the hydraulic cement concrete and / or aggregate component. 所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物可用于多种应用中,包括用在多种建筑材料和建筑应用中。 Reducing the carbon footprint concrete compositions can be used in a variety of applications, including use in a variety of building materials and building applications.

Description

碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物 Reducing the carbon footprint concrete composition

[0001] 交叉引用 [0001] CROSS REFERENCE

[0002]本申请为 2009 年9 月30 日提交的名为“C02-Sequestering FormedBuildingMaterials”的美国专利申请12/571,398的部分继续申请,其要求保护2008年9月30日提交的名为“C02 Sequestration”的美国临时专利申请61/101,631、2008年10月31日提交的名为“C02_SequestrationFormed Building Materials”的美国临时专利申请61/110,489、2009 年2 月3 日提交的名为“C02-Sequestration Formed Building Materials” 的美国临时专利申请61/149,610及2009年9月25日提交的名为“C02_SequestrationFormed Building Materials”的美国临时专利申请61/246,042的权益,其各通过引用结合到本文中并对其各自要求享有优先权。 [0002] This application is a part of 12 / 571,398 US patent entitled "C02-Sequestering FormedBuildingMaterials" of September 30, 2009 filed continuation application, which claims the name September 30, 2008 filed " C02 Sequestration "US provisional Patent application 61 / 101,631, entitled 2008 filed on October 31," US provisional Patent C02_SequestrationFormed Building Materials "application called 61 / 110,489,2009 on February 3 filed US provisional Patent "C02-Sequestration Formed Building Materials" application 61 / 149,610 and US provisional Patent entitled "C02_SequestrationFormed Building Materials" of September 25, 2009, filed 61 / 246,042, which each by reference herein and their respective claims priority. 本申请还要求2008年10月22日提交的名为“Low-CarbonFootprint Carbon Compositions” 的美国临时专利申请61/107,645、2008 年11 月19 日提交的名为“Low-Carbon Footprint Carbon Compositions” 的美国临时专利申请61/116,141、2008年11月24日提交的名为“Low-Carbon FootprintCarbon Compositions”的美国临时专利申请61/117,542、2009年I月29日提交的名为“Low-Carbon Footprint CarbonCompositions” 的美国临时专利申请61/148,353、2009 年2月3日提交的名为“Low-Carbon Footprint Carbon Compositions”的美国临时专利申请61/149,640、2009 年7 月15 日提交的名为“Low-Carbon FootprintCarbon Compositions”的美国临时专利申请61/225,880、2009年8月14日提交的名为“Methods and Systems forTreating Industrial Waste”的美国临时专利申请61/234,251的权益,其各通过引用结合到本文中并对其各自要求享有优先权。 This application also claims US provisional patent entitled "Low-CarbonFootprint Carbon Compositions" of October 22, 2008, filed 61 / 107,645,2008 years called "Low-Carbon Footprint Carbon Compositions" filed November 19 US provisional Patent application 61 / 116,141, US provisional patent entitled "Low-Carbon FootprintCarbon Compositions" of November 24, 2008, filed 61 / 117,542, entitled May 29, 2009 I filed. " Low-Carbon Footprint CarbonCompositions "US provisional Patent application 61 / 148,353,2009 called on February 3 filed" US provisional Patent Low-Carbon Footprint Carbon Compositions "application 61 / 149,640,2009 July US provisional Patent entitled "Low-Carbon FootprintCarbon Compositions" filed 15 applications 61 / 225,880, US provisional patent entitled "Methods and Systems forTreating Industrial Waste" of August 14, 2009 filed 61/234 equity 251, each of which is incorporated by reference herein and their respective claims priority.

[0003] 发明背景 [0003] Background of the Invention

[0004] 混凝土是世界上使用最广泛的工程材料。 [0004] Concrete is the world's most widely used engineering materials. 据估计,目前全世界的混凝土消耗量为每年110 亿公吨(Concrete, Microstructure, Propertiesand Materials (2006,McGraw-Hill))。 It is estimated that the concrete world consumption of 110 million metric tons per year (Concrete, Microstructure, Propertiesand Materials (2006, McGraw-Hill)). 混凝土这一术语是指胶结介质(binding medium)和埋在其中的骨料颗粒或碎片的复合材料。 This term refers to cement concrete medium (binding medium), and the aggregate particles or debris embedded in the composite material therein. 在目前采用的大多数结构混凝土中,胶结介质由水硬水泥和水的混合物形成。 In most currently used in structural concrete, cement medium is formed from a mixture of hydraulic cement and water.

[0005] 如今采用的大多数水硬水泥基于的是波特兰水泥。 [0005] Today, most of the water used in hydraulic cement is Portland cement-based. 波特兰水泥主要由石灰石、某些粘土矿物和石膏在驱除二氧化碳并使主要成分以化学方式结合成新化合物的高温过程中制成。 Portland cement is mainly composed of limestone, certain clay minerals, and gypsum and carbon dioxide purge main component chemically bonded to the novel compounds prepared in a high temperature process. 烧制所述混合物所需的能量为每产生I吨水泥消耗约4GJ。 Firing the mixture of the energy required per ton of cement produced consumes about I 4GJ.

[0006] 由于水泥制造过程自身及产生动力以运行所述制造过程的能源厂均生成二氧化碳,故水泥制造目前是当前二氧化碳大气排放最主要来源。 [0006] Since the cement manufacturing process itself and generating power to run the power plant manufacturing process are carbon dioxide, so that the current cement manufacturing is currently the main source of atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions. 据估计,水泥厂排放的二氧化碳占到二氧化碳全球排放量的5%。 It is estimated that carbon dioxide emissions from cement plants account for 5% of global carbon dioxide emissions. 随着全球变暖和海洋酸化问题的日益突出及减少二氧化碳气体排放(全球变暖的主要原因)的愿望继续存在,水泥制造工业将受到越来越严格的审查。 With the increasingly prominent and reducing carbon dioxide emissions (the main reason for global warming) wishes global warming and ocean acidification problem continues to exist, cement manufacturing industry will be subject to increased scrutiny.

[0007] 水泥厂中采用的化石燃料包括煤、天然气、石油、旧轮胎、城市废物、石油焦和生物燃料。 [0007] fossil fuels used in cement plants, including coal, gas, oil, tires, municipal waste, petroleum coke and biomass. 燃料还来源于浙青砂、油页岩、煤液和煤气化及通过合成气制得的生物燃料。 Fuels also from Zhejiang green sands, oil shale, and coal gasification fluid and synthesis gas obtained by biofuels. 水泥厂是CO2排放的一个主要来源,其中排放来自化石燃料的燃烧和使石灰石、页岩及其他成分变为波特兰水泥的煅烧所释放的co2。 Cement is a major source of CO2 emissions, where emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and so limestone, shale and other components becomes Portland cement calcination released co2. 水泥厂还产生废热。 Cement plant also produces waste heat. 此外水泥厂还产生其他污染物如NOx, S0X、VOCs、颗粒物和汞。 In addition further cement production of other pollutants, such as NOx, S0X, VOCs, particulates and mercury. 水泥厂还产生水泥窑灰(CKD),CKD有时必须填埋,常填埋在有害物质填埋场中。 Cement kiln dust cement also generates (CKD), CKD must sometimes landfill, hazardous substances often buried in landfills.

[0008] 二氧化碳(CO2)排放已被确认为是全球变暖和海洋酸化现象的主要元凶。 [0008] Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have been identified as the main culprit of global warming and ocean acidification phenomenon. CO2是燃烧的副产物,带来操作、经济和环境问题。 CO2 is a byproduct of combustion, bringing the operating, economic and environmental issues. 预计CO2和其他温室气体的大气浓度的升高将促成更大量的热贮存在大气内,从而导致地表温度的升高和快速的气候变化。 Expected increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration and other greenhouse gases will facilitate greater amount of heat stored in the atmosphere, leading to increased surface temperatures and rapid climate change. CO2还一直与海洋相互作用,使海洋PH降向8.0。 CO2 has also been interacting with the ocean, the ocean PH down to 8.0. CO2监控表明,大气CO2已从20世纪50年代的约百万分之280 (280ppm)升至今天的约380ppm,且预计在下个十年中将超过400ppm。 CO2 monitoring indicates, 280 (280ppm) about 20 parts per million of atmospheric CO2 from the 1950s rose today about 380ppm, and is expected to exceed 400ppm in the next decade. 气候变化的影响很可能是经济上昂贵且环境上有害的。 The impact of climate change is likely to be economically costly and environmentally harmful. 降低气候变化的潜在风险需要截存C02。 Reduce the potential risks of climate change need to sequester C02.

[0009] 发明概述 [0009] Summary of the Invention

[0010] 在一些实施方案中,本发明提供了一种方法,所述方法包括a)自含二价阳离子的溶液和包含CO2的工业废气产生合成的碳酸盐组分和b)向碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物(reduced-carbon footprint concretecomposition)中引入所述合成的碳酸盐组分,其中所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物相对于普通混凝土组合物具有减少的碳足迹(reduced-carbon footprint)。 [0010] In some embodiments, the present invention provides a method, said method comprising a) from a solution containing divalent cations and an industrial waste gas containing CO2 produced synthetic carbonate component and b) the carbon footprint introducing said synthetic concrete composition reduced (reduced-carbon footprint concretecomposition) carbonate component, wherein said reduced carbon footprint concrete composition having a reduced carbon footprint (reduced-carbon footprint with respect to ordinary concrete composition ). 在一些实施方案中,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物比普通混凝土组合物的碳足迹少。 In some embodiments, the reduction of the carbon footprint concrete composition is less than ordinary carbon footprint concrete composition. 在一些实施方案中,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物具有的碳足迹低于普通混凝土组合物的75%。 In some embodiments, the carbon footprint concrete composition having a reduced carbon footprint less than 75% of ordinary concrete composition. 在一些实施方案中,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的碳足迹低于普通混凝土组合物的50%。 In some embodiments, carbon footprint reduction of the carbon footprint concrete composition is less than 50% of the ordinary concrete composition. 在一些实施方案中,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的碳足迹低于普通混凝土组合物的25%。 In some embodiments, carbon footprint reduction of the carbon footprint concrete composition is less than 25% of the ordinary concrete composition. 在一些实施方案中,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物具有中性碳足迹(neutralcarbon footprint)。 In some embodiments, to reduce the carbon footprint concrete compositions having a neutral carbon footprint (neutralcarbon footprint). 在一些实施方案中,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物具有负碳足迹(negative carbon footprint)。 In some embodiments, the reduction of the carbon footprint concrete composition having a negative carbon footprint (negative carbon footprint). 在一些实施方案中,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的碳足迹的减少是二氧化碳被截存和二氧化碳被避免的结果。 In some embodiments, reduce the carbon footprint of the reduced carbon footprint concrete composition are sequestering carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide are avoided results. 在一些实施方案中,所述负碳足迹低于O磅C02/yd3碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物。 In some embodiments, the negative carbon footprint below O lb C02 / yd3 reduced carbon footprint concrete compositions. 在一些实施方案中,所述负碳足迹低于250磅C02/yd3碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物。 In some embodiments, the negative carbon footprint less than 250 lbs C02 / yd3 reduced carbon footprint concrete compositions. 在一些实施方案中,所述负碳足迹低于500磅C02/yd3碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物。 In some embodiments, the negative carbon footprint less than 500 lbs C02 / yd3 reduced carbon footprint concrete compositions. 在一些实施方案中,所述负碳足迹低于1000磅C02/yd3碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物。 In some embodiments, the negative carbon footprint less than 1,000 lbs C02 / yd3 reduced carbon footprint concrete compositions. 在一些实施方案中,所述合成的碳酸盐组分为辅助胶凝材料、细骨料、粗骨料或活性火山灰质材料。 In some embodiments, the synthetic carbonate component supplementary cementitious material, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, or active pozzolanic material. 在一些实施方案中,所述合成的碳酸盐组分为霰石、水碳镁石、水菱镁矿、单水方解石或其组合。 In some embodiments, the synthetic aragonite carbonate component, nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, monohydrate calcite or combinations thereof. 在一些实施方案中,所述合成的碳酸盐组分为霰石和水菱镁矿的组合。 In some embodiments, the combination of synthetic aragonite carbonate component and hydromagnesite. 在一些实施方案中,所述合成的碳酸盐组分为霰石和水碳镁石的组合。 In some embodiments, the combination of synthetic aragonite carbonate component and the nesquehonite. 在一些实施方案中,所述合成的碳酸盐组分为水碳镁石和单水方解石的组合。 In some embodiments, the synthetic carbonate component composition nesquehonite monohydrate and calcite. 在一些实施方案中,所述合成的碳酸盐组分的s 13C低于-10%。 In some embodiments, the synthetic carbonate component s 13C is less than 10%. . 在一些实施方案中,所述合成的碳酸盐组分的S13C低于-20%。 In some embodiments, S13C carbonate component of the composite is less than 20%. . 在一些实施方案中,所述合成的碳酸盐组分的S13C低于-30%。 In some embodiments, S13C carbonate component of the composite is less than 30%. .

[0011] 在一些实施方案中,本发明提供了一种通过包括以下步骤的方法产生的碳足迹减少的组合物:a)自含二价阳离子的溶液和包含CO2的工业废气产生合成的碳酸盐组分和b)向碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物中引入所述合成的碳酸盐组分,其中所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物相对于普通混凝土组合物具有减少的碳足迹。 [0011] In some embodiments, the present invention provides a reduction in carbon footprint composition produced by a process comprising the steps of: a) from a solution containing divalent cations and an industrial waste gas containing CO2 produced synthesis carbonate and salt component b) to reduce the carbon footprint concrete composition introduced into the synthetic carbonate component, wherein said reduced carbon footprint concrete composition with respect to ordinary concrete composition having a reduced carbon footprint.

[0012] 在一些实施方案中,本发明提供了一种组合物,所述组合物包含2.5% -50%的钙、2.5% -50%的镁和至少25%的碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物。 [0012] In some embodiments, the present invention provides a composition, said composition comprising 2.5% -50% calcium, 2.5% to 50% magnesium and at least 25% of carbonates, bicarbonates or mixtures thereof. 在一些实施方案中,所述组合物包含2.5% -25%的钙。 In some embodiments, the composition comprises 2.5% -25% calcium. 在一些实施方案中,所述组合物包含5% -10%的钙。 In some embodiments, the composition comprises from 5% to 10% calcium. 在一些实施方案中,所述组合物包含5% -30%的镁。 In some embodiments, the composition comprises 5% to 30% magnesium. 在一些实施方案中,所述组合物包含10% -30%的镁。 In some embodiments, the composition comprises 10% to 30% magnesium. 在一些实施方案中,所述组合物包含至少50%的碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物。 In some embodiments, the composition comprises at least 50% of carbonates, bicarbonates or mixtures thereof. 在一些实施方案中,所述组合物包含至少75%的碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物。 In some embodiments, the composition comprises at least 75% of carbonates, bicarbonates or mixtures thereof. 在一些实施方案中,所述组合物包含霰石、水碳镁石、水菱镁矿、单水方解石或其组合。 In some embodiments, the composition comprises aragonite, nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, monohydrate calcite or combinations thereof. 在一些实施方案中,所述组合物包含霰石和水菱镁矿的组合。 In some embodiments, the composition comprises a combination of aragonite and hydromagnesite. 在一些实施方案中,所述组合物包含霰石和水碳镁石的组合。 In some embodiments, the composition comprises a combination of aragonite and of nesquehonite. 在一些实施方案中,所述组合物包含水碳镁石和单水方解石的组合。 In some embodiments, the composition comprises a combination of single nesquehonite water and calcite.

[0013] 在一些实施方案中,本发明提供了一种包含CO2截存组分的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物。 [0013] In some embodiments, the present invention provides a CO2 sequestering component comprising carbon footprint reduction concrete composition. 所述CO2截存组分可为辅助胶凝材料或骨料如粗骨料或细骨料。 The CO2 sequestering component may be a supplementary cementitious materials or aggregates such as coarse aggregate or fine aggregate. 在一些实施方案中,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物包含CO2截存辅助胶凝材料和CO2截存骨料。 In some embodiments, the reduction of the carbon footprint concrete composition comprising a CO2-sequestering supplementary cementitious material, aggregate and CO2 sequestration. 在一些实施方案中,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物包含波特兰水泥熟料。 In some embodiments, the reduction of the carbon footprint concrete composition comprises Portland cement clinker.

[0014] 在一些实施方案中,本发明提供了一种可凝固组合物,所述可凝固组合物包含水和碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物包含CO2截存组分。 [0014] In some embodiments, the present invention provides a settable composition, the settable composition comprising water and a reduced carbon footprint concrete composition, to reduce the carbon footprint concrete composition comprising a CO2-sequestering components. 所述CO2截存组分可为辅助胶凝材料或骨料如粗骨料或细骨料。 The CO2 sequestering component may be a supplementary cementitious materials or aggregates such as coarse aggregate or fine aggregate. 在一些实施方案中,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物包含CO2截存辅助胶凝材料和CO2截存骨料。 In some embodiments, the reduction of the carbon footprint concrete composition comprising a CO2-sequestering supplementary cementitious material, aggregate and CO2 sequestration. 在一些实施方案中,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物包含波特兰水泥熟料。 In some embodiments, the reduction of the carbon footprint concrete composition comprises Portland cement clinker.

[0015] 在一些实施方案中,本发明提供了一种制备混凝土的方法,所述方法包括合并水硬水泥与CO2截存组分。 [0015] In some embodiments, the present invention provides a process for the preparation of concrete, said method comprising combining hydraulic cement and CO2 sequestering component. 所述CO2截存组分可为辅助胶凝材料或骨料如粗骨料或细骨料。 The CO2 sequestering component may be a supplementary cementitious materials or aggregates such as coarse aggregate or fine aggregate. 在一些实施方案中,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物包含CO2截存辅助胶凝材料和CO2截存骨料。 In some embodiments, the reduction of the carbon footprint concrete composition comprising a CO2-sequestering supplementary cementitious material, aggregate and CO2 sequestration. 在一些实施方案中,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物包含波特兰水泥熟料。 In some embodiments, the reduction of the carbon footprint concrete composition comprises Portland cement clinker. [0016] 在一些实施方案中,本发明提供了一种合并水和包含CO2截存组分的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物以产生水化混凝土组合物并使所述水化混凝土组合物凝固成固体制品的方法。 [0016] In some embodiments, the present invention provides a combined water and CO2 sequestering component comprises carbon footprint reduction hydrate to produce a concrete composition and concrete composition of the concrete composition to set into hydrate the method of a solid article. 所述CO2截存组分可为辅助胶凝材料或骨料如粗骨料或细骨料。 The CO2 sequestering component may be a supplementary cementitious materials or aggregates such as coarse aggregate or fine aggregate. 在一些实施方案中,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物包含CO2截存辅助胶凝材料和CO2截存骨料。 In some embodiments, the reduction of the carbon footprint concrete composition comprising a CO2-sequestering supplementary cementitious material, aggregate and CO2 sequestration. 在一些实施方案中,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物包含波特兰水泥熟料。 In some embodiments, the reduction of the carbon footprint concrete composition comprises Portland cement clinker. 在一些实施方案中,所述固体制品为结构制品。 In some embodiments, the article is a solid structure article.

[0017] 附图简述 [0017] BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0018] 本发明的新特征在附随的权利要求书中详细给出。 [0018] The novel features of the present invention as claimed in the accompanying claims given in detail in the book. 结合下面给出其中使用了本发明的原理的示例性实施方案的详细描述及其附图,本发明的特征和优势将得到更好的理解,在附图中: Binding is given below using the drawings and detailed description of exemplary embodiments of the present invention, the principles, features and advantages of the invention will be better understood, the accompanying drawings in which:

[0019] 图1给出了本发明的产生沉淀物质的方法。 [0019] Figure 1 shows a method of producing precipitation material of the present invention.

[0020] 图2示出了本发明的产生沉淀物质的系统。 [0020] FIG. 2 illustrates a system to produce precipitation material of the present invention.

[0021 ] 图3给出了本发明的一个组合物的强度-天数曲线图。 [0021] FIG. 3 shows the strength of a composition according to the present invention - a graph showing the number of days.

[0022] 图4示出了本发明的沉淀物质和/或水泥的制备。 [0022] FIG. 4 illustrates the preparation of precipitation material of the invention and / or cement.

[0023] 图5给出了本发明的产生沉淀物质和/或水泥的系统。 [0023] Figure 5 shows the generation of precipitation material of the invention and / or cement system.

[0024] 图6示出了本发明的沉淀物质、水泥和/或混凝土自包含C02的发电厂烟道气的制备。 [0024] FIG. 6 illustrates a precipitation material according to the present invention, cement and / or concrete prepared from the flue gas of power plant contain C02.

[0025] 图7给出了普通波特兰水泥(OPC)、未水化辅助胶凝外加剂(SCMA)及包含20%的SCMA和80%的OPC的水化拌合物在7天时的傅里叶变换红外(FT-1R)光谱图。 [0025] FIG. 7 shows the ordinary Portland cement (OPC), Unhydrated supplementary cementitious admixtures (SCMA) and containing 20% ​​and 80% of SCMA OPC mix was hydrated Fu 7 days Fourier transform infrared (FT-1R) spectra. [0026] 图8给出了OPC及包含20%的SCMA和80%的OPC的水化拌合物在7天时的X-射线衍射图(XRD)。 [0026] FIG. 8 shows the OPC and OPC SCMA and 80% hydrated mix comprises 20% at day 7 in FIG X- ray diffraction (XRD).

[0027] 图9给出了水化OPC、未水化OPC、未水化SCMA及包含20 %的SCMA和80 %的OPC的水化拌合物的X-射线衍射图(XRD)。 [0027] FIG. 9 shows the hydration OPC, OPC is not hydrated, unhydrated and SCMA X- ray diffraction pattern comprising of 20% and 80% of the SCMA OPC mix was hydrated (XRD).

[0028] 图10给出了水化OPC及包含20%的SCMA和80%的OPC的水化拌合物的扫描电子显微镜(SEM)图像。 [0028] Figure 10 shows a scanning electron microscope and containing 20% ​​hydration of OPC and 80% of the SCMA OPC was hydrated mix (SEM) images.

[0029] 图11表明本发明的SCMA是活性的。 [0029] FIG. 11 shows that SCMA the present invention are active.

[0030] 图12给出了本发明的辅助胶凝材料的不同形态。 [0030] Figure 12 shows different forms of supplementary cementitious material of the present invention.

[0031] 发明详述 [0031] DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0032] 在一些实施方案中,本发明提供了碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物。 [0032] In some embodiments, the present invention provides a reduction in carbon footprint concrete composition. 本发明的碳足迹减少的混凝土具有包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其组合的组分(如CO2截存组分)。 The present invention reduces the carbon footprint concrete having components (e.g., CO2-sequestering component) comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or a combination thereof. 本发明的其他方面包括制备和使用所述碳足迹减少的混凝土的方法。 Other aspects of the present invention includes a method of making and using the concrete carbon footprint reduction.

[0033] 在更详细地描述本发明之前,应理解本发明不限于本文中所述的特定实施方案,因为这样的实施方案是可变的。 [0033] Before the present invention is described in more detail, it should be understood that the present invention is not limited to the particular embodiments described herein, since such embodiments are variable. 还应理解,本文中用到的术语仅出于描述特定实施方案的目的而非意在限制。 It should also be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments and is not intended to be limiting. 本发明的范围仅由附随的权利要求书限定。 Scope of the present invention is limited only by the appended claims. 本文中用到的所有技术和科学术语具有如本发明所属领域技术人员通常所理解的相同的含义,另有指出除外。 All technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as those skilled in the art that the present invention is generally understood, unless otherwise indicated. [0034] 在给出了值的范围的情况下,应理解,介于该范围的上下限之间的各个插入值(除非另有明确指出,否则到所述下限单元的十分之一)及该指定范围中的任何其他指定或插入值均涵盖在本发明内。 [0034] In the scope of a given value, to be understood that each intervening value between the upper and lower limits of the range between (unless otherwise expressly stated otherwise, to the tenth of the lower limit of units) and or inserted into any other specified value of the specified range is encompassed within the present invention. 这些较小范围的上下限可独立地包括在所述较小范围内并也涵盖在本发明内,指定的范围中任何明确排除的极限除外。 The lower limit of these smaller ranges may independently be included in the smaller ranges and are also encompassed within the present invention, except for the specified range any specifically excluded limit. 当指定的范围包括两个极限中的一个或两个时,排除那些所包括的极限中的任一或二者的范围也包括在本发明中。 When the two specified range includes one or both of the limits, or a range excluding either both of those included limits are also included in the present invention.

[0035] 本文中给出的某些范围在数值前冠有术语“约”。 Certain ranges [0035] As used herein the value given before the crown by the term "about." 术语“约”在本文中用来为其后的确切数以及与该术语后的数接近或近似的数提供文字支持。 The term "about" is used for the exact number and close herein the term or the number of the approximate number of characters to provide support. 在确定一个数是否接近或近似于某个明确记载的数时,未记载的接近或近似数可为在其出现的上下文中提供与所述明确记载数的实质上等同的数。 In determining whether a number of near to or approximately a specifically recited number, the number is not disclosed to provide a close or substantially identical with the number of explicitly described in the approximate number of the context in which it appears.

[0036] 本说明书中引用的所有公开案、专利和专利申请案以如同将每份单独的公开案、专利或专利申请案具体且个别地指出通过引用并入的程度通过引用结合到本文中。 [0036] All publications, patents, and patent applications cited in this specification to as if each individual publication, patent or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference to the extent incorporated herein by reference. 此外,所引用的每一份公开案、专利或专利申请案通过引用结合到本文中以公开和描述与所引用的公开案有关的主题。 In addition, each one of the cited publications, patent, or patent application is incorporated herein by reference to disclose and describe the subject matter disclosed in the referenced related text. 任何公开案的引用针对的是本发明提交日前的公开但不应理解为承认本发明无权依据在先发明先于这类公开案。 Any publication of reference for the present invention is to submit before the public but should not be construed as an admission that the invention is not entitled to in accordance with the invention prior to such publication. 此外,所给出的公开日期可能与实际公开日期不同,实际公开日期可能需要独立确认。 Further, the dates of publication may be given from the actual publication dates, the actual publication dates which may need to be independently confirmed.

[0037] 应指出,本文中及附随的权利要求书中用到的单数形式“一个”、“一种”和“该”包括复数指代,上下文中另有明确指出除外。 [0037] It should be noted, singular forms used herein and claimed in the appended claims, "a", "an" and "the" include plural referents the context clearly dictates otherwise. 还应指出,权利要求书可起草为排除任何任选要素。 It should also be noted that the claims may be drafted to exclude any optional element. 因此,该陈述意在用作叙述权利要求要素时使用排他性术语如“单单”、“仅”等或使用“否定的”限制条件的前置基础。 Thus, this statement is intended to use when exclusive terminology as recited in claim elements such as "solely," "only" and the like, or the use of a "negative" antecedent basis constraints.

[0038] 阅读本公开后对于本领域技术人员将显而易见的是,本文中所述和所示的每一个别实施方案具有分立的组成部分和特征,所述特征可易于与任何其他若干实施方案的特征分开或组合而不偏离本发明的范围或精神。 [0038] After reading this disclosure the skilled person will be apparent herein having discrete components and features of each individual and the embodiment shown, the features may be readily with any of the other several embodiments It features separately or in combination without departing from the scope or spirit of the invention. 任何所记载的方法均可按所记载的事件顺序或按逻辑上可能的任何其他顺序进行。 Any method can be described by the sequence of events described may be performed in or in any other order which is logically. 下面将对代表性的示例性方法和材料予以描述,但本发明的实施或试验中也可使用与本文中所述的那些相似或等价的任何方法和材料。 The following will be described a representative illustrative methods and materials, but the practice or testing of the present invention may be used any methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described in the article.

[0039] 在进一步描述本发明时,将首先更详细地描述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物及其制备方法和系统。 [0039] In further describing the present invention, will first be described to reduce the carbon footprint concrete composition and its preparation method and the system in more detail. 接着将对使用所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的方法给予进一步的综述。 Further review will then use the reduced carbon footprint concrete composition method of administration. 碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物 Reducing the carbon footprint concrete composition

[0040] 在一些实施方案中,本发明提供了碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物。 [0040] In some embodiments, the present invention provides a reduction in carbon footprint concrete composition. 碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物为可含例如普通波特兰水泥(OPC)组分但与仅含例如OPC作为水泥组分的混凝土相比具有减少的碳足迹的混凝土组合物。 Reducing the carbon footprint concrete composition may contain, for example, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) but containing only components e.g. OPC cement component of the concrete as compared to concrete compositions having a reduced carbon footprint. 在一些实施方案中,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物包含源自人类使用的燃料(如化石燃料)的碳。 In some embodiments, the reduction of the carbon footprint concrete composition comprising carbon derived fuel (such as fossil fuels) human use. 例如,根据本发明的方面的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物包含自化石燃料的燃烧而以CO2形式释放的碳。 For example, to reduce the carbon footprint according to the aspect of the invention comprises a concrete compositions from the combustion of fossil fuels releases carbon as CO2. 在某些实施方案中,本发明的组合物(如碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物)中截存的碳包括碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物。 In certain embodiments, the compositions of the invention (e.g., to reduce the carbon footprint concrete composition) sequestering carbon include carbonates, bicarbonates, or mixtures thereof. 因此,在某些实施方案中,根据本发明的方面的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物含碳酸盐,其中所述碳酸盐中的至少部分碳可源自人类使用的燃料(如化石燃料)。 Thus, in some embodiments, the carbon footprint according to the aspect of the present invention reduces the carbonate-containing concrete compositions, wherein said at least part of the carbon in the carbonate may be derived fuel (such as fossil fuels) human use . 因此,本发明的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的制备将使CO2 置于可用作例如建筑环境的组成部分的贮存稳定的形式中,所述环境包括人造结构如建筑物、墙壁、道路等。 Thus, the preparation of the present invention to reduce the carbon footprint concrete compositions may be used will be placed e.g. in the form of stable CO2 storage part construction environment, the environment comprising man-made structures such as buildings, walls, roads and the like. 因此,本发明的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的制备将防止CO2气体进入大气。 Thus, the preparation of the concrete composition of the present invention to reduce the carbon footprint will prevent CO2 gas into the atmosphere.

[0041] 关于碳足迹的计算,混凝土的碳足迹可通过用各组元的每立方码磅数乘其每磅碳足迹数、对这些值求和再加10.560kg/yd3(l码混凝土运输20英里的平均碳足迹)算出。 [0041] calculated on the carbon footprint, carbon footprint concrete by multiplying number of carbon atoms per pound with footprint of each component pounds per cubic yard, these values ​​are summed together 10.560kg / yd3 (l concrete transportation code 20 mile average carbon footprint) is calculated. 关于OPC组分,假定来自波特兰水泥生产的平均CO2释放量为0.86公吨CO2/公吨水泥(据加利福尼亚Cement Climate Action Team的报道),则每磅波特兰水泥的生产的碳足迹为0.86磅。 About OPC components, assuming that the average CO2 emissions from Portland cement production of 0.86 metric tons of CO2 / tonne of cement (according to California Cement Climate Action Team report), the production of carbon footprint per pound of Portland cement was 0.86 lbs . 假定平均运输距离为100英里,每磅波特兰水泥的运输足迹为0.016磅,故每磅OPC的总碳足迹为0.876磅C02。 Assuming an average transport distance of 100 miles per pound of Portland cement transport footprint was 0.016 pounds per pound of total carbon footprint so the OPC is 0.876 lbs C02. 就碳足迹计算的目的而论,常规骨料的碳足迹可假定为0.043磅CO2/磅骨料,而常规辅助胶凝材料(SCMs)如粉煤灰、炉渣等的碳足迹可假定为0.045磅CO2/磅常规SCM。 Footprint calculation on the object concerned, conventional aggregate carbon footprint can assume 0.043 lbs CO2 / lb aggregate, supplementary cementitious materials and conventional (SCMs) such as fly ash, slag and other carbon footprint can be assumed to be 0.045 lbs CO2 / pound conventional SCM. 与包含常规骨料(如砂和/或岩石)和OPC作为唯一水泥组分的基准混凝土相比,本发明的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的碳足迹减少幅度可等于或高于25 磅C02/yd3 混凝土、50 磅C02/yd3 混凝土、100 磅C02/yd3 混凝土、高于200 磅C02/yd3 混凝土、高于300磅C02/yd3混凝土、高于400磅C02/yd3混凝土、或高于500磅C02/yd3混凝土。 Compared with a conventional reference concrete containing aggregate (such as sand and / or rock) and OPC cement as the sole component of the present invention, carbon footprint reduction in carbon footprint concrete composition to reduce the rate equal to or greater than 25 lbs C02 / yd3 concrete, C02 50 lbs / yd3 concrete, C02 100 lbs / yd3 concrete, C02 than 200 lbs / yd3 concrete, C02 than 300 lbs / yd3 concrete, C02 than 400 lbs / yd3 concrete, or greater than 500 lbs C02 / yd3 concrete. 例如,包含0PC、20%的CO2截存SCM(例如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其组合的SCM)和20%的粉煤灰的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的碳足迹减少量可为约250磅C02/yd3混凝土,例如减少量为244磅C02/yd3混凝土。 For example, comprising 0PC, 20% CO2 sequestering SCM (e.g. comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or a combination SCM) carbon footprint of fly ash and 20% reduction in carbon footprint concrete compositions may reduce the amount of about 250 lbs C02 / yd3 concrete, for example, reduce the amount of 244 lbs C02 / yd3 concrete. 这样的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的碳足迹几乎为常规混凝土组合物的炭足迹的一半。 Half of such carbon footprint reduction of the carbon footprint concrete compositions is a conventional concrete composition is almost carbon footprint.

[0042] 碳足迹的这些减少可用混凝土混合料获得,所述混合料含低于50%重量的常规SCMs,例如低于40 %重量的常规SCMs,包括低于30%重量的常规SCMs,例如低于20 %的SCMs0术语“水硬水泥”以其常规意义使用,指在与水或其中溶剂为水的溶液(如外加剂溶液)合并后凝固和硬化的组合物。 These reductions [0042] The carbon footprint can be used to obtain concrete mix, the mix contains less than 50% by weight of conventional SCMs, such as less than 40% by weight of a conventional SCMs, comprising less than 30% by weight of conventional SCMs, for example, low the term & SCMs0 20% of the "hydraulic cement" in its conventional sense to refer to setting and hardening after combined with water or a solution wherein the solvent is water (e.g., solution admixture) composition. 合并本发明的水泥与含水液体所产生的产物的凝固和硬化是产生水化物的结果,所述水化物由水泥与水反应时形成,其中所述水化物基本不溶于水。 Setting and hardening of cement products combined with an aqueous liquid according to the present invention is to produce the result produced by the hydrate, formed by the reaction of cement with water, the hydrate, wherein the hydrate is substantially insoluble in water.

[0043] 在某些实施方案中,本发明的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物是碳中性(carbonneutral)的,因为用例如上面给出的计算准则算出其基本没有(如果有的话)碳足迹。 [0043] In certain embodiments, the present invention reduces the carbon footprint concrete compositions is carbon-neutral (CarbonNeutral), because it is calculated substantially free (if any) with the footprint calculation criteria given above e.g. . 本发明的碳中性混凝土组合物包括碳足迹低于50磅C02/yd3混凝土、例如低于25磅C02/yd3混凝土、包括低于10磅C02/yd3混凝土、例如低于5磅C02/yd3混凝土的那些组合物。 Neutral carbon concrete compositions of the present invention comprises a carbon footprint of less than 50 lbs C02 / yd3 concrete, for example less than 25 lbs C02 / yd3 concrete, comprising less than 10 lbs C02 / yd3 concrete, for example less than 5 lbs C02 / yd3 concrete those compositions. 在一些实施方案中,碳中性混凝土组合物具有的碳足迹为O磅C02/yd3混凝土或更低,例如具有低于(即更负于)-1磅C02/yd3混凝土、低于-2磅C02/yd3混凝土、低于_3磅C02/yd3混凝土、低于-4磅C02/yd3混凝土或低于-5磅C02/yd3混凝土的负碳足迹。 In some embodiments, the carbon concrete compositions have a neutral carbon footprint is O lb C02 / yd3 concrete or less, for example, a lower (i.e. more negative than) -1 lb C02 / yd3 concrete, below -2 lbs C02 / yd3 concrete, below _3 lb C02 / yd3 concrete, below -4 lb C02 / yd3 concrete or negative carbon footprint less than -5 lb C02 / yd3 concrete. 例如,包含OPC和主要是合成细骨料(即CO2截存骨料,其包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物)的混凝土组合物的碳足迹减少量可高于500磅C02/yd3混凝土(例如537磅C02/yd3混凝土)以致所述混凝土组合物可被视为碳中性的。 For example, carbon footprint comprising mainly synthetic OPC and fine aggregate (i.e. CO2 sequestering aggregate, comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or mixtures thereof) to reduce the amount of concrete compositions may be greater than 500 lbs C02 / yd3 concrete (e.g., 537 lbs C02 / yd3 concrete) such that the concrete composition may be considered carbon neutral. 可通过取代(也称“避免”)例如部分OPC而使这样的碳中性混凝土组合物具有更负的碳足迹。 Such portion may be the carbon-neutral OPC concrete compositions having a more negative carbon footprint by substitution (also referred to "avoid"), for example. 例如,包含60%的0PC、20%的粉煤灰、20%的CO2截存SCM(例如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的SCM)且部分细骨料被合成细骨料(即CO2截存骨料,其包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物)所替代的混凝土组合物可具有碳中性足迹或相当负的碳足迹。 For example, 60% 0PC containing 20% ​​fly ash, 20% of the CO2-sequestering SCM (e.g. comprising carbonates, SCM bicarbonates or mixtures thereof) are synthesized and partially fine aggregate fines (i.e. CO2 sequestering aggregate, comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or mixtures thereof) replaced concrete compositions may have a considerable carbon-neutral or negative carbon footprint footprint.

[0044] 在一些实施方案中,如上所述,低碳足迹混凝土具有相当负的碳足迹。 [0044] In some embodiments, as described above, having relatively low carbon footprint concrete negative carbon footprint. 在这样的实施方案中,组合物的负碳足迹可低于(即更负于)-10、-25、-50、-100、-250、-500、-750或-1000磅C02/yd3混凝土。 In such an embodiment, the negative carbon footprint composition may be less than (i.e. more negative than) -10, -25, -50, -100, -250, -500, -750 or -1000 lb C02 / yd3 concrete . 例如,包含0PC、20%的CO2截存SCM(例如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的SCM)、100%的合成细骨料(即唯一的合成细骨料为CO2截存细骨料,其包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物)、100%的合成粗骨料(即唯一的合成粗骨料为CO2截存粗骨料,其包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物)的混凝土组合物可具有低于-1000磅C02/yd3混凝土、例如1146磅C02/yd3混凝土的相当负的碳足迹。 For example, comprising 0PC, 20% of the CO2-sequestering SCM (SCM e.g. comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or a mixture thereof), 100% synthetic fine aggregate (i.e. only synthetic fine aggregate of fine bone CO2 sequestration material comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or mixtures thereof), synthetic crude 100% of the aggregate (i.e. only synthetic crude into CO2 sequestering aggregate coarse aggregate, which comprises carbonates, bicarbonates, or the mixture) concrete compositions may have a lower than -1000 lb C02 / yd3 concrete, for example, 1,146 lbs C02 / yd3 concrete considerable negative carbon footprint. 这样的混凝土组合物由于取代并从而避免了CO2产生组分(如0PC)而可具有甚至更高的碳足迹减少量(即甚至更负的碳足迹)。 Such a concrete composition and thus avoiding substitutions CO2-generating components (e.g. 0PC) and may have an even higher carbon footprint reduction amount (i.e., even more negative carbon footprint). 因此,包含CO2截存组分(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的组分)代替CO2产生组分的混凝土组合物可具有反映CO2的净避免的相当负的碳足迹,其中所述混凝土组合物的碳足迹可低于(即更负于)-1000磅C02/yd3混凝土,例如-1250磅C02/yd3混凝土,包括-1500磅C02/yd3混凝土,例如-1750磅C02/yd3混凝土或更低。 Accordingly, comprising a CO2 sequestering component (e.g., component comprises carbonates, bicarbonates, or a mixture thereof) in place of the net CO2 production rather avoid negative carbon footprint concrete compositions may have a reflected component of CO2, wherein said carbon footprint concrete composition may be less than (i.e. more negative than) -1000 lb C02 / yd3 concrete, e.g. -1250 lb C02 / yd3 concrete, comprising -1500 lb C02 / yd3 concrete, e.g. -1750 lb C02 / yd3 concrete or less. 例如,包含0PC、20%的CO2截存SCM(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的SCM)、100%的CO2截存细骨料(即唯一的细骨料为CO2截存细骨料,其包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物)、100%的CO2截存粗骨料(即唯一的粗骨料为CO2截存粗骨料,其包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物)的混凝土组合物因净避免了CO2而可具有相当负的碳足迹,其中所述负碳足迹可为例如1683磅CO2/yd3混凝土。 For example, comprising 0PC, 20% of the CO2-sequestering SCM (SCM such as those containing carbonates, bicarbonates, or a mixture thereof), 100% of the CO2-sequestering fines (i.e., only the fine aggregate to fine CO2 sequestration aggregate, which comprises carbonates, bicarbonates, or mixtures thereof), 100% of the CO2-sequestering coarse aggregate (i.e., the only coarse aggregate is CO2 sequestering coarse aggregate, comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or mixtures thereof) of the concrete composition due to the net CO2 avoided and may have a considerable negative carbon footprint, wherein said negative carbon footprint may be, for example, 1,683 lbs CO2 / yd3 concrete.

[0045] 在一些实施方案中,本发明的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的特征可在于包含水泥组分和骨料组分。 [0045] In some embodiments, the present invention reduces the carbon footprint is characterized in that the concrete composition may comprise cement component and aggregate components. 水泥组分含一定份额的常规水硬水泥如0PC,并可或可不合一种或多种常规SCMs如粉煤灰、炉渣等。 Conventional water-containing cement component such as a share of the 0PC hydraulic cement, and undesirable or one or more conventional SCMs such as fly ash, slag and the like. 骨料组分含细和/或粗骨料。 Aggregate component containing fine and / or coarse aggregate. 所述混凝土组合物的方面包括存在CO2截存组分(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的组分),例如CO2截存SCM和/或细或粗的CO2截存骨料。 Aspect of the present concrete composition comprising a CO2-sequestering component (e.g., component comprises carbonates, bicarbonates, or mixtures thereof), for example, SCM sequestering CO2 and / or fine or coarse aggregate CO2 sequestration. 下面对各个这些组分分别加以更详细的描述。 Next, each of these components are described in greater detail.

[0046] 使用本发明的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物可带来碳足迹大量减少的结果。 [0046] Use of the present invention to reduce the carbon footprint concrete compositions can be brought about a significant reduction in carbon footprint results. 例如,联合避免CO2的水泥(来抵消普通波特兰水泥的使用)与来自化石点源的截存碳的量可带来大量减碳的结果。 For example, to avoid the cement joint of CO2 (to offset the use of ordinary Portland cement) to the amount of sequestering carbon from fossil sources may bring the results of a large number of carbon reduction. 每吨本发明的包含碳酸盐/碳酸氢盐组分(如CO2截存组分)的材料可使CO2减少高达I吨或更多,例如1.2吨或更多,包括1.6吨或更多,例如2吨或更多。 Material comprises a carbonate / bicarbonate component (e.g., CO2-sequestering component) of the present invention per ton of CO2 can be reduced by up I tons or more, for example, 1.2 tons or more, including 1.6 tons or more, for example, two tons or more. 本发明的包含碳酸盐/碳酸氢盐(如CO2截存组分)的各种二元、三元、四元等拌合物可带来这样的减少。 According to the present invention comprising various binary carbonate / bicarbonate (e.g., CO2-sequestering component), ternary, quaternary, etc. Such mixing can bring was reduced. 所述碳酸盐/碳酸氢盐组分(如CO2截存组分)可例如作为辅助胶凝材料(SCM)与粉煤灰、炉渣和/或普通波特兰水泥一起使用,以产生低、中性(即约为零)或负碳足迹的混合水泥。 The carbonate / bicarbonate component (e.g., CO2-sequestering component) may be, for example, fly ash, slag, and / or ordinary Portland as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) in conjunction with cement, to produce a low, neutral (i.e., approximately zero) or negative carbon footprint concrete mix. 这样的混合水泥在28天或以下、例如14天或以下也可具有等于或高于 Such mixing cement 28 or less, 14 days or less, for example, may be equal to or greater than

I, OOOps1、包括等于或高于2,OOOps1、例如等于或高于2,500psi的抗压强度。 I, OOOps1, comprising greater than or equal to 2, OOOps1, for example, greater than or equal to the compressive strength of 2,500psi. 因此,本发明的具有低、中性或负碳足迹的混合水泥可产生适于用在混凝土路面应用中的优质混凝土。 Accordingly, the present invention has a low, neutral, or negative carbon footprint concrete mix can be produced suitable for use in pavement quality concrete in a concrete.

[0047] 碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物包括低_、中性-或负-碳足迹的混凝土组合物。 [0047] The reduced carbon footprint concrete composition comprising _ low, neutral - or negative - carbon footprint concrete compositions. 在一些实施方案中,低-、中性-或负-碳足迹的混凝土组合物包含混合水泥(如CO2截存辅助胶凝材料(SCM)连同粉煤灰、炉渣和/或波特兰水泥)与CO2截存骨料(例如所述骨料为粗骨料、细骨料如砂等),所述骨料可自本发明的碳酸盐/碳酸氢盐组分(如CO2截存组分)按2009年5月29日提交的美国专利申请12/475,378制备,该专利申请通过引用结合到本文中。 In some embodiments, the low - neutral - or negative - carbon footprint concrete comprising mixing cement composition (e.g., CO2-sequestering supplementary cementitious material (SCM) in conjunction with fly ash, slag and / or Portland cement) and CO2-sequestering aggregates (e.g., aggregates of the coarse aggregate, fine aggregate such as sand, etc.), the self-aggregate carbonate / bicarbonate components of the invention (e.g., CO2-sequestering component ) U.S. Patent May 29, 2009 filed prepare 12 / 475,378 application, the patent application is incorporated herein by reference. 这样的组合物可例如含截存的CO2含量为约20%或更多、例如35%或更多、包括50%或更多的细骨料(如砂)。 CO2 content of such compositions may contain sequestering e.g. about 20% or more, such as 35% or more, 50% or more including fine aggregate (e.g. sand). 在一些实施方案中,所述低_、中性-或负-碳足迹的混凝土组合物在28天时的抗压强度可为2,500psi或更高,例如3,OOOpsi或更高,包括4,OOOpsi。 In some embodiments, the low _, neutral - or negative - carbon footprint concrete compositions compressive strength at 28 days may be 2,500psi or more, e.g. 3, OOOpsi or higher, including 4, OOOpsi. 一些实施方案提供了负碳足迹的混凝土组合物,其在28天时的抗压强度为4,OOOpsi。 Some embodiments provide a negative carbon footprint concrete composition, which is 28 days compressive strength is 4, OOOpsi. 均等的早期强度(即在28天时)使本发明的低_、中性-或负-碳足迹的混凝土组合物的使用将不会负面影响施工进度。 Early strength equal (i.e., 28 days) of the present invention, the low-_, neutral - or negative - carbon footprint concrete compositions will not adversely affect the construction schedule.

[0048] 在一些实施方案中,本发明提供了低_、中性-或负-碳足迹的混凝土组合物,所述混凝土组合物不仅满足强度和早期强度标准,而且最终强度像普通混凝土组合物一样。 [0048] In some embodiments, the present invention provides a low _, neutral - or negative - carbon footprint concrete compositions, concrete compositions not only meet the strength and the early strength criteria, and ultimate strength as ordinary concrete composition same. 本发明的混合水泥- 混凝土组合物的行为方式与常规OPC-混凝土组合物相似,这使得本发明可用在类似的地方和起到相似的功能。 Blended cement of the invention - concrete composition behaves like a conventional OPC- concrete composition, which makes the present invention may be used in place similar functions and similar functions. 在一些实施方案中,混合水泥-混凝土组合物可用于本发明中。 In some embodiments, blended cement - concrete compositions can be used in the present invention. 在一些实施方案中可使用本发明的混合水泥-混凝土组合物。 In some embodiments, the cement mixture may be used according to the present invention - concrete compositions. 例如,混合水泥-混凝土组合物可浇筑在停车区域中(例如5,000平方英尺的停车场)。 For example, the mixed cement - pouring concrete compositions may be in the parking area (e.g. a parking lot 5,000 square feet). 由于混合水泥-混凝土组合物具有较高的反照率,故这类组合物将通过减少照明需求而减少碳排放。 Since the mixed cement - concrete compositions having high albedo so that such compositions will reduce carbon emissions by reducing lighting needs. 这种碳减排可在混合水泥-混凝土组合物的使用期限内存在。 Such carbon reduction may be mixed cements - life concrete compositions memory. 例如,包含低_、中性-或负-碳足迹混凝土组合物的停车区域的反照率和亮度测定结果与铺浙青的停车区域的对比可用来确定所需光照的差异,从而确定因使用本发明的较高反照率的混凝土组合物而可能的碳减排水平。 For example, a low _ comprising, neutral - or negative - albedo carbon footprint concrete composition parking area and a parking area luminance contrast measurement results paved Zhejiang green light may be used to determine a difference necessary to determine the use of this concrete composition may be a high level of carbon emissions albedo invention. 这类组合物的反照率试验表明其降低城市热岛效应的能力达例如2倍或更多、5倍或更多、10倍或更多、20倍或更多。 Such compositions albedo tests indicate an ability to reduce the heat island e.g. up to 2-fold or more, 5 or more, 10 or more, 20 times or more.

[0049] 常规水硬水泥 [0049] Conventional hydraulic cement

[0050] 本发明的组合物的一种组分可以是常规水硬水泥。 [0050] A component of the composition of the present invention may be a conventional hydraulic cement. 常规水硬水泥为非CO2截存水泥(如包含合成的碳酸盐、合成的碳酸氢盐或其混合物的水泥)的任何水泥,这将在下面更详细地描述。 Conventional hydraulic cement non CO2 sequestering cement (e.g., containing synthetic carbonates, bicarbonates, synthetic cement, or mixtures thereof) of any of the cement, which will be described in more detail below. 在某些实施方案中所关心的常规水硬水泥为波特兰水泥。 Conventional hydraulic cement In certain embodiments of interest is Portland cement. 所述波特兰水泥组分可为任何合宜的波特兰水泥。 The portland cement component may be any convenient Portland cement. 如本领域中熟知的,波特兰水泥为通过研磨波特兰水泥熟料(超过90% )、有限量的控制凝固时间的硫酸钙和至多5%的次要组元(如各种标准许可的)产生的粉末组合物。 As is well known in the art, Portland cement is a Portland cement clinker by grinding (over 90%), a limited amount of control clotting time up to 5% calcium sulphate and a secondary component (e.g., various standards permit ) of the powder composition produced. 按欧洲标准EN197.1的定义,波特兰水泥熟料为水硬材料,其应由至少三分之二质量的硅酸钙(3Ca0.SiO2和2Ca0.SiO2)组成,其余由含铝和含铁的熟料相和其他化合物组成。 As defined in European standard EN197.1, Portland cement clinker is a hydraulic material which shall be at least two-thirds by mass of calcium silicate (3Ca0.SiO2 and 2Ca0.SiO2) composition, the remainder comprising aluminum and the clinker composition, and other iron compounds. CaO与SiO2之比应不低于2.0。 The ratio of CaO to SiO2 to be not less than 2.0. 镁含量(MgO)应不超过5.0%质量。 The magnesium content (MgO) should not exceed 5.0% by mass. 在某些实施方案中,本发明的波特兰水泥组元可为任何满足美国材料试验协会的ASTMC150(1-VIII类)标准和规范(ASTMC50-波特兰水泥标准规范)的波特兰水泥。 In certain embodiments, the Portland cement component of the present invention may be any ASTMC150 meet American Society for Testing Materials (1-VIII class) standards and specifications (ASTMC50- Standard Specification for Portland Cement) Portland cement . ASTM C150涵盖八类波特兰水泥,每类具有不同的性质并根据其性质具体使用。 ASTM C150 Portland cement covering eight categories, each category having different properties and used according to their specific nature. [0051] 在本发明的既定混凝土组合物中,波特兰水泥组分的量可不同。 [0051] In a given concrete composition of the present invention, the amount of Portland cement component may be different. 在某些实施方案中,拌合物中波特兰水泥的量在10-90% (w/w)范围内,例如30-70% (w/w),包括40-60%(w/w),例如80%的OPC与20%的本发明的CO2截存SCM(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的SCM)的拌合物。 In certain embodiments, the mixing amount of Portland cement was in the range of 10-90% (w / w), for example, 30-70% (w / w), comprising 40-60% (w / w ), e.g. CO2 sequestering SCM 80% and 20% of OPC of the present invention (e.g., comprising carbonates, SCM bicarbonates or mixtures thereof) of the mixing thereof.

[0052]常规 SCMs [0052] General SCMs

[0053] 水泥可还含一种或多种辅助胶凝组合物如粉煤灰、炉渣等。 [0053] The cement may further comprise one or more supplementary cementitious compositions such as fly ash, slag and the like. 在某些实施方案中,水泥可为混合料,因为其不仅含碳酸盐化合物组合物组分而且含一种或多种可加入以改进水泥性质的其他组分,以例如提供所需强度、提供所需凝固时间等。 In certain embodiments, the cement may be a mixture, because it contains not only the carbonate compound composition comprises one or more components and other components may be added to improve the properties of the cement, such as to provide the desired strength, to provide the desired setting time. 本发明的混合水泥中可存在的所关心的组分包括但不限于:高炉矿渣、粉煤灰、硅藻土、天然或人造火山灰、硅灰、石灰石、石膏、熟石灰等。 Mixing the cement components of interest may be present in the present invention include, but are not limited to: blast furnace slag, fly ash, diatomaceous earth, natural or artificial pozzolan, silica fume, limestone, gypsum, slaked lime and the like. 本发明的既定混凝土组合物中存在的这类组分(如果存在的话)的量可不同,在某些实施方案中,这些组分的量在1-50% w/w范围内,例如2-25% w/w,包括10-20% w/w。 Such components present in a given concrete composition of the present invention (if any) may be different amount, in some embodiments, the amounts of these components in a 1-50% w / w range, for example, 2- 25% w / w, comprising 10-20% w / w.

[0054] CO2截存组分 [0054] CO2 sequestering component

[0055] 本发明的CO2截存材料(也称“碳截存材料”)包括含碳酸盐和/或碳酸氢盐的材料,其可与二价阳离子如钙和/或镁或与一价阳离子如钠组合。 [0055] CO2 sequestering material of the present invention (also called "carbon sequestration material") comprising a carbonate and / or bicarbonate-containing material, which may be divalent cations such as calcium and / or magnesium or a monovalent cations such as sodium composition. 所述碳酸盐和/或碳酸氢盐可在溶液中、呈固体形式、或为溶液和固体形式的组合(如淤浆)。 The carbonate and / or bicarbonate may be in solution, in solid form, or in the form of a solution and a solid composition (e.g., slurry). 所述碳酸盐和/或碳酸氢盐可含来自二氧化碳源的二氧化碳;在一些实施方案中,所述二氧化碳源自化石燃料的燃烧,因此所述碳酸盐和/或碳酸氢盐中的一些(如至少10、50、60、70、80、90、95% )或基本全部(如至少99、99.5或99.9% )碳是化石燃料源的(即植物源的)。 The carbonate and / or bicarbonate may be carbon dioxide from a carbon dioxide source; in some embodiments, the carbon dioxide derived from the combustion of fossil fuels, and therefore some of the carbonate and / or bicarbonate (such as at least 10,50,60,70,80,90,95%) or substantially all (e.g., at least 99.9% or 99,99.5) are carbon (i.e. vegetable origin) of the fossil fuel sources. 正如我们所知,植物源的碳和无机源的碳具有不同的稳定同位素(13C和12C)比率,因此在一些实施方案中,所述碳酸盐和/或碳酸氢盐中的碳的S 13C值低于例如-10%。 As we know, carbon and inorganic carbon source of plant origin having different stable isotopes (13C and 12C) ratio, thus in some embodiments, the carbonate and / or bicarbonate S 13C carbon value of less than 10%, for example. 、或低于-15%。 , Or less than -15%. 、或低于-20%。 , Or less than 20%. 、或低于-25%。 , Or less than 25%. 、或低于-30%。 , Or less than 30%. 、或低于-35%o。 , Or less than -35% o.

[0056] 正如上面所概括的,CO2截存组分既包括辅助胶凝材料又包括细和粗的骨料,其中CO2截存组分以碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的形式稳定地贮存大量co2。 [0056] As outlined above, both the CO2 sequestering component comprises a supplementary cementitious material and comprising fine and coarse aggregate, wherein the CO2 sequestering component in the form of stable carbonates, bicarbonates or mixtures thereof to store large quantities of co2. 本发明的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物含碳酸盐/碳酸氢盐组分(如CO2截存组分)。 The present invention reduces the carbon footprint concrete compositions comprising a carbonate / bicarbonate component (e.g., CO2-sequestering component). 这样的组分将以贮存稳定的形式贮存大量CO2,致使CO2气体不能轻易地从制品产生而释放到大气中。 Such storage stable component will be stored as a large number of CO2, resulting in CO2 gas generated from the article can not be easily released to the atmosphere. 在某些实施方案中,对于每1000吨本发明的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物而言,所述碳酸盐/碳酸氢盐组分(如CO2截存组分)可贮存50吨或更多CO2,例如100吨或更多CO2,包括250吨或更多CO2,例如500吨或更多CO2,例如750吨或更多CO2,包括900吨或更多C02。 In certain embodiments, for every 1000 tons carbon footprint according to the present invention reduce concrete compositions, the carbonate / bicarbonate component (e.g., CO2-sequestering component) may be stored 50 tons or more CO2, such as 100 tons or more of CO2, including 250 tons or more of CO2, for example, 500 tons or more of CO2, for example, 750 tons or more of CO2, including 900 tons or more C02. 在某些实施方案中,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的碳酸盐/碳酸氢盐组分(如0)2截存组分)包含约5%或更多CO2,例如约10%或更多CO2,包括约25%或更多CO2,例如约50%或更多CO2,例如约75%或更多CO2,包括约90%或更多CO2 (例如以一种或多种碳酸盐化合物存在)。 In certain embodiments, the carbonate / bicarbonate component of the reduced carbon footprint concrete composition (e.g., 0) sequestering component) comprises about 5% or more of CO2, about 10%, or e.g. more CO2, including about 25% or more of CO2, e.g. about 50% or more of CO2, e.g. about 75% or more of CO2, including about 90% or more of CO2 (for example, one or more carbonate compound is present).

[0057] 本发明的碳酸盐/碳酸氢盐组分(如CO2截存组分)可含一种或多种碳酸盐化合物。 [0057] The present invention is a carbonate / bicarbonate component (e.g., CO2-sequestering component) may contain one or more carbonate compounds. 通过例如库仑分析法使用库仑滴定中所述的方案测得,所述碳酸盐/碳酸氢盐组分(如CO2截存组分)中碳酸盐的量可为40%或更高,例如70%或更高,包括80%或更高。 By using, for example, coulometric titration embodiment of the coulometric measured, the amount of carbonate / bicarbonate component (e.g., CO2-sequestering component) carbonate may be 40% or higher, e.g. 70% or higher, including 80% or higher. 在一些实施方案中,当Mg源为铁镁矿物(2009年7月10日提交的美国专利申请12/501,217和2008年7月10日提交的美国临时专利申请61/079,790中有述,其均通过引用结合到本文中)或灰烬(2009年6月17日提交的美国专利申请12/486,692和2008年6月17日提交的美国临时申请61/073,319中有述,其均通过引用结合到本文中)时,所得产物可为含二氧化硅以及碳酸盐的组合物。 In some embodiments, when the Mg source is U.S. Patent No. mafic minerals (July 10, 2009, filed 12 / 501,217 and U.S. Provisional Patent July 10, 2008, filed 61 / 079,790 have above, which are incorporated by reference herein) or ash (US Patent June 17, 2009, filed 12 / 486,692 and US provisional application June 17, 2008, filed 61 / 073,319 are described in when, both of which are herein incorporated by) reference, the resulting product may be a silica-containing composition and a carbonate. 在这些实施方案中,产物的碳酸盐含量可低至10%。 In these embodiments, the carbonate content of the product may be as low as 10%. 在这些实施方案中的一些中,产物的二氧化硅含量可作为水泥或辅助胶凝材料提供改进的性能。 In some of the silica content of the product in these embodiments can provide improved performance as a cement or a supplementary cementitious material.

[0058] 本发明的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的CO2截存组分(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的沉淀物质)提供了以一定方式长期贮存CO2,致使CO2被截存(即固定)在碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物中,其中被截存的CO2不变为大气的一部分。 [0058] The present invention reduces the carbon footprint of the CO2 sequestering component of the concrete composition (e.g., precipitation material comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or a mixture thereof) to provide long-term storage of CO2 in a manner, so that the CO2 is sequestered (i.e. fixed) in a reduced carbon footprint concrete composition, wherein the sequestering of CO2 does not become part of the atmosphere. 当碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物保持在对于其预期用途而言常规的条件下时,碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物将使所截存的CO2保持固定达较长时间(例如I年或更久、5年或更久、10年或更久、25年或更久、50年或更久、100年或更久、250年或更久、1000年或更久、10,000年或更久、1,000, 000年或更久、或甚至100,000,000年或更久),而无显著量(如果有的话)的CO2从所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物中释放。 When reducing the carbon footprint concrete composition is maintained under conditions conventional for its intended use, to reduce the carbon footprint concrete composition as sequestering CO2 will remain fixed for a longer time (e.g., years or more I, 5 years or longer, 10 years or longer, 25 years or longer, 50 years or longer, 100 years or longer, 250 years or longer, 1000 years or longer, 10,000 years or longer, 1,000, 000 years or more, or even 100, 000, 000 years or longer) without significant amounts (CO2, if any) from the reduced carbon footprint concrete composition release. 关于所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物,当用于其预期用途时,在所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的使用期限内,如以CO2气体释放量测得,降解(如果有的话)的量将不超过5%每年,在某些实施方案中将不超过1%每年。 With respect to the reduction of the carbon footprint concrete composition, when used for its intended use, reduction in the carbon footprint of the period of use of the concrete composition, such as CO2 gas emission measured degradation (if any) the amount will not exceed 5% per year, in certain embodiments will not exceed 1% per year. 实际上,本发明提供的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物当暴露于对于其预期用途而言正常的温度和湿度的条件(包括正常pH的降雨)下时,将在至少I年、2年、5年、10年、或20年、或超过20年、例如超过100年的时间内不释放超过其总CO2的I %、5 %或10 %。 In fact, the present invention provides a reduced carbon footprint concrete composition when exposed to their intended use for the normal temperature and humidity conditions (including rainfall of normal pH), will be at least I year, 2 years, 5 years, 10 years, or 20 years, 20 years or over, for example, does not exceed the total release of CO2 over the I 100 years%, 5% or 10%. 在一些实施方案中,碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物当暴露于对于其预期用途而言正常的温度和湿度条件(包括正常PH的降雨)下时,在至少I年的时间内不释放超过其总CO2的1%。 In some embodiments, reducing the carbon footprint concrete composition when exposed to for its intended use normal temperature and humidity conditions (including rainfall of normal PH) of the next, does not release more than a total period of at least I year period 1% of CO2. 在一些实施方案中,碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物当暴露于对于其预期用途而言正常的温度和湿度条件(包括正常PH的降雨)下时,在至少I年的时间内不释放超过其总CO2的5%。 In some embodiments, reducing the carbon footprint concrete composition when exposed to for its intended use normal temperature and humidity conditions (including rainfall of normal PH) of the next, does not release more than a total period of at least I year period with 5% CO2. 在一些实施方案中,碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物在当暴露于对于其预期用途而言正常的温度和湿度条件(包括正常PH的降雨)下时,在至少I年的时间内不释放超过其总CO2的10%。 In some embodiments, reducing the carbon footprint concrete composition when exposed to for its intended use normal temperature and humidity conditions (including rainfall of normal PH) of the next, is not released for at least I year longer than its 10% of total CO2. 在一些实施方案中,碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物当暴露于对于其预期用途而言正常的温度和湿度条件(包括正常PH的降雨)下时,在至少10年的时间内不释放超过其总CO2的I %。 In some embodiments, reducing the carbon footprint concrete composition when exposed to for its intended use normal temperature and humidity conditions (including rainfall of normal PH) of the next, does not release more than a total period of at least 10 years I% CO2 in. 在一些实施方案中,碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物当暴露于对于其预期用途而言正常的温度和湿度条件(包括正常PH的降雨)下时,在至少100年的时间内不释放超过其总CO2的I %。 In some embodiments, reducing the carbon footprint concrete composition when exposed to for its intended use normal temperature and humidity conditions (including rainfall of normal PH) of the next, does not release more than a total period of at least 100 years I% CO2 in. 在一些实施方案中,碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物当暴露于对于其预期用途而言正常的温度和湿度条件(包括正常PH的降雨)下时,在至少1000年的时间内不释放超过其总CO2的1%。 In some embodiments, reducing the carbon footprint concrete composition when exposed to for its intended use normal temperature and humidity conditions (including rainfall of normal PH) of the next, does not release more than a total of at least 1000 times 1% of CO2.

[0059] 可使用能合理预测这类稳定性的任何适宜的替代标志物或试验。 [0059] can be used reasonably predict any suitable surrogate marker or test such stability. 例如,涉及高温条件和/或中等到更极端的PH条件的加速试验能合理地指示长时间内的稳定性。 E.g., involving high temperature and / or moderate to more extreme conditions of the accelerated test PH reasonably indicating stability over time. 例如,根据碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的环境和预期用途,可将组合物的样品暴露于50、75、90、100,120或150°C的温度和10%到50%的相对湿度下达1、2、5、25、50、100、200或500天,其碳损失低于1%、2%、3%、4%、5%、10%、20%、30%或50%可认为是本发明的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物在既定时间(如1、10、100、1000或超过1000年)内稳定的充分证据。 For example, according to the environment and reduce the carbon footprint of the intended use of the concrete composition, the composition may be a sample exposed to a temperature of 150 ° C or 50,75,90,100,120 and 10% to 50% relative humidity for 1, 2 , 5,25,50,100,200 or 500 days, the loss of carbon is less than 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% or 50% of the present invention may be considered reducing the carbon footprint concrete compositions stable in a given time (e.g. 1,10,100,1000 or more than 1000 years) sufficient evidence.

[0060] 碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的CO2截存组分(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的沉淀物质)的CO2含量可通过任何适宜的方法(例如库仑分析法)监测。 CO2 content [0060] The carbon footprint reduction CO2 sequestering component of the concrete composition (e.g., precipitation material comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or a mixture thereof) can be monitored by any suitable method (e.g., coulometry). 其他条件(包括pH、压力、UV辐射等)同样可根据预期或可能的环境加以适当调整。 Other conditions (including pH, pressure, UV radiation, etc.) can likewise be appropriately adjusted depending on the intended or likely environment. 应理解,本领域技术人员能合理地断定将表明组合物在指定的时间段内具有所需稳定性的任何适宜条件均可使用。 It should be understood that those skilled in the art would reasonably conclude indicate that the composition having the desired stability any suitable conditions may be used in a specified period of time. 此外,如果公认的化学知识表明组合物将在指定的时间段内具有所需稳定性,则其也可用作实际测定的补充或替代。 In addition, if accepted chemical knowledge indicates that the desired stability of the composition will have a specified time period, then it can be used as a supplement or alternative to the actual measurement. 例如,可为本发明的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的一部分的一些碳酸盐化合物(例如呈既定多晶形式)可以是地质学上熟知的并可已知已经受数十年、数百年或甚至数千年的正常气象条件而无可感知的分解并因此具有所需的稳定性。 For example, some carbonate compounds a portion of reducing the carbon footprint concrete compositions of the present invention may be (for example in a predetermined polymorphic form) may be well-known geologically and known to have been subjected to decades, centuries decomposition or even thousands of years of normal weather conditions without perceptible and thus have the desired stability.

[0061] CO2截存组分(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的沉淀物质)的量可随具体的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物而异。 The amount of [0061] CO2 sequestering component (e.g., precipitation material comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or a mixture thereof) may vary with the particular reducing the carbon footprint concrete composition varies. 有时,碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物中CO2截存组分(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的沉淀物质)的量在5-100% (w/w)范围内,例如5-90%(w/w),包括5-75% (w/w) >5-50% (w/w) >5-25% (w/w)和5-10% (w/w)。 Sometimes the amount, the reduced carbon footprint concrete composition CO2 sequestering component (e.g., precipitation material comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or a mixture thereof) in the 5 to 100% (w / w) range, such as 5 90% (w / w), comprising 5-75% (w / w)> 5-50% (w / w)> 5-25% (w / w) and 5-10% (w / w).

[0062] 与缺乏碳酸盐/碳酸氢盐组分(如CO2截存组分)的相应混凝土组合物相比,碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物具有减少的碳足迹。 [0062] compared to the corresponding concrete composition lacks a carbonate / bicarbonate component (e.g., CO2-sequestering component), to reduce the carbon footprint concrete compositions having a reduced carbon footprint. 使用任何方便的碳足迹计算器可知,本发明的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物与缺乏碳酸盐/碳酸氢盐组分(如CO2截存组分)的相应混凝土组合物相比碳足迹减少的幅度可为5 %或更多,例如10 %或更多,包括25 %、50 %、75 %或甚至100 %或更多。 Using any convenient carbon footprint calculator understood, carbon footprint reduction compared with corresponding concrete composition lacks a carbonate / bicarbonate component (e.g., CO2-sequestering component) of the present invention to reduce the carbon footprint concrete compositions amplitude may be 5% or more, such as 10% or more, including 25%, 50%, 75% or even 100% or more. 在某些实施方案中,本发明的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物可以是碳中性的,因为用例如可能与所关心的特定混凝土组合物相关的任何合宜的碳足迹计算器算出其基本没有(如果有的话)碳足迹。 In certain embodiments, the present invention reduces the carbon footprint concrete compositions may be a carbon neutral, as for example, may be associated with a particular concrete composition of interest of any convenient carbon footprint calculator to which substantially no ( if any) carbon footprint. 本发明的碳中性的混凝土组合物包括碳足迹为50磅C02/yd3材料或更少、例如为10磅C02/yd3材料或更少、包括5磅C02/yd3材料或更少的那些组合物,其中在某些实施方案中,碳中性的混凝土组合物具有为零或负的CO2磅数/yd3材料,例如负I或更负,如负3或更负的CO2磅数/yd3混凝土组合物。 Neutral carbon concrete compositions of the present invention comprises a carbon footprint is 50 lbs C02 / yd3 material or less, for example 10 lbs C02 / yd3 material or less, including 5 lbs C02 / yd3 material or less of those compositions wherein in some embodiments, the carbon concrete compositions have a neutral or negative zero pounds CO2 / yd3 material, e.g. negative or more negative I, such as negative or more negative 3 pounds CO2 / yd3 concrete composition thereof. 有时,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物具有相当负的碳足迹,例如-100或更负磅C02/yd3混凝土或更少。 Sometimes, to reduce the carbon footprint concrete composition having considerable negative carbon footprint, for example, or more negative -100 lb C02 / yd3 concrete or less. [0063] 本发明的CO2截存组分(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其组合的沉淀物质)包含本来已释放进大气中的CO2,所述CO2中的大多数由燃烧植物源的化石燃料产生。 [0063] CO2 sequestering components of the invention (e.g., comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or a combination of precipitation material) comprising CO2 had been released into the atmosphere, most of the CO2 from the combustion plant origin fossil fuels. 因此,本发明的包含一种或多种源自工业CO2的合成碳酸盐和/或碳酸氢盐的CO2截存组分将反映所述工业CO2 (来自化石燃料的燃烧)所源自的化石燃料(如煤、石油、天然气或烟气)的相对碳同位素组成(δ 13C)。 Accordingly, comprising one or more synthetic carbonates derived from industrial CO2 of the present invention and / or CO2 sequestering component bicarbonate will reflect the fossil the industrial CO2 (from combustion of fossil fuels) is derived fuels (coal, petroleum, natural gas or flue gas) relative carbon isotope composition (δ 13C). 单位为%。 Unit is%. (千分之一)的相对碳同位素组成(δ 13C)值是碳的两种稳定同位素即12C和13C的浓度比率相对于化石化箭石标准(PDB标准)的量度。 (One thousandth) of the relative carbon isotope composition ([delta] 13C) value of two stable isotopes of carbon, i.e., 12C and 13C with respect to the concentration ratio of the petrochemical belemnite Standard (PDB standard) measure.

[0064] δ 13C%0= [(13C/12C 样品」3C/12CPDB 标准)/(13C/12CPDB 标准)]χ1000 [0064] δ 13C% 0 = [(13C / 12C Sample "3C / 12CPDB standard) / (13C / 12CPDB standard)] χ1000

[0065] 因此,含合成碳酸盐和/或碳酸氢盐的沉淀物质(如CO2截存组分)的δ 13C值可充当CO2气体源、尤其是自燃烧的化石燃料释放的CO2的指纹。 [0065] Thus, δ 13C values ​​synthesis containing carbonate and / or bicarbonate precipitation material (e.g., CO2-sequestering component) may act as a source of CO2 gas, especially since burning fossil fuel CO2 released fingerprint. 不同的源(即化石燃料源)可具有不同的S13C值,但本发明的碳酸盐和/或碳酸氢盐组分(如0)2截存组分)的δ 13C值通常但非一定在-9%。 Different source (i.e., fossil fuel source) may have different values ​​S13C, but the carbonate and / or bicarbonate components of the invention (e.g., 0) sequestering component) δ 13C values ​​usually, but not necessarily in -9%. 到-35%。 To 35%. 范围内。 Range. 在一些实施方案中,含合成碳酸盐的沉淀物质的δ 13C值可在-1%。 In some embodiments, δ 13C values ​​synthetic carbonates containing precipitation material may be at 1%. 到_50%。 To _50%. 之间、_5%。 Between, _5%. 到-40%。 To 40%. 之间、_5%。 Between, _5%. 到_35%。 To _35%. 之间、_7%。 Between, _7%. 到_40%0之间、-7%。 _40 to between 0%, 7%. 到_35%。 To _35%. 之间、_9%。 Between, _9%. 到_40%。 To _40%. 之间、或_9%。 Between, or _9%. 到_35%。 To _35%. 之间。 between. 在一些实施方案中,含合成碳酸盐的沉淀物质的5 13C值可低于(例如更负于)-3%。 In some embodiments, 5 13C values ​​synthetic carbonates containing precipitation material may be lower than (e.g., more negative than) -3%. 、-5%。 -5%. 、-6%。 , -6%. 、-7%。 , 7%. 、-8%。 ,-8%. 、_9%0、-10%。 , _9 0% -10%. 、-11%。 , -11%. 、-12%。 , -12%. 、-13%。 , -13%. 、-14%。 , -14%. 、-15%。 , -15%. 、-16%。 , -16%. 、-17%。 , -17%. 、-18%。 , -18%. 、-19%。 , -19%. 、-20%。 , -20%. 、-21%。 ,-twenty one%. 、-22%。 ,-twenty two%. 、-23%0、-24%。 , 0 -23%, -24%. 、-25%。 , -25%. 、-26%。 , -26%. 、-27%。 , -27%. 、-28%。 , -28%. 、-29%。 , -29%. 、-30%。 , -30%. 、-31 %。 , -31%. 、-32%。 , -32%. 、-33%。 , -33%. 、-34%。 , -34%. 、-35%。 , -35%. 、-36%。 , -36%. 、-37%。 , -37%. 、-38%。 , -38%. 、-39%。 , -39%. 、-40%。 , -40%. 、-41 %。 , -41%. 、-42%。 , -42%. 、-43%。 , To 43%. 、-44%。 , -44%. 、或_45%。 Or _45%. ,其中δ 13C 值越负,含合成碳酸盐的沉淀物质中越富含12C。 Wherein the more negative the value of δ 13C, precipitation material comprising carbonates in the synthesis enriched 12C. 可采用任何适宜的方法来测定S13C值,这些方法包括但不限于质谱法或离轴积分腔输出光谱法(离轴IC0S)。 Any suitable method may be employed to determine the value of S13C, including but not limited to, mass spectrometry or off-axis integrated-cavity output spectroscopy (off-axis IC0S).

[0066] 在一些实施方案中,本发明提供了一种含CO2截存组分的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物,所述CO2截存组分包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其组合,其中所述碳酸盐和/或碳酸氢盐中的碳的S13C值低于-5%。 [0066] In some embodiments, the present invention provides a carbon footprint containing CO2 sequestering component of the concrete composition to reduce the CO2 sequestering component comprises carbonates, bicarbonates, or combination thereof, wherein the carbonate and / or bicarbonate of S13C carbon value of less than 5%. . 在一些实施方案中,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的S13C值可在-1%。 In some embodiments, the value of S13C carbon footprint reduction can be concrete compositions -1%. 到-50%。 To -50%. 之间、_5%。 Between, _5%. 到-40%。 To 40%. 之间、_5%。 Between, _5%. 到_35%。 To _35%. 之间、_7%。 Between, _7%. 到_40%。 To _40%. 之间、_7%0到_35%。 Between, _7 _35% to 0%. 之间、_9%。 Between, _9%. 到_40%。 To _40%. 之间、或_9%。 Between, or _9%. 到-35%。 To 35%. 之间。 between. 在一些实施方案中,所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的S 13C值可低于(即更负于)-3%。 In some embodiments, S 13C carbon footprint reduction value of the concrete composition may be less than (i.e. more negative than) -3%. 、-5%。 -5%. 、-6%。 , -6%. 、-7%。 , 7%. 、-8%。 ,-8%. 、-9%。 ,-9%. 、-10%。 , -10%. 、-11%。 , -11%. 、-12%。 , -12%. 、-13%。 , -13%. 、-14%。 , -14%. 、-15%。 , -15%. 、-16%。 , -16%. 、-17%。 , -17%. 、-18%。 , -18%. 、-19%。 , -19%. 、-20%。 , -20%. 、-21%。 ,-twenty one%. 、-22%。 ,-twenty two%. 、-23%。 ,-twenty three%. 、-24%0、-25%。 , 0 -24%, -25%. 、-26%。 , -26%. 、-27%。 , -27%. 、-28%。 , -28%. 、-29%。 , -29%. 、-30%。 , -30%. 、-31 %。 , -31%. 、-32%。 , -32%. 、-33%。 , -33%. 、-34%。 , -34%. 、-35%。 , -35%. 、-36%。 , -36%. 、-37%。 , -37%. 、-38%。 , -38%. 、-39%。 , -39%. 、-40%。 , -40%. 、-41 %。 , -41%. 、-42%。 , -42%. 、-43%。 , To 43%. 、-44%。 , -44%. 、或_45%。 Or _45%. ,其中δ 13C 值越负,含合成碳酸盐的组合物中越富含12c。 Wherein the more negative the value of δ 13C, synthetic carbonate-containing composition of the enriched 12c.

[0067] CO2截存组分的碳酸盐化合物可为自二价阳离子溶液如咸水沉淀的亚稳碳酸盐化合物,这将在下面更详细地描述。 [0067] CO2 sequestering carbonate compound composition may be metastable carbonate compounds from the solution of divalent cations, such as brackish precipitated, which will be described in more detail below. 本发明的碳酸盐化合物组合物含沉淀的结晶和/或无定形碳酸盐化合物。 Carbonate compound compositions of the invention containing the precipitated crystals and / or amorphous carbonate compounds. 所关心的具体的碳酸盐矿物包括但不限于:碳酸钙矿物、碳酸镁矿物和碳酸钙镁矿物。 Specific carbonate minerals of interest include, but are not limited to: calcium carbonate minerals, magnesium carbonate minerals of magnesium and calcium minerals. 所关心的碳酸钙矿物包括但不限于:方解石(CaCO3)、霰石(CaCO3)、六方碳钙石(CaCO3)、六水碳|丐石(CaCO3.6H20)和无定形碳酸|丐(CaCO3.ηΗ20)。 Calcium carbonate minerals of interest include, but are not limited to: calcite (CaCO3), aragonite (CaCO3), vaterite (CaCO3), carbon hexahydrate | Hack stone (CaCO3.6H20) carbonate and amorphous | Hack (CaCO3.ηΗ20 ). 所关心的碳酸镁矿物包括但不限于:菱镁矿(MgCO3)、水菱镁矿(MgCO3.2Η20)、三水菱镁矿(MgCO3.3Η20)、五水菱镁矿(MgCO3.5Η20)和无定形碳酸镁钙(MgCO3.ηΗ20)。 Magnesium carbonate minerals of interest include, but are not limited to: magnesite (MgCO3), hydromagnesite (MgCO3.2Η20), nesquehonite (MgCO3.3Η20), five hydromagnesite (MgCO3.5Η20) and amorphous magnesium calcium carbonate (MgCO3.ηΗ20). 所关心的碳酸钙镁矿物包括但不限于白云石(CaMgCO3)、碳酸钙镁石(CaMg3(CO3)4)和水碳钙镁石(Ca2Mg11 (CO3) 13.H2O)。 Calcium magnesium carbonate minerals of interest include, but are not limited to dolomite (CaMgCO3), huntite (CaMg3 (CO3) 4) and water huntite (Ca2Mg11 (CO3) 13.H2O). 在某些实施方案中,非碳酸盐化合物如水镁石(Mg(OH)2)也可与上面列出的矿物组合地形成。 In certain embodiments, non-carbonate compounds such as water brucite (Mg (OH) 2) may also be formed in combination with a mineral listed above. 如上面所指出,所述碳酸盐化合物组合物的化合物可为在咸水中比在淡水中更稳定的亚稳碳酸盐化合物(并可含一种或多种亚稳氢氧化物),以至于其在与任何PH的淡水接触时溶解并再沉淀成其他淡水稳定的化合物如矿物如低Mg方解石。 As noted above, the compounds of the carbonate compound in the composition may be more stable in fresh water than in salt water metastable carbonate compounds (and may contain one or more metastable hydroxide) to as it dissolves upon contact with any PH freshwater and reprecipitated into other fresh water stable compound, such as Mg minerals such as calcite low.

[0068] 本发明的碳酸盐/碳酸氢盐组分(如0)2截存组分)可源自、例如可沉淀自二价阳离子溶液(例如二价阳离子的水溶液)(这将在下面更详细地描述)。 [0068] The carbonate / bicarbonate component (e.g., 0) sequestering component) of the present invention may be derived from, for example, precipitation from the solution of divalent cations (e.g., an aqueous solution of divalent cations) (which will be described below described in more detail). 由于所述碳酸盐/碳酸氢盐组分(如CO2截存组分)可自水沉淀,故其可能含其所源自的水中存在的一种或多种组分。 Since the carbonate / bicarbonate component (e.g., CO2-sequestering component) may be precipitated from water, which may therefore contain one or more components in the presence of water which it is derived. 例如,当所述二价阳离子溶液为咸水时,CO2截存制品(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的沉淀物质)将含咸水源中存在的一种或多种化合物。 For example, when the divalent cation is a salt water solution, CO2 sequestering products (e.g. comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, precipitation material or a mixture thereof) containing salt water present in one kind or more compounds. 这些化合物可标识(identify)来自咸水源的组合物的固体沉淀,其中这些标识组分及其量在本文中可统称为咸水源标识物。 These compounds can be identified (the Identify) solid composition of water from the precipitated salt, where these identifying components and the amounts thereof may be collectively referred to herein as the salt water source identifier. 例如,如果咸水源为海水,则沉淀物质中可能存在的标识化合物包括但不限于:氯化物、钠、硫、钾、溴化物、硅、锶等。 For example, if the salt water is seawater, the precipitation material may be present in identifying compounds include, but are not limited to: chloride, sodium, sulfur, potassium, bromide, silicon, strontium. 任何这类源标识或“标志物”元素通常以小量存在,例如以20,OOOppm或更少的量存在,例如2000ppm或更少的量。 Any such source identification or "marker" element is usually present in small amounts, for example 20, OOOppm or less amounts, for example, an amount of 2000ppm or less. 在某些实施方案中,“标志物”化合物可为锶,其可结合进例如霰石晶格中并占10,OOOppm或更少,在某些实施方案中在3-10,OOOppm 范围内,例如5-5000ppm,包括5-1000ppm,例如5-500ppm,包括5-100ppm。 In certain embodiments, a "marker" compound is strontium, which may be incorporated into the crystal lattice and, for example, aragonite accounts for 10, OOOppm or less, in some embodiments within 3-10, OOOppm range, e.g. 5-5000ppm, including 5-1000ppm, e.g. 5-500ppm, comprising 5-100ppm. 所关心的另一“标志物”化合物为镁,其可以至多20%摩尔的量取代碳酸盐化合物中的钙而存在。 Another concern of the "marker" compound is magnesium, which may be up to 20 mol% of the amount of the calcium carbonate-substituted compound is present. 组合物的咸水源标识物可随用来制备源自咸水的碳酸盐组合物的具体咸水源而异。 Saltwater source identifier composition may vary with the particular salt from brackish water to the preparation of carbonate composition varies. 还关心的是标识水源的同位素标志物。 Also of concern is the identification of water isotope markers.

[0069] 在某些实施方案中,包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的CO2截存组分可为辅助胶凝材料。 [0069] In certain embodiments, comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or a mixture thereof may be a CO2-sequestering component supplementary cementitious material. SCMs为尽管其自身可以是或可以不是水硬胶凝性的但将在一定程度上与水硬水泥组合物如波特兰水泥反应产生硬化材料的那些材料。 Although SCMs is itself may or may not be, but with hydraulic cement compositions such as Portland cement hardening reaction of those materials to a certain extent on the material of the hydraulic binder. 在某些实施方案中,CO2截存SCMs (如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的SCM)可为每吨SCM贮存约0.5吨或更多CO2,例如约I吨或更多CO2,包括约1.2吨或更多C02。 In certain embodiments, CO2 sequestering SCMs (eg comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or mixtures SCM) may be a reservoir of about 0.5 tons per ton of SCM or more of CO2, for example about I tons or more of CO2, including about 1.2 tons or more C02. 例如,本发明的CO2截存SCM(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的SCM)可贮存约0.5吨或更多CO2每吨SCM材料。 For example, CO2 sequestering SCM present invention (e.g., comprising carbonates, SCM bicarbonates or mixtures thereof) can be stored for about 0.5 tons or more of CO2 per tonne of material SCM. 换句话说,本发明的CO2截存SCM(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的SCM)可具有为-0.5吨CO2每吨材料的负碳足迹。 In other words, the present invention CO2 sequestering SCM (e.g., comprising a carbonate, bicarbonate or mixtures thereof SCM) may have a negative carbon footprint -0.5 tons CO2 per tonne of material. 在这些实施方案中,CO2截存化合物(如碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其组合)可以干颗粒组合物如粉末存在。 In these embodiments, CO2-sequestering compounds (e.g., carbonate, bicarbonate, or combination thereof) may be a dry particulate composition is present as a powder. 在某些实施方案中,所述干颗粒组合物可由如用任何合适的粒径测定方法如多检测器激光散射或筛分(即< 38微米)测得平均粒径为0.1-100微米、例如10-40微米的颗粒构成。 In certain embodiments, the dry particulate composition may be any suitable particle size as measured by methods such as laser light scattering detector, or a multi-screened (i.e., <38 micron) average particle diameter was measured from 0.1 to 100 microns, e.g. 10-40 micron particles. 在某些实施方案中存在多峰如双峰或其他分布。 The presence of a bimodal or multimodal distribution in certain other embodiments. 双峰分布可使表面积最小化,从而允许水泥较低的液/固质量比而还提供较小的反应性颗粒用于早期反应。 Bimodal distribution of specific surface area can be minimized, thereby allowing a lower cement liquid / solid mass ratio and also provides less reactive particles used for the early reaction. 在这些情况下,较大粒径等级的平均粒径可超过1000微米(Imm)。 In these cases, the average particle diameter of larger particle size may exceed the level of 1000 microns (Imm). 构成SCM的组分的表面积可不同。 SCM component constituting the surface area may be different. 既定水泥的平均表面积足以提供当与液体组合时产生可凝固组合物(例如下面更详细地描述的)的液固比,所述平均表面积在0.5m2/gm到50m2/gm范围内,例如0.75_20m2/gm,包括0.80-10m2/gm。 Generating settable composition (such as described in more detail below) of the average surface area of ​​the liquid-solid ratio sufficient to provide a predetermined cement when combined with a liquid, said average surface area is within 0.5m2 / gm to 50m2 / gm range, e.g. 0.75_20m2 / gm, including 0.80-10m2 / gm. 在某些实施方案中,如用Breunner,Emmit和Teller (1953)所述的表面积测定方法测得,水泥的表面积在0.9-5m2/gm范围内,例如0.95-2m2/gm,包括l_2m2/gm。 In certain embodiments, such as the use Breunner, surface area measured according to the method (1953) Emmit measured and Teller surface area of ​​cement in 0.9-5m2 / gm range, e.g. 0.95-2m2 / gm, comprising l_2m2 / gm.

[0070] 当存在时,混凝土组合物中CO2截存SCM(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的SCM)的量可不同。 The amount of [0070] When present, the concrete composition of CO2 sequestered SCM (SCM such as those containing carbonates, bicarbonates, or a mixture thereof) may be different. 在某些实施方案中,混凝土含5-50% w/w、例如5-25% w/w、包括5-10%w/w、包括10% -25% w/w的CO2截存SCM(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的SCM)。 In certain embodiments, the concrete containing 5-50% w / w, for example, 5-25% w / w, comprising 5-10% w / w, including CO2 sequestering 10% -25% w / w of SCM ( as comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or mixtures SCM). 在某些实施方案中,水泥中超过50 %为碳酸盐化合物组合物。 In certain embodiments, more than 50% cement carbonate compound composition.

[0071] 代替CO2截存SCM或除CO2截存SCM外,混凝土组合物可含一种或多种类型的CO2截存骨料(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的骨料),所述骨料可为细骨料、粗骨料等。 [0071] Instead of or in addition to CO2 sequestering CO2 sequestering SCM SCM, the concrete composition may contain one or more types of CO2-sequestering aggregates (e.g., aggregates comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or a mixture thereof) the aggregates may be as the fine aggregate, coarse aggregate. 术语骨料在本文中以其公认的方式使用,指可用在混凝土、砂浆和例如如上所定义的其他材料中的微粒组合物。 The term aggregate thereof recognized manner used herein, refers to microparticle compositions can be used in concrete, mortar, and other such materials as defined in. 本发明的骨料可为微粒组合物,其可分为细骨料和粗骨料。 Aggregate of the present invention may be a particulate composition, which can be divided into the fine and coarse aggregates. 根据本发明的实施方案的细骨料为几乎完全通过4号筛(ASTM C 125和ASTM C 33)的微粒组合物。 According to an embodiment of the fine aggregate particulate compositions of the present invention is almost completely through a No. 4 sieve (ASTM C 125 and ASTM C 33) a. 根据本发明的实施方案的细骨料组合物(其可称为“砂”)的平均粒径在0.001英寸到 The fines composition embodiment of the present invention the average particle size (which may be referred to as "sand") of 0.001 inches to

0.25英寸范围内,例如0.05英寸至Ij 0.125英寸,包括0.01英寸至Ij 0.08英寸。 0.25 inches, such as 0.05 inch to Ij 0.125 inches to 0.01 inches comprising Ij 0.08 inches. 因此,细骨料可用作混凝土组合物中砂的替代物。 Thus, fine aggregate concrete composition useful as a substitute for sand. 本发明的粗骨料为主要截留在4号筛(ASTM C 125和ASTM C 33)上的组合物。 Coarse aggregate of the present invention is a composition mainly trapped in a Number 4 sieve (ASTM C 125 and ASTM C 33) on. 根据本发明的实施方案的粗骨料组合物为平均粒径在0.125英寸到6英寸、例如0.187英寸到3.0英寸、包括0.25英寸到1.0英寸的组合物。 The coarse aggregate compositions according to embodiments of the present invention is the average particle diameter of 0.125 inches to 6 inches, such as 0.187 inches to 3.0 inches, 1.0 inches to 0.25 inches including the composition. 因此,粗骨料可用作混凝土组合物中常规骨料的替代物。 Therefore, the coarse aggregate can be used as a substitute for conventional concrete composition aggregate.

[0072] 在一些实施方案中,本发明的CO2截存骨料(即包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的合成骨料)可为每吨骨料贮存约0.5吨或更多CO2,例如约I吨或更多CO2,包括约1.2吨或更多C02。 [0072] In some embodiments, the present invention CO2 sequestering aggregate (i.e. aggregate comprise synthetic carbonates, bicarbonates, or a mixture thereof) can be stored for about 0.5 tons or more of CO2 per tonne aggregate, for example about I tons or more of CO2, including about 120 tons or more of C02. 例如,本发明的CO2截存骨料(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的骨料)可贮存约0.5吨或更多CO2每吨材料。 E.g., CO2-sequestering aggregate of the present invention (e.g., comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or a mixture of aggregate) can be stored for about 0.5 tons or more of CO2 per tonne of material. 换句话说,本发明的CO2截存骨料(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的骨料)可具有为-0.5吨CO2每吨材料的负碳足迹。 In other words, the present invention CO2 sequestering aggregate (e.g. comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or a mixture of aggregate) may have a negative carbon footprint -0.5 tons CO2 per tonne of material. 此外,本发明的骨料的密度可不同,只要骨料能为其中采用所述骨料的建筑材料提供所需性质即可。 In addition, the density of the aggregate of the present invention may vary, as long as the aggregate can be employed in which the aggregate supplies to provide the desired properties. 在某些情况下,骨料的密度在1.l-5gm/cc范围内,例如1.5gm/cc到3.15gm/cc,包括1.8gm/cc到 In some cases, the density of the aggregate / cc range 1.l-5gm, e.g. 1.5gm / cc to 3.15gm / cc, comprising 1.8 gm / cc to

2.7gm/cc0构成本发明的骨料组合物的骨料颗粒的硬度也可不同,在某些情况下,莫氏硬度在1.5-9范围内,例如2-7,包括4-5。 The hardness of the aggregate particles constituting the aggregate of the present invention the composition 2.7gm / cc0 may also differ, in some cases, a Mohs hardness in the range 1.5-9, such as 2-7, including 4-5.

[0073] 水泥组分(例如熟料和SCM)与骨料组分(例如细和粗骨料)的重量比可不同。 [0073] The cementitious component (e.g. clinker and SCM) aggregate weight of components (such as fine and coarse aggregate) ratio may be different. 在某些实施方案中,干混凝土组分中水泥组分与骨料组分的重量比在1: 10-4: 10范围内,例如2: 10-5: 10,包括55: 1000-70: 100。 In certain embodiments, the weight of dry cement component in the concrete component and the component ratio of aggregates in 1: 10-4: 10 in the range of, for example, 2: 10-5: 10, 55 comprising: 1000-70: 100. [0074] 本发明的包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的CO2截存骨料含一种或多种例如如上所述及在美国临时申请61/056,972中进一步描述的碳酸盐化合物。 [0074] The present invention comprises carbonates, bicarbonates, or a mixture thereof containing CO2 sequestering aggregate as described above and, for example, one or more Provisional Application 61 / 056,972 further described in U.S. carbonate compound.

[0075] 外加剂 [0075] Additive

[0076] 在某些实施方案中,水泥可与一种或多种外加剂一起使用。 [0076] In certain embodiments, the cement can be used together with one or more additives. 在一些实施方案中,水泥可与一种或多种CO2截存外加剂一起使用。 In some embodiments, the cement can be used together with one or more sequestering CO2 admixture. 外加剂为加到混凝土中以使其具有用基础混凝土混合物不能获得的所需特性或以改变混凝土的性质而使其更易于使用或更适合特定目的或以降低成本的组合物。 Concrete admixture is added to impart the desired characteristics can not be obtained with a concrete mixture of base or to modify the properties of the concrete or to make it easier to use for a particular purpose or to reduce the cost of the composition. 如本领域中熟知的,外加剂可为除水硬水泥、骨料和水外的任何材料或组合物,其作为混凝土或砂浆的组分使用以增强其一些特性或降低其成本。 As is well known in the art, additives may be any material or composition in addition to hydraulic cement, aggregate and water, its use as a component of the concrete or mortar to enhance some of its properties or reduce its cost. 采用的外加剂的量可随外加剂的性质而异。 The amount of additive employed may vary depending on the nature of the additive. 在某些实施方案中,包括合成外加剂的这些组分的量在1-50% w/w 范围内,例如5-25% w/w,包括10-20% w/w,例如2-10% w/w。 In certain embodiments, the amounts of these components include synthetic additives within 1-50% w / w range, for example 5-25% w / w, comprising 10-20% w / w, e.g. 2-10 % w / w.

[0077] 使用外加剂的主要原因可为(I)以在所得硬化混凝土中获得某些结构改进;(2)以改善不利气候或交通情况期间整个混合、运输、浇筑和养护的连续阶段混凝土的质量;(3)以克服混凝土浇筑操作过程中的某些紧急情况;和/或(4)以降低混凝土结构的成本。 [0077] The additive used may be the main reason (I) to achieve certain structural improvements in the resulting cured concrete; during successive stages (2) to increase the adverse weather or traffic conditions the entire mixing, transportation, pouring and curing of concrete mass; (3) to overcome certain emergencies during concreting operations; and / or (4) in order to reduce the cost of concrete structures. 有时,所需的混凝土性能特征仅可通过使用外加剂获得。 Sometimes, only the required performance characteristics of concrete can be obtained by the use of admixtures. 有时,使用外加剂使得能够使用价格较低廉的建筑方法或设计,其节省量在抵消掉外加剂的成本后可还有剩余。 Sometimes, the use of additives enable the use of less expensive construction methods or designs, that there is a surplus in savings can offset the cost of the admixture.

[0078] 所关心的外加剂包括细碎矿物外加剂。 [0078] Admixtures of interest include finely divided mineral admixtures. 细碎矿物外加剂为粉末或粉碎形式的材料,在混合过程之前或过程中加到混凝土中以改进或改变波特兰水泥混凝土的塑性或硬化性中的一些。 Finely divided mineral admixtures in the form of a powder or pulverized material, prior to or during the mixing process was added to the concrete to improve or change some or curable plastic in Portland cement concrete. 细碎矿物外加剂可按其化学或物理性质分类为:胶凝材料;火山灰;火山灰质胶凝材料;和标称惰性材料。 Finely divided mineral admixtures chemical or physical properties which may be classified as: cementitious material; pozzolan; pozzolanic cementitious materials; and nominally inert materials. 火山灰为硅质或铝硅质材料,几乎不或不具有胶凝值,但当呈细碎形式且有水存在时将与波特兰水泥的水化所释放的氢氧化钙发生化学反应形成具有胶凝性的材料。 Pozzolan is a siliceous or aluminosiliceous material having little or no cementitious value, but showed the presence of water and in finely divided form chemical reaction with the calcium hydroxide released by the hydration of Portland cement to form a gel when condensable material. 火山灰也可用来降低压力下水迁移通过混凝土的速率。 Ash is also used to reduce the rate of migration of water under pressure through the concrete. 硅藻土、蛋白石质燧石(opaline cherts)、粘土、页岩、粉煤灰、娃灰、火山凝灰岩和浮石是一些熟知的火山灰。 Diatomaceous earth, opaline cherts (opaline cherts), clay, shale, fly ash, baby ash, pumice and volcanic tuffs are some well known pozzolans. 某些磨细粒化高炉矿渣和高钙粉煤灰同时具有火山灰性质和胶凝性质。 Certain ground granulated blast furnace slag and high calcium fly ash properties and having both gelling properties. 标称惰性材料也可包括细碎的未加工的石英、白云石、石灰石、大理石、花岗岩等。 Nominally inert materials can also include finely divided raw quartz, dolomite, limestone, marble, granite and the like. 粉煤灰在ASTM C618中定义。 Ash is defined in ASTM C618.

[0079] 可使用粉煤灰以及包含金属硅酸盐的材料(如硅灰石、镁铁矿物如橄榄石和蛇纹石)来产生CO2截存火山灰质材料(即合成外加剂),所述CO2截存火山灰质材料可用在本发明的碳中性或碳负性混凝土组合物中。 [0079] and the use of fly ash material comprising metal silicates (such as wollastonite, magnesium, iron minerals such as olivine and serpentine) to produce CO2 sequestering pozzolanic material (i.e., synthesis admixture), the CO2 sequestering pozzolanic materials may be used in a carbon neutral or carbon negative concrete composition of the present invention. 这类火山灰质材料在2009年6月17日提交的美国专利申请12/486,692及2009年7月10日提交的美国专利申请12/501,217中有述,其各通过引用结合到本文中。 Such pozzolanic materials in U.S. Patent No. June 17, 2009, filed 12 / 486,692 and U.S. Patent Application No. 10 July 2009, filed 12 / 501,217 are described, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in. 简言之,除二价阳离子、质子去除剂或其组合外,粉煤灰(例如通过熟化)或包含金属硅酸盐的材料的消解还产生基于二氧化硅的材料,基于二氧化硅的材料如果在碳酸盐组合物的沉淀过程中存在的话则可能被碳酸钙、碳酸镁或其组合包覆。 Briefly digestion, addition of divalent cations, proton-removing agents, or combinations thereof, fly ash (e.g., by curing) or a material comprising a metal silicate material further generated based on silica, silica-based material If present during the precipitation of carbonate composition, then it may be calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate or combinations thereof coating. 因此,基于二氧化硅的材料充当碳酸钙、碳酸镁或其混合物的沉淀的成核位点。 Thus, act as nucleation sites precipitated calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, or mixtures of silica-based material. 以这种方式制备的火山灰质材料可被钝化,钝化将降低火山灰质材料的反应性,这在某些实施方案中可能是需要的。 Pozzolanic material prepared in this manner may be passivated, the passivation will reduce the reactive pozzolanic material, which in some embodiments may be desirable. 碳中性或碳负性混凝土中包含合成碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其混合物的CO2截存火山灰质材料可在1-50% w/w范围内,例如5-25% w/w,包括10-20% w/w,例如2-10% w/W。 CO2 sequestering pozzolanic material such as carbon neutral or carbon negative concrete including synthetic carbonates, bicarbonates, or a mixture thereof may be in the 1-50% w / w range, for example 5-25% w / w, comprising 10-20% w / w, for example, 2-10% w / W. 此外,CO2截存火山灰质材料(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其组合的火山灰质材料)为这样的火山灰质材料,其每吨贮存0.25吨或更多CO2,例如0.5吨或更多CO2,包括I吨或更多CO2,例如2吨或更多CO2每吨火山灰质材料。 Furthermore, CO2 sequestration pozzolanic materials (e.g., comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or a combination of pozzolanic material) for such pozzolanic material reservoir 0.25 tons per ton or more CO2, 0.5 tons or more e.g. CO2, comprising I tons or more of CO2, for example, two tons or more of CO2 per tonne of pozzolanic material. 例如,本发明的CO2截存火山灰质材料(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其组合的火山灰质材料)可贮存约0.25吨或更多CO2每吨火山灰质材料。 E.g., CO2-sequestering pozzolanic material of the present invention (e.g., comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or a combination of pozzolanic materials) can be stored for about 0.25 tons or more of CO2 per tonne of pozzolanic material. 换句话说,本发明的CO2截存火山灰质材料可具有为-0.25吨CO2每吨材料的负碳足迹。 In other words, CO2 sequestering pozzolanic material of the present invention may have a negative carbon footprint -0.25 tons CO2 per tonne of material.

[0080] 所关心的一类外加剂可为增塑剂。 [0080] A Class admixtures of interest may be a plasticizer. 增塑剂可加到混凝土中以使其具有改进的和易性,从而便于浇筑,同时减少密实化工作,并可加在需要均匀流动而不在钢筋下留下空隙空间的钢筋混凝土中。 Concrete plasticizers may be added so as to have improved workability, thereby facilitating pouring, densification while reducing the work required and a uniform flow without leaving a void space of reinforced concrete at the steel added. 所关心的外加剂还有促凝剂、缓凝剂、加气剂、起泡剂、减水剂、腐蚀抑制剂和颜料。 There coagulant additives, retarders, air entraining agent, foaming agent, superplasticizer, corrosion inhibitor, and a pigment of interest. 促凝剂用来加快混凝土配方的硬化速率(水化),在需要混凝土快速硬化的应用及低温应用中特别重要。 Coagulant used to accelerate the rate of hardening concrete recipe (hydration), it is particularly important in the need for rapid hardening of concrete applications and low temperature applications. 缓凝剂的作用是减慢水化速率及增长浇注混凝土以使其形成所需形状前可利用的时间。 Retarder effect is to slow down the rate of hydration and pouring concrete so as to increase the time available before the desired shape is formed. 缓凝剂在其中混凝土被用在热气候下的应用中特别重要。 Retarder in the concrete is used in applications where hot weather is especially important. 加气剂用来在整个混凝土中分布微小的气泡。 Filling agent for fine bubbles distributed throughout the concrete. 加气剂在天气寒冷的区域中特别有用,因为微小的夹带气泡有助于允许一定程度的收缩和膨胀,从而保护混凝土免受冻融破坏。 Air entraining agents are especially useful in cold weather regions, as fine gas bubbles entrained assist in allowing a certain degree of contraction and expansion, thereby protecting concrete from freeze-thaw damage. 也可向混凝土中加入颜料以使其具有美学目的所需的颜色特征。 Pigments may be added to the concrete to impart the desired color characteristics aesthetic purposes.

[0081] 因此,所关心的外加剂包括但不限于:促凝剂、缓凝剂、加气剂、消泡剂、减碱活性齐ϋ、粘结外加剂、分散剂、着色外加剂、腐蚀抑制剂、防潮外加剂、发气外加剂、减渗剂、泵送剂、收缩补偿外加剂、杀真菌外加剂、杀菌外加剂、杀虫外加剂、流变改性剂、细碎矿物外加齐ϋ、火山灰、骨料、润湿剂、强度增强剂、防水剂和任何其他混凝土或砂浆外加剂或添加剂。 [0081] Thus, admixtures of interest include, but are not limited to: set accelerators, set retarders, air-entraining agents, antifoaming agents, active homogeneous alkali Save ϋ, bonding admixtures, dispersing agents, coloring admixtures, corrosion inhibitor, moisture admixtures, gas evolution admixtures, permeability reducers, pumping aid, shrinkage compensation additives, fungicidal admixtures, germicidal admixtures, insecticide admixtures, rheology modifiers, finely divided minerals together plus ϋ , volcanic ash, aggregate, wetting agents, strength enhancers, waterproofing agent, and any other additive or concrete admixture or mortar. 当使用外加剂时,可将向其中引入了外加剂原料的新拌胶凝性组合物搅拌足够的时间以使外加剂原料相对均匀地分散在整个新拌混凝土中。 When using additives, which will be introduced into the cementitious composition fresh feedstock admixture was stirred for a sufficient time to allow the feed admixture relatively uniformly dispersed throughout the fresh concrete.

[0082] 促凝剂用来加速混凝土的凝固和早期强度发展。 [0082] The coagulant used to accelerate the setting and early strength development of concrete. 可与外加剂体系一起使用的促凝剂可为但不限于:碱金属、碱土金属或铝的硝酸盐;碱金属、碱土金属或铝的亚硝酸盐;碱金属、碱土金属或铝的硫氰酸盐;链烷醇胺;碱金属、碱土金属或铝的硫代硫酸盐;碱金属、碱土金属或铝的氢氧化物;碱金属、碱土金属或铝的羧酸盐(优选甲酸钙);多羟基烷基胺;碱金属或碱土金属的卤化物盐(如氯化物)。 The coagulant may be used together with the additive systems can be, but are not limited to: alkali metal, alkaline earth metal or aluminum nitrate; alkali metal nitrites, alkaline earth metal or aluminum; thiocyanate alkali metal, alkaline earth metal or aluminum salts; alkanolamine; alkali metal, alkaline earth metal or aluminum thiosulfate; alkali metal, alkaline earth metal or aluminum; alkali metal carboxylates, alkaline earth metal or aluminum (preferably calcium formate); alkyl polyhydroxy amines; alkali metal halide or alkaline earth metal salt (e.g., chloride). 本发明的分散方法中可用的促凝剂的实例包括但不限于P0ZZ0LITH ® NC534 (非氯化物型促凝剂)和/或RHEOCRETE ® CNI (基于亚硝酸钙的腐蚀抑制剂),二者均由俄亥俄州克利夫兰市BASF Admixtures Inc.以上述商标出售。 Examples of coagulant dispersion methods useful in the present invention include, but are not limited to P0ZZ0LITH ® NC534 (chloride form non-coagulant) and / or RHEOCRETE ® CNI (calcium nitrite-based corrosion inhibitor), both by Cleveland, Ohio BASF Admixtures Inc. sold under the trademarks described above. [0083] 所关心的还有缓凝外加剂。 [0083] are concerned there are retarding admixtures. 缓凝外加剂也称延迟凝固或水化控制外加剂,用来阻滞、延迟或减慢混凝土的凝固速率。 Retarding admixture, also known admixtures delay setting or hydration control, to block, delay or slowing of the rate of solidification of the concrete. 其可在初始配料时或有时在水化过程开始后加到混凝土混合料中。 Which may be added to the concrete mix or sometimes after the hydration process starts at the initial ingredients. 缓凝剂用来抵销热天气对混凝土凝固的加速作用,或延迟困难浇筑条件下或向施工现场的输送存在问题时混凝土或灰浆的初凝,或为特殊整面工序留出时间。 Retarders used to offset the accelerating effect of hot weather on the concrete sets, or delay the initial set of concrete or mortar difficult problem when casting conditions or delivery to the construction site, or the entire surface for a particular process to allow time. 大多数缓凝剂也充当低水平减水剂并也用来向混凝土中加气。 Most retarders also act as low-level water reducer and is also used to aerated concrete. 可使用的缓凝剂包括但不限于氧-硼化合物、玉米浆、木质素、多膦酸、羧酸、羟基羧酸、多羧酸、羟基化羧酸(如富马酸、衣康酸、丙二酸、硼砂、葡糖酸和酒石酸)、木质素磺酸盐、抗坏血酸、异抗坏血酸、磺酸-丙烯酸共聚物及其相应的盐、多羟基硅烷、聚丙烯酰胺、碳水化合物及其混合物。 Retarder may be used include, but are not limited to, oxygen - boron compound, corn steep liquor, lignin, polyphosphonic acids, carboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, polycarboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids (e.g., fumaric acid, itaconic acid, malonic, borax, gluconic acid and tartaric acid), lignosulfonates, ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid, sulphonic acid - acrylic acid copolymers and their corresponding salts, polyhydroxy silanes, polyacrylamide, carbohydrates and mixtures thereof. 缓凝剂的示意性实例在美国专利5,427,617和5,203,919中有给出,所述专利通过引用结合到本文中。 Illustrative examples of the retarder are given in U.S. Patent No. 5,427,617 and 5,203,919, said patents incorporated by reference herein. 适用于本发明的外加剂体系中的缓凝剂的另一实例为俄亥俄州克利夫兰市BASFAdmixturesInc.以商标DELVO⑩出售的水化控制外加剂。 Another example of a retarder suitable for admixture in the system of the present invention, Cleveland, Ohio BASFAdmixturesInc. DELVO⑩ sold under the trademark hydration control admixtures.

[0084] 所关心的外加剂还有加气剂。 [0084] There are air entraining agent admixture interest. 术语加气剂包括将在胶凝性组合物中加气的任何物质。 The term air entraining agent includes any substance in the aerated cementitious composition. 一些加气剂也可在低浓度下降低组合物的表面张力。 Some air entraining agent may also reduce the surface tension of the composition at low concentrations. 加气外加剂用来有目的地向混凝土中引入微观气泡。 Aerated admixture to purposefully introducing microscopic air bubbles into the concrete. 加气将极大改进冻融循环过程中暴露于潮湿下的混凝土的耐久性。 Aerated will greatly improve the durability of freezing and thawing cycles during exposure to moist concrete. 此外,夹带的空气将大大改进混凝土对化学除冰剂所致的表面片状剥落的抵抗性。 In addition, entrained air greatly improves the resistance of concrete to the surface due to chemical deicers exfoliated. 加气也提高新拌混凝土的和易性,同时消除或减少离析和泌水。 Aerated also improve the workability of the fresh concrete while eliminating or reducing segregation and bleeding. 用来获得这些所需效果的材料可选自木材树脂、天然树脂、合成树脂、磺化木质素、石油酸、蛋白质材料、脂肪酸、树脂酸、烷基苯磺酸盐、磺化烃、松香皂树脂、阴离子表面活性剂、阳离子表面活性剂、非离子表面活性剂、天然松香、合成松香、无机加气剂、合成洗涤剂、和其相应的盐、及其混合物。 For obtaining the desired effects of these materials can be selected from wood resins, natural resins, synthetic resins, lignosulphonates, petroleum acids, proteinaceous materials, fatty acids, resin acids, alkyl benzene sulfonates, sulfonated hydrocarbons, rosin soap resin, anionic surfactants, cationic surfactants, nonionic surfactants, natural rosin, synthetic rosin, inorganic filling agents, synthetic detergents, and corresponding salts thereof, and mixtures thereof. 加气剂以在胶凝性组合物中产生所需空气水平的量加入。 Air entraining agent is added in an amount in the cementitious composition to produce the desired horizontal air. 可用于本发明的外加剂体系中的加气剂的实例包括但不限于MB AE 90、MB VR和MICRO AIR.®,其均可从俄亥俄州克利夫兰市BASFAdmixtures Inc.买至丨J0 Examples of filling agents admixture systems for the present invention include, but are not limited to MB AE 90, MB VR and MICRO AIR.®, which can be bought from BASFAdmixtures Inc., Cleveland, Ohio J0 to Shu

[0085] 所关心的外加剂还有消泡剂。 [0085] There defoamers admixture of concern. 消泡剂用来减少胶凝性组合物中的空气含量。 Antifoaming agents for reducing air content of the cementitious composition. 可用于胶凝性组合物中的消泡剂的实例包括但不限于矿物油、植物油、脂肪酸、脂肪酸酯、羟基官能化合物、酰胺、磷酸酯、金属皂、硅油、含环氧丙烷部分的聚合物、烃、烷氧化烃、烷氧化聚环氧烷、磷酸三丁酯、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯、辛醇、碳酸和硼酸的水不溶性酯、乙炔二醇、环氧乙烷-环氧丙烷嵌段共聚物和硅油。 Examples of cementitious composition may be used in defoaming agents include, but are not limited to, mineral oil, vegetable oil, fatty acids, fatty acid esters, hydroxy-functional compounds, amides, phosphate esters, metal soaps, silicone oils, polymerization of propylene oxide containing moiety thereof, hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons alkyl, alkoxylated polyalkylene oxide, tributyl phosphate, dibutyl phthalate, octanol water-insoluble carbonate and boric acid esters, acetylene glycol, ethylene oxide - propylene oxide block copolymers, and silicone oils.

[0086] 所关心的外加剂还有分散剂。 [0086] There dispersant additive of interest. 整个本说明书中用到的术语分散剂尤其包括有或没有聚醚单元的聚羧酸盐分散剂。 The term dispersant is used throughout the present specification include, in particular, with or without polyether units polycarboxylate dispersant. 术语分散剂还旨在包括也用作增塑剂、减水剂(如高效减水剂)、流化剂、抗絮凝剂的那些化学品,或用于胶凝性组合物的超增塑剂如木质素磺酸盐、磺化萘磺酸盐缩合物的盐、磺化三聚氰胺磺酸盐缩合物的盐、β -萘磺酸盐、磺化三聚氰胺甲醛缩合物、萘磺酸甲醛缩合物树脂如LOMAR D®分散剂(俄亥俄州辛辛那提市Cognis Inc.)、聚天冬氨酸盐或低聚物分散剂。 The term superplasticizer also intended to include a dispersant is also used as a plasticizer, water reducer (e.g., superplasticizer), a fluidizing agent, a deflocculant those chemicals, or for the gelling of the composition such as lignin sulfonates, salts of sulfonated naphthalene sulfonate condensates, salts of sulfonated melamine sulfonate condensates, β - naphthalene sulfonates, sulfonated melamine formaldehyde condensates, naphthalene sulfonate formaldehyde condensate resins The LOMAR D® dispersant (Cincinnati, Ohio Cognis Inc.), polyaspartate, or oligomeric dispersants. 可使用聚羧酸盐分散剂,聚羧酸盐分散剂指碳主链上有侧链的分散剂,其中至少部分侧链通过羧基或醚基与主链相连。 Polycarboxylate dispersant may be used, polycarboxylate dispersants refers to the side chain of the dispersant on the carbon backbone, wherein the side chain is at least partially connected by a carboxyl group or an ether group to the main chain. 聚羧酸盐分散剂的实例可见于美国公开2002/0019459A1、美国专利6,267,814美国专利6,290,770、美国专利6,310,143、美国专利6,187,841、美国专利5,158,996、美国专利6,008,275、美国专利6,136,950、美国专利6,284,867、美国专利5,609,681、美国专利5,494,516美国专利5,674,929美国专利5,660,626、美国专利5,668,195、美国专利5,661,206、美国专利5,358,566、美国专利5,162,402、美国专利5,798,425、美国专利5,612,396、美国专利6,063,184、美国专利5,912,284、美国专利5,840,114、美国专利5,753,744、美国专利5,728,207、美国专利5,725,657、美国专利5,703,174、美国专利5,665,158、美国专利5,643,978、美国专利5,633,298、美国专利5,583,183和美国专利5,393,343中,其均通过引用结合到本文中,就好像在下文中完全写出了一样。 Examples of polycarboxylate dispersants can be found in U.S. Publication 2002 / 0019459A1, U.S. Patent No. 6,267,814 U.S. Patent No. 6,290,770, U.S. Patent No. 6,310,143, U.S. Patent No. 6,187,841, U.S. Patent No. 5 , 158,996, US Patent 6,008,275, US Patent 6,136,950, US Patent 6,284,867, US Patent 5,609,681, US Patent 5,494,516, US Patent 5,674, 929 US Patent 5,660,626, US Patent 5,668,195, US Patent 5,661,206, US Patent 5,358,566, US Patent 5,162,402, US Patent 5,798,425, US Patent No. 5,612,396, U.S. Patent No. 6,063,184, U.S. Patent No. 5,912,284, U.S. Patent No. 5,840,114, U.S. Patent No. 5,753,744, U.S. Patent No. 5,728,207, U.S. Patent No. 5 , 725,657, US Patent 5,703,174, US Patent 5,665,158, US Patent 5,643,978, US Patent 5,633,298, US Patent 5,583,183 and US Patent No. 5,393 , 343, which are herein incorporated by reference as if fully written out below the same. 所关心的聚羧酸盐分散剂包括但不限于以商标GLENIUM ® 3030NS、GLENIUM ® 3200HES、GLENIUM 3000NS ® (俄亥俄州克利夫兰市BASF Admixtures Inc.)、ADVA.㊣(马萨诸塞州剑桥市ff.R.Grace Inc.)、VISCOCRETE ,® (瑞士苏黎世Sika)和SUPERFLUX ® (俄亥俄州Middlebranch 市的AximConcrete Technologies Inc.)出售的分散剂或减水剂。 Polycarboxylate dispersants of interest include, but are not limited to the trademark GLENIUM ® 3030NS, GLENIUM ® 3200HES, GLENIUM 3000NS ® (Cleveland, Ohio BASF Admixtures Inc.), ADVA.㊣ (Cambridge, Massachusetts ff.R.Grace Inc.), VISCOCRETE, ® (Zurich, Switzerland Sika) and SUPERFLUX ® (Ohio Middlebranch City AximConcrete Technologies Inc.) dispersants or water reducers sold.

[0087] 所关心的外加剂还有减碱活性剂。 [0087] as well as admixtures of interest Save alkaline agent. 减碱活性剂可减少碱-骨料反应并限制这种反应可在硬化混凝土中产生的破坏性膨胀力。 Save alkaline agent reduces alkali - aggregate reaction and limit the disruptive expansion forces that can be generated in the hardening reaction of concrete. 减碱活性剂包括火山灰(粉煤灰、硅灰)、高炉矿渣、锂和钡的盐、及其他加气剂。 Save pozzolanic active agents include alkali (fly ash, silica fume), blast furnace slag, salts of lithium and barium, and other air-entraining agents.

[0088] 可出于美学和安全原因使用天然和合成外加剂来着色混凝土。 [0088] can be for aesthetic and safety reasons to use natural and synthetic coloring concrete admixtures. 这些着色外加剂常由颜料组成并包括碳黑、氧化铁、酞菁、棕土、氧化铬、氧化钛、钴蓝和有机着色剂。 These coloring admixtures and often a pigment include carbon black, iron oxide, phthalocyanine, umber, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, cobalt blue, and organic colorants. [0089] 所关心的外加剂还有腐蚀抑制剂。 [0089] There are the admixture of concern corrosion inhibitors. 混凝土中腐蚀抑制剂用来保护埋置钢筋免于因混凝土的高度碱性而腐蚀。 Corrosion inhibitors in concrete to protect embedded steel due to highly alkaline concrete from being corrosion. 混凝土的高碱性将使钢筋上形成钝性的非腐蚀的保护性氧化膜。 The non-corrosive passive protective oxide film is formed on the reinforced concrete will overbased. 但碳化作用或来自除冰剂或海水的氯离子的存在可能破坏或穿透膜而导致腐蚀。 However, carbonation or the presence of from deicers or seawater chloride ions may damage or penetrate the film and result in corrosion. 腐蚀抑制外加剂将以化学方式抑制这种腐蚀反应。 This will inhibit the corrosion inhibiting admixtures chemically corrosion reaction. 最常用来抑制腐蚀的材料为亚硝酸钙、亚硝酸钠、苯甲酸钠、某些硫酸盐或氟硅酸盐、氟铝酸盐、胺及相关化学品。 The most commonly used material to inhibit corrosion, calcium nitrite, sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, sulfate or some fluorosilicates, fluoroaluminates, amines and related chemicals.

[0090] 所关心的外加剂还有防潮外加剂。 [0090] as well as moisture-proof admixtures admixture of concern. 防潮外加剂将降低水泥含量低、水-水泥比率高或骨料中缺乏细骨料的混凝土的渗透性。 Additives to reduce the moisture content low cement, water - cement ratio or the high permeability of concrete aggregates lack of fines. 这些外加剂将延迟湿气渗入干混凝土中并包括某些皂、硬脂酸盐和石油制品。 These additives delay the penetration of moisture into dry concrete and include certain soaps, stearates, and petroleum products.

[0091] 所关心的还有发气外加剂。 [0091] There are hair air admixtures of interest. 发气剂即气体形成剂有时以非常小的量加到混凝土和灰浆中以使硬化前微膨胀。 Gas generating agent that is gas-forming agents are sometimes added in very small amounts in the concrete and mortar to make expanded micro uncured. 膨胀的量取决于所用发气材料的量及新拌混合料的温度。 The amount depends on the amount of expansion of the gas generating material used and the temperature of the fresh mixture. 铝粉、树脂皂和植物或动物胶、皂角甙或水解蛋白可用作发气外加剂。 Aluminum powder, resin soap, and vegetable or animal glue, saponin or hydrolyzed protein may be used as the gas generating additive.

[0092] 所关心的还有减渗剂。 [0092] There interest permeability reducers. 减渗剂用来降低压力下水传输通过混凝土的速率。 Reducing agents used to reduce the infiltration of water under pressure through the concrete transport rate. 硅灰、粉煤灰、磨碎的炉渣、天然火山灰、减水剂和胶乳可用来减少混凝土的渗透。 Silica fume, fly ash, ground slag, natural pozzolans, water reducers, and latex can be used to reduce the penetration of concrete.

[0093] 所关心的还有流变改性剂外加剂。 [0093] There interest rheology modifier admixtures. 流变改性剂可用来提高胶凝性组合物的粘度。 Rheology modifiers may be used to increase the viscosity of the cementitious composition.

[0094] 适宜的流变改性剂实例包括气相二氧化硅、胶态二氧化硅、羟乙基纤维素、羟丙基纤维素、粉煤灰(如ASTM C618中所定义)、矿物油(如轻质环烷油)、锂蒙脱石粘土、聚氧化烯、多糖、天然树胶、或其混合物。 [0094] Suitable rheology modifying agents include fumed silica, colloidal silica, hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, fly ash (as defined in ASTM C618), mineral oils ( such as light naphthenic oil), hectorite clays, polyoxyalkylene, a polysaccharide, a natural gum, or mixtures thereof.

[0095] 所关心的还有收缩补偿外加剂。 [0095] There are of concern to compensate for shrinkage admixtures. 胶凝性组合物中可使用的收缩补偿剂可包括但不限于RO(AO) ^10H(其中R为Cu烷基或C5_6环烷基,A为C2_3亚烷基)、碱金属硫酸盐、碱土金属硫酸盐、碱土金属氧化物,优选硫酸钠和氧化钙。 Shrink compensating agent in the cementitious composition may be used include, but are not limited to RO (AO) ^ 10H (where R is a Cu alkyl group or C5_6 cycloalkyl group, A is an C2_3 alkylene), alkali metal sulfates, alkaline earth metal sulfates, alkaline earth oxides, preferably sodium sulfate and calcium oxide. TETRAGUARD φ为减缩剂的一个实例,可从俄亥俄州克利夫兰市BASF Admixtures Inc.买到。 One example TETRAGUARD φ for the reduction agent, available from Cleveland, Ohio BASF Admixtures Inc..

[0096] 硬化混凝土上或硬化混凝土中细菌和真菌的生长可通过使用杀真菌和杀菌外加剂得到部分控制。 [0096] Concrete cured or hardened concrete on the growth of bacteria and fungi through the use of fungi and kill germicidal admixtures partially controlled. 对于这些目的而言最有效的材料为多卤化酚、狄氏剂乳液和铜化合物。 The most effective materials for these purposes as polyhalogenated phenols, dieldrin emulsions, and copper compounds.

[0097] 某些实施方案中所关心的还有和易性改进外加剂。 [0097] Certain embodiments of interest as well as admixtures to improve workability. 夹带的空气其作用就像润滑剂,可用作和易性改进剂。 Entrapped air which acts like a lubricant, workability can be used as modifiers. 其他和易性改进剂为减水剂和某些细碎的外加剂。 Other workability improver is water-reducing agent and certain finely divided admixtures.

[0098] 在某些实施方案中,本发明的水泥与纤维一起采用,例如当需要纤维增强混凝土时。 [0098] In certain embodiments, taken together with the fiber cement of the present invention, for example when it is desired fiber reinforced concrete. 纤维可由含氧化锆的材料、钢、碳、玻璃纤维或合成材料(如聚丙烯、尼龙、聚乙烯、聚酯、人造纤维、高强度芳族聚酰胺(即Kevlar®))或其混合物制成。 The fibers can be materials, steel, carbon, glass fiber or synthetic material containing zirconium oxide (e.g., polypropylene, nylon, polyethylene, polyester, rayon, high-strength aramid (i.e. Kevlar® cone)), or a mixture made from .

[0099] 碳足迹减少的组合物的制备 Preparation of [0099] reducing the carbon footprint of the composition

[0100] 本发明的方面包括制备碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的方法。 [0100] aspect of the present invention comprises preparing a reduced carbon footprint concrete composition method. 碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物可通过首先产生碳酸盐/碳酸氢盐组分(如CO2截存组分[即沉淀物质]),然后自所述碳酸盐/碳酸氢盐组分(如CO2截存组分)制备碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物来制备。 Reducing the carbon footprint concrete composition may first generate the carbonate / bicarbonate component (e.g., CO2-sequestering component [i.e., precipitation material]), and then from the carbonate / bicarbonate salt by components (such as CO2 sequestering component) to reduce the carbon footprint preparation of concrete composition. 碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的碳酸盐/碳酸氢盐组分(如CO2截存组分)可自CO2源、质子去除剂的源(和/或实现质子去除的方法)和二价阳离子的源产生,各种所述材料将在下面更详细地描述。 Carbonate / bicarbonate component of the reduced carbon footprint concrete composition (e.g., CO2-sequestering component) may be from a source of CO2, a source of proton-removing agents (and / or proton-removing implemented method), and a divalent cation generating source, the various materials are described in more detail below.

[0101] 二氧化碳 [0101] Carbon dioxide

[0102] 本发明的方法包括使一定量的二价阳离子溶液(如二价阳离子的水溶液)与CO2源接触,然后使所得溶液经受促进沉淀的条件。 [0102] The method of the present invention comprises an amount of a solution of divalent cations (e.g., an aqueous solution of a divalent cation) in contact with a source of CO2, and then the resulting solution to conditions that facilitate precipitation. 本发明的方法还包括使一定体积的二价阳离子溶液(如二价阳离子的水溶液)与CO2源接触并同时使该溶液经受促进沉淀的条件。 The method of the present invention further comprises a volume of a solution of divalent cations (e.g., an aqueous solution of a divalent cation) in contact with a source of CO2 while subjecting the solution to conditions that facilitate precipitation. 含二价阳离子的溶液中可能有足够的二氧化碳来沉淀足够量的含碳酸盐的沉淀物质(例如自海水);但可使用另外的二氧化碳。 Solution containing divalent cations may be sufficient carbon dioxide to precipitate a sufficient amount of the carbonate-containing precipitation material (e.g., from sea water); however, additional carbon dioxide may be used. CO2源可为任何合适的CO2源。 CO2 source may be any suitable CO2 source. CO2源可为气体、液体、固体(如干冰)、超临界流体或溶解在液体中的co2。 CO2 source may be a gas, liquid, solid (e.g., dry ice), a supercritical fluid or dissolved in a liquid co2. 在一些实施方案中,CO2源为气态CO2源。 In some embodiments, CO2 source is a gaseous CO2 source. 气流可为基本纯净的CO2或包含包括CO2和一种或多种其他气体和/或其他物质如灰及其他微粒在内的多种组分。 Gas stream may be substantially pure CO2 or comprises CO2 and one or more other gases and / or other substances, such as more components, including ash and other particulates included. 在一些实施方案中,气态CO2源可为废气流(即工厂的活动过程的副产物)如来自工厂的排气。 In some embodiments, the gaseous CO2 source may be a stream of exhaust gas (i.e., a byproduct of the process plant activities) as the exhaust gas from an industrial plant. 工厂的性质可不同,工厂包括但不限于发电厂、化学加工厂、机械加工厂、精炼厂、水泥厂、钢厂和作为燃料燃烧或其他加工步骤(如水泥厂中的煅烧)的副产物产生CO2的其他工厂。 Nature of the plant may be different, including but not limited to plant plants, chemical processing plants, mechanical processing plants, refineries, cement plants, steel mills and burned as a fuel or other processing steps (such as calcination of cement) by-product other plants CO2.

[0103] 包含CO2的废气流包括还原条件流(如合成气、变换合成气、天然气、氢气等)和氧化条件流(如来自燃烧的烟道气)。 [0103] exhaust stream comprising CO2 stream comprises reducing conditions (e.g., syngas, shifted syngas, natural gas, hydrogen and the like) and oxidizing condition streams (e.g., flue gas from combustion). 对于本发明可能合适的特定废气流包括含氧燃烧工厂烟道气(如来自煤或其他基于碳的燃料的几乎未或未经预处理的烟道气)、增压锅炉尾气、煤气化尾气、变换煤气化尾气、厌氧消化器尾气、井口天然气流、重整天然气或甲烷水合物等。 The present invention may be suitable for a particular oxygen-containing combustion exhaust gas stream comprising a flue gas plant (e.g., from coal or other hardly or not pretreated flue gas of carbon-based fuels), pressurized boiler exhaust gas, off-gas gasification, conversion of the exhaust gas, anaerobic digester tail gas, wellhead natural gas stream, reformed natural gas or methane hydrate. 来自任何合适的源的燃烧气体均可用在本发明的方法和系统中。 From any suitable source of combustion gas can be used in the method and system of the present invention. 在一些实施方案中可使用工厂如发电厂、水泥厂和煤加工厂的燃烧后排放烟囱中的燃烧气体。 In some embodiments the combustion plant, such as combustion gas exhaust chimney power plants, cement plants, and coal may be used.

[0104] 因此,废物流可自多种不同类型的工厂产生。 [0104] Thus, the waste stream may be from a variety of different types of plants produced. 对于本发明适宜的废物流包括燃烧化石燃料(如煤、石油、天然气)的工厂产生的废物流和天然存在的有机燃料矿床(如浙青砂、重油、油页岩等)的人为燃料产物。 The present invention is suitable for human waste stream the waste stream and fuel products of naturally occurring organic fuel deposits including burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) from factories (e.g., Zhejiang green sands, heavy oil, oil shale, etc.). 在一些实施方案中,适于本发明的系统和方法的废物流可源自燃煤发电厂如粉煤发电厂、超临界燃煤发电厂、全量焚烧燃煤发电厂、流化床燃煤发电厂;在一些实施方案中,废物流可源自燃气或燃油锅炉-汽轮机发电厂、燃气或燃油锅炉简单循环汽轮机发电厂或燃气或燃油锅炉联合循环汽轮机发电厂。 In some embodiments, suitable systems and methods of the present invention may be derived from a coal fired power plant waste streams, such as a pulverized coal power plant, a supercritical coal power plant, the whole amount of the burning coal fired power plants, coal-fired fluidized bed plant; in some embodiments, the waste stream may be derived from a gas or oil boiler - steam turbine power plants, gas or oil-fired boiler simple cycle gas turbine power plant or a combined cycle steam turbine or oil-fired boiler plants. 在一些实施方案中可使用燃烧合成气(即有机物如煤、生物质等的气化产生的气体)的发电厂产生的废物流。 Combustion may be used in some embodiments, synthesis gas (i.e., gaseous organic substances such as gasification of coal, biomass, etc. produced) power plant waste streams generated. 在一些实施方案中,可按本发明的系统和方法使用来自热回收蒸汽发生器(HRSG)装置所产生的废物流。 In some embodiments, the systems and methods according to the present invention uses a waste stream from the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) generated by the device.

[0105] 水泥厂产生的废物流也可能适合于本发明的系统和方法。 [0105] The waste stream cement plants may also be suitable to the system and method of the present invention. 水泥厂废物流包括来自湿法水泥厂和干法水泥厂的废物流,所述厂可采用竖窑或回转窑并可包括预分解窑。 Cement waste stream comprises a waste stream from a wet process cement and dry process plants, which plants may employ shaft kilns or rotary kilns, and may include kiln. 这些工厂可各自燃烧单一燃料或可序贯地或同时地燃烧两种或更多种燃料。 These plants may each burn a single fuel, or may be sequentially or simultaneously burn two or more fuels. 其他工厂如冶炼厂和精炼厂也可以是含二氧化碳的废物流的可用来源。 Other plants such as smelters and refineries may be available sources of waste streams containing carbon dioxide.

[0106] 工业废气流可含二氧化碳作为主要的非源自空气的组分,或可含其他组分如氮氧化物(NOx)、硫氧化物(SOx)和一种或多种其他气体,尤其是在燃煤发电厂情况下。 [0106] Industrial waste gas stream comprising carbon dioxide may be used as the primary non-air derived component, or may contain other components such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and one or more other gases, in particular in the case of a coal-fired plants. 其他气体和其他组分可包括CO、汞和其他重金属及尘粒(如来自煅烧和燃烧过程)。 Other gases and other components may include CO, mercury and other heavy metals and dust particles (e.g., from calcining and combustion processes). 气流中的其他组分还可包括卤化物如氯化氢和氟化氢;粒状物质如粉煤灰、粉尘及金属(包括砷、铍、硼、镉、铬、铬V1、钴、铅、锰、汞、钥、硒、锶、铊和钒);和有机物如烃、二噁英和PAH化合物。 Other components of the gas stream may further include halides such as hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride; particulate material such as fly ash, dust and metals (including arsenic, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, chromium V1, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, keyhole , selenium, strontium, thallium, and vanadium); and organics such as hydrocarbons, dioxins, and PAH compounds. 在一些实施方案中,可经处理的适宜气态废物流中存在的CO2的量为200ppm到1,000, OOOppm,例如200, OOOppm 到1000ppm,包括200, OOOppm 到2000ppm,例如180, OOOppm 到2000ppm,或180,OOOppm到5000ppm,也包括180,OOOppm到10,OOOppm0废物流(特别是燃烧气体的各种废物流)可包括一种或多种其他组分如水、NOx( 一氮氧化物:N0和NO2)、SOx( 一硫氧化物:S0、SO2和SO3)、VOC(挥发性有机化合物)、重金属如汞、和粒状物质(固体颗粒或悬浮在气体中的液体)。 In some embodiments, the amount of CO2 that may be present via a gaseous waste stream suitable for treatment of 200ppm to 1,000, OOOppm, e.g. 200, OOOppm to 1000 ppm, including 200, OOOppm to 2000 ppm, for example 180, OOOppm to 2000 ppm, or 180, OOOppm to 5000ppm, including 180, OOOppm to 10, OOOppm0 waste streams (in particular the various waste streams combustion gas) may include one or more other components such as water, NOx (a nitrogen oxide: N0 and NO2), SOx (sulfur oxides a: S0, SO2 and SO3), VOC (volatile organic compounds), heavy metals such as mercury, and particulate matter (solid particles suspended in a gas or liquid). 烟道气温度也可不同。 The flue gas temperature may be different. 在一些实施方案中,包含CO2的烟道气的温度可为(TC 到2000。。,例如60。。到700。。,包括100。。到400。。。[0107] 在一些实施方案中,一种或多种其他组分或联产物(如在用来转化CO2为碳酸盐的相同条件下自其他起始材料产生的产物[如S0X、NOx等])可沉淀或截留在通过使包含这些其他组分的废气流与包含二价阳离子(如碱土金属离子如Ca2+和Mg2+)的溶液接触所形成的沉淀物质中。钙和/或镁的硫酸盐、亚硫酸盐等可沉淀或截留在自包含S0X(如SO2)的废气流产生的沉淀物质(还包含碳酸钙和/或碳酸镁)中。镁和钙可分别反应形成MgSO4, CaSO4及其他含镁和含钙的化合物(如亚硫酸盐),从而在无脱硫步骤如烟道气脱硫(“FGD”)的情况下高效移除烟道气流中的硫。此外可形成CaC03、MgC03和相关化合物而不额外释放C02。在二价阳离子的溶液含高含量硫化合物(如硫酸盐)的情况下 In some embodiments, the temperature of the flue gas containing CO2 may be (TC .. to 2000, for example, 60 to 700 .. .., including 100 to 400 ... .. [0107] In some embodiments, One or more other components or co-products (e.g., conversion to CO2 in the product under the same conditions as carbonates produced from other starting materials [e.g. S0X, NOx, etc.]) may be precipitated or trapped by comprising these other components of the waste gas stream and precipitation material comprising a divalent cation form (e.g., alkaline earth metal ions such as Ca2 + and Mg2 +) in contact with a solution of calcium and / or magnesium sulfate, sulfite or the like may be trapped in the precipitation S0X self-contained (e.g., SO2) of the exhaust gas stream produced precipitation material (further comprises calcium carbonate and / or magnesium carbonate) of magnesium and calcium can MgSO4, CaSO4 and magnesium and other calcium-containing compounds (e.g., sulfite were reacted to form efficient removal of the case of salts), such as flue gas desulfurization ( "FGD") in the flue gas desulfurization step without sulfur addition can form CaC03, MgC03 and related compounds without additional release of C02. divalent cations in a solution where high levels of sulfur-containing compounds (e.g., sulfate) 可使溶液富含钙和镁以便在形成CaS04、MgSO4和相关化合物后或除形成CaS04、MgSO4和相关化合物外可得到钙和镁来形成碳酸盐化合物。在一些实施方案中,脱硫步骤的进行可与含碳酸盐的沉淀物质的沉淀同时发生,或脱硫步骤可在沉淀前进行。在一些实施方案中,可在不同阶段收集多个反应产物(如MgC03、CaC03、CaS04、前述的混合物等),而在其他实施方案中可收集单一反应产物(如包含碳酸盐、硫酸盐等的沉淀物质)。在这些实施方案的步骤中,其他组分如重金属(如汞、汞盐、含汞化合物)可被截留在含碳酸盐的沉淀物质中或可单独沉淀。 The solution can be enriched with calcium and magnesium so as to form CaS04, and related compounds over MgSO4 or in addition to forming the outer CaS04, MgSO4, and related compounds available to form calcium carbonate and magnesium compounds. In some embodiments, the steps of desulfurization may occur simultaneously with the precipitation of carbonate-containing precipitation material, or the desulfurization step may be performed before precipitation., a plurality of reaction products (e.g., MgC03, CaC03, CaS04, mixtures of the foregoing may be collected at different stages, etc. in some embodiments ), and the reaction product can be collected in a single other embodiments (e.g. comprising carbonates, sulfates, etc. of precipitation material). in these embodiments the step, other components such as heavy metals (such as mercury, mercury salts, mercury compound) can be trapped in the carbonate-containing precipitation material or may precipitate alone.

[0108] 可使用来自工厂的部分气态废物流(即非整个气态废物流)来产生沉淀物质。 [0108] using a gaseous waste stream from an industrial plant part (i.e., the entire non-gaseous waste stream) to produce precipitation material. 在这些实施方案中,在沉淀物质的沉淀中采用的所述部分气态废物流可为气态废物流的75 %或更少,例如60 %或更少,包括50 %或更少。 In these embodiments, the portion of the gaseous waste stream employed in precipitation of precipitation material in the gaseous waste stream may be 75% or less, such as 60% or less, including 50% or less. 在其他实施方案中,可在沉淀物质的沉淀中采用工厂产生的基本(例如80%或更多)整个气态废物流。 In other embodiments, base may be employed (e.g., 80% or more) the entire gaseous waste stream factory produced in the precipitation of precipitation material. 在这些实施方案中,源产生的气态废物流(如烟道气)的80%或更多、例如90%或更多、包括95%或更多、至高100%可被用于沉淀物质的沉淀。 In these embodiments, the gaseous waste stream (such as flue gas) generated by the source of 80% or more, such as 90% or more, including 95% or more of precipitation, to a high of 100% of the precipitation material may be used .

[0109] 虽然工业废气提供了较高浓度的燃烧气体源,但本发明的方法和系统也可应用于从所含污染物浓度比例如烟道气低得多的较低浓度的源(如大气)中移除燃烧气体组分。 [0109] Although the industrial gas provides a source of higher concentration of combustion gases, but the method and system of the invention can also be applied from the source of much lower concentrations of low flue gas contaminants contained in the ratio of concentrations (such as atmospheric ) removing combustion gas components. 因此,在一些实施方案中,方法和系统包括通过产生稳定的沉淀物质降低大气中污染物的浓度。 Thus, in some embodiments, a method and system includes a stable substance by precipitation in reducing the concentration of atmospheric contaminants. 在这些情况下,部分大气中污染物如CO2的浓度可降低10 %或更多、20 %或更多、30 %或更多、40%或更多、50%或更多、60%或更多、70%或更多、80%或更多、90%或更多、95%或更多、99 %或更多、99.9 %或更多、或99.99 %。 In these cases, as part of the pollutants in the atmosphere of CO2 concentration may be reduced by 10% or more, 20% or more, 30% or more, 40% or more, 50% or more, 60% or more more, 70% or more, 80% or more, 90% or more, 95% or more, 99% or more, 99.9% or more, or 99.99%. 大气污染物的这种降低可以如本文中所述的产率(yield)或更高或更低的产率实现,并可在一个沉淀步骤或一系列沉淀步骤中实现。 This decreases the yield of atmospheric pollutants as herein described may be (the yield), or higher or lower yields achieved, the precipitation step can be implemented in one or a series of precipitation step.

[0110] 二价阳离子 [0110] divalent cations

[0111] 本发明的方法包括使一定体积的二价阳离子溶液(如二价阳离子的水溶液)与CO2源接触并使所得溶液经受促进沉淀的条件。 [0111] The method of the present invention include a volume of a solution of divalent cations (e.g., an aqueous solution of divalent cations) and the resulting solution into contact with a CO2 source to conditions that facilitate precipitation. 在一些实施方案中,可使一定体积的二价阳离子溶液(如二价阳离子的水溶液)与CO2源接触并同时使该溶液经受促进沉淀的条件。 In some embodiments, CO2 make a volume of a solution of divalent cations (e.g., an aqueous solution of divalent cations) in contact with the source and simultaneously subjecting the solution to conditions that facilitate precipitation. 二价阳离子可来自任何大量不同的二价阳离子源,取决于特定地点处的可得性。 Divalent cations may be from any number of different sources of divalent cations, depending on availability at a particular location. 这类源包括工业废物、海水、盐水、硬水、岩石和矿物(如石灰、方镁石、包含金属硅酸盐的材料如蛇纹石和橄榄石)及任何其他适宜的源。 Such sources include industrial wastes, seawater, brines, hard water, rocks and minerals (e.g., lime, periclase, material comprising metal silicates such as serpentine and olivine), and any other suitable source. [0112] 在一些地点,来自各种工业过程的工业废物流将提供合适的二价阳离子(以及有时过程中可用的其他材料如金属氢氧化物)的源。 [0112] In some locations, industrial waste streams from various industrial processes to provide a suitable divalent cations (and sometimes other materials such as metal available during hydroxide) source. 这类废物流包括但不限于采矿废物;化石燃料燃烧灰烬(如燃烧灰烬如粉煤灰、炉底灰、锅炉渣);矿渣(如铁渣、磷渣);水泥窑废物;炼油厂/石化精炼厂废物(如油田和甲烷矿层盐水);煤矿层废物(如采气盐水和煤矿层盐水);纸加工废物;水软化废盐水(如离子交换废水);硅加工废物;农业废物;金属精整废物;高PH纺织废物;和碱渣。 Such waste streams include, but are not limited to, mining wastes; fossil fuel burning ash (e.g., combustion ash such as fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag); slag (e.g. iron slag, phosphorous slag); cement kiln waste; refinery / petrochemical refinery waste (e.g. oil field and methane seam brine); coal layer wastes (e.g. gas production brine and coal layer, brine); paper processing waste; water softening waste brine (e.g., ion exchange wastewater); silicon processing wastes; agricultural waste; metal fine entire waste; high PH textile waste; and caustic sludge. 化石燃料燃烧灰烬、水泥窑粉尘和矿渣(统称金属氧化物废物源)还见述于2009年6月17日提交的美国专利申请12/486,692,其公开通过引用结合到本文中。 Fossil fuel burning ash, cement kiln dust, and slag (collectively waste sources of metal oxides) is also described in U.S. Patent No. June 17, 2009, filed 12 / 486,692, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. 可为实施本发明的目的而混合和协配本文中描述的任何二价阳离子源。 It may be mixed and co-operating with any source of divalent cations described herein for the purposes of the present invention. 例如,可为实施本发明的目的而将2009年7月10日提交的美国专利申请12/501,217(该申请通过引用结合到本文中)中进一步描述的包含金属硅酸盐的材料(如蛇纹石、橄榄石)与本文中所述的任何二价阳离子源相组合。 For example, for the purposes of the present invention and U.S. Patent No. July 10, 2009, filed 12 / 501,217 (which application is herein incorporated by reference) material (e.g., comprising metal silicates are further described in serpentine, olivine) and any source of divalent cations described herein in combination.

[0113] 在一些地点,对于本发明的碳酸盐/碳酸氢盐(如CO2截存组分)的制备而言合宜的二价阳离子源可为水(如包含二价阳离子的水溶液如海水或地表盐水),其可随实施本发明的特定地点而异。 [0113] In some locations, for the preparation of the present invention is a carbonate / bicarbonate (e.g., CO2-sequestering component) in terms of a convenient source of divalent cations may be water (e.g., an aqueous solution comprising divalent cations such as seawater or surface brine), which may vary depending on the particular location of the embodiments of the present invention. 可用的适宜的二价阳离子溶液包括包含一种或多种二价阳离子例如碱土金属阳离子如Ca2+和Mg2+的水溶液。 Suitable available solution comprising divalent cations comprising one or more divalent cations such as alkaline earth metal cations such as Ca2 + and Mg2 + solution of. 在一些实施方案中,二价阳离子的水溶液包含碱土金属阳离子。 In some embodiments, the aqueous solution of divalent cations comprises alkaline earth metal cation. 在一些实施方案中,碱土金属阳离子包括钙、镁或其混合物。 In some embodiments, the alkaline earth metal cations include calcium, magnesium, or mixtures thereof. 在一些实施方案中,二价阳离子的水溶液包含量为50-50,OOOppm,50-40, OOOppm,50-20, OOOppm,100-10,000ppm、200-5000ppm、或400_1000ppm 的钙。 In some embodiments, the aqueous solution comprising divalent cations in an amount of 50-50, OOOppm, 50-40, OOOppm, 50-20, OOOppm, 100-10,000ppm, 200-5000ppm, or the calcium 400_1000ppm. 在一些实施方案中,二价阳离子的水溶液包含量为50-40, OOOppm、50-20,OOOppm、100-10,OOOppm、200-10,OOOppm、500-5000ppm、或500-2500ppm的镁。 In some embodiments, the aqueous solution comprising divalent cations in an amount of 50-40, OOOppm, 50-20, OOOppm, 100-10, OOOppm, 200-10, OOOppm, 500-5000ppm, or magnesium of 500-2500ppm. 在其中Ca2+和Mg2+均存在的一些实施方案中,二价阳离子的水溶液中Ca2+对Mg2+的比率(即Ca2+: Mg2+)可为1: 1-1: 2.5,1: 2.5-1: 5、1:5-1: 10、1: 10-1: 25、1: 25-1: 50、1: 50-1: 100,1: 100—1: 150、I: 150-1: 200、I: 200-1: 250、I: 250-1: 500、I: 500-1: 1000 或其范围内。 In some embodiments wherein both Ca2 + and Mg2 + in the presence of divalent cations in an aqueous solution of Ca2 + and Mg2 + ratio (i.e., Ca2 +: Mg2 +) may be 1: 1-1: 2.5, 1: 2.5 to 1: 5,1: 5-1: 10,1: 10-1: 25,1: 25-1: 50,1: 50-1: 100,1: 100-1: 150, I: 150-1: 200, I: 200- 1: 250, I: 250-1: 500, I: 500-1: 1000 or within the range. 例如,在一些实施方案中,二价阳离子的水溶液中Ca2+对Mg2+的比率可为1: 1-1: 10、1:5-1: 25、I: 10-1: 50、I: 25-1: 100、I: 50-1: 500、或1: 100-1: 1000。 For example, in some embodiments, the aqueous solution of divalent cations in the ratio of Ca2 + and Mg2 + may be 1: 1-1: 10,1: 5-1: 25, I: 10-1: 50, I: 25-1 : 100, I: 50-1: 500, or 1: 100 to 1: 1000. 在一些实施方案中,二价阳离子的水溶液中Mg2+对Ca2+的比率(即Mg2+: Ca2+)可为1: 1-1: 2.5,1: 2.5-1: 5、1: 5-1: 10、1: 10-1: 25、1: 25-1: 50、I: 50-1: 100、I: 100-1: 150、I: 150-1: 200、I: 200-1: 250、I: 250-1: 500、I: 500-1: 1000或其范围内。 In some embodiments, the aqueous solution of divalent cations Ca2 + Mg2 + ratio (i.e. Mg2 +: Ca2 +) may be 1: 1-1: 2.5, 1: 2.5 to 1: 5, 1: 5-1: 10, : 10-1: 25,1: 25-1: 50, I: 50-1: 100, I: 100-1: 150, I: 150-1: 200, I: 200-1: 250, I: 250 -1: 500, I: 500-1: 1000, or within the range. 例如,在一些实施方案中,二价阳离子的水溶液中Mg2+对Ca2+的比率可为1: 1-1: 10、1: 5-1: 25、1: 10-1: 50、1: 25-1: 100,1: 50-1: 500或1: 100-1: 1000。 For example, in some embodiments, the aqueous solution of divalent cations Ca2 + and Mg2 + on the ratio may be 1: 1-1: 10, 1: 5-1: 25, 1: 10-1: 50, 1: 25-1 : 100, 1: 50-1: 500 or 1: 100 to 1: 1000.

[0114] 二价阳离子的水溶液可包含源自淡水、微咸水、海水或盐水(如天然存在的盐水或人为盐水如地热厂废水、脱盐厂废水)以及其他盐度高于淡水的咸水的二价阳离子,其中任意所述水可以是天然存在的或人为的。 [0114] The aqueous solution may comprise a divalent cation derived from freshwater, brackish, seawater, or brine (e.g., naturally occurring or artificially saline geothermal brine as plant effluent, waste water desalination plants), and other fresh water salinity than saline water divalent cations, wherein the water may be any naturally occurring or artificial. 微咸水为比淡水咸但不如海水咸的水。 But not as salty brackish water, seawater salty than fresh water. 微咸水的盐度在约0.5到约35ppt (千分率)范围内。 Brackish water salinity in the range of about 0.5 to about 35 ppt (parts per thousand) range. 海水为来自海、洋或任何其他含盐水体的水,其盐度在约35到约50ppt范围内。 Seawater is water from a sea, ocean or any other body saline, salinity in the range of from about 35 to about 50ppt. 盐水为被盐所饱和或接近饱和的水。 Brine is saturated or nearly saturated with salt water. 盐水的盐度为约50ppt或更高。 Salinity of the brine of about 50ppt or higher. 在一些实施方案中,二价阳离子所源自的水源为富含矿物(如富含钙和/或富含镁)的淡水源。 In some embodiments, the divalent cation derived from water is rich in minerals (e.g., calcium-rich and / or magnesium-rich) freshwater source. 在一些实施方案中,二价阳离子所源自的水源可为天然存在的咸水源,所述咸水源选自海、洋、湖泊、沼泽、河口、泻湖、地表盐水、深盐水、碱性湖泊、内海等。 In some embodiments, the divalent cation may be salty water from water naturally occurring saltwater source selected from a sea, ocean, lake, swamp, estuary, lagoon, surface brine, a deep brine, an alkaline lake, Utsumi and so on. 在一些实施方案中,二价阳离子所源自的水源可为选自地热厂废水或脱盐废水的人为盐水。 In some embodiments, the divalent cation may be derived from anthropogenic brine water waste heat or desalination plant is selected from the wastewater.

[0115] 淡水可为合宜的二价阳离子(如碱土金属阳离子如Ca2+和Mg2+)的源。 [0115] The fresh water may be conveniently divalent cations (e.g., alkaline earth metal cations such as Ca2 + and Mg2 +) source. 可使用任何大量适宜的淡水源中,包括从较无矿物的源到较富含矿物的源的淡水源。 It may be used any of a number of suitable freshwater sources ranging from sources relatively free of minerals to sources relatively rich in minerals source of fresh water. 富含矿物的淡水源可以是天然存在的,包括大量硬水源、湖泊或内海中的任一种。 Mineral-rich freshwater sources may be naturally occurring, including a large number of hard water sources, lakes, or inland seas of any one. 一些富含矿物的淡水源如碱湖或内海(如土耳其的凡湖)也提供PH-改变剂的源。 Some mineral-rich freshwater sources such as alkaline lakes or inland seas (e.g., Lake Van in Turkey) also provide a source PH- change agent. 富含矿物的淡水源也可以是人为的。 Mineral-rich freshwater sources may also be anthropogenic. 例如,可使贫含矿物的水(软水)与二价阳离子如碱土金属阳离子(如Ca2+、Mg2+等)的源接触以产生适于本文中所述方法和系统的富含矿物的水。 For example, the mineral depleted water (soft water) with divalent cations such as alkaline earth metal cations (e.g., Ca2 +, Mg2 +, etc.) of the source contact to produce a mineral-rich water suitable for the methods described herein and the system. 二价阳离子或其前体(如盐、矿物)可用任何合宜的方案(如加入固体、悬浮液或溶液)加到淡水(或本文中所述任何其他类型的水)中。 Divalent cations or precursors thereof (e.g. salts, minerals) may be any convenient protocol (e.g., added to the solid, suspension or solution) was added to freshwater (or any other type described herein the water). 在一些实施方案中,可向淡水中加入选自Ca2+和Mg2+的二价阳离子。 In some embodiments, is selected from Ca2 + and Mg2 + divalent cations may be added to fresh water. 在一些实施方案中,选自Na+和K+的一价阳离子被加到淡水中。 In some embodiments, Na + and K + is selected from monovalent cations is added to fresh water. 在一些实施方案中,可将包含Ca2+的淡水与燃烧灰烬(如粉煤灰、炉底灰、锅炉渣)或其制品或加工形式组合,从而产生包含钙和镁阳离子的溶液。 In some embodiments, it may be freshwater containing Ca2 + and the combustion ash (e.g., fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag), or products, or a combination processing, comprising producing a solution of calcium and magnesium cations.

[0116] 在一些实施方案中,二价阳离子的水溶液可自也提供燃烧气流的工厂获得。 [0116] In some embodiments, the aqueous solution of divalent cations may also provide a combustion gas stream from the plant is obtained. 例如,在水冷工厂如海水冷却工厂中,已被工厂用于冷却的水可然后用作产生沉淀物质的水。 For example, the water cooling facility, such as seawater-cooled industrial plants, the plants have been used for cooling water may be then used to generate water precipitation material. 如果需要,所述水可在进入本发明的沉淀系统之前经冷却。 If desired, the water may be cooled prior to entering the precipitation system of the present invention. 这种方法可例如用于直流冷却系统。 This method can be used, for example, once-through cooling system. 例如,城市或农业水供应源可用作工厂的直流冷却系统。 For example, a city or agricultural water supply may be used as once-through cooling system of the plant. 来自工厂的水可然后用来产生沉淀物质,其中输出水具有降低的硬度和更高的纯度。 Water from an industrial plant may then be used to produce precipitation material, wherein output water has a reduced hardness and greater purity of.

[0117] 质子去除剂及实现质子去除的方法 [0117] The method of removing a proton of proton-removing agents to achieve

[0118] 本发明的方法包括使一定体积的二价阳离子溶液(如二价阳离子的水溶液)与CO2源接触(以溶解CO2)并使所得溶液经受促进沉淀的条件。 [0118] The method of the present invention comprises a volume of CO2 solution of divalent cations (e.g., an aqueous solution of divalent cations) in contact with the source (to dissolve CO2) and the resulting solution to conditions that facilitate precipitation. 在一些实施方案中,可使一定体积的二价阳离子溶液(如二价阳离子的水溶液)与CO2源接触(以溶解CO2)并同时使该溶液经受促进沉淀的条件。 In some embodiments, allow a volume of a solution of divalent cations (e.g., an aqueous solution of divalent cations) in contact with a source of CO2 (to dissolve CO2) while subjecting the solution to conditions that facilitate precipitation. CO2在二价阳离子溶液中的溶解将产生碳酸,碳酸为与碳酸氢盐和碳酸盐平衡的物质类型(species)。 CO2 was dissolved in the solution of divalent cations will produce a carbonic acid, a substance with the bicarbonate and carbonate type balance (species). 为产生含碳酸盐的沉淀物质,应从含二价阳离子的溶液中的各种物质类型(如碳酸、碳酸氢盐、水合氢离子等)去除质子而使平衡向碳酸盐移动。 To produce carbonate-containing precipitation material, divalent cation-containing solution should be in various types of materials (e.g., carbonate, bicarbonate, hydronium, etc.) removing the proton equilibrium toward carbonate. 随着质子被去除,更多CO2将进入溶液中。 As protons are removed, more CO2 goes into solution in the. 在一些实施方案中,可在使含二价阳离子的溶液(如包含二价阳离子的水溶液)与CO2接触时使用质子去除剂和/或方法以增加一个沉淀反应阶段中的CO2吸收,其中pH可保持恒定、升高或甚至降低,然后是质子的快速去除(例如通过加入碱)以使含碳酸盐的沉淀物质快速沉淀。 In some embodiments, may be in the solution containing divalent cations (e.g., an aqueous solution comprising divalent cations) proton-removing agents and / or contact with CO2 to increase a precipitation CO2 absorption reaction stage, wherein the pH may be is kept constant, increased or even decreased, then the rapid removal of protons (e.g., by addition of a base) to cause rapid precipitation of carbonate-containing precipitation material. 可通过任何方便的方法从各种物质类型(如碳酸、碳酸氢盐、水合氢离子等)去除质子,包括但不限于使用天然存在的质子去除剂、使用微生物和真菌、使用合成的质子去除化学剂、回收人为废物流及使用电化学手段。 From a variety of types of materials (e.g., carbonate, bicarbonate, hydronium, etc.) deprotonated by any convenient method, including but not limited to the use of naturally occurring proton-removing agents, use of microorganisms and fungi, use of synthetic chemical proton-removing agent, recovery and human waste stream using an electrochemical means.

[0119] 天然存在的质子去除剂包括在可产生或具有碱性局部环境的更广阔环境中可找到的任何质子去除剂。 [0119] Any naturally occurring proton-removing agents include proton-removing agents may be found in or can be produced having a basic local environment of the wider environment. 一些实施方案提供了天然存在的质子去除剂,包括加到溶液中时将生生碱性环境的矿物。 Some embodiments provide for naturally occurring proton-removing agents, including basic life and the environment at the time of mineral added to the solution. 这类矿物包括但不限于石灰(CaO)、方镁石(MgO)、氢氧化铁矿物(如针铁矿和褐铁矿)和火山灰。 Such minerals include, but not limited to, lime (CaO), periclase (MgO), iron hydroxide minerals (e.g., goethite and limonite) and ash. 本文中将提供这类矿物及包含这类矿物的岩石的消解方法。 Such methods will be provided herein digestion minerals and rocks comprising such minerals. 一些实施方案提供了使用天然碱性的水体作为天然存在的质子去除剂。 Some embodiments provide a use of naturally alkaline bodies of water as naturally occurring proton-removing agents. 天然碱性的水体的实例包括但不限于地表水源(如碱湖如加利福尼亚的Mono湖)和地下水源(如碱性蓄水层如位于加利福尼亚的塞尔斯湖处的深地质碱性蓄水层)。 Examples of naturally alkaline bodies of water include, but are not limited to surface water sources (e.g. alkaline lakes such as Mono Lake in California) and ground water sources (e.g. basic aquifers such as the deep geologic alkaline aquifers at Sears Lake in California ). 其他实施方案提供了来自已干碱性水体的沉积物如沿非洲大裂谷的Natron湖的沉积物的使用。 Other embodiments provide for use of deposits from dried alkaline bodies of water have deposits such as in the African Rift Valley Lake Natron. 在一些实施方案中,可使用在其正常代谢中分泌碱性分子或溶液的生物体作为质子去除剂。 In some embodiments, the organism may be used in their normal metabolism excrete basic molecules or solutions as proton-removing agents. 这类生物体的实例有产生碱性蛋白酶的真菌(如最佳pH为9的深海真菌Aspergillus ustus)和产生碱性分子的细菌(如蓝细菌如来自大不列颠哥伦比亚的Atlin湿地的Lyngbya sp.,其因光合成的副产物而增高pH)。 Examples of such organisms are fungi alkaline protease (e.g., an optimum pH of the deep-sea fungus Aspergillus ustus 9) and bacterial alkaline generating molecules (e.g., cyanobacteria such as from British Columbia Atlin wetland Lyngbya sp., Which by-product of photosynthesis increased pH). 在一些实施方案中,可使用生物体来产生质子去除剂,其中生物体(例如Bacillus pasteurii,其将使尿素水解为氨)将使污染物(如尿素)代谢产生质子去除剂或包含质子去除剂的溶液(如氨、氢氧化铵)。 In some embodiments, the organism may be used to produce proton-removing agents, wherein the organisms (e.g., Bacillus pasteurii, which will allow the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia) will cause contaminants (such as urea) to produce proton-removing agents or metabolic comprising proton-removing agents solution (such as ammonia, ammonium hydroxide). 在一些实施方案中,生物体可自沉淀反应混合物单独培养,其中使用质子去除剂或包含质子去除剂的溶液以加入沉淀反应混合物中。 In some embodiments, the organism can be cultured separately from the precipitation reaction mixture, wherein proton-removing agents or solution comprising proton-removing agent is added to precipitate the reaction mixture. 在一些实施方案中,可与质子去除剂组合地使用天然存在的或人造的酶以引起沉淀物质的沉淀。 In some embodiments, proton-removing agents may be used in combination with naturally occurring or synthetic enzymes to cause precipitation of precipitation material. 碳酸酐酶(其为植物和动物产生的酶)将加速溶液中碳酸向碳酸氢盐的转化。 Carbonic anhydrase (an enzyme which produces a plant and animal) will accelerate the conversion of bicarbonate to carbonate solution. 因此,碳酸酐酶可用来增强CO2的溶解和加速沉淀物质的沉淀,如2009年10月19日提交的美国临时专利申请61/252,929中所述,该专利申请通过全文引用结合到本文中。 Thus, carbonic anhydrase may be used to enhance dissolution of CO2 and accelerate precipitation of precipitation material, as described in US Provisional Patent October 19, 2009 filed in the 61 / 252,929, which patent application is incorporated herein by reference in entirety .

[0120] 用来实现质子去除的化学剂通常指大量生产并市售可得的合成化学剂。 [0120] Chemical agents used to achieve proton removal generally refer to synthetic chemical mass-produced commercially available agents. 例如,用于去除质子的化学剂包括但不限于氢氧化物、有机碱、超强碱、氧化物、氨和碳酸盐。 For example, chemical agents for removing protons include, but are not limited to, hydroxides, organic bases, super bases, oxides, ammonia, and carbonates. 氢氧化物包括在溶液中提供氢氧阴离子的化学物质,包括例如氢氧化钠(NaOH)、氢氧化钾(KOH)、氢氧化钙(Ca(OH)2)或氢氧化镁(Mg(OH)2)。 Providing hydroxide anions include hydroxide chemical species in solution, including, for example, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH) 2) or magnesium hydroxide (Mg (OH) 2). 有机碱是通常作为含氮碱的含碳分子,包括伯胺(如甲胺)、仲胺(如二异丙胺)、叔胺(如二异丙基乙胺)、芳胺(如苯胺)、杂芳族化合物(如吡啶、咪唑和苯并咪唑)及其各种形式。 The organic base is generally a carbon-containing molecules nitrogenous bases including primary amines (such as methylamine), secondary amine (e.g., diisopropylamine), tertiary amines (e.g. diisopropylethylamine), aromatic amines (e.g. aniline), heteroaromatics (such as pyridine, imidazole and benzimidazole) and in various forms. 在一些实施方案中,可使用选自吡啶、甲胺、咪唑、苯并咪唑、组氨酸和膦腈的有机碱来从各种物质类型(如碳酸、碳酸氢盐、水合氢离子等)去除质子以促使沉淀物质的沉淀。 In some embodiments, be selected from pyridine, methylamine, imidazole, benzimidazole, histidine, and phosphazene base to remove organic substances from various types (such as carbonic acid, bicarbonate, hydronium, etc.) proton to cause precipitation of precipitation material. 在一些实施方案中,可使用氨来提升PH至足以从二价阳离子的溶液和工业废物流中沉淀沉淀物质的水平。 In some embodiments, ammonia may be used to enhance PH sufficient to precipitate from a solution of divalent cations and an industrial waste streams precipitation material level. 适于用作质子去除剂的超强碱包括乙醇钠、氨基化钠(NaNH2)、氢化钠(NaH)、丁基锂、二异丙基氨基锂、二乙基氨基锂和双(三甲基甲娃烷基)氨基锂。 Suitable for use as proton-removing agents super bases include sodium ethoxide, sodium amide (NaNH2), sodium hydride (of NaH), butyl lithium, lithium diisopropylamide, lithium diethylamide, and bis (trimethyl A baby alkyl) amino lithium. 氧化物包括例如氧化钙(CaO)、氧化镁(MgO)、氧化银(SrO)、氧化铍(BeO)和氧化钡(BaO)可能也是可使用的适宜的质子去除剂。 Suitable oxides include proton-removing agents, for example, calcium oxide (CaO), magnesium oxide (MgO), silver oxide (SrO), beryllium oxide (BeO), and barium oxide (BaO) may also be usable. 用于本发明的碳酸盐包括但不限于碳酸钠。 Carbonates useful in the present invention include, but are not limited to sodium carbonate.

[0121] 除包含所关心的阳离子及其他适宜的金属形式外,来自各种工业过程的废物流也可提供质子去除剂。 [0121] In addition to the metal cations and other suitable form comprises interest, waste streams from various industrial processes may provide proton-removing agents. 这类废物流包括但不限于采矿废物;化石燃料燃烧灰烬(如燃烧灰烬如粉煤灰、炉底灰、锅炉渣);矿渣(如铁渣、磷渣);水泥窑废物;炼油厂/石化精炼厂废物(如油田和甲烷矿层盐水);煤矿层废物(如采气盐水和煤矿层盐水);纸加工废物;水软化废盐水(如离子交换废水);硅加工废物;农业废物;金属精整废物;高pH纺织废物;和碱渣。 Such waste streams include, but are not limited to, mining wastes; fossil fuel burning ash (e.g., combustion ash such as fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag); slag (e.g. iron slag, phosphorous slag); cement kiln waste; refinery / petrochemical refinery waste (e.g. oil field and methane seam brine); coal layer wastes (e.g. gas production brine and coal layer, brine); paper processing waste; water softening waste brine (e.g., ion exchange wastewater); silicon processing wastes; agricultural waste; metal fine whole waste; high pH textile waste; and caustic sludge. 采矿废物包括来自从土壤中提取金属或其他珍贵或有用矿物时的任何废物。 Mining wastes include any wastes from the extraction of metal or another precious or useful mineral from the soil. 在一些实施方案中,来自采矿的废物可用来改变PH,其中所述废物选自来自Bayer铝提取工艺的红泥;来自从海水中提取镁时的废物(例如Mg(OH)2,如在加利福尼亚的Moss Landing找到的Mg(OH)2);和来自涉及溶浸的采矿工艺的废物。 In some embodiments, wastes from mining may be used to change the PH, wherein the waste is selected from red mud from the Bayer aluminum extraction process; when waste from magnesium extraction from seawater (e.g., Mg (OH) 2, as in California Mg (OH) 2) is found in Moss Landing; and wastes from mining processes involving leaching of. 例如,红泥可如2009年3月18日提交的美国临时专利申请61/161369中所述用来改变pH,所述专利申请通过全文引用结合到本文中。 For example, red mud may be as described in US Provisional Patent Mar. 18, 2009 61/161369, filed in the for changing the pH, the patent application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. 可单独或与其他质子去除剂组合地使用化石燃料燃烧灰烬、水泥窑粉尘和矿渣(统称金属氧化物废物源)以提供本发明的质子去除剂,还见述于2009年6月17日提交的美国专利申请12/486,692,所述专利申请的公开通过全文引用结合到本文中。 May be used alone or in combination with other proton-removing agents with a fossil fuel burning ash, cement kiln dust, and slag (collectively waste sources of metal oxides) to provide proton-removing agents of the present invention, are described also filed on June 17, 2009 of U.S. Patent application 12 / 486,692, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. 农业废物(来自动物废物或过度肥料使用)可能含氢氧化钾(KOH)或氨(NH3)或二者。 Agricultural waste (from animal waste or excessive fertilizer use) may containing potassium hydroxide (KOH) or ammonia (NH3), or both. 因此,在本发明的一些实施方案中,农业废物可用作质子去除剂。 Thus, in some embodiments of the present invention, agricultural waste may be used as proton-removing agents. 所述农业废物常集中在池塘中,但其也可向下渗滤进蓄水层中并由此获取和使用。 The agricultural waste is often concentrated in ponds, but it may also be downwardly percolating into the aquifer and thereby acquire and use.

[0122] 电化学方法可为从溶液中的各种物种去除质子的另一途径,所述途径或从溶质(如碳酸或碳酸氢盐的去质子化)或从溶剂(如水合氢离子或水的去质子化)去除质子。 [0122] Another approach may be electrochemical methods to remove protons from various species from solution, or from the pathway of the solute (e.g., deprotonation of carbonic acid or bicarbonate) or from solvent (e.g. water or water hydronium deprotonation) deprotonated. 如果来自CO2溶解所产生的质子与通过电化学方法从溶质分子去除的质子相当或超过去除的质子,则可得到溶剂去质子化的结果。 If the proton from the proton dissolved CO2 produced by the proton removal from solute molecules or electrochemically rather than removal of the solvent can be obtained deprotonated results. 在一些实施方案中,可使用低电压电化学方法来例如随CO2溶解在沉淀反应混合物中或沉淀反应混合物的前体溶液(即可或可不含二价阳离子的溶液)中而去除质子。 In some embodiments, low-voltage electrochemical methods may be used to, for example, precipitation with CO2 was dissolved in the reaction mixture or by precipitation reaction mixture was deprotonated precursor solution (or to be free of divalent cations in the solution). 在一些实施方案中,溶解在不含二价阳离子的溶液中的CO2可用低电压电化学方法处理以从碳酸、碳酸氢盐、水合氢离子或因CO2的溶解产生的任何物质种类或其组合中去除质子。 In some embodiments, CO2 dissolved low-voltage electrochemical methods can be used in the absence of divalent cations in the solution is treated to carbonic acid, bicarbonate, hydronium, or any species or combination of species due to dissolution of CO2 generated removal of protons. 低电压电化学方法在2、1.9、1.8、1.7或1.6V或更低、例如1.5、 Low-voltage electrochemical methods 2,1.9,1.8,1.7 or 1.6V or less, such as 1.5,

1.4、1.3、1.2、1.1V或更低、例如IV或更低、例如0.9V或更低、0.8V或更低、0.7V或更低、0.6V或更低、0.5V或更低、0.4V或更低、0.3V或更低、0.2V或更低、或0.1V或更低的平均电压下运行。 1.4,1.3,1.2,1.1V or less, e.g. IV or lower, for example 0.9V or less, 0.8V or less, 0.7V or less, 0.6V or less, 0.5V or less, 0.4 V or less, 0.3V or less, 0.2V or less, 0.1V or less, or run average voltage. 不产生氯气的低电压电化学方法对于在本发明的系统和方法中的使用来说可能是合宜的。 Low-voltage electrochemical methods do not produce chlorine gas may be convenient for use in systems and methods of the present invention is. 不产生氧气的去除质子的低电压电化学方法对于在本发明的系统和方法中的使用来说可能也是合宜的。 Low-voltage electrochemical methods do not produce a deprotonated oxygen for use in the system and method of the present invention might also be expedient. 在一些实施方案中,低电压电化学方法将在阴极处产生氢气并输运氢气至阳极,所述氢气在阳极被转化为质子。 In some embodiments, low-voltage electrochemical methods generate hydrogen gas at the cathode and transport of hydrogen to the anode, the hydrogen gas is converted to protons at the anode. 不产生氢气的电化学方法可能也是合宜的。 Electrochemical methods generate hydrogen gas may also not convenient. 有时,去除质子的电化学方法将不产生任何气体副产物。 Sometimes, the electrochemical method of removing the protons do not generate any gaseous by-products. 实现质子去除的电化学方法还见述于2008年12月24日提交的美国专利申请12/344,019、2008年12月23日提交的美国专利申请12/375,632,2008年12月23日提交的国际专利申请PCT/US08/088242、2009年I月28日提交的国际专利申请PCT/US09/32301、2009年6月24日提交的国际专利申请PCT/US09/48511和2009年8月13日提交的美国专利申请12/541,055,其各通过全文引用结合到本文中。 Realization of electrochemical proton removal method is also described in U.S. patent December 24, 2008, filed 12 / 344,019, US Pat December 23, 2008, filed 12 / 375,632, December 23, 2008 international Patent application PCT filed / US08 / 088242, international Patent application PCT 2009 Nian I filed May 28, the / US09 / 32301, international Patent application PCT 2009 Nian 6, filed May 24 in / US09 / 48511 and August 2009 U.S. Patent No. filed 13 May 12 / 541,055, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0123] 或者,可使用电化学方法通过例如氯碱法或其变型产生苛性分子(如氢氧化物)。 [0123] Alternatively, electrochemical methods may be used, for example, chlor-alkali process, or modification to produce caustic molecules (e.g., hydroxide) through. 电极(即阴极和阳极)可存在于含含有二价阳离子的溶液或充入了气态废物流(如充入了CO2)的溶液的装置中,选择性屏障如膜可分隔所述电极。 It means an electrode solution (i.e., cathodes and anodes) may be present in divalent cation-containing solution or a charged gaseous waste stream (e.g., a charged CO2), a selective barrier such as a film may separate the electrodes. 用于去除质子的电化学系统和方法可产生副产物(如氢气),所述副产物可被收集并用于其他目的。 Electrochemical systems and methods for removing protons may produce by-products (e.g., hydrogen), the byproducts may be collected and used for other purposes. 本发明的系统和方法中可用的其他电化学方法包括但不限于2008年7月16日提交的美国临时专利申请61/081, 299和美国临时专利申请61/091,729中描述的那些,所述专利申请的公开通过引用结合到本文中。 Other electrochemical systems and methods useful in the present invention include, but are not limited to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/081, 2008, filed July 16, 299 and U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 091,729 are those described by disclosure of said patent is incorporated herein by reference. 可采用上面提到的质子去除剂源和有效去除质子的方法的组合。 A method of proton-removing agent composition and effective removal of a proton source mentioned above may be employed.

[0124] 可采用多种不同的方法来从CO2源、二价阳离子源和质子去除剂源制备本发明的混凝土的CO2截存组分。 [0124] using a variety of different ways from the source of CO2, CO2 sequestering component concrete source of divalent cations and a source of proton-removing agents prepared according to the present invention. 所关心的CO2截存方案包括但不限于如下专利申请中所公开的那些:美国专利申请12/126,776和12/163,205 ;以及2008年5月23日提交的美国临时专利申请61/126,776、2008年6月27日提交的12/163,205、2008年12月24日提交的12/344,019和2009年5月29日提交的12/475,378 ;以及美国临时专利申请61/017,405、61/017,419,61/057, 173,61/056, 972,61/073,319,61/079,790,61/081, 299,61/082,766、61/088,347,61/088, 340,61/101, 629 ;和2007 年12 月28 日提交的61/101,631017,405、2007年12月28日提交的61/017,419,2008年5月29日提交的61/057,173,2008年5月29日提交的61/056,972、2008年6月17日提交的61/073,319、2008年7月10日提交的61/079,790,2008 年7 月16 日提交的61/081,299,2008 年7 月22 日提交的61/082,766、2008年8月13日提交的61/088,347,2008年8月12日提交的61/088,340,2008年9月30日提交的61/101,629和2008年9月30日提交的61/101,631 ;其各通过引用结 CO2 sequestration program of interest include, but are not limited to those disclosed in the patent applications: US Patent Application 12 / 126,776 and 12 / 163,205; US Provisional Patent May 23, 2008, filed 61 / 126,776, June 27, 2008, filed 12 / 163,205, December 24, 2008, filed 12 / 344,019 and 29 May 2009, filed 12 / 475,378; and US provisional Patent application 61 / 017,405,61 / 017,419,61 / 057, 173,61 / 056, 972,61 / 073,319,61 / 079,790,61 / 081, 299,61 / 082,766,61 / 088,347,61 / 088, 340,61 / 101, 629; and 61 / 101,631017,405 December 28, 2007 submitted by December 28, 2007, filed 61 / 017,419, May 29, 2008 filed 61 / 057,173, May 29, 2008, filed 61 / 056,972, June 17, 2008, filed 61 / 073,319, July 10, 2008, filed 61 / 079,790,2008 years 61 / 082,766, August 13, 2008, filed 61 / 088,347, August 12, 2008, filed 6161 / 081,299,2008 on July 22 filed July 16 filed / 088,340, September 30, 2008, filed 61 / 101,629 and 61 / 101,631 September 30, 2008 filed; each by its reference junction 合到本文中。 Combined herein.

[0125] 本发明的CO2截存组分(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其组合的组分)包括碳酸盐组合物,所述碳酸盐组合物可通过自二价阳离子的溶液沉淀钙和/或镁的碳酸盐组合物而产生。 [0125] CO2 sequestering components of the invention (e.g., comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or a combination of components) comprises a carbonate composition, the carbonate composition may be from solution by divalent cations precipitation of calcium and / or magnesium carbonate composition to produce. 本发明的碳酸盐化合物组合物含沉淀的结晶和/或无定形碳酸盐化合物。 Carbonate compound compositions of the invention containing the precipitated crystals and / or amorphous carbonate compounds. 构成本发明的CO2截存组分(如包含碳酸盐、碳酸氢盐或其组合的组分)的碳酸盐化合物组合物含亚稳碳酸盐化合物,所述亚稳碳酸盐化合物可从二价阳离子的溶液如咸水沉淀,这将在下面更详细地描述。 CO2 sequestering component constituting the present invention (e.g., comprising carbonates, bicarbonates, or a combination of components) of the carbonate compound composition containing a metastable carbonate compounds, carbonate compounds may be the metastable divalent cations from the salt water solution, such as precipitation, which will be described in more detail below.

[0126] 为方便起见,本文中有时以咸水来描述;但应理解包含二价阳离子的任何水源均可使用。 [0126] For convenience, sometimes herein be described in saltwater; it is to be understood that any water containing divalent cations may be used. 本发明的源自咸水的碳酸盐化合物组合物(即源自咸水并由一种或多种不同的碳酸盐结晶和/或无定形化合物加或不加一种或多种结晶或无定形氢氧化物所构成的组合物)源自咸水。 From saltwater carbonate compound compositions of the present invention (i.e., derived from saltwater by one or more different carbonate crystalline and / or amorphous compounds with or without one or more crystalline or the composition consisting of the amorphous hydroxide) derived from saltwater. 因此,其包含以一定方式从咸水获得的组合物,例如通过以足以从初始咸水体积产生所需碳酸盐化合物组合物的方式处理一定体积的咸水所获得的组合物。 Thus, compositions comprising certain way obtained from salt water, e.g., by way sufficient to produce the desired carbonate compound composition of the treatment composition a volume of salt water obtained from saltwater initial volume. 某些实施方案的碳酸盐化合物组合物可通过从含碱土金属阳离子如钙和镁等的二价阳离子溶液(如咸水)沉淀产生,其中这类二价阳离子溶液可统称为含碱土金属的水。 Carbonate compound compositions of certain embodiments can be produced by such as calcium and magnesium from the solution of divalent cations (e.g., salt water) precipitation of alkaline earth metal cation generator, wherein such solution of divalent cations may be referred to as an alkaline earth metal-containing water.

[0127] 方法中采用的咸水可不同。 Saline [0127] Different methods may be employed. 如上所述,所关心的咸水包括微咸水、海水和盐水以及其他盐度高于淡水(其盐度低于5ppt溶解盐)的咸水。 As described above, salt of interest include brackish water, seawater and brine salinity, and other than fresh water (salinity below 5ppt dissolved salts) in salt water. 在一些实施方案中,可将富含钙的水与硅酸镁矿物如橄榄石或蛇纹石在已因加入二氧化碳形成碳酸而变为酸性的溶液中组合,所述溶液将溶解硅酸镁,从而导致如上所述硅酸碳酸钙镁化合物的形成。 In some embodiments, water may be rich in calcium and magnesium silicate minerals, such as olivine or serpentine composition has been formed by addition of carbon dioxide becomes carbonic acid solution, the solution dissolving magnesium silicate, resulting in the formation of calcium magnesium silicate compound as described above.

[0128] 在产生本发明的碳酸盐化合物组合物的方法中,可使一定体积的水经受足以产生含碳酸盐的沉淀物质和母液(即从咸水沉淀出碳酸盐化合物后剩下的部分水)的碳酸盐化合物沉淀条件。 After [0128] In the method for producing carbonate compound compositions of the present invention, can be subjected to a volume of water sufficient to produce carbonate-containing precipitation material and a mother liquor (i.e., the carbonate compound precipitated from the remaining salt water the portion of the water) of the carbonate compound precipitation conditions. 所得沉淀物质和母液一起构成本发明的碳酸盐化合物组合物。 The resultant precipitation material and a mother liquor together form a carbonate compound compositions of the present invention. 任何合宜的沉淀条件均可采用,所述条件导致碳酸盐化合物组合物截存制品的产生。 Any convenient precipitation conditions may be employed, the conditions result in sequestering carbonate compound composition produced article.

[0129] 促进沉淀的条件(即沉淀条件)可不同。 Conditions [0129] facilitate precipitation (i.e., precipitation conditions) may be different. 例如,水的温度可在便于所需矿物的沉淀发生的适宜范围内。 For example, at a convenient temperature of the water may be a suitable range precipitate the desired mineral to occur. 在一些实施方案中,水的温度可在5-70°C范围内,例如20-50°C,包括25-45°C。 In some embodiments, the temperature of the water may be in the range of 5-70 ° C, e.g. 20-50 ° C, comprising 25-45 ° C. 因此,虽然所给沉淀条件的集合可具有0-100°C的温度范围,但在某些实施方案中可调节水的温度以产生所需的沉淀物质。 Thus, although the set of precipitation conditions may have a temperature in the range of 0-100 ° C, but in certain embodiments an adjustable saving temperature to produce the desired precipitation material.

[0130] 在普通海水中,93%的溶解CO2可呈碳酸氢盐离子(HC03_)的形式,6%可呈碳酸盐离子(C032_)的形式。 [0130] In normal seawater, 93% of the dissolved CO2 may be in the form of bicarbonate ions (HC03_), and 6% may be in the form of carbonate ions (C032_) a. 当从普通海水沉淀碳酸钙时将释放C02。 When precipitated calcium release from normal seawater C02. 在淡水中,当pH高于10.33时,超过90%的碳酸盐将呈碳酸盐离子的形式并在碳酸钙的沉淀过程中无CO2释放。 In fresh water, when the pH is higher than 10.33, the form of more than 90% carbonate and carbonate ions will show no CO2 is released during the precipitation of calcium carbonate. 在海水中,此转变在稍低的pH(更接近9.7的pH)下发生。 Occurs in seawater, this transition slightly lower pH (pH 9.7 the closer) below. 在既定的沉淀过程中,虽然方法中采用的水的PH可在pH5到pH14范围内,但在某些实施方案中可根据需要将pH提升至碱性水平以驱动碳酸盐化合物以及其他化合物如氢氧化物的沉淀。 In a given precipitation process, although the process may be employed to PH water in the range pH14 pH 5, but in certain embodiments may need to raise the pH to a basic level to drive the carbonate compounds and other compounds, such as precipitated hydroxides. 在某些这些实施方案中,可将PH提升至使沉淀过程中CO2的产生最小化(如果不是消除的话)的水平,从而使例如以碳酸盐和碳酸氢盐形式溶解的CO2被截留在沉淀物质中。 In certain of these embodiments, PH may be increased to make the CO2 produced during precipitation minimize (if not eliminate) level, so that for example in the form of carbonate and bicarbonate dissolved CO2 trapped in the precipitate substances. 在这些实施方案中,可将pH提升至10或更高、例如11或更高。 In these embodiments, pH may be raised to 10 or higher, e.g. 11 or higher.

[0131] 水的pH可用任何合宜的方法提升。 [0131] pH of the water by any convenient method of lifting. 在某些实施方案中可采用质子去除剂,其中这类试剂的实例包括氧化物、氢氧化物(如粉煤灰中的氧化钙、氢氧化钾、氢氧化钠、水镁石Mg(OH)2等)、碳酸盐(如碳酸钠)等,其许多已在上面描述。 Proton-removing agents may be employed in certain embodiments, where examples of such agents include oxides, hydroxides (e.g., calcium oxide in fly ash, potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, brucite Mg (OH) 2, etc.), carbonates (e.g. sodium carbonate) and the like, many of which are described above. 一种提升沉淀反应混合物或其前体(如含二价阳离子的溶液)的PH的这类方法是使用来自燃煤发电厂的煤灰,所述煤灰含许多氧化物。 A poppet such methods PH precipitation reaction mixture or precursor thereof (e.g., divalent cation-containing solution) is to use the coal ash from coal-fired power plant, a coal ash containing many oxides. 其他煤处理如煤的气化(以产生合成气)也产生氢气和一氧化碳并也可用作氢氧化物源。 Other coal gasification, such as coal treatment (to produce synthesis gas) to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide and also may be used as a source of hydroxide. 一些天然存在的矿物如蛇纹石含氢氧化物并可溶解以产生氢氧化物源。 Some naturally occurring minerals such as serpentine, contain hydroxide and dissolved to produce a hydroxide source. 蛇纹石的加入还向溶液中释放二氧化硅和镁,从而导致含二氧化硅的沉淀物质的形成。 Serpentine also releases silica and magnesium was added to the solution, resulting in the formation of silica-containing precipitation material. 加到沉淀反应混合物或其前体中的质子去除剂的量应取决于质子去除剂的具体性质和被改变的沉淀反应混合物或其前体的量,并应足以提升沉淀反应混合物或其前体的pH至所需pH。 Was added to the reaction mixture or the amount of precipitate precursor of proton-removing agents will depend upon the amount of proton-removing agent is a mixture of the specific nature of the reaction and precipitation are changed or a precursor thereof, and sufficient to improve the precipitation reaction mixture or precursor thereof the pH to the desired pH. 或者,沉淀反应混合物或其前体的pH可通过如上所述电化学途径提升至所需水平。 Alternatively, the precipitation pH of the reaction mixture or a precursor thereof can be increased to a desired level by an electrochemical route described above. 在某些条件下可使用其他电化学方法。 Under certain conditions other electrochemical methods may be used. 例如,可采用电解,其中可使用汞电解池法(也称Castner-Kellner法)、隔膜电解池法、膜电解池法或其一些组合。 For example, electrolysis may be employed, wherein the mercury cell process (also called the Castner-Kellner process), the diaphragm electrolytic cell process, membrane cell process or some combination thereof. 当需要时,可根据需要为其他目的收集和采用水解产物的副产物如H2、金属钠等。 When desired, the product may be collected and hydrolytic byproducts such as H2, sodium metal or the like as needed for other purposes.

[0132] 在其他实施方案中,可采用2008年7月16日提交的美国临时专利申请61/081,299和2008年8月25日提交的61/091,729中所述的pH-提升方法,其公开通过引用结合到本文中。 [0132] In other embodiments, the U.S. Provisional Patent employed July 16, 2008, filed 61 / 081,299 and in the lifting process pH- on August 25, 2008, filed 61 / 091,729 , the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

[0133] 也可向水中引入不同于pH-提升剂的添加剂来影响所产生的沉淀物质的性质。 [0133] Additives may also be different from the pH- improvers affect the nature of the precipitation material may be produced by introducing into water. 因此,本发明的方法的某些实施方案包括在当水经受沉淀条件时之前或过程中向水中提供添加剂。 Thus, certain embodiments of the method of the present invention comprises providing an additive to the water prior to or during the time when the water is subjected to the precipitation conditions. 痕量的某些添加剂可促成某些碳酸钙多晶型物。 Trace amounts of certain additives may contribute to some of the calcium carbonate polymorphs. 例如,可通过在碳酸钙的过饱和溶液中引入痕量镧如氯化镧而以非常高的产率获得六方碳钙石,六方碳钙石是一种高度不稳定的CaCO3多晶型物,其将以多种不同的形态沉淀并迅速转变为方解石。 For example, a supersaturated solution can be obtained by introducing trace amounts of calcium carbonate and lanthanum as lanthanum chloride in very high yield is obtained vaterite, vaterite is a highly unstable polymorph of CaCO3, which will precipitate a variety of different forms and quickly transformed into calcite. 除镧外还关心的其他添加剂包括但不限于过渡金属等。 Other additives In addition to the lanthanum further interest include but are not limited to transition metals. 例如,亚铁或铁离子的加入已知将有助于无序白云石(原白云岩)的形成,否则将不能形成。 For example, addition of ferrous or ferric ions is known to contribute to the formation of disordered dolomite (dolomite original) that would otherwise not be formed.

[0134] 也可通过选择适宜的主要离子比率来影响沉淀物质的性质。 [0134] Also precipitation material properties can be influenced by selection of appropriate major ion ratios. 主要离子比率还对多晶型物的形成有着相当大的影响。 Major ion ratios also have considerable influence on the formation of polymorphs. 例如,随着水中镁:钙比率增高,霰石将变为比低镁方解石更有利的碳酸钙多晶型物。 For example, in water as the magnesium: calcium ratio increases, aragonite becomes more advantageous than the low-magnesium calcite calcium carbonate polymorphs. 在较低的镁:钙比率下,低镁方解石可能是优选的多晶型物。 Low magnesium: calcium ratio of the low-magnesium calcite may be preferred polymorph. 因此,可采用广泛的镁:钙比率,包括例如100: 1、50: 1、20: UlO: 1、5: 1、2: 1、1: 1、1: 2、1: 5、1: IOU: 20,1: 50,1: 100或任何上述比率。 Thus, a wide range of magnesium employed: calcium ratios, including, for example 100: 1,50: 1,20: UlO: 1,5: 1,2: 1,1: 1,1: 2,1: 5,1: IOU : 20, 1: 50, 1: 100 or any of the aforementioned ratio. 在某些实施方案中,镁:钙比率可由沉淀过程中采用的水源(如海水、盐水、微咸水、淡水)决定,而在其他实施方案中,镁:钙比率可被调节至一定的范围内。 In certain embodiments, the magnesium: calcium ratio of water may be employed in the precipitation process (e.g., seawater, brine, brackish water, fresh water) determines, while in other embodiments, the magnesium: calcium ratio can be adjusted to a certain range Inside.

[0135] 沉淀速率也对化合物的相形成有很大影响。 [0135] the rate of precipitation also has a great influence on compound phase formation. 最快的沉淀可通过使具有所需相的溶液析晶获得。 The fastest precipitate can be obtained by making a solution having a desired phase crystallization. 不析晶时,快速沉淀可通过快速提升海水的PH获得,这将导致更无定形的组分。 Without crystallization, can be obtained by rapid precipitation PH rapid lifting of the sea, which will result in a more amorphous component. 当存在二氧化硅时,反应速率越快,则含碳酸盐的沉淀物质中将结合进更多二氧化硅。 When silica is present, the faster the rate of the reaction, the carbonate-containing precipitation material will be incorporated into more silica. PH越高,沉淀将越快且沉淀物质将越无定形。 The higher the PH, the faster the precipitate and the precipitate was amorphous substance.

[0136] 因此,在某些实施方案中,自二价阳离子的溶液产生所需沉淀物质的沉淀条件集合包括水的温度和pH,并有时包括添加剂的浓度和水中的离子种类。 [0136] Thus, in some embodiments, the divalent cations from solution precipitation conditions to produce the desired precipitation material comprising a set water temperature and pH, the concentration of ionic species and may comprise water and additives. 沉淀条件还可包括因素如混合速率、搅动的形式(如超声)、种晶的存在、催化剂、膜或基材。 Precipitation conditions may also include factors such as mixing rate, forms of agitation (e.g., ultrasound), the presence of seed crystals, catalysts, membranes, or substrates. 在一些实施方案中,沉淀条件包括过饱和条件、温度、PH和/或浓度梯度、或循环或改变任何这些参数。 In some embodiments, precipitation conditions include supersaturated conditions, temperature, PH and / or concentration gradients, or cycling or changing any of these parameters. 用来制备根据本发明的含碳酸盐的沉淀物质的方法可为间歇法或连续法。 The method for preparing a carbonate-containing precipitation material of the present invention may be a batch process or as a continuous process. 应理解,在连续流动系统中产生既定的沉淀物质所需的沉淀条件可能与在间歇系统中不同。 It should be understood, predetermined to produce the desired precipitation material precipitation conditions may be different in a batch system in a continuous flow system.

[0137] 在某些实施方案中,所述方法还包括使经受矿物沉淀条件的体积的水与CO2源接触。 [0137] In certain embodiments, the method further comprises subjecting the water source in contact with a CO2 volume of mineral precipitation conditions. 所述水与CO2源的接触可在当水经受CO2沉淀条件时之前和/或过程中进行。 Contacting the water with the source CO2 may be carried out and / or during the time prior to when the water is subjected to CO2 precipitation conditions. 因此,本发明的实施方案包括其中所述体积的水可在所述体积的咸水经受矿物沉淀条件前与CO2源接触的方法。 Thus, embodiments of the present invention comprises a method wherein the volume of water prior to contact with the mineral precipitation conditions may be subjected to a source of CO2 in the volume of salt water. 本发明的实施方案包括其中所述体积的咸水可在所述体积的咸水正经受碳酸盐化合物沉淀条件时与CO2源接触的方法。 The method of practicing the embodiment of the present invention include those wherein the volume of salt water may be subjected to carbonate compound precipitation conditions n the volume of salt water in contact with the CO2 source. 本发明的实施方案包括其中所述体积的水可在所述体积的咸水经受碳酸盐化合物沉淀条件前及所述体积的咸水正经受碳酸盐化合物沉淀条件时与CO2源接触的方法。 When the method of the former embodiment of the present invention include those wherein the volume of water is subjected to carbonate compound precipitation conditions and the volume of the volume of salt water is subjected to carbonate compound precipitation saltwater positive contact with a source of CO2 . 在一些实施方案中,相同的水可循环超过一次,其中第一沉淀循环主要去除碳酸钙和碳酸镁矿物而留下剩余的碱性水,可向所述碱性水中加入其他可让更多二氧化碳在其中循环的碱土金属离子源,从而沉淀出更多碳酸盐化合物。 In some embodiments, the same water can be recycled more than once, wherein a first cycle of precipitation removes predominantly calcium and magnesium carbonate mineral and leaving the remaining alkaline water, the alkaline water may be added to allow more carbon dioxide may be other in the loop wherein the source of alkaline earth metal ions, thereby precipitating more carbonate compounds.

[0138] 在这些实施方案中可与所述体积的咸水接触的CO2源可为任何合宜的CO2源,接触方法可为任何合宜的方法。 [0138] In these embodiments, a source of CO2 may be contacted with the volume of salt water can be any convenient CO2 source, a contact method may be any convenient method. 当CO2为气体时,所关心的接触方法包括但不限于:直接接触法(如对所述体积的咸水鼓泡)、顺流接触途径(即单向流动的气体与液相流间接触)、逆流途径(即反向流动的气体与液相流间接触)等。 When CO2 is a gas, the method contacts of interest include, but are not limited to: direct contact method (e.g., the bubbling volume Saline), downstream route of exposure (i.e., contact between unidirectional flowing gaseous stream and a liquid phase) countercurrent pathway (i.e., between the reverse flow of gas and liquid phase streams) and the like. 因此,接触可根据合宜性通过使用注入器、鼓泡器、流体文丘里反应器、分布器、气体过滤器、喷雾、塔板或填料塔反应器等实现。 Thus, the contact can be accomplished using an injector, a bubbler, a fluid Venturi reactor, sparger, gas filter, spray, tray, or packed column reactors, etc. The propriety through. 对于用于使二价阳离子的溶液与CO2源接触的示例性系统和方法,参见2009年3月10日提交的美国临时专利申请61/158,992、2009年4月9日提交的61/168,166、2009年4月16日提交的61/170,086、2009 年5 月14 日提交的61/178,475、2009 年7 月24 日提交的61/228,210、2009年7月30日提交的61/230,042和2009年9月2日提交的61/239,429,其各通过引用结合到本文中。 For the exemplary systems and methods for the solution of divalent cations in contact with the source of CO2, see U.S. Provisional Patent No. 10 March 2009, filed 61 / 158,992, filed Apr. 9, 2009 to 61/168 166, 61 / 170,086,2009 on April 16, 2009 filed on May 14 filed 61 / 178,475,2009 on July 24 filed 61 / 228,210 in 2009, July 30 61 / 230,042 and 61 / 239,429 September 2, 2009 filed filed, each of which is incorporated herein by reference.

[0139] 上面的方法将产生碳酸盐/碳酸氢盐沉淀物质(如CO2截存沉淀物质)和母液的淤浆。 [0139] The above method produces carbonate / bicarbonate precipitation material (e.g., CO2-sequestering, precipitation material), and the slurry mother liquor. 需要时,由沉淀物质和母液构成的组合物可在沉淀后及进一步加工前贮存一段时间。 When necessary, the composition of the mother liquor and the precipitation material constituting storable period of time after precipitation and prior to further processing. 例如,所述组合物可在1_40°C、例如20-25°C的温度下贮存1-1000天或更长、例如1_10天或更长的时间。 For example, the composition may 1_40 ° C, for example, storage at a temperature of 20-25 ° C 1-1000 days or longer, e.g. 1_10 days or longer. [0140] 然后可分离淤浆组分。 [0140] The slurry can then be isolated components. 实施方案可包括母液处理,其中所述母液可或可不存在于作为制品的同一组合物中。 Embodiments may include processing the mother liquor, wherein the mother liquor may or may not be present in the same composition as the article. 例如,当母液将被返回海洋时,可使母液与气态CO2源以足以提高母液中存在的碳酸盐离子的浓度的方式接触。 For example, when the mother liquor is to be returned to the ocean, the mother liquor may with a gaseous CO2 source is sufficient to increase the concentration of carbonate ions in contact with the mother liquor present embodiment. 接触可用任何合宜的方法进行,例如上面所描述的那些。 The contact by any convenient method, such as those described above. 在某些实施方案中,母液具有碱性PH,与CO2源的接触可以足以降低pH至5-9、例如6-8.5、包括7.5-8.2的范围的方式进行。 In certain embodiments, the mother liquor has an alkaline PH, in contact with a source of CO2 may be sufficient to lower the pH to 5-9, e.g., 6 and 8.5, including the range of 7.5-8.2 manner. 在某些实施方案中,可使经处理的盐水与例如如上所述CO2源接触以截存更多C02。 In certain embodiments, the treated brine can, for example, the CO2 sequestering contacting a source as described above more C02. 例如,当母液将被返回海洋时,可使母液与气态CO2源以足以提高母液中存在的碳酸盐离子的浓度的方式接触。 For example, when the mother liquor is to be returned to the ocean, the mother liquor may with a gaseous CO2 source is sufficient to increase the concentration of carbonate ions in contact with the mother liquor present embodiment. 接触可用任何合宜的方法进行,例如上面所描述的那些。 The contact by any convenient method, such as those described above. 在某些实施方案中,母液具有碱性PH,与CO2源的接触可以足以降低PH至5-9、例如6-8.5、包括7.5-8.2的范围的方式进行。 In certain embodiments, the mother liquor has an alkaline PH, in contact with the CO2 source may be sufficient to reduce the PH to 5-9, e.g., 6 and 8.5, including the range of 7.5-8.2 manner.

[0141] 所得反应母液可用任何合宜的方法处置。 [0141] The resulting reaction mother liquor by any convenient method of disposal. 在某些实施方案中,其可被送到尾矿池以进行处置。 In certain embodiments, it may be sent to a tailings pond for disposal. 在某些实施方案中,其可在天然存在的水体如海、洋、湖泊或河流中处置。 In certain embodiments, it may be disposed of in a naturally occurring body of water such as the sea, ocean, lake or river. 在某些实施方案中,母液被返回本发明的方法的给水源如洋或海。 In certain embodiments, the mother liquor is returned to the process of the present invention, such as the ocean or sea water. 或者,母液可被进一步处理,例如经受脱盐程序,这在美国专利申请12/163,205中有进一步描述,其公开通过引用结合到本文中。 Alternatively, the mother liquor may be further processed, for example, is subjected to desalting procedure, which in U.S. Patent Application 12 / 163,205 further described, which disclosures are incorporated herein by reference.

[0142] 在某些实施方案中,在产生沉淀物质(如CO2截存组分)后,可将所得物质与母液分离以产生分离的沉淀物质(如CO2截存制品)。 [0142] In certain embodiments, after generation of precipitation material (e.g., CO2-sequestering component), the mother liquor resulting material can be separated to produce separated precipitation material (e.g., CO2-sequestering product). 沉淀物质(如CO2截存组分)的分离可用任何合宜的方法达到,包括机械方法,例如其中大量过量的水通过例如或重力自身或施加真空机械挤压从沉淀物质排出、通过从母液过滤沉淀物质来产生滤液等。 Separated precipitation material (e.g., CO2-sequestering component) may be used to achieve any convenient method, including mechanical methods, for example where a large excess of water, or gravity itself, for example, by applying a vacuum or mechanically extruding material discharged from the precipitate, the precipitate from the mother liquor by filtration The filtrate was like substance is generated. 在某些实施方案中,大量水的分离将产生湿的脱水沉淀物质。 In certain embodiments, separation of water will produce a large number of wet, dewatered precipitation material.

[0143] 所得脱水沉淀物质可然后根据需要干燥以产生干燥的制品。 [0143] The resultant dewatered precipitation material may then be dried to produce a dried product as needed. 干燥可通过空气干燥湿的沉淀物质来实现。 Drying may be achieved by air drying the wet precipitation material. 当湿的沉淀物质经空气干燥时,空气干燥可在室温或高温下进行。 When the wet precipitation material is air dried, air drying may be carried out at room temperature or elevated temperature. 在另一实施方案中,湿的沉淀物质可经喷雾干燥以干燥沉淀物质,其中含沉淀物质的液体通过提供流过的热气(如来自发电厂的气态废物流)而干燥,例如其中液体进料被泵送经雾化器进入主干燥室中而热气作为雾化器方向的顺流或逆流通过。 In another embodiment, the wet precipitation material may be spray dried to dry the precipitation material, wherein the hot gas (e.g., a gaseous waste stream from the power plant) to provide liquid containing the precipitation material is dried by flowing, for example, where the liquid feed It is pumped through an atomizer into the main drying chamber and a hot gas atomizer cocurrent or countercurrent direction through. 根据系统的特定干燥方法,干燥站可含过滤元件、冷冻干燥结构、喷雾干燥结构等。 According to a particular method of drying system, the drying station may contain a filter element, freeze drying structure, spray drying structure, etc. 需要时,脱水沉淀物质制品可在干燥前经洗涤。 If desired, the article may be dewatered precipitation material is washed before drying. 沉淀物质可用淡水洗涤以例如从脱水沉淀物质中除去盐(如NaCl)。 Precipitation material may be washed with fresh water, for example in the precipitation material from the dewatering remove salts (e.g., NaCl).

[0144] 在某些实施方案中,在随后的使用之前可以一定方式精制(即加工)沉淀物质。 [0144] In certain embodiments, prior to the subsequent purification may be used in a manner (i.e., processing) precipitation material. 精制可包括多种不同的方法。 Purified may comprise a variety of different methods. 在某些实施方案中,产物可经受机械精制如研磨以获得具有所需物理性质如粒径等的制品。 In certain embodiments, the product may be subjected to a mechanical polishing to obtain a purified product as a particle size having the desired physical properties and the like.

[0145] 在一些实施方案中,产物可用作“辅助胶凝材料”(SCM)。 [0145] In some embodiments, the product used as a "secondary gelling materials" (SCM). SCMs为尽管其自身可以是或可以不是水硬胶凝性的但将在一定程度上与水硬水泥组合物如波特兰水泥反应产生硬化材料的那些材料。 Although SCMs is itself may or may not be, but with hydraulic cement compositions such as Portland cement hardening reaction of those materials to a certain extent on the material of the hydraulic binder. 用于波特兰水泥组合物中的普通SCMs的实例包括粉煤灰和磨细粒化高炉矿渣。 Examples of Portland cement compositions include fly ash and SCMs common ground granulated blast furnace slag.

[0146] 在某些实施方案中,产物可用来产生骨料。 [0146] In certain embodiments, the product may be used to generate aggregate. 所得沉淀物质可然后经或不经干燥粉末而制备为骨料。 The resulting precipitate was then dried material may or may not be prepared as a dried powder aggregate. 在干燥过程产生所需尺寸的颗粒的某些实施方案中,为产生骨料,基本不(如果有的话)需要额外的工作。 Certain embodiments of the generation of particles of the desired size in the drying process, to produce aggregate, substantially (if any) required additional work. 而在另外的实施方案中,可对沉淀物质进行进一步加工以产生所需的骨料。 While in other embodiments, it may be further processed to produce the desired precipitation material aggregate. 例如,如上面所提到的,可将沉淀物质与淡水以足以使沉淀物质形成固体产物的方式组合,其中沉淀物质中存在的亚稳碳酸盐化合物已转化为在淡水中稳定的形式。 Combination example, as mentioned above, the precipitation material may be fresh material sufficient to precipitate a solid product formed, wherein the precipitation material present in the metastable carbonate compounds has been converted to form stable in freshwater. 通过控制湿料的含水量,可控制最终骨料的孔隙度及最终强度和密度。 By controlling the water content of the wet material can be controlled and the porosity of the final aggregate ultimate strength and density. 通常,湿饼将含40-60%体积的水。 Typically, wet cake containing 40-60% by volume of water. 对于较致密的骨料,湿饼将含< 50%的水,对于较不致密的饼,湿饼将含> 50%的水。 For denser aggregates, wet cake containing <50% water, for the less dense cake, wet cake containing> 50% of water. 硬化后,所得固体产物可然后经机械加工如压碎或以其他方式打碎并贮存以产生具有所需特征如尺寸、特定形状等的骨料。 After curing, the resulting solid product may then be crushed or broken, such as machined and stored in other ways to produce a desired characteristic, such as aggregate size, specific shape or the like. 在这些过程中,凝固和机械加工步骤可以基本连续的方式或在分离的时间里进行。 In these processes, solidification and mechanical processing steps may be substantially continuous manner or in a separate time. 在某些实施方案中,可将大量的沉淀物质贮存在其中沉淀物质将暴露于大气的开放环境中。 In certain embodiments, large amounts of precipitation material may be stored in an open environment where the precipitation material are exposed to the atmosphere. 对于凝固步骤,可以合宜的方式对沉淀物质浇灌淡水,或可让其自然淋雨以产生凝固产物。 For the coagulation step, it may be conveniently precipitated material watering manner fresh water, rain or to let it produce a solidified product. 凝固产物可然后如上所述经机械加工。 The product solidified as described above may then be machined. 在沉淀物质产生后,可加工沉淀物质以产生所需骨料。 After generating the precipitation material, processable to produce a desired precipitation material aggregate. 在一些实施方案中,沉淀物质可被留在户外,在这里,雨水可用作淡水源以发生大气水稳定化反应,从而使沉淀物质硬化形成骨料。 In some embodiments, the precipitation material may be left outdoors, where rain can be used as a source of fresh water to the atmosphere stabilization reaction of water occurs, so that the precipitation material hardens to form aggregates.

[0147] 在本发明的一个实施方案的实例中,沉淀物质可用带式输送机和平路机以均匀的方式机械铺展到夯实的地面上至所关心的深度如高至十二英寸,例如1-12英寸,包括6-12英寸。 Depth [0147] In an example embodiment of the present invention, the precipitation material available belt conveyor graders mechanically spread in a uniform manner onto compacted ground to a high interest as to twelve inches, such as 1 12 inches, including 6-12 inches. 然后可以合宜的比率如半加仑水每立方英尺沉淀物质的比率对铺展物质浇灌淡水。 It may then be convenient ratio such as a half-gallon ratio of precipitation material per cubic foot of water spreadability watering freshwater species. 然后可用钢轮压路机如浙青夯实中用到的那些多次夯实。 Then be drum roller compacted as green Zhejiang used in those times compaction. 可每周再次浇灌表面直至材料呈现所需的化学和力学性质,此时可通过压碎将材料机械加工成骨料。 Weekly watering can again until the material exhibits a surface chemical and mechanical properties required, in which case the material can be machined by crushing into aggregate.

[0148] 在本发明的另一实施方案的实例中,碳酸盐化合物沉淀物质可在与母液分开后用淡水洗涤,然后置于压滤机中产生含30-60%固体的滤饼。 [0148] In another example embodiment of the present invention, the carbonate compound precipitation material may be washed with fresh water after separation from the mother liquor, and then placed in 30 to 60% of a filter press to produce filter cake containing solids. 该滤饼可然后用任何合宜的措施如液压机于例如5-1000ps1、如l-200psi的足够压力下在模具中机械挤压以产生成型固体如长方形砖。 The filter cake can then be used in any convenient measure, such as hydraulic machine in 5-1000ps1, such as mechanical pressing in a mold under sufficient pressure, for example, l-200psi as to produce a rectangular shaped solid brick. 所得这些固体可然后通过例如置于外面贮存、通过置于经受高湿度和热度的室内等硬化。 The resulting solids can then be placed outside the reservoir by, for example, by placing subjected to high heat and humidity curing room or the like. 所得这些硬化固体可然后用作建筑材料自身或压碎以产生骨料。 The resulting solid may then be used as a hardening building material itself or crushed to produce aggregate. 这样的骨料、其制造方法及用途在2008年5月29日提交的同时待审的美国专利申请61/056,972中有进一步描述,其公开通过引用结合到本文中。 Such aggregate, its production method and use while on May 29, 2008, filed copending U.S. Patent Application 61 / 056,972 further described, which disclosures are incorporated herein by reference.

[0149] 图1给出了产生根据本发明的一个实施方案的碳酸盐/碳酸氢盐(如CO2截存组分)的方法的示意性流程图。 [0149] FIG. 1 shows a schematic flowchart of a method of generating the carbonate / bicarbonate of an embodiment of the present invention (e.g., CO2-sequestering component) of. 在图1中,来自二价阳离子源110的二价阳离子在沉淀步骤120处经受碳酸盐化合物沉淀条件。 In Figure 1, a source of divalent cations from divalent cation 110 is subjected to carbonate compound precipitation conditions at precipitation step 120. 如上所述,咸水指若干不同类型的非淡水水流体中的任一种,包括微咸水、海水和盐水(包括人造盐水如地热厂废水、脱盐废水等)以及其他盐度高于淡水的咸水。 As described above, refer to any non-salt water fresh aqueous fluid in several different types, including brackish water, sea water and brine (including man-made brines such as geothermal plant wastewater, wastewater desalting etc.) and other than fresh water salinity saltwater. 本发明的水泥的碳酸盐化合物组合物可源自的咸水源可为天然存在的源如海、洋、湖泊、沼泽、河口、泻湖等或人造源。 Cement carbonate compound compositions of the invention may be derived from the salt water source may be a naturally occurring source, such as the sea, ocean, lake, swamp, estuary, lagoon or other man-made sources.

[0150] 在某些实施方案中,水可自也提供气态废物流的发电厂获得。 [0150] In certain embodiments, the water may also be provided from the power plant to obtain a gaseous waste stream. 例如,在水冷发电厂如海水冷却发电厂中,已为发电厂所用的水可然后被送到沉淀系统并用作沉淀反应中的水。 For example, in water cooled power plants, such as seawater cooled power plants, water power plants have been used can then be sent to the precipitation system and the precipitation reaction of the water used. 在某些这些实施方案中,所述水可在进入沉淀反应器之前经冷却。 In certain of these embodiments, the water may be cooled prior to entering the precipitation reactor.

[0151] 在图1所示实施方案中,来自二价阳离子源110的二价阳离子溶液首先被充以CO2而产生充入了CO2的水,该CO2然后经受碳酸盐化合物沉淀条件。 [0151] In the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, a solution of divalent cations from divalent cation source 110 is first charged with CO2 to produce a CO2 charged water, which CO2 is then subjected to carbonate compound precipitation conditions. 如图1中所示,含CO2的气态流130与二价阳离子的溶液在沉淀步骤120处接触。 As shown in FIG. 1, a gaseous stream containing CO2 130 into contact with a solution of divalent cations in the precipitation step 120. 所提供的气态流130与适宜的含二价阳离子的溶液在沉淀步骤120处接触而产生充入了CO2的水。 The gaseous stream 130 is provided with an appropriate solution containing a divalent cation at the contact 120 into the precipitation step to produce a CO2 charged water. 充入了CO2的水为已与CO2气体接触的水,其中CO2分子已与水分子化合产生例如碳酸、碳酸氢盐和碳酸盐离子。 CO2 charged water is the water has been in contact with the CO2 gas, wherein the CO2 molecules and water molecules has compounds e.g. carbonic acid, bicarbonate and carbonate ions. 该步骤中对水充气导致水的“co2含量”(以例如碳酸、碳酸氢盐和碳酸盐离子的形式)的提高及与水接触的废物流的PCO2的相伴减小。 This step causes the water in the water inflator "CO2 content" (e.g. in the form of carbonate, bicarbonate and carbonate ions) and PCO2 of accompanying the increase of waste water in contact with the flow decreases. 所述充入了CO2的水可能是酸性的,pH为6或更低,例如5或更低,包括4或更低。 The CO2 charged water may be of acidic, pH of 6 or less, for example 5 or less, including 4 or less. 在某些实施方案中,用来对水充气的气体的CO2浓度可为10 %或更高、25 %或更高、包括50 %或更高、例如75 %或甚至更高。 In certain embodiments, the CO2 concentration of the water used to inflate the gas may be 10% or higher, 25% or higher, including 50% or higher, e.g. 75% or even higher. 所关心的接触方法包括但不限于:直接接触方法(如对所述体积的水鼓泡)、顺流接触途径(即单向流动的气体与液相流间接触)、逆流途径(即反向流动的气体与液相流间接触)等。 The method of the contact of interest include, but are not limited to: direct contact method (e.g., by bubbling the water volume), the contact pathway downstream (i.e., the contact between the stream and unidirectional flow gas liquid), countercurrent route (i.e., reverse flowing gaseous and liquid phase stream between contacts) and the like. 因此,接触可根据合宜性通过使用注入器、鼓泡器、流体文丘里反应器、分布器、气体过滤器、喷雾、塔板或填料塔反应器等实现。 Thus, the contact can be accomplished using an injector, a bubbler, a fluid Venturi reactor, sparger, gas filter, spray, tray, or packed column reactors, etc. The propriety through.

[0152] 在沉淀步骤120处将沉淀出可能为无定形或结晶的碳酸盐化合物。 [0152] At precipitation step 120 may be precipitated crystalline or amorphous carbonate compounds. 所关心的沉淀条件包括改变水的物理环境以产生所需沉淀物质的那些。 Precipitation conditions of interest include changing the physical environment of the water to produce the desired precipitation material of those. 例如,可将水的温度升至适于发生所需碳酸盐化合物的沉淀的量。 For example, the temperature of the water may be raised to the desired amount of precipitated carbonate compounds being suitable. 在这样的实施方案中,可将水的温度升至5-70°C的值,例如20-50°C,包括25-45°C。 In such embodiments, the temperature of the water may be raised to a value 5-70 ° C, e.g. 20-50 ° C, comprising 25-45 ° C. 因此,虽然所给沉淀条件的集合可具有0_100°C的温度范围,但在某些实施方案中可升高温度以产生所需的沉淀物质。 Thus, although the set of precipitation conditions may have a given 0_100 ° C temperature range, but in certain embodiments, the temperature may be raised to produce the desired precipitation material. 在某些实施方案中,温度可用自低或零二氧化碳排放的源如太阳能源、风能源、水电能源等产生的能量升高。 In certain embodiments, the temperature of the available energy from a low or zero carbon dioxide emission sources such as solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric energy generated increases. 虽然在既定的沉淀过程中水的pH可在7-14范围内,但在某些实施方案中可按需将pH提升至碱性水平以驱动碳酸盐化合物的沉淀。 Although the pH of the water in a given precipitation process may be in the range of 7-14, but in certain embodiments may be needed to raise the pH to a basic level drive the precipitation of carbonate compound. 在某些这些实施方案中,可将PH提升至使沉淀过程中CO2气体的产生最小化(如果不是消除的话)的水平。 In certain of these embodiments, PH may be increased to make the CO2 gas generated during precipitation to minimize (if not eliminate) level. 在这些实施方案中,可将pH提升至10或更高、例如11或更高。 In these embodiments, pH may be raised to 10 or higher, e.g. 11 or higher. 需要时,水的PH可用任何合宜的方法提升。 If desired, the water PH any convenient method available upgrade. 在某些实施方案中可采用PH-提高剂,其中这类试剂的实例包括氧化物、氢氧化物(如氢氧化钠、氢氧化钾、水镁石)、碳酸盐(如碳酸钠)等。 PH- agents may be employed to improve certain embodiments, where examples of such agents include oxides, hydroxides (e.g. sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, brucite), carbonates (e.g. sodium carbonate) and the like . 加到咸水源中的PH-提升剂的量应取决于试剂的具体性质和被改变的咸水的体积,并应足以提升咸水源的PH至所需的值。 Water was added in an amount of salt PH- improver shall depend on the particular nature and volume of saltwater being changed reagent, and should be sufficient to raise the PH value of water to the desired salt. 或者,咸水源的pH可通过水的电解提高至所需水平。 Alternatively, pH of the saltwater source can be increased to a desired level by electrolysis of water.

[0153] CO2的充入和碳酸盐化合物的沉淀可以连续的过程或分离的步骤进行。 Step process or may be continuously charged into the isolated precipitate [0153] CO2 and carbonate compound is. 因此,根据本发明的某些实施方案,充入和沉淀可如图1中所示在步骤120处于系统的同一反应器中进行。 Thus, according to certain embodiments of the present invention, charging and precipitation may be performed as shown at step 120 in the same reactor system 1 shown in FIG. 而在本发明的其他实施方案中,这两个步骤可在单独的反应器中进行,以便水先在充气反应器(即气-液或气-液-固接触器)中被充以CO2,所得充入了CO2的水然后在单独的反应器中经受沉淀条件。 And, these two steps may be performed in other embodiments of the present invention in a separate reaction vessel, so that the water in the first reactor, the inflator (i.e., gas - liquid or gas solid contact - - liquid) is charged with CO2, the resulting a CO2 charged water is then subjected to precipitation conditions in a separate reactor. [0154] 在自所述水产生含碳酸盐的沉淀物质后,可如图1中所示在步骤140处将所得沉淀物质(即所得CO2截存组分)与一些或全部母液分离以产生分离的沉淀物质。 [0154] After the water generated from the carbonate-containing precipitation material, may be as shown in Figure 1, at step 140 the resultant precipitation material (i.e. CO2 sequestering component obtained) with some or all of the mother liquor separated to produce separated precipitation material. 沉淀物质的分离可用任何合宜的方法实现,包括机械方法,例如其中大量过量的水通过例如重力自身或施加真空机械挤压从沉淀物质排出、通过过滤分离沉淀物质与母液而产生滤液等。 Separating the precipitated material by any convenient method implemented, including mechanical methods, for example where a large excess of water, for example, by applying a vacuum or gravity itself mechanically extruding material discharged from the precipitate, and generated precipitate was isolated by filtration and the filtrate like substance from the mother liquor. 对于本发明中可用的用于大量水去除的示例性系统和方法,参见2009年3月10日提交的美国临时专利申请61/158,992、2009年4月9日提交的61/168,166、2009年4月16日提交的61/170,086、2009 年5 月14 日提交的61/178,475、2009 年7 月24 日提交的61/228,210、2009年7月30日提交的61/230,042和2009年9月2日提交的61/239,429,其各通过引用结合到本文中。 For a number of exemplary systems and methods for removal of water useful in the present invention, see U.S. Provisional Patent No. 10 March 2009, filed 61 / 158,992, 61/168, 166 April 9, 2009, filed , April 16, 2009, filed 61 / 178,475,2009 on July 24 filed 61 / 228,210, July 30, 2009 filed 61 / 170,086,2009 on May 14 filed 61 / 230,042 and 61 / 239,429 September 2, 2009 submitted their respective incorporated herein by reference. 大量水的分离将产生湿的脱水沉淀物质(即碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的脱水CO2截存组分)。 Separating a large amount of water will produce a wet, dewatered precipitation material (i.e., a dehydration carbon footprint concrete composition to reduce the CO2 sequestering component).

[0155] 所得脱水沉淀物质可直接使用,或所得脱水沉淀物质可经进一步干燥。 [0155] The resultant dewatered precipitation material may be used directly, or the resultant dewatered precipitation material may be further dried. 在一些实施方案中,所得脱水沉淀物质可直接使用。 In some embodiments, the resultant dewatered precipitation material may be used directly. 直接使用所得脱水沉淀物质在需要一定量的水的应用中可能是合宜的。 The resultant dewatered precipitation material directly in the required amount of water may be convenient application. 在非限制性的实例中,可将脱水沉淀物质与普通波特兰水泥混合,其中脱水沉淀物质提供水泥混合料的水化和浇筑所需的至少部分水。 In a non-limiting example, it may be dewatered precipitation material mixed with ordinary Portland cement, wherein the dewatered precipitation material provides at least part of the water required to hydrate the cement mix and cast. 在一些实施方案中,脱水沉淀物质可含超过5%的水、超过10%的水、超过20%的水、超过30%的水、超过50%的水、超过60 %的水、超过70 %的水、超过80 %的水、超过90 %的水、或超过95 %的水。 In some embodiments, the dewatered precipitation material may contain more than 5% water, more than 10% water, more than 20% water, more than 30% water, more than 50% water, more than 60% water, more than 70% water, more than 80% water, more than 90% water, or more than 95% water. 在一些实施方案中,脱水沉淀物质将提供使用该脱水沉淀物质的应用所需的至少5%的水、至少10%的水、至少20%的水、至少30%的水、至少40%的水、至少50%的水、至少60%的水、至少70%的水、至少80%的水、至少90%的水、或至少95%的水。 In some embodiments, the dewatered precipitation material provides a desired application using the dewatered precipitation material is at least 5% water, at least 10% water, at least 20% water, at least 30% water, at least 40% water , at least 50% water, at least 60% water, at least 70% water, at least 80% water, at least 90% water, or at least 95% water. 在一些实施方案中,脱水沉淀物质将提供使用该脱水沉淀物质的应用所需的全部水。 In some embodiments, the dewatered precipitation material provides all of the water required for the application to use the dehydrated substance precipitated. 例如,脱水沉淀物质可提供脱水沉淀物质与普通波特兰水泥的水泥混合料的水化和浇筑所需的全部水。 For example, dewatered precipitation material may provide all of the water required for mixing dewatered precipitation hydration material and pouring cement and ordinary Portland cement material. 例如,沉淀物质可以经脱水以便脱水沉淀物质包含近70%的水,例如66.5%的水。 For example, precipitation material may be dehydrated to dewatered precipitation material comprises approximately 70% water, for example, 66.5% of water. 然后可将沉淀物质的淤浆与普通波特兰水泥混合以便所得水泥混合料包含80%的普通波特兰水泥和20%的沉淀物质,其中水与水泥(即普通波特兰水泥加沉淀物质)的比率为约40%。 The precipitated material may then be slurry mixed with ordinary Portland cement to the resulting cement mix comprising 80% of ordinary Portland cement and 20% of the precipitation material, wherein the water to cement (ordinary Portland cement plus i.e., precipitation material ) ratio of about 40%. 通过控制从沉淀物质移除的水的量,自沉淀物质制得的材料(如碳足迹减少的混凝土)的碳足迹也将得到控制,尤其是如果材料需要水的话。 By controlling the amount of water to remove precipitated material, the material obtained from the precipitation material (e.g., carbon footprint reduction concrete) carbon footprint will also be controlled, especially if the material is water if needed. 考虑到这一点,本文中所述任何制品材料的低、中性或负碳足迹可通过仅从沉淀物质移除所需移除的量的水而进一步减少。 With this in mind, the article described herein to any material of the low, neutral, or negative carbon footprint can be removed only by the amount of water required to remove the precipitated material is further reduced.

[0156] 如上所述,所得脱水沉淀物质也可如图1中步骤160处所示经干燥以产生制品。 [0156] As described above, the resultant dewatered precipitation material may also be a step shown in FIG. 1 was dried at 160 to produce the article. 干燥可通过空气干燥滤液实现。 Drying may be achieved by air drying the filtrate. 当滤液经空气干燥时,空气干燥可在室温或高温下进行。 When the filtrate is air dried, air drying may be carried out at room temperature or elevated temperature. 脱水沉淀物质可经空气干燥产生含低于50%的水、低于40%的水、低于30%的水、低于20%的水、低于10%的水、或低于5%的水的沉淀物质。 Dewatered precipitation material may produce dried air containing less than 50% water, less than 40% water, less than 30% water, less than 20% water, less than 10% water, or less than 5% water precipitation material. 例如,脱水沉淀物质可经空气干燥产生含30%或更少的水的沉淀物质。 For example, dewatered precipitation material may produce precipitation material containing 30% or less of water was air dried. 这样的沉淀物质可在用或不用其他加工(如高剪切混合)的情况下压碎并与其他材料如普通波特兰水泥组合产生包含水泥混合料的水化和浇筑所需的部分水的水泥混合料。 Such precipitation material may be crushed in the case without further processing (e.g. high shear mixing) or with part of the water and produce the desired mix comprising cement hydration and cast with other materials such as ordinary Portland cement combined cement mix. 干燥也可通过喷雾干燥沉淀物质实现,其中含沉淀物质的液体通过提供流过的热气(如来自发电厂的气态废物流)而干燥,例如其中液体进料被泵送经雾化器进入主干燥室中而热气作为雾化器方向的顺流或逆流通过。 Drying the precipitation material may be achieved by spray drying, wherein the liquid containing the precipitation material by a hot gas (such as gaseous waste stream from the power plant) providing a flowing and drying, e.g. where the liquid feed is pumped through an atomizer into the main drying a hot gas chamber and atomizer cocurrent or countercurrent direction through. 取决于系统的特定干燥方法,干燥站可含过滤元件、冷冻干燥结构、喷雾干燥结构等。 The system depends on the particular drying method, a drying station may contain a filter element, freeze drying structure, spray drying structure, etc.

[0157] 需要时,来自液-固分离的脱水沉淀物质可如图1的任选步骤150处所示在干燥前经洗涤。 [0157] if desired, from a liquid - solid separation dewatered precipitation material is optionally washed at step 1 150 may be dried before shown in FIG. 沉淀物质可用淡水洗涤以例如从脱水沉淀物质中除去盐(如NaCl)。 Precipitation material may be washed with fresh water, for example in the precipitation material from the dewatering remove salts (e.g., NaCl). 用后的洗涤水可根据合宜性加以处置,例如在尾矿池中处置等。 After the washing water can be disposed of in accordance with propriety and disposal of tailings pond for example.

[0158] 在步骤170处,经干燥的沉淀物质可任选经精制以例如获得所需的物理性质如粒径、表面积等或向沉淀物质中加入一种或多种组分如外加剂、骨料、辅助胶凝材料等以产生最终制品80。 [0158] At step 170, the dried precipitation material may optionally be purified, for example, to obtain the desired physical properties such as particle size, surface area, or addition of one or more components such as additives to the precipitate material, bone material, supplementary cementitious materials and the like to produce a final product 80.

[0159] 图4、5和6给出了制备CO2截存制品的方法的其他实施方案的示意图。 [0159] Figures 4, 5 and 6 shows a schematic of another embodiment of a method for preparing a CO2 sequestering products. 在图6中,CO2源直接来自发电厂烟道气。 In FIG. 6, CO2 directly from the source of power plant flue gas. 可将烟道气溶解在海水中,从而提取CO2、SO5^P NOx气体以排放出洁净空气。 Flue gas may be dissolved in seawater, thereby extracting CO2, SO5 ^ P NOx gas discharged clean air. 当溶解时,CO2将转化为碳酸并与海水中的二价阳离子(如Ca2+、Mg2+)形成碳酸盐而产生SCM和骨料,同时NO5^P SOx也被中和和截存。 When dissolved, CO2, and carbonate will be converted to the divalent cations in sea water (e.g. Ca2 +, Mg2 +) and the formation of carbonate to produce SCM aggregate, while NO5 ^ P SOx are also neutralized and sequestration. 可形成并喷雾干燥含碳酸盐(如碳酸钙和/或碳酸镁)的淤浆以产生所需粒径。 May be formed and spray dried slurry containing carbonates (such as calcium and / or magnesium carbonate) to produce the desired particle size. 过程包括精密控制氯化钠(以避免对钢筋的腐蚀作用)及产生洁净空气和因硬度降低(如钙和镁的浓度降低)而可更易于脱盐的洁净水。 Precise control process includes sodium chloride (to avoid corrosion effect on reinforcement) and produce clean air, and the rigidity and reduced (e.g., reduced concentration of calcium and magnesium) and can more easily clean desalinated water. 虽然镁被视为混凝土中不希望有的,但此MgCO3形式比通常避免的氢氧化镁(Mg(OH)2)更类似于CaCO3。 Although magnesium is regarded as undesirable in the concrete, but this form is more similar than MgCO3 generally avoided magnesium hydroxide (Mg (OH) 2) CaCO3.

[0160] 在某些实施方案中,可采用系统如图2的系统200来执行上述方法。 [0160] In certain embodiments, the system may employ the system 200 of FIG. 2 perform the above method. 图2的系统200包含含CO2的气体源230 (如来自燃煤发电厂的烟道气)。 The system 200 of FIG 2 comprises a CO2-containing gas source 230 (e.g., flue gas from coal-fired power plants). 该系统还含输送结构如管、导管或管道,其将含CO2的气体从含CO2的气体源230引导向处理器220。 The system further comprising conveying structure such as a tube, pipe or conduit, which gas containing CO2 from the CO2-containing gas source 230 is guided to the processor 220. 图2中还示出了含二价阳离子的溶液源210 (如水体、含二价阳离子的溶液槽等)。 In FIG 2 also shows a solution source 210 (such as water bodies, the solution tank containing a divalent cation and the like) containing divalent cation. 在一些实施方案中,含二价阳离子的溶液源210含输送结构如管、导管或管道,其将含二价阳离子的溶液(如含碱土金属离子的水溶液)引导向处理器(220)。 In some embodiments, the solution containing a divalent cation source 210 containing transport structure such as a tube, pipe or conduit, which a solution containing divalent cations (e.g., an aqueous solution containing alkaline earth metal ions) is guided to the processor (220). 在含二价阳离子的溶液源为海水时,输送结构与海水源流体连通(例如,输入为从海水到陆上系统的管线或进给,或输入为海上系统中船体中的入口)。 When a solution containing a divalent cation source is water, sea water delivery structure in fluid communication with (e.g., input from water to land line system or feed, or the marine system input inlet hull).

[0161] 提供给处理器或其部件(如气-液接触器、气-液-固接触器等)的二价阳离子水溶液可通过再循环泵再循环以便含CO2的气体(如包含CO2、SOx> NOx、金属和含金属的化合物、粒状物质等)的吸收在处理器内的气-液接触器或气-液-固接触器内得到优化。 [0161] provided to a processor or a member (such as a gas - liquid contactor, gas - liquid - solid contacting, etc.) in an aqueous solution of divalent cations may be recycled to the CO2-containing gas (e.g., through a recirculation pump comprising CO2, SOx > the NOx absorbent, metal and metal-containing compounds, particulate matter, etc.) of the gas within the processor - to optimize the solid contactor - liquid contactor or gas - liquid. 有或没有再循环时,本发明的处理器或其部件(如气-液接触器、气-液-固接触器等)可实现含CO2的气体中至少25%、50%、70%或90%的CO2的溶解。 With or without recirculation, the processor or components thereof (such as a gas - liquid contactor, gas - liquid - solid contact, etc.) of the present invention may be implemented in the CO2-containing gas is at least 25%, 50%, 70%, or 90 % of dissolved CO2. 其他气体(如SOx)的溶解可能甚至更高,例如至少95 %、98%或99 %。 Other dissolved gases (e.g., SOx) may be even higher, such as at least 95%, 98% or 99%. 提供含CO2的气体的最佳吸收的其他参数包括0.1-30、1-20、3-20或5-2001^的比表面积;0.05-2,0.1-1,0.1-0.5 或0.1-0.3cm/s 的液体侧传质系数(KL);和0.01-10,0.1-8,0.3-6或0.6-4.0s—1的体积传质系数(Ia)。 CO2-containing gas to provide other parameters comprises 0.1-30,1-20,3-20 or optimal absorption specific surface area of ​​5-2001 ^; 0.05-2,0.1-1,0.1-0.5 or 0.1-0.3cm / s liquid side mass transfer coefficient (KL); and a volumetric mass transfer coefficient (Ia) 0.01-10,0.1-8,0.3-6 or 0.6-4.0s-1 is. 在一些实施方案中,二价阳离子的水溶液对含CO2的气体的吸收将使至少部分沉淀物质在气-液接触器中沉淀。 In some embodiments, the aqueous solution of divalent cations absorption of CO2-containing gas will at least partially precipitated material in a gas - liquid contactor in precipitation. 在一些实施方案中,沉淀主要在处理器的沉淀器中发生。 In some embodiments, the precipitation occurs mainly in the settler processor. 处理器在提供使沉淀物质沉淀的结构的同时还可提供初步沉降措施(即处理器可充当沉降罐)。 Providing a processor precipitated precipitated material while also providing the initial configuration of the settlement measures (i.e., the processor may serve as a settling tank). 无论提供沉降与否,处理器均可向脱水进给泵提供沉淀物质的淤浆,脱水进给泵再将沉淀物质的淤浆提供给液-固分离器,沉淀物质和沉淀反应混合物将在液-固分离器处得到分离。 Whether or not to provide settlement, the processor may provide the dewatering precipitation material feed pump to a slurry, dewatered precipitation material feed pump and then supplied to the slurry liquid - solid separator, the precipitation reaction mixture, and the precipitated material in the fluid - solid separator to give separated at.

[0162] 处理器220可还含大量不同部件中的任一种,包括但不限于温度调节器(如配置以加热沉淀反应混合物至所需温度)、化学添加剂组分(如以引入质子去除化学剂如氢氧化物、金属氧化物或粉煤灰)、电化学部件(如阴极/阳极)、机械搅动和/或物理搅拌机械装置的部件、和用于使工厂烟道气再循环通过沉淀装置的部件。 [0162] The processor 220 may further contain any of a number of different components, including but not limited to, a temperature regulator (e.g., configured to heat the reaction mixture to precipitate the desired temperature), the chemical additive component (e.g., to introduce a proton-removing chemical agents such as hydroxides, metal oxides or fly ash), electrochemical means (e.g., a cathode / anode), mechanical agitation and / or physical means of mechanical stirring means, and a plant for flue gas recirculated through the sedimentation device member. 处理器220可还含配置以监测一个或多个参数的部件,所述参数包括但不限于反应器内部压力、pH、沉淀物质粒径、金属离子浓度、传导率、碱度和pC02。 The processor 220 may contain further configured to monitor one or more parameters of the components, the parameters include but are not limited to the internal pressure of the reactor, pH, particle size of the precipitated material, metal ion concentration, conductivity, alkalinity and pC02. 处理器220可与整个沉淀装置一致地以间歇方式、半间歇方式或连续地运行。 The processor 220 may be in a batch mode, semi-batch or continuous operation consistent with the overall settling device.

[0163] 处理器220还含用于包含沉淀物质的淤浆或分离出的上清液的输出传送装置。 Output conveying means supernatant [0163] The processor 220 also contains a substance slurry comprises precipitated or separated. 在一些实施方案中,输出传送装置可配置以向尾矿池(以便处置)或天然存在的水体如洋、海、湖泊或河流输送淤浆或上清液。 In some embodiments, the transfer device may be configured to output to a tailings pond (for disposal) or naturally occurring body of water, such as ocean, sea, lake or river or transport slurry supernatant. 在其他实施方案中,系统可配置为通过沉淀系统和工厂间的管线使所述淤浆或上清液可用作工厂的冷却剂。 In other embodiments, the system may be configured by a precipitation line between the system and plant the slurry is used as a cooling agent or supernatant plant. 在某些实施方案中,沉淀装置可与脱盐装置布置在同一地点,以便来自沉淀装置的输出水用作脱盐装置的输入水。 In certain embodiments, the device may be precipitated desalination device disposed at the same location, so that the output from the water precipitated water desalination apparatus as an input device. 系统可含传送装置(如导管),经由这样的传送装置,输出水(如淤浆或上清液)可被直接泵送到脱盐装置中。 The system may contain delivery device (e.g., catheter), via such transmission means output water (e.g., slurry or supernatant) can be pumped directly desalination devices.

[0164] 图2中所示系统还含液-固分离器240以将沉淀物质从沉淀反应混合物中分离开来。 [0164] In the system shown in FIG. 2 further comprising a liquid - solid separator 240 to the precipitated material from the precipitation reaction mixture to carve away. 液-固分离器可通过排水(例如沉淀物质的重力沉降后排水)、倾析、过滤(如重力过滤、真空过滤、使用强制空气过滤)、离心、挤压或其任意组合实现沉淀物质从沉淀反应混合物的分离。 Liquid - solid separator through a drain may be (e.g., precipitation material gravitational settling after drainage), decantation, filtration (e.g., gravity filtration, vacuum filtration, using a forced air filtration), centrifugation, pressing, or any combination thereof from the precipitate precipitation material the reaction mixture was separated. 至少一个液-固分离器与处理器有效连接,以便沉淀反应混合物可自处理器流向液-固分离器。 At least one liquid - solid separator operatively connected to the processor, in order to precipitate the reaction mixture can flow from the processor liquid - solid separator. 可以任意布置(如平行、串联或其组合)组合地使用任何许多不同的液固分离器中,沉淀反应混合物可直接流向液-固分离器或沉淀反应混合物可经预处理。 It may be arranged in any (e.g., parallel, serial, or combinations thereof) in combination with any number of different solid-liquid separator, the precipitation reaction mixture can flow directly to the liquid - solid separator or precipitation reaction mixture may be pretreated.

[0165] 系统200还含洗涤器(250),来自液固分离器240的大量脱水沉淀物质在干燥站(例如干燥器260)处干燥前先在这里得到洗涤(例如以从沉淀物质中除去盐和其他溶质)。 [0165] The system further comprising a scrubber (250) 200, substantially dehydrated liquid-solid separation 240 from the precipitation material in the drying station (e.g., dryer 260) before drying at first obtained here was washed (e.g. to remove salt from the precipitate material and other solutes).

[0166] 系统可还含干燥器260以干燥处理器中产生的包含碳酸盐(如碳酸钙、碳酸镁)、碳酸氢盐或其组合的沉淀物质。 [0166] The system may further comprise containing carbonates (such as calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate) in a dryer 260 to dry the processor generated, bicarbonates, or a combination of precipitation material. 根据特定的系统,干燥器可含过滤元件、冷冻干燥结构、喷雾干燥结构等。 According to a particular system, the dryer may contain a filter element, freeze drying structure, spray drying structure, etc. 系统可含连接工厂与干燥器的传送器(如导管)以便可使含CO2的气体(如工厂烟道气)在干燥阶段中与湿的沉淀物质直接接触。 Conveyor (catheter) may contain connection factory system in order to allow the dryer CO2-containing gas (e.g., flue gas plant) in direct contact with the wet precipitation material in the drying stage.

[0167] 经干燥的沉淀物质可在精制站270处经进一步加工(如研磨、铣磨)以获得所需物理性质。 [0167] The dried precipitation material may be purified at station 270 is further processed (e.g., grinding, milling) to obtain the desired physical properties. 如果沉淀物质将用作建筑材料的话,可在精制过程中向沉淀物质中加入一种或多种组分。 If the precipitation material used as a building, it may be one or more components added to the precipitate material in the refining process.

[0168] 系统还含配置以从如下之一者或多者移除沉淀物质的出口传送器(如传送带、淤浆泵):处理器、干燥器、洗涤器或精制站。 [0168] system is further configured to remove containing precipitation material from the outlet as one or more conveyor (such as conveyor belts, slurry pump): a processor, a dryer, washing or purification stations. 如上所述,沉淀物质可以多种不同的方式处置。 As described above, precipitation material may be disposed of in many different ways. 可在空的运输车辆(如驳船、火车车厢、卡车等)中将沉淀物质输送到长期贮存点,长期贮存点可包括地上和地下设施。 Can empty transport vehicles (such as barges, railroad cars, trucks, etc.) in the sediment material transported to the point of long-term storage, long-term storage sites may include ground and underground facilities. 在其他实施方案中,沉淀物质可在水下位置中处置。 In other embodiments, the precipitation material may be disposed of in an underwater position. 可将沉淀物质输送到处置点的任何合宜的传送结构均可采用。 Any convenient precipitation material transfer structure may be delivered to the point of disposal may be used. 在某些实施方案中,可采用管线或类似的淤浆传送结构,其中这些结构可含用于主动泵送、重力介导流动等的单元。 In certain embodiments, pipeline or the like may be employed slurry transport structures, wherein these can be used to contain the active pumping, like the flow cell mediated gravity.

[0169] 本领域技术人员应认识,本文中所述系统和方法的流率、传质和传热可不同并可优化,且发电厂寄生负荷可降低而同时碳截存得到最大化。 [0169] Those skilled in the art will recognize, the flow rate of the system and method described herein, heat and mass transfer may be different and to optimize and reduce plant parasitic load while carbon sequestration maximized.

[0170] 可凝固组合物 [0170] The settable compositions

[0171] 本发明的其他方面涉及含本发明的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物与水的组合的可凝固组合物。 [0171] Other aspects of the present invention relates to a carbon footprint containing composition of the present invention to reduce the concrete composition with water settable composition. 本发明的可凝固组合物可通过同时合并混凝土组合物和水或通过预先合并混凝土和骨料、然后合并所得干组分与水来产生。 Settable compositions of the invention may be incorporated by the concrete composition and water simultaneously by pre-merger or concrete and aggregate, and then the resultant combined dry ingredients with water to produce.

[0172] 干组分可与之合并而产生可凝固组合物如混凝土的液相如水流体可不同并可根据需要为纯水或含一种或多种溶质、添加剂、共溶剂等的水。 [0172] dry component may produce a composition settable fluid such as liquid water may be different and may be concrete or water containing one or more solutes, additives, such as co-solvents combined with water as needed. 干组分与可凝固组合物的制备中所合并的液相的比率可不同,在某些实施方案中在2: 10-7: 10范围内,例如3: 10-6: 10,包括4: 10-6: 10。 The ratio of dry ingredients prepared settable composition in the combined liquid phase may vary, in certain embodiments at 2: 10-7: 10 in the range of, for example, 3: 10-6: 10, 4 comprising: 10-6: 10.

[0173] 当前的水泥标准如ASTM C150允许在波特兰水泥制造中用细磨石灰石代替部分熟料。 [0173] Current standards such as ASTM C150 cement allow the finely ground limestone to replace part of the Portland cement clinker manufacture using. 在ASTM C150情形下,最大许可百分数为5%。 In the case of ASTM C150, the maximum allowable percentage of 5%. 在一些欧洲标准中,在制备波特兰水泥中以石灰石作为熟料的替代品的许可百分数要高些,常为10%但有时高达30%。 In some European standard, the percentage of the license to the manufacture of Portland cement clinker as a replacement for the limestone to be higher, usually 10% and sometimes up to 30%. 在这些情况下,石灰石可单独磨细并与波特兰水泥拌合,但石灰石骨料也可在球磨阶段加到熟料中并与熟料和少量石膏相互研磨产生波特兰水泥。 In these cases, the limestone may be ground separately and mixing with Portland cement, limestone and aggregates, but can also be added during the milling stage to produce clinker and ground Portland cement clinker and a small amount of gypsum to each other.

[0174] 来自碳截存沉淀反应的碳酸钙添加剂而非天然采出的石灰石的使用对水泥制造者有若干好处。 [0174] limestone carbon sequestration from calcium carbonate precipitation reaction additives not naturally mined There are several benefits to the cement manufacturer. 假设用所述沉淀物质代替5%的熟料,则所得混凝土的碳足迹可减少7.2 %,而在使用细磨石灰石时,碳足迹可仅减少5 %或更少。 Suppose that the precipitation material instead of 5% of clinker, the resulting carbon footprint concrete can be reduced by 7.2%, while the use of finely ground limestone, carbon footprint can be reduced only 5% or less. 考虑到波特兰水泥工业面临的减少碳足迹的压力,比使用采出的石灰石多减少的这2.2%的碳足迹具有相当大的价值。 Considering the pressure to reduce carbon footprint of the Portland cement industry faces than using mined limestone more than 2.2% of this reduction in the carbon footprint of considerable value.

[0175] 使用沉淀碳酸钙作为熟料替代品的另一好处在于其通常比采出的石灰石更纯净。 [0175] Another advantage of using precipitated calcium carbonate as a clinker substitute is generally more pure than in its recovery limestone. 在许多情况下,因杂质降低所得波特兰水泥的性质,故石灰石中的杂质将限制该石灰石的用量至低于最大许可量。 In many cases, due to the nature of the impurities resulting decrease of Portland cement, limestone and therefore to limit the amount of impurities in the limestone below the maximum allowable amount. 在某些波特兰水泥厂中,使用当地采出的石灰石的能力限制于或许2.0%。 In some Portland cement plants, the ability to use locally mined limestone is limited to perhaps 2.0%. 以5%的量采用碳截存沉淀碳酸钙将带来碳足迹减少5.2% (2.0%到7.2% )的改进。 In an amount of 5% of precipitated calcium carbonate using carbon sequestration will lead to reduced carbon footprint 5.2% (2.0% to 7.2%) improvement.

[0176] 使用碳截存沉淀碳酸钙所带来的波特兰水泥碳足迹的减少还具有因碳信用(carbon credit)而潜在地产生附加收入的好处。 [0176] sequestering carbon precipitated calcium carbonate brought Portland cement further reduce the carbon footprint has the benefit of potentially generating additional revenue due to carbon credits (carbon credit). 因为所加材料(即便其为采出的石灰石)将减少使用的熟料的量,故有因水泥厂减排而获得碳信用的可能。 Because of the added material (even though it is taken out of the limestone) will reduce the amount of clinker used, because it is possible to obtain a cement plant emissions of carbon credits. 沉淀物质中截存的0)2可用于提高因熟料减少而可得到的碳信用的量和值。 The precipitate material sequestering 0) 2 can be used to increase the volume and the value obtained by reducing the clinker carbon credits.

[0177] 实用性 [0177] Applicability

[0178] 本发明的混凝土及含本发明的混凝土的可凝固组合物可用于多种不同的应用中,特别是作为建筑或结构材料。 [0178] settable concrete and the concrete containing composition of the present invention of the present invention may be used in many different applications, particularly as building or construction materials. 本发明的可凝固组合物可用于的特定结构包括但不限于:路面、建筑结构(如建筑物、地基、汽车道/道路、立交桥、停车场、砖/块墙)和门、栅栏和立柱、桥、地基、堤、坝的立足处。 Specific structure settable compositions of the present invention may be used include, but are not limited to: pavement, architectural structures (e.g., buildings, foundations, automobile road / roads, overpasses, parking, brick / block wall) and the door, and the fence post, bridge footing, foundation, embankment, dam. 本发明的灰浆可用于将结构砌块如砖砌合在一起及填充结构砌块间的间隙。 Mortar present invention can be used as the structural block, and brick together filling the gaps between the structural block. 灰浆还可用来修补现有结构,例如以代替其中原来的灰浆已受损或受蚀的部分等用途。 Mortar also be used to repair an existing structure, for example, to replace the original mortar which has been damaged or corroded portions purposes.

[0179] 本发明的实施方案可用于减少建造建筑物及然后使用建筑物中生成的CO2的量。 [0179] Embodiments of the invention may be used in the construction of buildings, and then reducing the amount of CO2 generated in the building. 具体而言,本发明的方法可减少建筑材料如混凝土的生产中CO2的生成。 Specifically, the method of the present invention may reduce the production of building materials such as concrete generated CO2. 此外,本发明的方法可减少发电中CO2的排放,这将在其使用期限内减少与使用建筑物相关的CO2排放。 Further, the method of the present invention can reduce the emission of CO2 from power generation, which will reduce CO2 emissions associated with the use of the building in its lifetime.

[0180] 本发明的方法和系统可用于CO2截存,特别是通过截存在建筑环境中。 [0180] The method and system of the present invention may be used in CO2 sequestration, particularly by the presence of truncated built environment. 截存CO2包括从气态流如气态废物流移除或隔离CO2并将其固定到稳定的非气态形式中以便CO2不能逃逸进大气中。 Sequestering CO2 from a gaseous stream comprising a gaseous waste stream, such as CO2 removal and isolation or fixed to a stable non-gaseous form so that CO2 can not escape into the atmosphere. CO2截存包括将CO2置于贮存稳定的形式中,例如建筑环境的部件如建筑物、道路、坝、堤、地基等。 CO2 sequestering CO2 is disposed comprising a shelf-stable form, for example as part of the built environment buildings, roads, dams, embankment, foundations and the like. 因此,根据本发明的方法的CO2截存将防止CO2气体进入大气而以CO2不变为大气的一部分的方式长期贮存co2。 Thus, according to the method of the CO2 sequestering the present invention will prevent the CO2 gas into the atmosphere with CO2 does not become a part of the long-term storage of atmospheric CO2. 贮存稳定的形式指可在暴露的条件下(即暴露于大气、地下水环境等)贮存在地上或水下达较长时间如I年或更长、5年或更长、10年或更长、25年或更长、50年或更长、100年或更长、250年或更长、1000年或更长、10,000年或更长、1,000,000年或更长、或甚至100,000,000年或更长而无显著的(如果有的话)降解的物质形式。 Refers to the form of storage-stable under the conditions of exposure (i.e., exposed to the atmosphere, ground water environment, etc.) stored in the ground or water for a long time as I released years or longer, 5 years or longer, 10 years or longer, 25 years or longer, 50 years or longer, 100 years or longer, 250 years or longer, 1000 years or longer, 10,000 years or longer, 1, 000, 000 years or longer, or even 100 , 000, 000 years or more without significant (if any) degradable material form. 随着贮存稳定的形式在贮存过程中发生少许(如果有的话)降解,以自制品释放的CO2气体量度的降解(如果有的话)的量将不超过5%/年,在某些实施方案中将不超过1% /年。 With little storage stable during storage occurs in the form (if any) degrade, to measure the degradation products from the CO2 gas released (if any) will not exceed an amount of 5% / year, in some embodiments scheme will not exceed 1% / year. 地上贮存稳定的形式可以是在各种不同的环境条件如-100°c到600°C的温度、0-100%的湿度下贮存稳定的,其中所述条件可以是平和的、多风的、狂暴的或多风暴的。 Ground storage stable form may be in a variety of environmental conditions such as a temperature of -100 ° c to 600 ° C and a humidity of 0-100%, storage-stable, wherein the condition may be calm, windy, more violent storms. 类似地,水下贮存稳定的形式对水下环境条件稳定。 Similarly, storage-stable form stable underwater underwater ambient conditions. 本发明的方法的实施方案可用来捕获工业过程如发电、水泥生产、化学生产、造纸及钢厂等的所有废co2。 Embodiment of the method of the present invention can be used to capture all the industrial process waste co2 power generation, cement manufacturing, chemical manufacturing, paper mills and the like.

[0181] 下面的实施例为向本领域技术人员提供关于如何实现和使用本发明的完整公开和描述而给出,而非意在限制本发明的范围或意在表示下面的实施方案为所进行的所有或唯一实验。 [0181] The following examples are to provide those skilled in the art how to make and use a complete disclosure and description of the invention given, not intended to limit the scope of the invention or is intended to represent the following embodiment is performed all or the only experiments. 已努力确保所用数值(如量、温度等)的精确性,但应考虑到一定的实验误差和偏差。 Efforts have been made to ensure that with respect to numbers (e.g., amounts, temperature, etc.) accuracy, it is contemplated that certain experimental errors and deviations.

[0182] 本文中提及的所有实施例及条件性语言主要意在帮助读者理解本发明的原理及本发明人为促进本领域的发展所提出的概念,并应理解为不限于这类具体提及的实施例和条件。 [0182] All examples and conditional language referred to herein are principally intended to aid the reader in understanding the principles of the present invention and the present invention facilitates development of the concept man skilled in the raised, and to be understood as limited to such specific reference the examples and conditions. 此外,本文中提及本发明的原理、方面和实施方案以及其具体实例的所有陈述意在涵盖其结构和功能等价物。 Further, the principles of the present invention referred to herein, the statement is intended that all aspects and embodiments thereof, and specific examples encompass both structural and functional equivalents thereof. 另外,这类等价物意在包括目前已知的等价物和未来发展的等价物即发展出的实现相同功能的任何元件而不管结构如何。 Further, such equivalents are intended to include any element to achieve the same functionality is currently known equivalents and equivalents developed in the future development, i.e., regardless of structure. 本发明的范围因此不限于本文中所示及所述的示例性实施方案,因为这类实施方案仅作为实例给出。 The scope of the invention is therefore not limited to the embodiment and the exemplary embodiment illustrated herein, since such embodiments are merely given as examples. 确实,本领域技术人员可能想到数值变化、改变和替代而不偏离本发明的范围。 Indeed, this may occur to those skilled value variations, changes and substitutions without departing from the scope of the invention. 下面的权利要求意在限定本发明的范围且这些权利要求的范围内的方法和结构及其等价物由此涵盖。 Methods and structures and their equivalents within the scope of the following claims are intended to define the invention and the scope of these claims be covered thereby.

[0183] 实施例 [0183] Example

[0184] 1.碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的组分 Component [0184] 1. reduction in carbon footprint concrete composition

[0185] A.辅助胶凝矿物外加剂(SCMA) [0185] A. supplementary cementitious mineral admixture (the SCMA)

[0186] 辅助胶凝矿物外加剂(SCMA)为常规SCMs的部分或完全替代物,其可与波特兰水泥拌合以显著减少混凝土的碳足迹,同时提高混凝土的品质、强度和耐久性。 [0186] supplementary cementitious mineral admixture (the SCMA) SCMs conventional partial or complete replacement, it may mix with Portland cement to significantly reduce the carbon footprint concrete, while improving the quality of concrete, strength and durability. SCMA为反应性外加剂,其可替代大体积的水泥或粉煤灰,使耐久性增加而无例如早期强度损失的问题。 SCMA reactive additives, which can replace a large volume of cement or fly ash, so that no problems such as increased durability of the early loss of strength. SCMA可如美国专利申请12/126,776以及美国临时专利申请61/088,347和61/101,626中所述制备;其各通过引用结合到本文中。 SCMA can 12 / 126,776 and U.S. Provisional Patent Application 61 / 101,626 prepared 61 / 088,347 and U.S. Patent Application; each of which is incorporated herein by reference.

[0187] 1.FTIR [0187] 1.FTIR

[0188] FTIR使用激光激发和测定材料中键的振动。 [0188] FTIR measurement using laser excitation and vibration of the material bond. 使用这种方法可了解材料中存在的化合物。 This method can be used to understand the compounds present in the material. 图7中示出了普通波特兰水泥浆(OPC)和含20%的SCMA与80%的OPC的混合浆之间未水化和水化(在7天时)的比较。 Figure 7 shows the hydrated and unhydrated (7 days) Comparison between normal portland cement slurry (OPC) and SCMA containing 20% ​​and 80% of a mixed slurry of OPC. 虽然不尽相同,但SCMA可以是许多制品的基础和构件并代表所有制品的基本化学组成。 Although not the same, but the article can be many SCMA and base member and substantially representative of the chemical composition of all the products. 在上图中,中心位于1450CHT1的大带表明了SCMA中碳酸盐的大量存在。 In the figure, a large band centered 1450CHT1 indicates the presence of a large amount of carbonate SCMA. 3694CHT1和2513CHT1处的峰表明了SCMA的水化。 Peak 3694CHT1 and 2513CHT1 at the SCMA show hydration. 对于水化的拌合SCMA,可以看到858CHT1处的峰减小,872CHT1处的峰变锐,且712(^1处的坡度也变锐。这些振动模式位置与方解石的形成相符。在水泥混合料中,上面提到的2342CHT1处的峰不再存在,这是制品再水化时预期将发生的情况。存在对应于Mg(OH)2的OH伸缩振动峰(3694cm—1),但与OPC的水化相比,Ca (OH)2的形成(3644CHT1处的峰)看起来被抑制。对于水化的0PC,由于水泥的碳化,故可在1481CHT1和1426CHT1处观察到明显的C032_振动模式。Ca(OH)2在3644cm—1处具有大峰,其也对应于OH伸缩振动。 For SCMA mixing hydration, can be seen at the peak 858CHT1 reduced, sharpening 872CHT1 at peak, and 712 (1 ^ gradient becomes sharp at formed positions consistent with these vibration modes and calcite in cement mix compound, at peak 2342CHT1 mentioned above no longer exist, which is the case when the rehydrated product is expected to occur. exist corresponding to Mg (OH) OH stretching vibration peak (3694cm-1) 2, but with the OPC (3644CHT1 at the peak) as compared to, Ca (OH) 2 to form hydrated appears to be suppressed for 0PC hydration, since cement carbonation, it can be clearly observed at 1481CHT1 C032_ vibration mode and 1426CHT1 .Ca (OH) 2 at 3644cm 1-in having a large peak, which also corresponds to OH stretching vibration.

[0189] i1.XRD [0189] i1.XRD

[0190] XRD以不同的角度散射X-射线束来测定样品的反射。 [0190] XRD reflection of the sample was measured at different scattering angles X- ray beam. 反射将返回指纹而可识别特定的化合物。 The return reflection fingerprints to identify a particular compound. 从XRD (参见图8和图9)可对水化OPC和拌合SCMA作大量观察:[0191].0PC和拌合SCMA中均存在钙矾石和羟钙石。 From XRD (see FIGS. 8 and 9) may OPC hydration and mixing for large SCMA observation: [0191] .0PC and mixing both SCMA presence of ettringite and calcium hydroxyalkyl stone.

[0192].SCMA中存在方解石,而所形成的羟钙石的量显著降低20%。 The presence of calcite [0192] .SCMA, whereas the amount of the hydroxyl calcium stone formation is significantly reduced by 20%.

[0193].7天后,SCMA表现出少许或没有岩盐(NaCl)或水镁石的迹象,这满足关于氯化钠控制的ACI 318标准。 [0193] .7 days, the SCMA exhibit no or rock salt (NaCl) or little sign of brucite, which satisfies the ACI 318 standards for sodium chloride control.

[0194].SCMA给出方解石中的Mg耗尽的证据。 [0194] .SCMA gives evidence of Mg calcite depleted.

[0195].SCMA中的硅酸钙相看起来也消耗较快。 [0195] .SCMA calcium silicate phase appears to be consumed rapidly.

[0196] ii1.SEM 图像 [0196] ii1.SEM image

[0197] SEM图像(图10)表明水化OPC和拌合SCMA浆均具有与针状钙矾石相似的形态并在水泥颗粒表面上形成CSH。 [0197] SEM image (FIG. 10) shows that SCMA slurry mixing and hydration OPC has a needle-like morphology similar to ettringite and CSH formed on the surface of cement particles.

[0198] iv.X-射线荧光光谱(XRF) [0198] iv.X- ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF)

[0199] [0199]

Figure CN101939269BD00351

[0200] 表1:本发明的SCM的XRF元素分析 [0200] Table 1: SCM present invention XRF elemental analysis

[0201] V.粒径分析(PSA) [0201] V. particle size analysis (PSA)

[0202] 本发明的SCM的粒径分析表明中值粒径为10.86361微米、平均粒径为11.26930微米。 [0202] SCM present invention, a particle diameter analysis showed a median particle size micron 10.86361, 11.26930 microns average particle size.

[0203] v1.SCMA是反应性的 [0203] v1.SCMA is reactive

[0204] 如图11中所示,SCMA是反应性的。 [0204] As shown in FIG. 11, SCMA is reactive.

[0205] vi1.SCM 形态 [0205] vi1.SCM form

[0206] 图12给出了SCM形态。 [0206] FIG. 12 shows the shape SCM.

[0207] B.减碳外加剂(CRA) [0207] B. Save carbon admixture (CRA)

[0208] CRA既为矿物外加剂又为细骨料,其粒径与砂差不多。 [0208] CRA mineral admixtures and of both fine aggregate, sand and similar particle size. CRA将CO2截存在混凝土中并赋予设计者通过在混合料设计中代替部分或全部细骨料而不对水泥作任何替代即创造出碳中性或碳负性混凝土的潜能。 The presence of CO2 CRA cut concrete and gives designers to replace a portion or all of the fines in the mix designs without any cement to create a potential alternative i.e. carbon-neutral or carbon negative concrete. CRA按美国临时专利申请61/056,972中描述的方法生产;其公开通过引用结合到本文中。 CRA Method according to U.S. Provisional Patent Application 61 / 056,972 describes production; the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

[0209] C.粗骨料(AGG) [0209] C. Aggregate (AGG)

[0210] 粗骨料(AGG)可代替混合料中的部分或全部普通粗骨料。 [0210] Coarse Aggregate (AGG) mix can replace some or all of the ordinary coarse aggregate. AGG使设计者可不对水泥作任何替代即创造出碳中性或碳负性的混凝土而保持混凝土的强度。 AGG allows the designer may not be any alternative to cement to create concrete i.e., negative or neutral carbon-carbon while maintaining the strength of concrete. AGG CRA按美国临时申请61/056,972中描述的方法生产;其公开通过引用结合到本文中。 AGG CRA Method according to U.S. Provisional Application 61 / 056,972 describes production; the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

[0211] D.来自海水的沉淀物质 [0211] D. precipitation material from seawater

[0212] 搅动海水(900加仑)并通过经位于1000加仑加盖塑料槽底部的气体扩散器鼓入55scfm含10%二氧化碳(其余为空气)的气流酸化。 [0212] agitated water (900 gallons) and acidified with 10% carbon dioxide gas flow (the remainder being air) through the through-containing 1,000 gallons located capped plastic tank bottom bubbled gas diffuser 55scfm. 监测pH,当pH从约pH8降至pH5.5-6时停止气体扩散。 Monitoring the pH, diffusion of gas is stopped when the pH was reduced from about pH5.5-6 pH8. 向经酸化的搅动着的海水中加入含一些方解石和二氧化硅的来自工业尾矿池的氢氧化镁(lg/L) ;pH升至约pH8。 It was added to a stirred solution of acidified water containing some of calcite magnesium hydroxide and silica from industrial tailings ponds (lg / L); pH is raised to about pH8. 重新启动气体扩散,直至pH降至pH7,其后停止气流。 The gas diffusion restart until the pH was lowered to pH 7, followed by stopping the airflow. [0213] 以10%的淤浆形式以递增的剂量按下面的重复方式向所述酸性海水中总共加入22kg氢氧化镁:向搅动着的海水中加入氢氧化镁淤浆直至pH增至pH8。 [0213] 10% slurry in increasing dosage form in the following manner was repeated a total of 22kg of magnesium hydroxide was added to the acidic seawater: magnesium hydroxide slurry was added to a stirred until the pH of the seawater increased pH8. 重新启动含10%二氧化碳的气体输送直至搅动着的海水的PH返回pH7。 Restart with 10% carbon dioxide gas delivery stirring until the PH of the water return pH7. 停止气体输送,加入淤浆直至pH返回pH8。 The gas delivery is stopped, the slurry was added until the pH returned pH8. 在耗完22kg氢氧化镁后,通过含10%二氧化碳的气体的扩散使搅动着的海水的pH降至pH 7,其后停止气体输送。 After depletion 22kg magnesium hydroxide, containing 10% carbon dioxide by diffusion of the pH of the gas is reduced to a stirred water pH. 7, the gas delivery is stopped thereafter. 向搅动着的海水中加入约43kg 50% (w/w)的NaOH(水溶液)直至海水的PH达到ρΗΙΟ.15。 To a stirred water was added to about 43kg 50% (w / w) of NaOH (aq) until PH reached seawater ρΗΙΟ.15. 所得沉淀物质在重力下分离,然后过滤以与上清液分离。 The resulting precipitate material was separated under gravity and then filtered to separate the supernatant. 滤饼于110°C烘箱干燥,然后球磨。 The filter cake was dried in an oven at 110 ° C, and then milling.

[0214] 沉淀物质表征 [0214] Characterization of precipitated material

[0215] X-射线荧光光谱(XRF)数据(表2)表明沉淀物质主要由碳酸镁和碳酸钙组成。 [0215] X- ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) data (Table 2) shows that the precipitated material is mainly composed of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate.

[0216] [0216]

Figure CN101939269BD00361

[0217] 表2:沉淀物质的XRF元素分析 [0217] Table 2: XRF elemental analysis of the material precipitated

[0218] [0218]

Figure CN101939269BD00362

[0219] 表3:C02百分含量(库仑分析法) [0219] Table 3: C02 percentage (coulometry)

[0220] 沉淀物质的X-射线衍射(XRD)和热重分析(TGA/DTG)表明存在水菱镁矿和霰石(CaCO3)作为主要相、岩盐(NaCl)作为微量组分。 [0220] The precipitation material X- ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA / DTG) showed the presence of hydromagnesite and aragonite (CaCO3) as a main phase, halite (NaCl) as a minor component. 对沉淀物质的XRD与水菱镁矿、霰石和水菱镁矿的标准加以比较。 XRD of the precipitation material and hydromagnesite, aragonite and compare the standard hydromagnesite. TGA/DTG在257 °C和412 °C处给出指示水菱镁矿的拐点/峰,且TGA/DTG在707°C处给出指示霰石的拐点/峰。 TGA / DTG gives an indication of inflection hydromagnesite / peak at 257 ° C and at 412 ° C, and TGA / DTG aragonite gives an indication of the inflection point / peak at 707 ° C. 该结果也得到了红外光谱(IR)的证实(红外光谱用来为霰石、水菱镁矿和沉淀物质中的各个生成组合图)。 This result also confirmed infrared spectroscopy (IR) of (IR used to generate various combinations FIG aragonite, magnesite and water in the precipitation material). 这样的沉淀物质可用于生产本发明的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物。 Such precipitation material may be used for the carbon footprint of the present invention reduces the production of concrete compositions.

[0221] E.来自海水的沉淀物质 [0221] E. water from the precipitation material

[0222] 搅动海水(900加仑)并通过经位于1000加仑加盖塑料槽底部的气体扩散器鼓入55scfm含10%二氧化碳(其余为空气)的气流酸化。 [0222] agitated water (900 gallons) and acidified with 10% carbon dioxide gas flow (the remainder being air) through the through-containing 1,000 gallons located capped plastic tank bottom bubbled gas diffuser 55scfm. 监测pH,当pH从约pH8降至pH5.5-6时停止气体扩散。 Monitoring the pH, diffusion of gas is stopped when the pH was reduced from about pH5.5-6 pH8. 向经酸化的搅动着的海水中加入氢氧化镁(lg/L) ;pH升至约pH8。 Magnesium hydroxide (lg / L) To a stirred solution of acidified seawater; the pH is raised to about pH8. 重新启动气体扩散,直至PH降至pH7,其后停止气流。 The gas diffusion restart until PH dropped to pH 7, followed by stopping the airflow. 然后以递增的剂量按下面的重复方式向所述搅动着的海水中总共加入30kg 50% (w/w)的NaOH(水溶液):向搅动着的海水中加入NaOH直至pH增至pH8。 Then increasing the dose according to the following iterative manner to a stirred water was added a total of 30kg 50% (w / w) of NaOH (aq): NaOH was added to a stirred until the pH of the seawater increased pH8. 重新启动含10% 二氧化碳的气体输送直至搅动着的海水的pH返回PH7。 Restart with 10% carbon dioxide gas delivery stirring until the pH of the seawater return PH7. 停止气体输送,加入NaOH直至pH返回pH8。 The gas delivery is stopped, NaOH was added until the pH returned pH8. 在耗完30kg 50% (w/w)的NaOH(水溶液)后,通过含10%二氧化碳的气体的扩散使搅动着的海水的pH降至pH7,其后停止气体输送。 After depletion 30kg 50% (w / w) of NaOH (aq), containing 10% carbon dioxide by diffusion of the gas causes the pH of the water is reduced to a stirred pH 7, followed by stopping the gas delivery. 向搅动着的海水中加入约37kg50% (w/w)的NaOH(水溶液)直至海水的pH达到ρΗΙΟ.15。 To a stirred water was added about 37kg50% (w / w) of NaOH (aq) until pH reaches seawater ρΗΙΟ.15. 所得沉淀物质在重力下分离,然后过滤以与上清液分离。 The resulting precipitate material was separated under gravity and then filtered to separate the supernatant. 滤饼在淡水中再淤浆化,喷雾干燥,然后球磨。 The filter cake was reslurried in fresh water, spray drying, and milling.

[0223] 沉淀物质表征 [0223] Characterization of precipitated material

[0224] X-射线荧光光谱(XRF)数据(表4)表明沉淀物质主要由碳酸镁和碳酸钙组成。 [0224] X- ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) data (Table 4) shows that the precipitated material is mainly composed of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate. [0225] [0225]

Figure CN101939269BD00371

[0226] 表4:沉淀物质的XRF元素分析 [0226] Table 4: precipitate XRF elemental analysis of the material

[0227] [0227]

Figure CN101939269BD00372

[0228] 表5:C02百分含量(库仑分析法) [0228] TABLE 5: C02 percentage (coulometry)

[0229] 沉淀物质的X-射线衍射(XRD)和热重分析(TGA/DTG)表明存在三水菱镁矿(MgCO3.3Η20)和霰石(CaCO3)作为主要相、岩盐(NaCl)作为微量组分。 [0229] The precipitation material X- ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA / DTG) indicated the presence of nesquehonite (MgCO3.3Η20) and aragonite (CaCO3) as a main phase, halite (NaCl) as a minor group Minute. 对沉淀物质的XRD与三水菱镁矿和霰石的标准加以比较。 XRD precipitation of substances to be compared with the Sanshui magnesite and aragonite standards. TGA/DTG在132 °C、364°C、393 °C和433 °C处给出指示三水菱镁矿的拐点/峰,且TGA/DTG在697°C处给出指示霰石的拐点/峰。 Inflection TGA / DTG at 132 ° C, 364 ° C, 393 ° C and 433 ° C gives an indication of the inflection nesquehonite / peak and TGA / DTG give an indication of the aragonite at 697 ° C / peak . 该结果也得到了红外光谱(IR)的证实(红外光谱用来为三水菱镁矿、霰石和沉淀物质中的各个生成组合图)。 This result also confirmed infrared spectroscopy (IR) of (IR used to generate various combinations FIG nesquehonite, aragonite, and in the precipitation material). 这样的沉淀物质可用于生产本发明的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物。 Such precipitation material may be used for the carbon footprint of the present invention reduces the production of concrete compositions.

[0230] 来自海水的沉淀物质 [0230] precipitation material from seawater

[0231] 在200,000加仑的开口容器中混合海水(76,000加仑),做法是用两个泵泵送其内容物经过两条管线并以向上的圆形轨迹将所述内容物返回槽中。 [0231] In the mixed seawater in the opening of the container 200,000 gallons (76,000 gallons), approach is to use two pumps the contents thereof via two lines and a circular track of the contents of the upward return chute in. 通过位于槽底中的扩散器向海水中扩散二氧化碳气体(100% )以降低pH至约pH5.5。 By the groove bottom located in the diffuser diffused into seawater carbon dioxide gas (100%) to lower the pH to approximately pH5.5. 将含一些方解石和二氧化硅的来自尾矿池的约800kg氢氧化镁用海水淤浆化并在池滤砂器这一运行前提基础上通过再循环设备注入所述开口容器中。 Some calcite and silica containing about 800kg of magnesium hydroxide from seawater tailings ponds and slurried basic premise that run on the pool sand filter container through a recirculation opening devices injection. 加入氢氧化镁后,停止100%二氧化碳气体的输送。 After addition of magnesium hydroxide, stopping the flow of gas is 100% carbon dioxide. 然后通过再循环管线加入苛性(50% (w/w))NaOH(水溶液)直至淤浆的pH为pH9.5。 Caustic was then added (50% (w / w)) through the recirculation line pH NaOH (aq) until the slurry is pH9.5. 然后将淤浆转移至沉降池,倾析去上清液并收集重力沉降固体以进行喷雾干燥。 The slurry was then transferred to a settling tank, the supernatant was decanted and the solid was collected by gravity settling to spray drying. 将淤浆喷雾干燥并从喷雾干燥器的主室收集。 The slurry was spray-dried and collected from the spray drier main chamber.

[0232] 沉淀物质表征 [0232] Characterization of precipitated material

[0233] X-射线荧光光谱(XRF)数据(未示出)表明沉淀物质主要由碳酸镁和碳酸钙组成。 [0233] X- ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) data (not shown) showed the precipitated material mainly composed of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate.

[0234] [0234]

Figure CN101939269BD00373

[0235] 表6:C02百分含量(库仑分析法) [0235] Table 6: C02 percentage (coulometry)

[0236] 沉淀物质的X-射线衍射(XRD)和热重分析(TGA/DTG)表明存在三水菱镁矿(MgCO3.3H20)和单水方解石(CaCO3.H2O)作为主要相、霰石(CaCO3)和岩盐(NaCl)作为微量组分。 [0236] The precipitation material X- ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA / DTG) indicated the presence of nesquehonite (MgCO3.3H20) and calcite monohydrate (CaCO3.H2O) as a main phase, aragonite (CaCO3 ) and rock salt (NaCl) as a minor component. 对沉淀物质的XRD与三水菱镁矿、霰石和单水方解石的标准加以比较。 The XRD of the precipitation material and nesquehonite, standard aragonite and calcite monohydrate are compared. TGA/DTG在136°C、187°C和421°C处给出指示三水菱镁矿的拐点/峰,且TGA/DTG在771°C处给出指示霰石和单水方解石的拐点/峰。 TGA / DTG at 136 ° C, 187 ° C and 421 ° C gives an indication of the inflection nesquehonite / peak and TGA / DTG gives an indication of aragonite and calcite single inflection water / at a peak at 771 ° C . 该结果也得到了红外光谱(IR)的证实(红外光谱用来为三水菱镁矿、霰石、单水方解石和沉淀物质中的各个生成组合图)。 This result also confirmed infrared spectroscopy (IR) of (IR used to generate various combinations FIG nesquehonite, aragonite, calcite and monohydrate in precipitation material). 这样的沉淀物质可用于生产本发明的碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物。 Such precipitation material may be used for the carbon footprint of the present invention reduces the production of concrete compositions.

[0237] I1.碳足迹对比 [0237] I1. Footprint Comparative

[0238] 下面为因使用本发明的制品而预期减少相应碳足迹的混合料设计。 [0238] The following is a corresponding reduction in the carbon footprint resulting from the use of the mix design and the intended article of the present invention. 混凝土的碳足迹通过用各组元的每立方码磅数乘其每磅碳足迹、对这些值求和再加10.560kg/yd3(l码混凝土运输20英里的平均碳足迹)算出。 Carbon footprint concrete per pound of carbon footprint by multiplying each component by the pounds per cubic yard, these values ​​are summed together 10.560kg / yd3 (l average carbon footprint concrete transport code 20 miles) is calculated.

[0239] 运输足迹: [0239] transportation footprint:

[0240] •欧洲委员会已发布通过卡车运输(骨料、水泥和混凝土)的数字为160g CO2/公吨材料/km。 [0240] • The European Commission has published a digital trucking (aggregate, cement and concrete) is 160g CO2 / tonne material / km. 水泥经海路从亚洲船运至加利福尼亚的碳足迹已估计为0.150磅CO2每磅海运物。 The carbon footprint of cement by sea from Asia have been shipped to California was estimated at 0.150 lbs CO2 per pound shipping material.

[0241 ] •假定将骨料搬运50英里的平均距离并假定产生的碳足迹为0.03磅CO2/磅骨料,则骨料的平均碳足迹约为0.043磅CO2/磅骨料。 [0241] • it is assumed that the average distance of 50 miles and assuming conveying aggregate footprint produced 0.03 lbs CO2 / lb aggregate, the aggregate average carbon footprint of about 0.043 lbs CO2 / lb aggregate.

[0242].粉煤灰和矿渣以铁路方式运输穿越整个州的碳足迹已估计为仅0.020磅每磅粉煤灰。 [0242] ash and slag are transported by rail through the carbon footprint throughout the state have been estimated at only 0.020 lbs per pound of ash. 假定粉煤灰或矿渣以货车方式运输平均100英里,则常规SCMs的碳足迹将为约0.045磅CO2/磅粉煤灰或矿渣。 Assuming that fly ash or slag in a truck transported an average of 100 miles, the conventional SCMs carbon footprint will be about 0.045 lbs CO2 / lbs of fly ash or slag. [0243] 生产足迹: [0243] production footprint:

[0244] •假定来自波特兰水泥生产的平均CO2释放量为0.86公吨CO2/公吨水泥(据加利福尼亚Cement Climate Action Team的报道),则每磅波特兰水泥的生产的碳足迹为0.86磅。 [0244] • Assuming that the average CO2 emissions from Portland cement production of 0.86 metric tons of CO2 / tonne of cement (according to California Cement Climate Action Team report), the production of carbon footprint per pound of Portland cement was 0.86 pounds. 假定平均运输距离为100英里,每磅波特兰水泥的运输足迹为0.016磅,故每磅波特兰水泥的总碳足迹为0.876膀CO2。 Assuming an average transport distance of 100 miles per pound of Portland cement transport footprint of 0.016 pounds per pound of Portland cement so that a total carbon footprint 0.876 bladder CO2.

[0245] 减碳量: [0245] Less amount of carbon:

[0246].材料如SCMA、CRA和AGG截存的CO2含量约略为50%,其对应-0.500磅CO2每磅材料的碳足迹。 [0246] Materials such as SCMA, CRA and sequestering CO2 content AGG roughly 50%, which corresponds to -0.500 lbs per pound CO2 footprint material. 生产和运输的碳足迹(假定以货车方式运输平均100英里的距离)约为0.050磅CO2每磅材料。 Production and transport carbon footprint (assuming transported in trucks average distance of 100 miles) per pound of material is about 0.050 lbs CO2. 因此总的碳足迹为-0.450磅CO2每磅材料。 Therefore, the total carbon footprint -0.450 pounds CO2 per pound of material.

[0247] A.100% OPC 混合料 [0247] A.100% OPC mix

Figure CN101939269BD00381
Figure CN101939269BD00391

[0249] 表7:碳足迹为630.18磅C02/yd3混凝土的混凝土组合物 [0249] Table 7: 630.18 lbs carbon footprint concrete composition C02 / yd3 concrete

[0250] 此典型6-袋混凝土混合料实施例的碳足迹为630磅每立方码。 [0250] 6- bags of this exemplary carbon footprint concrete mixes of Example 630 pounds per cubic yard. 要以生物方式减轻此碳排放需要种植直径一英尺、高27英尺的树。 To mitigate this biologically emissions need to be planted one foot in diameter, 27 feet tall tree. 每10码负荷折合种植10棵这样的树的小树林! 10 yards per equivalent load grove 10 such planting trees!

[0251] B.高粉煤灰(5O % )混合料 [0251] B. High Ash (5O%) Mixture

[0252] [0252]

Figure CN101939269BD00392

[0253] 表8:碳足迹为395.84磅C02/yd3混凝土的混凝土组合物 [0253] Table 8: 395.84 lbs carbon footprint concrete composition C02 / yd3 concrete

[0254] 50%替代以粉煤灰的此典型6-袋混凝土混合料实施例的碳足迹为395磅每立方码,比直接的6-袋波特兰水泥混合料的碳足迹减少37%。 [0254] In this exemplary alternative of 50% fly ash bags 6 carbon footprint concrete mixes embodiment of embodiment 395 pounds per cubic yard, 6 bags than direct mix Portland cement 37% reduction in carbon footprint.

[0255] C.具有改进的工作性能的减碳混合料 [0255] C. Save carbon having improved performance mix

[0256] [0256]

Figure CN101939269BD00393
Figure CN101939269BD00401

[0257] 表9:碳足迹为386.44磅C02/yd3混凝土的混凝土组合物 [0257] Table 9: 386.44 lbs carbon footprint concrete composition C02 / yd3 concrete

[0258] 含20 %的SCMA、20 %的粉煤灰和60 %的OPC的此典型6_袋混凝土混合料实施例的碳足迹为386磅每立方码,比50% 0PC/50%粉煤灰的混合料的碳足迹少2%。 Carbon footprint [0258] SCMA containing 20%, 20% fly ash and 60% of this exemplary OPC concrete mix bags 6_ embodiment 386 pounds per cubic yard, more than 50% 0PC / 50% pf ash carbon footprint mix 2% less. 该混合料将获得较少的碳足迹而没有50%粉煤灰混合料的凝结时间和早期强度问题,如图3中所示。 The mixture will get fewer carbon footprint without problems setting time and early strength of fly ash mixture 50%, as shown in FIG.

[0259] D.含6袋OPC的碳中性混合料 [0259] D. 6 carbon neutral mix bags containing the OPC

[0260] [0260]

Figure CN101939269BD00402

[0261 ] 表10:碳足迹为494.06磅C02/yd3混凝土的混凝土组合物 [0261] Table 10: to 494.06 lbs carbon footprint concrete composition C02 / yd3 concrete

[0262] 此碳中性的6-袋混凝土混合料实施例使用CRA替代部分细骨料。 [0262] This carbon neutral 6- bag concrete mix portion of an alternative embodiment using CRA fines.

[0263] E.0PC被大量替代并具有改进的加工性能的碳中性混合料 [0263] E.0PC is largely replaced with improved processability carbon neutral mix

[0264] [0264]

Figure CN101939269BD00403
Figure CN101939269BD00411

[0265] 表11:碳足迹为-3.96磅C02/yd3混凝土的混凝土组合物 [0265] Table 11: Carbon footprint -3.96 lb C02 / yd3 concrete concrete composition

[0266] 此碳中性的6-袋混凝土混合料实施例使用CRA替代部分细骨料,并使用了SCMA和粉煤灰,替代水平各为20%。 [0266] This carbon neutral 6- bag concrete mix CRA alternate embodiment uses part of the fine aggregate, fly ash and using the SCMA, each 20% replacement level.

[0267] 所关心的其他混合料包括: [0267] Other mixtures of interest include:

[0268] [0268]

Figure CN101939269BD00412

[0269] 表12:碳足迹为293磅C02/yd3混凝土的混凝土组合物 [0269] Table 12: 293 lbs carbon footprint concrete composition C02 / yd3 concrete

[0270] [0270]

Figure CN101939269BD00413
Figure CN101939269BD00421

[0271 ] 表13:碳足迹为386.7磅C02/yd3混凝土的混凝土组合物 [0271] Table 13: 386.7 lbs carbon footprint concrete composition C02 / yd3 concrete

[0272] [0272]

Figure CN101939269BD00422

[0273] 表14:碳足迹为-0.9磅C02/yd3混凝土的混凝土组合物 [0273] Table 14: -0.9 pounds of carbon footprint concrete composition C02 / yd3 concrete

[0274] [0274]

Figure CN101939269BD00423
Figure CN101939269BD00431

[0275] 表15:碳足迹为-0.8磅C02/yd3混凝土的混凝土组合物 [0275] Table 15: -0.8 pounds of carbon footprint concrete composition C02 / yd3 concrete

[0276] F.高碳捕获混合料 [0276] F. carbon capture Mixture

[0277] [0277]

Figure CN101939269BD00432

[0278] 表16:碳足迹为-1,168.86磅C02/yd3混凝土的混凝土组合物 [0278] Table 16: Carbon footprint -1,168.86 lb C02 / yd3 concrete concrete composition

[0279] 该碳截存混凝土通过使用本发明的材料作为粗骨料和细骨料的替代物并各以 [0279] The sequestering carbon material of the invention by the use of concrete as fine aggregate and coarse aggregate and alternatives to each

20%的替代水平使用SCMA和粉煤灰而表现出高碳捕获混凝土的潜力。 20% fly ash replacement level using the SCMA and exhibit the potential for carbon capture concrete. 每10码该混合料的 The mixture of 10 yards per

负荷等价于种植19棵直径I英尺、高27英尺的树! Planting load equivalent to I 19 feet in diameter, 27 feet tall tree!

[0280] 下面给出其他的高碳捕获配方: [0280] Here are other carbon capture recipe:

[0281] [0281]

Figure CN101939269BD00433
Figure CN101939269BD00441

[0282] 表17:碳足迹为-1,119.47磅C02/yd3混凝土的混凝土组合物 [0282] Table 17: -1,119.47 carbon footprint concrete composition pounds C02 / yd3 concrete

[0283] [0283]

Figure CN101939269BD00442

[0284] 表18:碳足迹为-1,146磅C02/yd3混凝土的混凝土组合物 [0284] Table 18: -1,146 pound carbon footprint concrete composition C02 / yd3 concrete

[0285] [0285]

Figure CN101939269BD00443
Figure CN101939269BD00451

[0286] 表19:碳足迹为1,145磅C02/yd3混凝土的混凝土组合物 [0286] Table 19: 1,145 lbs footprint C02 / yd3 concrete concrete composition

[0287] 虽然前面已为清楚理解本发明的目的通过示意和实例略为详细地描述了本发明,但显而易见的是,本领域技术人员可按本发明的公开对其作某些改变和修改而不偏离附随的权利要求书的精神或范围。 [0287] While the foregoing has been for the purpose of a clear understanding of the present invention by illustrative examples and the present invention is described in some detail, it will be apparent that those skilled in the art can be made thereto disclosure of the present invention that certain changes and modifications without the spirit or scope of the appended claims deviates from rights.

[0288] 因此,前面的内容仅示意了本发明的原理。 [0288] Therefore, the foregoing is merely illustrative of the principles of the invention. 应理解,本领域技术人员将能想出各种本文中虽未明确描述或示出但体现本发明的原理并包括在其精神和范围内的方案。 It should be understood that those skilled in the art will be able to devise various herein, although not explicitly described or shown herein, embody the principles of the present invention and are included within its spirit and program scope. 此外,本文中提及的所有实施例及条件性语言主要意在帮助读者理解本发明的原理及本发明人为促进本领域的发展所提出的概念,并应理解为不限于这类具体提及的实施例和条件。 Furthermore, all examples and conditional language referred to herein are principally intended to aid the reader in understanding the principles of the present invention and the present invention facilitates development of the concept man skilled proposed, and should be understood as not limited to such specifically mentioned examples and conditions. 此外,本文中提及本发明的原理、方面和实施方案以及其具体实例的所有陈述意在涵盖其结构和功能等价物。 Further, the principles of the present invention referred to herein, the statement is intended that all aspects and embodiments thereof, and specific examples encompass both structural and functional equivalents thereof. 另外,这类等价物意在包括目前已知的等价物和未来发展的等价物即发展出的实现相同功能的任何元件而不管结构如何。 Further, such equivalents are intended to include any element to achieve the same functionality is currently known equivalents and equivalents developed in the future development, i.e., regardless of structure. 本发明的范围因此不限于本文中所示及所述的示例性实施方案。 The scope of the invention is therefore not limited to the embodiment and the exemplary embodiment shown herein. 相反,本发明的范围和精神由附随的权利要求书体现。 Rather, the scope and spirit of the invention as claimed by the appended claims reflects the book.

Claims (18)

  1. 1.一种生产碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物的方法,所述方法包括: a)自含二价阳离子的溶液和包含CO2的工业废气产生合成的碳酸盐组分,其中所述合成的碳酸盐组分的δ 13C低于-10%。 A method for producing a reduced-carbon footprint concrete composition, said method comprising: a) from a solution containing divalent cations and an industrial waste gas containing CO2 produced synthetic carbonate component, wherein said synthetic carbon δ 13C salt component is less than 10%. ; b)将所述合成的碳酸盐组分与母液分离以产生经分离的合成的碳酸盐组分,其中所述合成的碳酸盐组分包括六方碳钙石;和c)向碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物中引入所述合成的碳酸盐组分。 ; B) Synthesis of the carbonate component to produce a separated mother liquor separated synthetic carbonate component, wherein the carbonate component include synthetic vaterite; and c) the carbon the synthetic carbonate component footprint reduction concrete composition is introduced.
  2. 2.权利要求1的方法,其中所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物比普通混凝土组合物的碳足迹少。 The method of claim 1, wherein said reduced carbon footprint concrete composition is less than ordinary carbon footprint concrete composition.
  3. 3.权利要求2的方法,其中所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物具有的碳足迹低于普通混凝土组合物的75 %。 The method of claim 2, wherein said reduced carbon footprint concrete compositions having less than 75% of the normal carbon footprint concrete composition.
  4. 4.权利要求1的方法,其中所述碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物具有负碳足迹。 The method of claim 1, wherein said reduced carbon footprint concrete composition having a negative carbon footprint.
  5. 5.权利要求4的方法,其中所述负碳足迹低于1000磅CO2 / yd3所述减少的混凝土组合物。 The method of claim 4, wherein said negative carbon footprint of less than 1000 lbs CO2 / yd3 concrete composition of the reduction.
  6. 6.权利要求1的方法,其中所述合成的碳酸盐组分为辅助胶凝材料、细骨料、粗骨料或活性火山灰质材料。 6. The method of claim 1, wherein the synthetic carbonate component supplementary cementitious material, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, or active pozzolanic material.
  7. 7.权利要求1的方法,其中所述合成的碳酸盐组分还包括方解石、无定形碳酸钙、霰石、水碳镁石、水菱镁矿、单水方解石或其组合。 The method of claim 1, wherein said component further comprises a synthetic calcite carbonate, amorphous calcium carbonate, aragonite, nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, monohydrate calcite or combinations thereof.
  8. 8.权利要求1的方法,其中所述合成的碳酸盐组分的S13C低于-20%。 The method of claim 1, S13C carbonate wherein the synthetic component is less than 20%. .
  9. 9.一种通过权利要求1的方法产生的碳足迹减少的组合物。 9. A method as claimed in claim 1 produced by the carbon footprint reduction composition.
  10. 10.权利要求1的方法,其还包括将合成的碳酸盐组分与普通波特兰水泥混合以形成碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物。 10. The method of claim 1, further comprising a synthetic carbonate component with ordinary Portland cement to form a reduced-carbon footprint concrete compositions.
  11. 11.权利要求10的方法,其还包括加入选自以下的组分:高炉矿渣、粉煤灰、硅藻土、天然或人造火山灰、硅灰、石灰石、石膏、熟石灰。 11. The method of claim 10, further comprising adding a component selected from: blast furnace slag, fly ash, diatomaceous earth, natural or artificial pozzolan, silica fume, limestone, gypsum, slaked lime.
  12. 12.权利要求1的方法,其还包括将至少20% w / w合成的碳酸盐组分加入碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物中。 12. The method of claim 1, further comprising at least 20% w / w synthetic carbonate component is added to reduce the carbon footprint concrete composition.
  13. 13.权利要求1的方法,其还包括将合成的碳酸盐组分与骨料混合以形成碳足迹减少的混凝土组合物。 13. The method of claim 1, further comprising a carbonate salt components are mixed with aggregate to form synthetic reduce the carbon footprint concrete compositions.
  14. 14.权利要求1的方法,其中所述工业废气包括来自工厂的CO2,所述工厂选自发电厂、化学加工厂、机械加工厂、精炼厂、水泥厂、钢厂和作为燃料燃烧或其他加工步骤的副产物产生CO2的其他工厂。 14. The method of claim 1, wherein the industrial waste gas comprising CO2 from the plant, the plant is selected from plants, chemical processing plants, mechanical processing plants, refineries, cement plants, steel mills and burned as a fuel or other processing steps the by-products of other factories CO2.
  15. 15.权利要求1的方法,其中所述含二价阳离子的溶液获自工业废物、淡水、微咸水、海水、盐水、硬水、岩石和矿物。 15. The method of claim 1, wherein the divalent cation-containing solution obtained from industrial waste, fresh water, brackish water, seawater, brines, hard water, rocks and minerals.
  16. 16.权利要求1的方法,其还包括用质子去除剂产生合成的碳酸盐组分。 16. The method as claimed in claim 1, further comprising a synthetic carbonate component produced by proton-removing agents.
  17. 17.权利要求16的方法,其中所述质子去除剂为氢氧化物。 17. The method of claim 16, wherein the proton-removing agent is a hydroxide.
  18. 18.权利要求1的方法,所述方法还包含在步骤b)之后将所述合成的碳酸盐组分干燥以形成经干燥的合成的碳酸盐组分。 After 18. The method of claim, the method further comprises in step b) the synthetic carbonate component is dried to form a dried synthesized carbonate component.
CN 200980101147 2008-09-30 2009-10-22 Reduced-carbon footprint concrete compositions CN101939269B (en)

Priority Applications (23)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10764508 true 2008-10-22 2008-10-22
US61/107,645 2008-10-22
US11048908 true 2008-10-31 2008-10-31
US61/110,489 2008-10-31
US11614108 true 2008-11-19 2008-11-19
US61/116,141 2008-11-19
US11754208 true 2008-11-24 2008-11-24
US61/117,542 2008-11-24
US14835309 true 2009-01-29 2009-01-29
US61/148,353 2009-01-29
US14961009 true 2009-02-03 2009-02-03
US14964009 true 2009-02-03 2009-02-03
US61/149,610 2009-02-03
US61/149,640 2009-02-03
US22588009 true 2009-07-15 2009-07-15
US61/225,880 2009-07-15
US23425109 true 2009-08-14 2009-08-14
US61/234,251 2009-08-14
US24604209 true 2009-09-25 2009-09-25
US61/246,042 2009-09-25
US12571398 US7771684B2 (en) 2008-09-30 2009-09-30 CO2-sequestering formed building materials
US12/571,398 2009-09-30
PCT/US2009/061748 WO2010048457A1 (en) 2008-10-22 2009-10-22 Reduced-carbon footprint concrete compositions

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN101939269A true CN101939269A (en) 2011-01-05
CN101939269B true CN101939269B (en) 2014-08-06

Family

ID=42119690

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN 200980101147 CN101939269B (en) 2008-09-30 2009-10-22 Reduced-carbon footprint concrete compositions

Country Status (4)

Country Link
EP (1) EP2352706A4 (en)
CN (1) CN101939269B (en)
CA (1) CA2694988C (en)
WO (1) WO2010048457A1 (en)

Families Citing this family (27)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CA2659447C (en) 2007-05-24 2010-08-03 Calera Corporation Hydraulic cements comprising carbonate compound compositions
US20100239467A1 (en) 2008-06-17 2010-09-23 Brent Constantz Methods and systems for utilizing waste sources of metal oxides
EP2118004A4 (en) 2007-12-28 2010-03-31 Calera Corp Methods of sequestering co2
WO2010009273A1 (en) 2008-07-16 2010-01-21 Calera Corporation Co2 utilization in electrochemical systems
US7993500B2 (en) 2008-07-16 2011-08-09 Calera Corporation Gas diffusion anode and CO2 cathode electrolyte system
US9061940B2 (en) 2008-09-30 2015-06-23 Calera Corporation Concrete compositions and methods
EP2200948A4 (en) 2008-09-30 2014-09-03 Calera Corp Co2-sequestering formed building materials
US7815880B2 (en) 2008-09-30 2010-10-19 Calera Corporation Reduced-carbon footprint concrete compositions
US8869477B2 (en) 2008-09-30 2014-10-28 Calera Corporation Formed building materials
US9133581B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2015-09-15 Calera Corporation Non-cementitious compositions comprising vaterite and methods thereof
EP2245215A4 (en) 2009-02-10 2011-04-27 Calera Corp Low-voltage alkaline production using hydrogen and electrocatlytic electrodes
CN101977842A (en) 2009-03-02 2011-02-16 卡勒拉公司 Gas stream multi-pollutants control systems and methods
US20110247336A9 (en) 2009-03-10 2011-10-13 Kasra Farsad Systems and Methods for Processing CO2
US8906156B2 (en) 2009-12-31 2014-12-09 Calera Corporation Cement and concrete with reinforced material
WO2011081681A1 (en) 2009-12-31 2011-07-07 Calera Corporation Methods and compositions using calcium carbonate
GB201014577D0 (en) 2010-09-02 2010-10-13 Novacem Ltd Binder composition
US8691175B2 (en) 2011-04-28 2014-04-08 Calera Corporation Calcium sulfate and CO2 sequestration
CN103635428B (en) 2011-04-28 2017-02-15 卡勒拉公司 Calcium carbonate and stabilizers to methods and compositions
JP6183961B2 (en) 2011-05-19 2017-08-23 カレラ コーポレイション A method using an electrochemical hydroxides systems and metal oxide
US9200375B2 (en) 2011-05-19 2015-12-01 Calera Corporation Systems and methods for preparation and separation of products
US8999057B2 (en) 2011-09-28 2015-04-07 Calera Corporation Cement and concrete with calcium aluminates
EP2692691A1 (en) * 2012-07-31 2014-02-05 Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique Magnesite and hydromagnesite preparation process
CN104812466A (en) 2012-09-04 2015-07-29 蓝色星球有限公司 Carbon sequestration methods and systems, and compositions produced thereby
WO2015017585A1 (en) 2013-07-31 2015-02-05 Calera Corporation Electrochemical hydroxide systems and methods using metal oxidation
US9902652B2 (en) 2014-04-23 2018-02-27 Calera Corporation Methods and systems for utilizing carbide lime or slag
US9957621B2 (en) 2014-09-15 2018-05-01 Calera Corporation Electrochemical systems and methods using metal halide to form products
US9880124B2 (en) 2014-11-10 2018-01-30 Calera Corporation Measurement of ion concentration in presence of organics

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2329940A (en) 1940-12-12 1943-09-21 Missouri Portland Cement Co Manufacture of cement
US5624493A (en) 1995-04-19 1997-04-29 The United States Of America As Represented By The Department Of Energy Quick-setting concrete and a method for making quick-setting concrete
US20070186820A1 (en) 2006-02-15 2007-08-16 Lafarge Canada Inc. Binder for mine tailings, alluvial sand and the like

Family Cites Families (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CA2090088C (en) * 1992-02-26 1995-07-25 Pierre Marc Fouche Production of purified calcium carbonate
WO2000010691A1 (en) * 1998-08-18 2000-03-02 United States Department Of Energy Method and apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide
US20020040664A1 (en) * 2000-07-25 2002-04-11 Marco Tiziana De Inorganic cohesion agent for self-compacting cement pastes
US20050103234A1 (en) * 2003-10-21 2005-05-19 Mcnulty William Jr. Cementitious composition
WO2006008242A1 (en) * 2004-07-19 2006-01-26 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Process for producing caco3 or mgco3
DE112007000739A5 (en) * 2006-01-18 2008-12-24 Osing, Dirk A. CO2 usage, binding, consumption

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2329940A (en) 1940-12-12 1943-09-21 Missouri Portland Cement Co Manufacture of cement
US5624493A (en) 1995-04-19 1997-04-29 The United States Of America As Represented By The Department Of Energy Quick-setting concrete and a method for making quick-setting concrete
US20070186820A1 (en) 2006-02-15 2007-08-16 Lafarge Canada Inc. Binder for mine tailings, alluvial sand and the like

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
WO2010048457A1 (en) 2010-04-29 application
EP2352706A4 (en) 2011-11-16 application
CN101939269A (en) 2011-01-05 application
EP2352706A1 (en) 2011-08-10 application
CA2694988C (en) 2011-09-20 grant
CA2694988A1 (en) 2010-04-22 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US7390444B2 (en) Carbon dioxide sequestration in foamed controlled low strength materials
US7736430B2 (en) Compositions and methods for controlling the setting behavior of cement slurries using carbonated fly ash
Bobicki et al. Carbon capture and storage using alkaline industrial wastes
US6517631B2 (en) Method of producing a coal combustion ash composition
US20080245274A1 (en) Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Foamed Controlled Low Strength Materials
Soong et al. CO2 sequestration with brine solution and fly ashes
US20100058957A1 (en) Previous concrete comprising a geopolymerized pozzolanic ash binder
US20110091366A1 (en) Neutralization of acid and production of carbonate-containing compositions
US20040129181A1 (en) Process and a plant for the production of portland cement clinker
Pan et al. CO2 capture by accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes: a review on its principles and applications
Hasanbeigi et al. Emerging energy-efficiency and CO2 emission-reduction technologies for cement and concrete production: A technical review
US20110033239A1 (en) Utilizing salts for carbon capture and storage
Gartner et al. A physico-chemical basis for novel cementitious binders
CN101182143A (en) Preparation of composite high-expansion cementing material by using industrial slag and preparation technique thereof
Ferrini et al. Synthesis of nesquehonite by reaction of gaseous CO2 with Mg chloride solution: Its potential role in the sequestration of carbon dioxide
WO2010104989A1 (en) Systems and methods for processing co2
WO2011102868A1 (en) Neutralization of acid and production of carbonate-containing compositions
CN101037306A (en) Novel high sulfur-resistant cement
JP2008239446A (en) Geopolymer composition and its production method
US7887694B2 (en) Methods of sequestering CO2
Gartner et al. A review of alternative approaches to the reduction of CO2 emissions associated with the manufacture of the binder phase in concrete
US20110226989A9 (en) Gas stream multi-pollutants control systems and methods
US7771684B2 (en) CO2-sequestering formed building materials
US20110277670A1 (en) Systems and methods for processing co2
US7931809B2 (en) Desalination methods and systems that include carbonate compound precipitation

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
C06 Publication
C10 Request of examination as to substance
C14 Granted