CN101926257B - Ecological compound planting method of Paris polyphylla - Google Patents

Ecological compound planting method of Paris polyphylla Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101926257B
CN101926257B CN200910163214XA CN200910163214A CN101926257B CN 101926257 B CN101926257 B CN 101926257B CN 200910163214X A CN200910163214X A CN 200910163214XA CN 200910163214 A CN200910163214 A CN 200910163214A CN 101926257 B CN101926257 B CN 101926257B
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planting
plantation
rhizoma paridis
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yunnan rhizoma
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CN101926257A (en
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张金渝
金航
杨美权
陈中坚
陈秀花
赵振玲
张智慧
杨维泽
吴丽华
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Institute of Medicinal Plants Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Institute of Medicinal Plants Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Abstract

The invention relates to an ecological compound planting method of Paris polyphylla, belonging to the technical field of plant cultivation. The invention utilizes that principle of the stratification of different plants and ecological niche space complementation, adopts the compound planting mode of spruce or Alnus nepalensis+ apple+ Paris polyphylla to improve the survival rate of Paris polyphylla and lower planting cost. The specific steps are as follows: after artificially planting spruce forests or Alnus nepalensis forests for two years, planting Amomum tsao-ko; after planting for one year, developing the ecological compound planting of the Paris polyphylla by the natural shade and water retention effect formed by an artificial forest and apples; reasonable management of a seedling stage and modes, such as reasonable fertilization, weeding, topping, bud picking and the like are utilized to realize the ecological compound planting of the Paris polyphylla. The invention has the advantages of simple operation, low cost, high benefit, small risk, land and labor saving, environment protection, easy popularization and high economic benefit, sets a good basis for artificial scale planting of the Paris polyphylla, has favourable economic benefit, social benefit and ecological benefit.

Description

A kind of ecological composite plant method of Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis
Technical field:
The present invention relates to a kind of ecological composite plant method of Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis, platymiscium culture technique field.
Background technology:
Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis Paris polyphylla Smith var.yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz, have another name called Typhonium giganteum, paris polyphylla, an arrow of Paris polyphylla etc., be a mutation under the leafy Paris polyphylla P.polyphylla of Trilliaceae Trilliaceae Paris Paris, it mainly is distributed in most of area, Yunnan and adjacent Sichuan and some areas, Guizhou thereof, height above sea level 1400-3100m sylvan life, shrubbery and Cao Po.Rhizome is used as medicine, one of former plant of Chinese medicine Paris polyphylla of including for " middle people's republic pharmacopeia ", and root-like stock is used as medicine, and is each ethnic group of Yunnan Province, Chinese herbal medicine commonly used among the people, is the main raw material(s) of brand Chinese medicines such as " Yunnan Baiyao ", " antivirus powder ".
Medicinal Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis is mainly based on wild collection.Yet; reopen the utilization of resources mode of sending out, gently protecting for a long time; and the habitat destruction that brought of traditional farming practices and population growth's pressure, make the Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis wild resource suffer heavy damage, the shortage of its resource serious threat to the raw material supplying of relevant pharmacy corporation.Although people are since the just artificial family research of the Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis eighties in last century; but because problems such as the Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis reproduction rate is low, poor growth, crop cycle is long, planting cost is high, economic benefit is low are difficult to solve, its manual scale planting problem is still unresolved.
Therefore, on the basis of the present invention according to the regeneration rule of the biology of Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis and ecological habit and resource, slow at the Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis growth rate, crop cycle is long, problems such as the general planting cost has high input, the output value is low excessively, economic risk that the medicinal herb grower bore is excessive, set up the low input of a cover, low-risk, high repayment, ecological artificial ecology composite plant system.This not only helps solving at present the bottleneck of the Yunnan brand medicine raw material that causes because of the Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis shortage of resources, realize that the Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis Sustainable utilization of resources also has very real directive significance,, growth rate long to similar crop cycle medicinal plant cultivation slowly also has good use for reference of planning.
By literature search, do not see the open report identical with the present invention.
Summary of the invention:
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of ecology, the effective ecological composite plant method of Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis, can improve the survival rate and the land resources utilization rate of Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis by this method, reduce the input of artificial and planting cost, increase economic efficiency.
On the basis of the present invention according to the regeneration rule of the biology of Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis and ecological habit and resource, utilize the lamination of different plants and the principle of niche space complementation, adopt the stereo ecological cropping pattern of " arbor (China fir and Anlnus nepalensis)+tall and big draft (tsaoko)+short and small draft (Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis) ", realize the stereo ecological composite plant of artificial lanceolata forest, Anlnus nepalensis woods and tsaoko and Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis, effectively solve the raw material problem of Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis.
Purpose of the present invention is achieved by following technical proposals:
The method of the ecological composite plant of Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis of the present invention comprises choosing ground, forest plantation and tsaoko plantation, the kind planting management of Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis, 4 steps of gathering and reserve seed for planting, and is specially:
(1) choosing ground: select between the height above sea level 1000-2200 rice, annual rainfall is more than 800mm, and average annual temperature is at 13 ℃-20 ℃, and weather is moistening, soil layer deep, loose fertile, be rich in humus, soil property and be neutrality or slant acidity, well-drained deserted mountain;
(2) forest plantation and tsaoko plantation: with 2 * 2m seeding row spacing plantation China fir or Anlnus nepalensis tree, require plantation unsuitable overstocked, treat arboreal growth after 2 years the sylvan life light transmittance in artificial lanceolata forest ground or Anlnus nepalensis forest land be at least 40%, and plant tsaoko with 2 * 2m kind in sylvan life, the distance tree is 1 * 1m;
(3) Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis kind planting management: the tsaoko plantation was pressed seeding row spacing and is transplanted the Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis seedling at 10 * 10cm after 1 year, kept every mu to be 30,000 seedlings; Shaoshi nitrogenous fertilizer was executed a small amount of phosphate fertilizer and potash fertilizer based on basal dressing in preceding 3 years, do not apply fertilizer in general the 1st year, beginning in the 2nd year annual when the growth animated period every mu execute 10 kilograms of potassium sulphates, diammonium phosphate 7-8 kilogram; Every mu of need were executed 1500 kilograms of well-rotted farmyard manures and were executed 15 kilograms of potassium sulphates, 10 kilograms of diammonium phosphate the 4th year annual winter; Annual cutter is comforted weeding 2-3 time, notes pruning the forest plantation branch simultaneously and notes suitably giving illumination not too in concealment, and keeping the tsaoko shade density is 40-50%, and the Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis shade density is 70-80%; Note draining rainy season,, plant to pinch the 4th year later annual 4-5 month at Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis simultaneously and pluck flower bud, cause nutrition leak in case bloom in case mashed root or disease take place;
(4) gather and reserve seed for planting: excavate when the 10-12 month acrial part after the 5th year is withered, note reducing the damage of root as far as possible, after excavating, wipe out for 2-3 centimetre under the band bud part bud trace of top, rub with hand rubbing when half-dried not drying in the air with the rhizome of bud part, epidermis and earth stranding are gone, dry after the shaping; The band bud of results partly with after ash mixes is broadcast in the ground, gathered after 3 years; After selecting the mature seed harvesting of 5-7 healthy plant simultaneously, remove epidermis, and preserve with the damp sand after the sterilization.
The present invention has simple to operate, and cost is low, is easy to promote; save the soil,, the protection environment; increase advantages such as tsaoko ground and artificial forest land's income, establish good basis, have good economic benefit, ecological benefits and social benefit for the artificial scale plantation of Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis.
Embodiment:
Embodiment one:
The concrete steps of this method are as follows:
1, choosing ground and forest plantation plantation
(1) choosing ground: select between the height above sea level 1000-2200m, year precipitation is between 800-1300mm, and weather is moistening, and the free of contamination area of atmosphere, irrigation water and soil requires deep, loose fertile, well-drained barren hill of plantation ground soil layer or wasteland.
(2) forest plantation and tsaoko plantation: with 2 * 2m seeding row spacing plantation China fir or Anlnus nepalensis tree, require plantation unsuitable overstocked, treat arboreal growth after 2 years the sylvan life light transmittance in artificial lanceolata forest ground or Anlnus nepalensis forest land be at least 40%, and plant tsaoko with 2 * 2m kind in sylvan life, the distance tree is 1 * 1m;
2, Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis plantation and and seedling management
(1) wholely: treat that forest plantation growth after 3 years, tsaoko plantation are after 1 year, before arriving annual rainy season (the first tenday period of a month in April to May), during with artificial forest land and the ridging of tsaoko ground, weeding or fertilising that ground is smooth, remove weeds, hold the drain ditch successfully, and farmyard manure or 30 kilograms of efficient compound fertilizers of applying 1500kg/ mu are made base manure.
(2) transplant: generally (the first tenday period of a month in mid-April to May) transplant after arriving rainy season, between the tsaoko plant, adopt and broadcast sowing or drilling, soaked 30 minutes with gibberellin 200ppm and 0.5% carbendazim wettable powder before broadcasting, pull out clean, after epidermis dries, can transplant.The general seeding row spacing that keeps is at 10 * 10cm, and general every mu is 30,000 seedlings, notes reserving the aisle simultaneously.
(3) seedling management: the 1-3 of Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis is the growth of seedling phase, notes seedling stage not allowing cattle and sheep trample on seedling, need water during the sky overdrying and keep a full stand of seedings.
The a weeding: not weeding in general the 1st year, if weeds are overstocked, unsuitable uprooting weed prescinds grass with reaping hook, and the 2nd year and the 3rd year, first cutter was comforted weeding once before May, Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis was emerged, and will note rainy season in time with the reaping hook mowing having influenced the Paris polyphylla growth in order to avoid grass is too vigorous.
The b fertilising: based on basal dressing, Shaoshi nitrogenous fertilizer.Execute a small amount of phosphate fertilizer and potash fertilizer at the growth animated period, do not apply fertilizer in general the 1st year, if the too barren farmyard manure of suitably executing in soil.The 2nd year beginning every year all an amount of potassium application and phosphate fertilizer (executing 10 kilograms of potassium sulphates, diammonium phosphate 7-8 kilogram for general every mu) when the growth animated period.
The c damage by disease and insect: insect pest will notice that mainly the infringement of black cutworm, grub or snail notes timely control; Disease is mainly noted spot blight and root rot.
3, the field management of 4-5 Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis growth animated period
A fertilising: need basal dressing (1500 kilograms of well-rotted farmyard manures and execute 15 kilograms of potassium sulphates, 10 kilograms of diammonium phosphate) annual winter;
B weeding, ridging or draining: need weeding 2-3 time, carry out weeding, ridging in conjunction with the tsaoko garden before arriving 1 year rainy season, do not injure root when noting weeding, ridging.Note pruning the forest plantation branch simultaneously and note suitably giving illumination not too in concealment, keeping the tsaoko shade density is 40-50%, and the Paris polyphylla shade density is 70-80%.
Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis is drought-enduring, generally need not pour water, and utilizes the nature rainwater to pour water.But will note draining during rainy season, in case mashed root or disease take place.
The management of c disease: at the time or the impeded drainage of excessive rainfall, spot blight and root rot can take place in Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis.Every mu of usefulness 50% carbendazol wettable powder 100-200 gram is converted water spray, sprays in their early stage, sprays altogether 2 times, 5-7 days at interval, prevents and treats spot blight; Add 1000 times of liquid irrigating roots of fertile tame good fortune (short taking root) with 1000-1500 times of liquid of hundred Thailands (bactericide), every strain 100 grams are prevented and treated root rot.
D plucks flower bud: if nutritional condition is better, the part plant will bloom in the 4th year, in order to promote the root growth of Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis, guaranteed medicinal material output, pinched when forming bud, caused nutrition leak in case bloom.
E reserves seed for planting: Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis grows into 5-7, selects growth healthy plant vigorous, no damage by disease and insect to reserve seed for planting, and treats that seed is mature on the whole can pluck, behind the rubbing epidermis, with the preservation of the damp sand after the sterilization.
4, gather: excavate when the 10-12 month acrial part after the 5th year is withered, note reducing the damage of root, after excavating as far as possible, wipe out for 2-3 centimetre under the band bud part bud trace of top, do not rub with hand rubbing when half-dried and will be not dry in the air, epidermis and earth are rubbed with the hands gone, dry after the shaping with the rhizome of bud part.
Broadcast in the ground after will being with the bud part simultaneously and ash mixing, can gather again after 3 years.
The inventor in the Wenshan Prefecture of Yunnan * * township and Nu Jiangzhou * * implement in the township.Selected to implement in 3 years living lanceolata forest of 1300 meters of height above sea level, 1500 meters 3 years living Anlnus nepalensis woodss, the hillside fields, the gradient is 15-30 °, and tsaoko is local farm variety, plants 1 year.Test selected experimental field soil layer deep, be rich in humus, climatic environment is moistening, away from city and industrial pollution, atmosphere, water and soil earth all reach national grade ii standard.When taking advantage of the tsaoko garden at the beginning of 4 months for the first time cutter being comforted the weeding fertilising, plough and transplant the Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis seedling, seedling soaked root 30 minutes through gibberellin 200ppm and 0.5% carbendazim wettable powder broadcasting before, after pulling out surface moisture was dried the back transplanting.Seeding row spacing is at 10 * 10cm, and general every mu is 2-3 ten thousand seedlings.Not weeding in the 1st year only prescinds its acrial part in the overstocked place of weeds with reaping hook.2-3 is annual with reaping hook mowing 2-3 time after rainy season in May.4-5 pinches and plucks flower bud the 4-5 month.When treating that blade is withered November, excavate.
Plant after 5 years, " Anlnus nepalensis woods+tsaoko+Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis " cropping pattern, the bright product 1300kg of average yield per mu Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis, tsaoko dry product 150kg (being the 3rd year back 3 years total that begin to bear fruit), by the bright product of 45 yuan/kg of place of production procurement price in 2009 Paris polyphylla, 25 yuan/kg tsaoko dry product, 2000 yuan of Anlnus nepalensis woods materials, every mu of total income is 64100 yuan, and deduction drops into 14100 yuan, produces 50000 yuan of economic benefits." lanceolata forest+tsaoko+Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis " cropping pattern, the bright product 2400kg of average yield per mu Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis, tsaoko dry product 200kg (being the 3rd year back 3 years total that begin to bear fruit), by the bright product of 45 yuan/kg of place of production procurement price in 2009 Paris polyphylla, 25 yuan/kg tsaoko dry product, 4000 yuan of lanceolata forest materials, every mu of total income is 117000 yuan, deduction drops into 27000 yuan, produces 90000 yuan of economic benefits.
Every mu of major economic indicators of the different Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis planting patternss of table one
Planting patterns Individual plant Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis fresh weight g Per mu yield Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis kg Per mu yield tsaoko kg Forest plantation benefit (unit) Every mu of economic benefit (unit)
Anlnus nepalensis woods+tsaoko+Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis 65 1300 150 2000 50000
Lanceolata forest+tsaoko+Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis 95 2400 200 4000 90000

Claims (1)

1. the ecological composite plant method of a Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis, it is characterized in that adopting the composite plant pattern of China fir or Anlnus nepalensis+tsaoko+Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis, comprise field management, 4 steps of gathering and reserve seed for planting of choosing ground and forest plantation plantation, Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis plantation and seedling management, 4-5 Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis growth animated period, be specially:
(1) choosing ground and forest plantation plantation
A. select ground: select between the height above sea level 1000-2200m, year precipitation is between 800-1300mm, and average annual temperature is at 13 ℃-20 ℃, and weather is moistening, the free of contamination area of atmosphere, irrigation water and soil requires deep, loose fertile, well-drained barren hill of plantation ground soil layer or wasteland; B. forest plantation and tsaoko plantation: with 2 * 2m seeding row spacing plantation China fir or Anlnus nepalensis tree, require plantation unsuitable overstocked, treat arboreal growth after 2 years the sylvan life light transmittance in artificial lanceolata forest ground or Anlnus nepalensis forest land be at least 40%, plant tsaoko in sylvan life with 2 * 2m kind, the distance tree is 1 * 1m;
(2) Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis plantation and seedling management
A. whole ground: treat forest plantation growth 3 years, tsaoko plantation after 1 year, in the annual the first tenday period of a month in April to May that artificial forest land and tsaoko ground is smooth, remove weeds, hold the drain ditch successfully, and farmyard manure or 30 kilograms of efficient compound fertilizers of applying 1500kg/ mu are made base manure;
B. transplant: transplant in the first tenday period of a month in mid-April to May, between the tsaoko plant, adopt and broadcast sowing or drilling, soaked 30 minutes with gibberellin 200ppm and 0.5% carbendazim wettable powder before broadcasting, pull out clean, i.e. transplanting after epidermis dries; Keep seeding row spacing at 10 * 10cm, every mu is 30,000 seedlings;
(3) seedling management: the 1-3 of Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis is the growth of seedling phase, notes seedling stage not allowing cattle and sheep trample on seedling, need water during the sky overdrying and keep a full stand of seedings;
A. weeding: not weeding in the 1st year, if weeds are overstocked, unsuitable uprooting weed prescinds grass with reaping hook, and the 2nd year and the 3rd year, first cutter was comforted weeding once before May, Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis was emerged, and will note rainy season in time with the reaping hook mowing having influenced the Paris polyphylla growth in order to avoid grass is too vigorous;
B. fertilising: do not apply fertilizer in the 1st year, if the too barren farmyard manure of suitably executing in soil; Beginning in the 2nd year is executed 10 kilograms of potassium sulphates, diammonium phosphate 7-8 kilogram for annual every mu;
C. damage by disease and insect: insect pest will notice that mainly the infringement of black cutworm, grub or snail notes timely control; Disease is mainly noted spot blight and root rot;
The field management of (3) 4-5 Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis growth animated period
A. fertilising: the annual base manure that need execute 1500 kilograms of well-rotted farmyard manures, 15 kilograms of potassium sulphates, 10 kilograms of diammonium phosphate winter;
B. weeding, ridging or draining: need weeding 2-3 time, carry out weeding, ridging in conjunction with the tsaoko garden before 4-5 arrives rainy season, the attention weeding, do not injure root when earthing up; Note pruning the forest plantation branch simultaneously and note suitably giving illumination not too in concealment, keeping tsaoko degree of shading is 40-50%, and Paris polyphylla degree of shading is 70-80%; Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis is drought-enduring, utilizes the nature rainwater to pour water, but will note draining during rainy season, in case mashed root or disease take place;
The management of c disease: at the time or the impeded drainage of excessive rainfall, spot blight and root rot can take place in Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis; Every mu of usefulness 50% carbendazol wettable powder 100-200 gram is converted water spray, sprays in their early stage, sprays altogether 2 times, 5-7 days at interval, prevents and treats spot blight; Add fertile 1000 times of liquid irrigating roots of tame good fortune with hundred safe bactericide 1000-1500 times liquid, every strain 100 grams are prevented and treated root rot;
D plucks flower bud: the part plant will bloom in the 4th year, in order to promote the root growth of Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis, guaranteed medicinal material output, pinched when forming bud, caused nutrition leak in case bloom;
(4) gather and reserve seed for planting
A. reserve seed for planting: Yunnan Rhizoma Paridis grows into 5-7, selects growth healthy plant vigorous, no damage by disease and insect to reserve seed for planting, and treats that seed is mature on the whole promptly to pluck, behind the rubbing epidermis, with the preservation of the damp sand after the sterilization;
B. gather: the 10-12 month acrial part after the 5th year is excavated when withered, notes reducing the damage of root as far as possible, after excavating, wipes out for 2-3 centimetre under the band bud part bud trace of top, will be with bud partly and after ash mixes to broadcast in the ground simultaneously, can gather again after 3 years; Do not rub with hand rubbing when half-dried and will be not dry in the air, epidermis and earth are rubbed with the hands gone, dry after the shaping with the rhizome of bud part.
CN200910163214XA 2009-12-23 2009-12-23 Ecological compound planting method of Paris polyphylla Expired - Fee Related CN101926257B (en)

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