CN101938142A - Desert synchronization photovoltaic power generating system with solar azimuth tracking device and tracking method thereof - Google Patents

Desert synchronization photovoltaic power generating system with solar azimuth tracking device and tracking method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101938142A
CN101938142A CN201010265388XA CN201010265388A CN101938142A CN 101938142 A CN101938142 A CN 101938142A CN 201010265388X A CN201010265388X A CN 201010265388XA CN 201010265388 A CN201010265388 A CN 201010265388A CN 101938142 A CN101938142 A CN 101938142A
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tracking
photovoltaic
weight average
zigbee
electric weight
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CN101938142B (en
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王慧芬
徐晓忻
叶建锋
何姗
吴明光
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Zhejiang University ZJU
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Zhejiang University ZJU
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02B90/20Smart grids as enabling technology in buildings sector
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion systems, e.g. maximum power point trackers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S40/00Systems for electrical power generation, transmission, distribution or end-user application management characterised by the use of communication or information technologies, or communication or information technology specific aspects supporting them
    • Y04S40/12Systems for electrical power generation, transmission, distribution or end-user application management characterised by the use of communication or information technologies, or communication or information technology specific aspects supporting them characterised by data transport means between the monitoring, controlling or managing units and monitored, controlled or operated electrical equipment
    • Y04S40/126Systems for electrical power generation, transmission, distribution or end-user application management characterised by the use of communication or information technologies, or communication or information technology specific aspects supporting them characterised by data transport means between the monitoring, controlling or managing units and monitored, controlled or operated electrical equipment using wireless data transmission
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S40/00Systems for electrical power generation, transmission, distribution or end-user application management characterised by the use of communication or information technologies, or communication or information technology specific aspects supporting them
    • Y04S40/12Systems for electrical power generation, transmission, distribution or end-user application management characterised by the use of communication or information technologies, or communication or information technology specific aspects supporting them characterised by data transport means between the monitoring, controlling or managing units and monitored, controlled or operated electrical equipment
    • Y04S40/128Systems for electrical power generation, transmission, distribution or end-user application management characterised by the use of communication or information technologies, or communication or information technology specific aspects supporting them characterised by data transport means between the monitoring, controlling or managing units and monitored, controlled or operated electrical equipment involving the use of Internet protocol

Abstract

The invention discloses a desert synchronization photovoltaic power generating system with a solar azimuth tracking device and a tracking method thereof. The system comprises a local range ZigBee wireless network, a TD-SCDMA (Time Division-Synchronization Code Division Multiple Access) public network and a remote monitoring center. The ZigBee wireless network comprises 1-N ZigBee nodes of a photovoltaic power generating subsystem and a ZigBee coordinator of a photovoltaic power generating main system, and the ZigBee coordinator is also used as a ZigBee/TD-SCDMA gateway; working condition data of a power generating system are classified according to the operation and maintenance requirements or uploaded through a TD-SCDMA in real time or temporarily stored in the coordinator to be acquired in an off-line way by an inspector during the inspection; the remote monitoring center sets sunny, cloudy and rainy working modes of the tracking device and the rough and fine tracking accuracy in the sunny mode; astronomy tracking and tracking on generated energy of the photovoltaic power generating system are adopted in the solar azimuth tracking device; and a stepping motor and a step subdividing technology are adopted in the mechanical drive of the solar azimuth tracking device. The tracking device is merged into the photovoltaic power generating system, therefore, the reliability and the tracking accuracy of the system are improved and the operation and maintenance cost is lowered.

Description

The desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system and the tracking thereof that have the solar azimuth tracking means
Technical field
The solar azimuth that the present invention relates to photovoltaic generating system is followed the tracks of, and relates in particular to a kind of desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system and tracking thereof that has the solar azimuth tracking means.
Background technology
Along with China's sustained and rapid development of economy, energy supply situation day is becoming tight, no matter be to increase domestic energy supply or utilize foreign resources, all face immense pressure, the quick growth of energy demand is to Gong amount, the environment ability to take the burden of resource, and national energy security has all proposed stern challenge.In August, 2007, " the medium-term and long-term development plan of Chinese regenerative resource " (hereinafter to be referred as " planning ") issuing and implementation, " planning " is devoted to the utilization of the renewable energy resources, develops the substitute of fossil energy with all strength.Wherein, solar energy has reserves and enriches, need not transportation, pollution-free three big advantages and extensively being paid close attention to, and " planning " clear and definite desert generates electricity by way of merging two or more grid systems and is the emphasis of photovoltaic generation; But solar energy also has two shortcomings: the one, and energy density is low; The 2nd, the uncertainty of intensity and direction, and the intrinsic intermittence of illumination.In a word, photovoltaic generation industrialization basis is better, and what need to be resolved hurrily is the too high difficult problem of cost.
The energy output of grid-connected photovoltaic system depends on the efficient of solar irradiance, solar panel and inverter.The transformation efficiency of commercialization cell panel is up to 15.7%-19.2%, improves very difficulty of conversion ratio under the prior art condition; The inverter conversion efficiency is up to more than 90%, and room for promotion is limited, and adopting the solar azimuth tracking technique to obtain solar energy as much as possible is the effective way that increases the photovoltaic system energy output.
At present, the sun orientation automatic tracking that uses in the photovoltaic generating system mainly contains following three kinds of methods: photoelectric tracking, and astronomical the tracking, photoelectricity is followed the tracks of in conjunction with astronomy.Photoelectric tracking adopts the four-quadrant light sensor to detect solar azimuth mostly, and control tracking means sun-tracing belongs to closed-loop control; Photoelectric tracking precision height, but can occur blind walk under the cloudy situation, and the long-time stability of the consistency of light sensor, regular maintenance, signal processing etc. are all proposed to be close to harsh requirement.Astronomical relative motion rule of following the tracks of according to the earth and the sun is calculated the solar motion track and is followed the tracks of, and belongs to open loop control; The astronomical tracking need not transducer, but has accumulated error; Consider the reliability of photovoltaic power generation apparatus supporting structure, adopting horizontal coordinate (sun altitude and azimuth) is the main flow scheme of generally acknowledging in the astronomical tracking.Photoelectricity is followed the tracks of then in conjunction with astronomy photoelectricity and astronomical the tracking is combined, and dual mode complements one another.The representative studies achievement of sun orientation automatic tracking technology is as follows:
1. patent of invention " large-scale windproof from motion tracking sun lighting equipment " (patent No. ZL02112553.8) proposes sun altitude and azimuthal astronomical tracking.
2. patent of invention " solar automatic tracking circuit " (application number 200610116616.0) proposes to adopt the photoelectric tracking method of light sensor.
3. patent of invention " a kind of sun orientation automatic tracking method and device that is used for photovoltaic generation " (application number 200910152899.8) proposes the round-the-clock two-dimentional sun orientation automatic tracking method that photoelectric tracking and solar motion track following combine.
4. patent of invention " based on the automatic tracking type photovoltaic power station monitoring system of wireless network " (application number 200910153384.x), proposition is adopted independently, and the light signal transmitter obtains sunlight intensity, sunlight angle-data, through ZigBee net distribution transmitter tracking data, ZigBee is the running parameter of collection photovoltaics Blast Furnace Top Gas Recovery Turbine Unit (TRT) simultaneously, and through the GPRS network teletransmission to Surveillance center.
Above-mentioned technology path of benefiting our pursuits, direction are correct, improve and further perfect necessity but still exist.
At first, have the solar azimuth tracking now and stick to tracking means itself, the system engineering design concept omission of science fully; The solar azimuth tracking means only is a unit of photovoltaic generating system, follow the system engineering design concept, tracking means ought to be dissolved into and carry out global design in the photovoltaic generating system--the solar azimuth tracking is carried out in each the unit collaborative work in the system, draws more rational and effective solution case.
Secondly, from the existing photoelectric tracking technology of overall situation close examination of photovoltaic generating system, obviously the solar panel energy output of photovoltaic generating system controller collection is more reasonable, simpler and more direct as the direct foundation of following the tracks of.The complex art economic index of more various photovoltaic generation modes, " planning " is with the emphasis of desert grid-connected photovoltaic power generation as development; In the desert Environment, the stability and the reliability of existing photoelectric tracking technology can't effectively be guaranteed.The reasons are as follows: the consistency and the long-term consistency that guarantee the four-quadrant light sensor are by no means easy, and sensor signal amplifying and conditioning circuit also requires to have good consistency, and it is more difficult that technology realizes; The light sensor operate as normal of desert area need be eliminated sand and dust and hide interference, and several nothings may in engineering construction and O﹠M for this; Therefore, should select solar panel energy output outside the follow-up mechanism as following the tracks of foundation, the cloud layer that can solve long-term puzzlement photoelectric tracking technology according to the variation of energy output disturbs a difficult problem simultaneously.
Its three, grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system mostly is under the pattern of unattended operation, regular visit and moves, so the logical Xin technology of network is the necessary condition of photovoltaic generating system remote monitoring; Remote monitoring center has complete instrument and meter, in real time accurate meteorological data, the complete well-trained engineer of specialty, by remote monitoring center but not the solar azimuth tracking means determines its mode of operation (fine, cloudy, rain pattern), demonstrated fully the science of system engineering design concept.Fine solar irradiation has very important meaning to the contribution of energy output, but the fine different periods contribution of energy output is differed greatly, so the thickness tracking accuracy should be treated, be considered to the different periods that solar azimuth is followed the tracks of under fine pattern with a certain discrimination.
The 4th, GPRS belongs to the 2.5G communication technology, has listed the restriction development in the planning of national Ministry of Industry and Information, and the bandwidth of 2.5G, and speed is lower, and expense is higher, and therefore using the TD-SCDMA 3G technology to substitute 2.5G is the certainty of technological progress; A large amount of floor datas of grid-connected photovoltaic power generation generation in service are simultaneously all uploaded in real time by public network and can be caused communication cost to increase severely, and require can adopt real-time online to upload and patrol and examine the off-line collection and gather technology the floor data classification according to O﹠M.
At last, the machine driving of sun orientation automatic tracking device is too much secondary, as the flexible transmission scheme of the low-speed DC Dian machine Dai Dong Silk bar of patent " solar energy photovoltaic generating automatic tracking system " (application number 200910038907.6), the transmission mechanism that the motor of patent " based on the strand bar transmission synchronous sun tracking lightseeking missile device of running track from sun to earth " (application number 200910147931.3), spur gear, chain, sprocket wheel etc. are formed; Transmission is too much, and the reliability and the tracking accuracy of transmission mechanism all caused negative effect.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, a kind of desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system and tracking thereof that has the solar azimuth tracking means is provided.
The desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system that has the solar azimuth tracking means comprises ZigBee wireless network three parts of remote monitoring center, TD-SCDMA 3G public network and subrange; The ZigBee wireless network is made up of the ZigBee node of 1 to N photovoltaic generation subsystem and the ZigBee telegon of photovoltaic generation main system, the ZigBee telegon of photovoltaic generation main system comprises controller main control module S3C2440, electric energy metrical modules A DE7169, step motor drive module TA8435, TD-SCDMA wireless module TDM330, ZigBee telegon communication module CC2430 and wireless USB module CYWUSB6935, the ZigBee node of photovoltaic generation subsystem comprises main control module S3C2440, ZigBee node communication module CC2430 and electric energy metrical modules A DE7169, each photovoltaic generating system subsystem is by the ZigBee wireless network exchange message of subrange; Remote monitoring center links to each other with TD-SCDMA by the GGSN gateway of Internet, operator, and the GGSN gateway carries out protocol conversion to Internet, TD-SCDMA packet; TD-SCDMA inserts ZigBee network, the ZigBee telegon double as ZigBee/TD-SCDMA gateway of photovoltaic generation main system through the ZigBee/TD-SCDMA of photovoltaic generation main system gateway; The internal module annexation of photovoltaic generation main system is: photovoltaic array links to each other with the converter that is incorporated into the power networks, electrical network successively, photovoltaic array links to each other with stepping motor, step motor drive module successively, the converter that is incorporated into the power networks links to each other with the electric energy metrical module, main control module links to each other with step motor drive module, the converter that is incorporated into the power networks, electric energy metrical module, electrical network, ZigBee telegon communication module, wireless USB module, TD-SCDMA communication module respectively, and inserts the TD-SCDMA public network through the TD-SCDMA communication module; The internal module annexation of photovoltaic generation subsystem is: photovoltaic array links to each other with the converter that is incorporated into the power networks, electrical network successively, photovoltaic array links to each other with stepping motor, step motor drive module successively, the converter that is incorporated into the power networks links to each other with the electric energy metrical module, and main control module links to each other with step motor drive module, the converter that is incorporated into the power networks, electric energy metrical module, electrical network, ZigBee node communication module respectively.
The solar azimuth tracking of desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system comprises the steps:
1) remote monitoring center is set fine, cloudy, the rain mode of operation of the solar azimuth tracking means of desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system, and the thickness tracking accuracy under the fine mode of operation, and be sent to the ZigBee network by the ZigBee/TD-SCDMA gateway of Internet, GGSN, TD-SCDMA, photovoltaic generation main system; The ZigBee telegon of double as ZigBee/TD-SCDMA gateway is transmitted tracking mode of operation and the tracking accuracy that remote monitoring center is set, tracking mode of operation and tracking accuracy operation that photovoltaic generation main system and photovoltaic generation subsystem are set according to remote monitoring center, the ZigBee telegon is made up of photovoltaic generation main system main control module and ZigBee telegon communication module;
2) the solar azimuth tracking means of desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system stops to follow the tracks of under the rainy day mode of operation, photovoltaic array goes to the sun altitude and the azimuth of setting, wherein solar azimuth adopts solar azimuth the previous day, and sun altitude adopts following computing formula:
H=90°-|μ+/-β|
In the formula, μ is local geographic latitude;
β is the subsolar point geographic latitude;
3) the solar azimuth tracking means of desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system adopts astronomical the tracking under the cloudy mode of operation, the solar azimuth tracking means of desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system adopts the tracking of astronomical tracking and photovoltaic generating system energy output under the fine mode of operation, determine the sun altitude and the azimuth of photovoltaic array, initial, the termination time of tracking are set by remote monitoring center; The controller of photovoltaic generation main system and photovoltaic generation subsystem is through the required electric impulse signal of stepping motor angular displacement of step motor drive module TA8435, output elevation angle and azimuth correspondence;
Wherein adopt astronomical the tracking: according to the relative motion rule of the earth and the sun, determine the sun altitude and the azimuth of photovoltaic array, the stepping motor tracking accuracy is selected default step angle for use, and the computing formula of astronomical tracking horizontal coordinate is as follows:
In the formula, α--sun altitude
--solar azimuth
δ--declination angle, every monthly variation 8 degree
--local angle of latitude
ω--hour angle per hour changes 15 degree
Consider that solar azimuth follows the tracks of energy consumption, drive unit life-span, and tracking accuracy and energy output concern composite factor, astronomical tracking cycle was got 1 hour;
Adopt the photovoltaic generating system energy output to follow the tracks of: remote monitoring center is set the tracking initiation time T of tracking means s, termination time T eSlightly, carefully follow the tracks of period T d, T m, and corresponding variable step tracking accuracy value: t ∈ T dThe thick tracking period selected 1/2 segmentation step angle for use, and tracking cycle is 30 minutes; T ∈ T mThe thin tracking period selected 1/4 segmentation step angle for use, and tracking cycle is 15 minutes;
The electric energy metrical module of photovoltaic generation subsystem is gathered voltage, the current signal of photovoltaic array, and the generating value of output is kept in the memory of controller; The sampling period of electric energy metrical module is 1 second, and the mean value of 3 energy output was defined as " electric weight average " in the middle of every continuous sampling 5 times, rejecting maximin were got, and " electric weight average " also is kept in the memory of controller;
T ∈ T dBe thick and follow the tracks of the period, follow the tracks of solar azimuth through step motor drive module TA8435 with 1/2 segmentation step angle, follow the tracks of criterion, i.e. " electric weight average " maximum every the controller of 30 minutes, photovoltaic generation main system and photovoltaic generation subsystem; The time interval between the TA8435 output order is 30 seconds, be used for machine driving time, reposition photovoltaic array reaction time and reposition and obtain the electric weight average time, every one step of tracking, at first compare with the electric weight average of reposition and preceding 30 minutes maximum electric weight average, if less than 70% of maximum electric weight average, cloud layer then takes place disturb, abandon the photovoltaic generating system energy output and follow the tracks of, the astronomical tracking of migrating; Otherwise, follow the tracks of sun altitude and azimuth according to electric weight average maximal criterion, electric weight average maximal criterion is that photovoltaic array is followed the tracks of when rotating, the electric weight average of reposition sampling and the electric weight average of a last position sampling are compared, if, then rotate 1/2 step angle greater than the electric weight average of a last position sampling, and continue sampling reposition electric weight average, if less than the electric weight average of a last position sampling, then transfer back to a position, this time the tracking cycle photovoltaic array no longer rotates;
T ∈ T mBe thin and follow the tracks of the period, follow the tracks of solar azimuth through step motor drive module TA8435 with 1/4 segmentation step angle, follow the tracks of criterion, i.e. " electric weight average " maximum every 15 minutes, the controller of photovoltaic generation subsystem; The time interval between the TA8435 output order is 30 seconds, be used for machine driving time, reposition photovoltaic array reaction time and reposition and obtain " electric weight average " time sum, every one step of tracking, at first compare with the electric weight average of reposition and preceding 15 minutes maximum electric weight average, if less than 70% of maximum electric weight average, cloud layer then takes place disturb, abandon the photovoltaic generating system energy output and follow the tracks of, the astronomical tracking of migrating; Otherwise, follow the tracks of sun altitude and azimuth according to electric weight average maximal criterion; Behind selected sun altitude and the azimuth, according to " electric weight average " maximal criterion, controller is done further to follow the tracks of with 1/4 segmentation step angle through TA8435; Electric weight average maximal criterion is that photovoltaic array is followed the tracks of when rotating, the electric weight average of reposition sampling and the electric weight average of a last position sampling are compared, if electric weight average greater than a last position sampling, then rotate 1/4 step angle, and continue sampling reposition electric weight average, if less than the electric weight average of a last position sampling, then transfer back to a position, this time the tracking cycle photovoltaic array no longer rotates.
The present invention compares with background technology, and the beneficial effect that has is:
1) is different from the solar azimuth tracking of existing astronomy in conjunction with photoelectricity, the present invention is based on the system engineering design concept--each unit of cooperative system is implemented solar azimuth and is followed the tracks of, astronomical tracking in conjunction with the photovoltaic generating system energy output is proposed, promptly the controller from photovoltaic generating system extracts the energy output parameter as following the tracks of foundation, eliminated this source of trouble of photoelectric tracking in the desert Environment, the cloud layer that has solved long-term puzzlement photoelectric tracking technology simultaneously disturbs a difficult problem; Both reduce cost and O﹠M requirement, improved the reliability and the tracking accuracy of system again.
2) by having complete instrument and meter, real-time accurate meteorological data, the expert's that does some training very often remote monitoring center, but not local solar azimuth tracking means sets that it is fine, cloudy, the rain mode of operation, and the thickness tracking accuracy under the fine mode of operation; Broken through tracking means has been isolated out the conventional thought of design separately from photovoltaic generating system, simplified the function of solar azimuth tracking means in the desert Environment, further improved the reliability and the tracking accuracy of system.
3) communicate by the ZigBee wireless network between the photovoltaic generation subsystem, adopt the intermittent duty of timing wake-up, saves energy; The double ZigBee/TD-SCDMA gateway of doing of the telegon of ZigBee network; Communicate by TD-SCDMA 3G public network and remote monitoring center, increased data broadband and transmission rate, reduced communication cost.
4) the photovoltaic generating system floor data is classified by the O﹠M requirement, or uploads in real time through the TD-SCDMA public network, or the off-line collection when patrolling and examining of temporary telegon; Adopt TD-SCDMA public network real-time online to upload and patrol and examine the strategy that Wireless USB is gathered floor data, reduced floor data when satisfying the O﹠M requirement and gathered expense with off-line this locality.
5) machine driving of tracking means adopts stepping motor, has reduced the machine driving pair of solar azimuth tracking means; Introduce the stepper angle fraction technology in the stepping motor, satisfied the different accuracy requirement that thickness is followed the tracks of under astronomical tracking and the fine mode of operation; The reliability and the tracking accuracy of system are got a promotion once more.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system figure that has the solar azimuth tracking means;
Fig. 2 is the ZigBee telegon structured flowchart of photovoltaic generation main system of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the ZigBee telegon flow chart of photovoltaic generation main system of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the ZigBee node structure block diagram of photovoltaic generation subsystem of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is that ZigBee inside modules function of the present invention realizes circuit diagram;
Fig. 6 is the solar azimuth tracking flow chart of desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system.
Embodiment
As shown in Figure 1, the desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system that has a solar azimuth tracking means comprises ZigBee wireless network three parts of remote monitoring center, TD-SCDMA 3G public network and subrange; The ZigBee wireless network is made up of the ZigBee node of 1 to N photovoltaic generation subsystem and the ZigBee telegon of photovoltaic generation main system, the ZigBee telegon of photovoltaic generation main system comprises controller main control module S3C2440, electric energy metrical modules A DE7169, step motor drive module TA8435, TD-SCDMA wireless module TDM330, ZigBee telegon communication module CC2430 and wireless USB module CYWUSB6935, the ZigBee node of photovoltaic generation subsystem comprises main control module S3C2440, ZigBee node communication module CC2430 and electric energy metrical modules A DE7169, each photovoltaic generating system subsystem is by the ZigBee wireless network exchange message of subrange; Remote monitoring center links to each other with TD-SCDMA by the GGSN gateway of Internet, operator, and the GGSN gateway carries out protocol conversion to Internet, TD-SCDMA packet; TD-SCDMA inserts ZigBee network, the ZigBee telegon double as ZigBee/TD-SCDMA gateway of photovoltaic generation main system through the ZigBee/TD-SCDMA of photovoltaic generation main system gateway; The internal module annexation of photovoltaic generation main system is: photovoltaic array links to each other with the converter that is incorporated into the power networks, electrical network successively, photovoltaic array links to each other with stepping motor, step motor drive module successively, the converter that is incorporated into the power networks links to each other with the electric energy metrical module, main control module links to each other with step motor drive module, the converter that is incorporated into the power networks, electric energy metrical module, electrical network, ZigBee telegon communication module, wireless USB module, TD-SCDMA communication module respectively, and inserts the TD-SCDMA public network through the TD-SCDMA communication module; The internal module annexation of photovoltaic generation subsystem is: photovoltaic array links to each other with the converter that is incorporated into the power networks, electrical network successively, photovoltaic array links to each other with stepping motor, step motor drive module successively, the converter that is incorporated into the power networks links to each other with the electric energy metrical module, and main control module links to each other with step motor drive module, the converter that is incorporated into the power networks, electric energy metrical module, electrical network, ZigBee node communication module respectively.
As shown in Figure 2, the ZigBee telegon of described photovoltaic generation main system comprises controller main control module S3C2440, electric energy metrical modules A DE7169, step motor drive module TA8435, TD-SCDMA wireless module TDM330, ZigBee telegon communication module CC2430 and wireless USB module CYWUSB6935; TD-SCDMA wireless module TDM330 links to each other by the usb interface module of USB interface with controller main control module S3C2440, the pin 1 of usb interface module connects+5V voltage, pin 1 successively with electric capacity c1, link to each other, pin 4,5,6 ground connection, pin 2 successively with resistance R 1, resistance R 3, link to each other, pin 3 successively with resistance R 2, resistance R 4, link to each other, the P12 of main control module core board S3C2440, N11 pin link to each other with the intermediate point of intermediate point, resistance R 2 and the R4 of resistance R 1 and R3 respectively; K9, the P9 of main control module core board S3C2440, U13, L9 pin link to each other with the 13rd, 14,15,16 pins of ZigBee telegon communication module CC2430 respectively; H16, the N9 of main control module core board S3C2440, E3, R11, K10, L11, T9 pin join with the 14th, 21,22,23,24,25,33 pins of wireless USB module CYWUSB6935 respectively; T10, the J10 of main control module core board S3C2440, K14 pin link to each other with the 5th, 8,36 pins of electric energy metrical modules A DE7169 respectively; K2, the K3 of main control module core board S3C2440, J7, K5, K6 link to each other with the 5th, 6,7,8,9 pins of step motor drive module TA8435 respectively.
S3C2440 is respectively by serial ports SPI0 and SPI1 and CC2430, CYWUSB6935 receptions/transmission data, and its pin U13, E3 be as the GPIO port, and when pin U13 puts when hanging down, CC2430 chip SPI slave signal is effective, the activation of ZigBee module; When pin E3 puts when low, CYWUSB6935 chip SPI slave signal is effective, and wireless USB module activates.S3C2440 carries out serial communication by pin RXD, electric energy metrical modules A DE7169 by the TXD pin, and the pin T10 of S3C2440 enables the electric energy metrical module, and the pin 8 of electric energy metrical module triggers S3C2440 and produces interruption.The GPIO pin K2 of S3C2440, K5, K6 link to each other with the pin 5,8,9 of step motor drive module TA8435 respectively, control step motor positive and inverse and working method, the TOUT3 pin K3 of S3C2440 links to each other with the pin 6,7 of TA8435 respectively with TOUT2 pin J7, the input of PWM control step motor pulses.
Duty parameter, while double as ZigBee/TD-SCDMA gateway that the ZigBee node of ZigBee telegon inquiry reception photovoltaic generation subsystem is uploaded are transmitted the solar azimuth tracking Control order that remote monitoring center passes down; The ZigBee telegon is classified by the O﹠M requirement to the photovoltaic generating system floor data, insert TD-SCDMA by TD-SCDMA wireless module TDM330, the important duty parameter of real-time teletransmission photovoltaic generating system, remote monitoring center links to each other with the GGSN gateway of operator by Internet, the important duty parameter that online reception photovoltaic generating system is uploaded; General duty parameter inspector hand-hold wireless USB collector carries out collection in worksite by wireless USB module CYWUSB6935, timing, adopts offline mode to gather to remote monitoring center.
The electric energy metrical part not only will be measured by electric flux after the inverter conversion and harmonic content etc., but also to monitor solar irradiation amount, solar cell plate temperature, solar battery array column voltage, battery tension, solar cell array electric current, battery current by the information of gathering various transducers, be the data acquisition system of a perfect in shape and function.The electric energy metrical module adopts the ADE7169 of U.S. mould device company as electric energy computation chip, this electric energy computation chip carries DSP and enhancement mode 8052MCU, and flash memory, LCD driving, real-time clock and intelligent battery management circuit in the electric energy measurement kernel of ADI company maturation and microprocessor, the sheet are combined.The voltage signal that voltage sensor is gathered, after filtering, send into ADE7169 by 49 pin and 50 pin, obtain current signal is sent into ADE7169 after filtering 52 pin and 53 pin by current sensor equally, the electric energy that carries out active power, reactive power and apparent power calculates, and the measurement of voltage effective value (RMS) and current effective value RMS.
As shown in Figure 3, treat to ZigBee module after powering among the figure, the TD-SCDMA module, wireless USB module and step motor drive module TA8435 initialization are finished, mode of operation and thickness tracking parameter that main control module receiving remote Surveillance center sends, and transmit the trace command of remote monitoring center to the photovoltaic generation subsystem, main control module receives and stores the duty parameter that the photovoltaic generation subsystem is uploaded subsequently, floor data is classified by the O﹠M requirement, important duty parameter is uploaded in real time through TD-SCDMA, off-line collection when the temporary ZigBee telegon of non-important parameter is patrolled and examined by the inspector; Duty parameter is finished dealing with and is back to mode of operation and the thickness tracking parameter step that receiving remote Surveillance center sends again.Important duty parameter comprises stepping motor abnormal voltage, current value, and the photovoltaic array temperature value is by the statistics of O﹠M requirement generating value (as energy output per hour etc.), the fault message of finding during the controller self check etc.
As shown in Figure 4, the ZigBee node of described photovoltaic generation subsystem comprises controller main control module S3C2440, ZigBee node communication module CC2430, electric energy metrical modules A DE7169 and step motor drive module TA8435; Voltage sensor is gathered voltage signal and is linked to each other with the 49th, 50 pins of ADE7169 after filtering, current sensor obtains current signal and links to each other with the 52nd, 53 pins of ADE7169 after filtering, DSP in the electric energy metrical modules A DE7169 links to each other with enhancement mode 8052MCU, and the 5th, 8,36 pins of ADE7169 link to each other with T10, J10, the K14 pin of main control module core board S3C2440 respectively; K2, the K3 of main control module core board S3C2440, J7, K5, K6 link to each other with the 5th, 6,7,8,9 pins of step motor drive module TA8435 respectively; K9, the P9 of main control module core board S3C2440, U13, L9 pin link to each other with the 13rd, 14,15,16 pins of ZigBee module CC2430 respectively, and the data processing module in the ZigBee node communication module links to each other with radio-frequency module; Energy value is sent to S3C2440 by ADE7169 through serial ports, and S3C2440 is sent to ZigBee telegon with all duty parameters through the CC2430 radio-frequency module by SPI.
As shown in Figure 5, ZigBee inside modules function realizes linking to each other the other end ground connection of capacitor C 411 and capacitor C 71 with an end of digital circuit power supply DVDD_3.3V, capacitor C 411, capacitor C 71 after the pin 20,7,47,41 of the CC2430 integrated chip of circuit links to each other; Pin 42 links to each other with an end of capacitor C 421, the other end ground connection of capacitor C 421; The end of one end of pin 10 and capacitor C 678, resistance R 406, button S1 links to each other, the other end ground connection of capacitor C 678 and button S1, and the other end of resistance R 406 links to each other with digital circuit power supply DVDD_3.3V; Pin 23 links to each other with an end of digital circuit power supply DVDD_3.3V and capacitor C 231, the other end ground connection of capacitor C 231; Pin 24 links to each other with an end of analog circuit power supply VCC1.8 and capacitor C 241, the other end ground connection of capacitor C 241; Pin 26 links to each other with an end of resistance R 261, the other end ground connection of resistance R 261; Pin 22 links to each other with an end of resistance R 221, the other end ground connection of resistance R 221; Pin 19 links to each other with an end of crystal oscillator X1 and capacitor C 191, and the other end of crystal oscillator X1 links to each other with an end of pin 21 and capacitor C 121, the equal ground connection of the other end of capacitor C 191 and capacitor C 121; Pin 44 links to each other with an end of crystal oscillator X2 and capacitor C 441, and the other end of crystal oscillator X2 links to each other with an end of pin 43 and capacitor C 431, the equal ground connection of the other end of capacitor C 441 and capacitor C 431; Pin 34 links to each other with an end of inductance L 2 and inductance L 5, one end of inductance L 4 and inductance L 1 links to each other with the other end of inductance L 5, pin 33 links to each other with the other end of inductance L 1, pin 32 links to each other with the other end of inductance L 2 and inductance L 4, one end of inductance L 3 links to each other with an end of capacitor C 63, and the other end of capacitor C 63 links to each other with antenna ANT1; Pin 25,27,28,29,30,31,35,36,37,38,39,40 links to each other with an end of analog circuit power supply VCC1.8, capacitor C 11, capacitor C 101, capacitor C 371, the other end ground connection of capacitor C 11, capacitor C 101, capacitor C 371.
As shown in Figure 6, the solar azimuth tracking of desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system comprises the steps:
1) remote monitoring center is set fine, cloudy, the rain mode of operation of the solar azimuth tracking means of desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system, and the thickness tracking accuracy under the fine mode of operation, and be sent to the ZigBee network by the ZigBee/TD-SCDMA gateway of Internet, GGSN, TD-SCDMA, photovoltaic generation main system; The ZigBee telegon of double as ZigBee/TD-SCDMA gateway is transmitted tracking mode of operation and the tracking accuracy that remote monitoring center is set, tracking mode of operation and tracking accuracy operation that photovoltaic generation main system and photovoltaic generation subsystem are set according to remote monitoring center, the ZigBee telegon is made up of photovoltaic generation main system main control module and ZigBee telegon communication module;
2) the solar azimuth tracking means of desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system stops to follow the tracks of under the rainy day mode of operation, photovoltaic array goes to the sun altitude and the azimuth of setting, wherein solar azimuth adopts solar azimuth the previous day, and sun altitude adopts following computing formula:
H=90°-|μ+/-β|
In the formula, μ is local geographic latitude;
β is the subsolar point geographic latitude;
3) the solar azimuth tracking means of desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system adopts astronomical the tracking under the cloudy mode of operation, the solar azimuth tracking means of desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system adopts the tracking of astronomical tracking and photovoltaic generating system energy output under the fine mode of operation, determine the sun altitude and the azimuth of photovoltaic array, initial, the termination time of tracking are set by remote monitoring center; The controller of photovoltaic generation main system and photovoltaic generation subsystem is through the required electric impulse signal of stepping motor angular displacement of step motor drive module TA8435, output elevation angle and azimuth correspondence;
Wherein adopt astronomical the tracking: according to the relative motion rule of the earth and the sun, determine the sun altitude and the azimuth of photovoltaic array, the stepping motor tracking accuracy is selected default step angle for use, and the computing formula of astronomical tracking horizontal coordinate is as follows:
In the formula, α--sun altitude
--solar azimuth
δ--declination angle, every monthly variation 8 degree
--local angle of latitude
ω--hour angle per hour changes 15 degree
Consider that solar azimuth follows the tracks of energy consumption, drive unit life-span, and tracking accuracy and energy output concern composite factor, astronomical tracking cycle was got 1 hour;
Adopt the photovoltaic generating system energy output to follow the tracks of: remote monitoring center is set the tracking initiation time T of tracking means s, termination time T eSlightly, carefully follow the tracks of period T d, T m, and corresponding variable step tracking accuracy value: t ∈ T dThe thick tracking period selected 1/2 segmentation step angle for use, and tracking cycle is 30 minutes; T ∈ T mThe thin tracking period selected 1/4 segmentation step angle for use, and tracking cycle is 15 minutes;
The electric energy metrical module of photovoltaic generation subsystem is gathered voltage, the current signal of photovoltaic array, and the generating value of output is kept in the memory of controller; The sampling period of electric energy metrical module is 1 second, and the mean value of 3 energy output was defined as " electric weight average " in the middle of every continuous sampling 5 times, rejecting maximin were got, and " electric weight average " also is kept in the memory of controller;
T ∈ T dBe thick and follow the tracks of the period, follow the tracks of solar azimuth through step motor drive module TA8435 with 1/2 segmentation step angle, follow the tracks of criterion, i.e. " electric weight average " maximum every the controller of 30 minutes, photovoltaic generation main system and photovoltaic generation subsystem; The time interval between the TA8435 output order is 30 seconds, be used for machine driving time, reposition photovoltaic array reaction time and reposition and obtain the electric weight average time, every one step of tracking, at first compare with the electric weight average of reposition and preceding 30 minutes maximum electric weight average, if less than 70% of maximum electric weight average, cloud layer then takes place disturb, abandon the photovoltaic generating system energy output and follow the tracks of, the astronomical tracking of migrating; Otherwise, follow the tracks of sun altitude and azimuth according to electric weight average maximal criterion, electric weight average maximal criterion is that photovoltaic array is followed the tracks of when rotating, the electric weight average of reposition sampling and the electric weight average of a last position sampling are compared, if, then rotate 1/2 step angle greater than the electric weight average of a last position sampling, and continue sampling reposition electric weight average, if less than the electric weight average of a last position sampling, then transfer back to a position, this time the tracking cycle photovoltaic array no longer rotates;
T ∈ T mBe thin and follow the tracks of the period, follow the tracks of solar azimuth through step motor drive module TA8435 with 1/4 segmentation step angle, follow the tracks of criterion, i.e. " electric weight average " maximum every 15 minutes, the controller of photovoltaic generation subsystem; The time interval between the TA8435 output order is 30 seconds, be used for machine driving time, reposition photovoltaic array reaction time and reposition and obtain " electric weight average " time sum, every one step of tracking, at first compare with the electric weight average of reposition and preceding 15 minutes maximum electric weight average, if less than 70% of maximum electric weight average, cloud layer then takes place disturb, abandon the photovoltaic generating system energy output and follow the tracks of, the astronomical tracking of migrating; Otherwise, follow the tracks of sun altitude and azimuth according to electric weight average maximal criterion; Behind selected sun altitude and the azimuth, according to " electric weight average " maximal criterion, controller is done further to follow the tracks of with 1/4 segmentation step angle through TA8435; Electric weight average maximal criterion is that photovoltaic array is followed the tracks of when rotating, the electric weight average of reposition sampling and the electric weight average of a last position sampling are compared, if electric weight average greater than a last position sampling, then rotate 1/4 step angle, and continue sampling reposition electric weight average, if less than the electric weight average of a last position sampling, then transfer back to a position, this time the tracking cycle photovoltaic array no longer rotates.

Claims (2)

1. desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system that has the solar azimuth tracking means is characterized in that comprising ZigBee wireless network three parts of remote monitoring center, TD-SCDMA3G public network and subrange; The ZigBee wireless network is made up of the ZigBee node of 1 to N photovoltaic generation subsystem and the ZigBee telegon of photovoltaic generation main system, the ZigBee telegon of photovoltaic generation main system comprises controller main control module S3C2440, electric energy metrical modules A DE7169, step motor drive module TA8435, TD-SCDMA wireless module TDM330, ZigBee telegon communication module CC2430 and wireless USB module CYWUSB6935, the ZigBee node of photovoltaic generation subsystem comprises main control module S3C2440, ZigBee node communication module CC2430 and electric energy metrical modules A DE7169, each photovoltaic generating system subsystem is by the ZigBee wireless network exchange message of subrange; Remote monitoring center links to each other with TD-SCDMA by the GGSN gateway of Internet, operator, and the GGSN gateway carries out protocol conversion to Internet, TD-SCDMA packet; TD-SCDMA inserts ZigBee network, the ZigBee telegon double as ZigBee/TD-SCDMA gateway of photovoltaic generation main system through the ZigBee/TD-SCDMA of photovoltaic generation main system gateway; The internal module annexation of photovoltaic generation main system is: photovoltaic array links to each other with the converter that is incorporated into the power networks, electrical network successively, photovoltaic array links to each other with stepping motor, step motor drive module successively, the converter that is incorporated into the power networks links to each other with the electric energy metrical module, main control module links to each other with step motor drive module, the converter that is incorporated into the power networks, electric energy metrical module, electrical network, ZigBee telegon communication module, wireless USB module, TD-SCDMA communication module respectively, and inserts the TD-SCDMA public network through the TD-SCDMA communication module; The internal module annexation of photovoltaic generation subsystem is: photovoltaic array links to each other with the converter that is incorporated into the power networks, electrical network successively, photovoltaic array links to each other with stepping motor, step motor drive module successively, the converter that is incorporated into the power networks links to each other with the electric energy metrical module, and main control module links to each other with step motor drive module, the converter that is incorporated into the power networks, electric energy metrical module, electrical network, ZigBee node communication module respectively.
2. one kind is used the solar azimuth tracking of the desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system of system according to claim 1, it is characterized in that comprising the steps:
1) remote monitoring center is set fine, cloudy, the rain mode of operation of the solar azimuth tracking means of desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system, and the thickness tracking accuracy under the fine mode of operation, and be sent to the ZigBee network by the ZigBee/TD-SCDMA gateway of Internet, GGSN, TD-SCDMA, photovoltaic generation main system; The ZigBee telegon of double as ZigBee/TD-SCDMA gateway is transmitted tracking mode of operation and the tracking accuracy that remote monitoring center is set, tracking mode of operation and tracking accuracy operation that photovoltaic generation main system and photovoltaic generation subsystem are set according to remote monitoring center, the ZigBee telegon is made up of photovoltaic generation main system main control module and ZigBee telegon communication module;
2) the solar azimuth tracking means of desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system stops to follow the tracks of under the rainy day mode of operation, photovoltaic array goes to the sun altitude and the azimuth of setting, wherein solar azimuth adopts solar azimuth the previous day, and sun altitude adopts following computing formula:
H=90°-|μ+/-β|
In the formula, μ is local geographic latitude;
β is the subsolar point geographic latitude;
3) the solar azimuth tracking means of desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system adopts astronomical the tracking under the cloudy mode of operation, the solar azimuth tracking means of desert area grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system adopts the tracking of astronomical tracking and photovoltaic generating system energy output under the fine mode of operation, determine the sun altitude and the azimuth of photovoltaic array, initial, the termination time of tracking are set by remote monitoring center; The controller of photovoltaic generation main system and photovoltaic generation subsystem is through the required electric impulse signal of stepping motor angular displacement of step motor drive module TA8435, output elevation angle and azimuth correspondence;
Wherein adopt astronomical the tracking: according to the relative motion rule of the earth and the sun, determine the sun altitude and the azimuth of photovoltaic array, the stepping motor tracking accuracy is selected default step angle for use, and the computing formula of astronomical tracking horizontal coordinate is as follows:
In the formula, α--sun altitude
--solar azimuth
δ--declination angle, every monthly variation 8 degree
--local angle of latitude
ω--hour angle per hour changes 15 degree
Consider that solar azimuth follows the tracks of energy consumption, drive unit life-span, and tracking accuracy and energy output concern composite factor, astronomical tracking cycle was got 1 hour;
Adopt the photovoltaic generating system energy output to follow the tracks of: remote monitoring center is set the tracking initiation time T of tracking means s, termination time T eSlightly, carefully follow the tracks of period T d, T m, and corresponding variable step tracking accuracy value: t ∈ T dThe thick tracking period selected 1/2 segmentation step angle for use, and tracking cycle is 30 minutes; T ∈ T mThe thin tracking period selected 1/4 segmentation step angle for use, and tracking cycle is 15 minutes;
The electric energy metrical module of photovoltaic generation subsystem is gathered voltage, the current signal of photovoltaic array, and the generating value of output is kept in the memory of controller; The sampling period of electric energy metrical module is 1 second, and the mean value of 3 energy output was defined as " electric weight average " in the middle of every continuous sampling 5 times, rejecting maximin were got, and " electric weight average " also is kept in the memory of controller;
T ∈ T dBe thick and follow the tracks of the period, follow the tracks of solar azimuth through step motor drive module TA8435 with 1/2 segmentation step angle, follow the tracks of criterion, i.e. " electric weight average " maximum every the controller of 30 minutes, photovoltaic generation main system and photovoltaic generation subsystem; The time interval between the TA8435 output order is 30 seconds, be used for machine driving time, reposition photovoltaic array reaction time and reposition and obtain the electric weight average time, every one step of tracking, at first compare with the electric weight average of reposition and preceding 30 minutes maximum electric weight average, if less than 70% of maximum electric weight average, cloud layer then takes place disturb, abandon the photovoltaic generating system energy output and follow the tracks of, the astronomical tracking of migrating; Otherwise, follow the tracks of sun altitude and azimuth according to electric weight average maximal criterion, electric weight average maximal criterion is that photovoltaic array is followed the tracks of when rotating, the electric weight average of reposition sampling and the electric weight average of a last position sampling are compared, if, then rotate 1/2 step angle greater than the electric weight average of a last position sampling, and continue sampling reposition electric weight average, if less than the electric weight average of a last position sampling, then transfer back to a position, this time the tracking cycle photovoltaic array no longer rotates;
T ∈ T mBe thin and follow the tracks of the period, follow the tracks of solar azimuth through step motor drive module TA8435 with 1/4 segmentation step angle, follow the tracks of criterion, i.e. " electric weight average " maximum every 15 minutes, the controller of photovoltaic generation subsystem; The time interval between the TA8435 output order is 30 seconds, be used for machine driving time, reposition photovoltaic array reaction time and reposition and obtain " electric weight average " time sum, every one step of tracking, at first compare with the electric weight average of reposition and preceding 15 minutes maximum electric weight average, if less than 70% of maximum electric weight average, cloud layer then takes place disturb, abandon the photovoltaic generating system energy output and follow the tracks of, the astronomical tracking of migrating; Otherwise, follow the tracks of sun altitude and azimuth according to electric weight average maximal criterion; Behind selected sun altitude and the azimuth, according to " electric weight average " maximal criterion, controller is done further to follow the tracks of with 1/4 segmentation step angle through TA8435; Electric weight average maximal criterion is that photovoltaic array is followed the tracks of when rotating, the electric weight average of reposition sampling and the electric weight average of a last position sampling are compared, if electric weight average greater than a last position sampling, then rotate 1/4 step angle, and continue sampling reposition electric weight average, if less than the electric weight average of a last position sampling, then transfer back to a position, this time the tracking cycle photovoltaic array no longer rotates.
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