CN101913103B  Method for measuring angular errors of rotating table of numerical control machine  Google Patents
Method for measuring angular errors of rotating table of numerical control machine Download PDFInfo
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 CN101913103B CN101913103B CN 201010256629 CN201010256629A CN101913103B CN 101913103 B CN101913103 B CN 101913103B CN 201010256629 CN201010256629 CN 201010256629 CN 201010256629 A CN201010256629 A CN 201010256629A CN 101913103 B CN101913103 B CN 101913103B
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Abstract
Description
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of angular errors of rotating table of numerical control machine detection method, especially a kind of for the fiveaxis linkage machine tools method for measuring angular errors of rotating table of numerical control machine.
Background technology
Rotating table of numerical control machine is the critical component that is applied to fiveaxis linkage machine tools, the positional precision of rotary table gyration is the key influence factor that determines location of workpiece benchmark, motion benchmark, therefore the angular errors of rotating table of numerical control machine detection technique is most important to the assurance of machine finish, is the key technology that high precision machine tool must solve.At present, also there is no a kind of angular errors of rotating table of numerical control machine accurate measurement method.
Summary of the invention
The present invention will provide a kind of method for measuring angular errors of rotating table of numerical control machine, the method utilizes standard ball and infrared threedimension workpiece probe to form measuring system, detection according to the standard ball movement position, reverse goes out rotating table of numerical control machine home position and angular errors, for the compensation of the angular errors of rotary table provides foundation.
For achieving the above object, technical scheme of the present invention is: a kind of method for measuring angular errors of rotating table of numerical control machine comprises the steps:
1. the definition rotating table of numerical control machine is around the angular errors of Xaxis and Z axis
δ _{X}(θ _{i})＝θ _{i}θ _{i}′????(1)
δ _{Z}(θ _{j})＝θ _{j}θ _{j}′????(2)
θ in formula _{i}, θ _{j}Be respectively the actual measurement corner value around Xaxis and Z axis rotation, θ _{i}', θ _{j}' be respectively the nominal corner value around the rotation of Xaxis and Z axis;
2. measure and obtain rotating table of numerical control machine around the angular errors of Xaxis and Z axis
With highprecision standard ball as measuring basis, standard ball is supported by base bracket, be fixed on workbench, determine the actual motion track of rotating table of numerical control machine by the locus of measurement standard ball, obtain rotating table of numerical control machine around the angular errors of Xaxis and Z axis.
Concrete measuring method a: standard ball is fixed on workbench by base, control respectively the rotating table of numerical control machine transposition and drive servomotor and corner driving servomotor, make rotating table of numerical control machine do respectively the gyration of twofreedom around Xaxis and Z axis, and the infrared threedimension workpiece probe is arranged on main shaft of numerical control machine tool, in order to the centre of sphere movement locus position coordinates of measurement standard ball, and obtain the angular errors of rotating table of numerical control machine;
Rotating table of numerical control machine is measured around the Z axis angular errors:
Transposition drives servomotor rotating table of numerical control machine is fixed on apart from a certain angle position φ of horizontal plane, then controls corner driving driven by servomotor rotating table of numerical control machine and rotates around Z axis, makes it rotate respectively ψ _{1}, ψ _{2}..., ψ _{n}Angle, and measure the spatial coordinate of spherical center (X of standard ball on rotating table of numerical control machine _{ψ 1}, Y _{ψ 1}, Z _{ψ 1}), (X _{ψ 2}, Y _{ψ 2}, Z _{ψ 2}) ..., (X _{ψ n}, Y _{ψ n}, Z _{ψ n}), for the convenient corner that calculates rotating table of numerical control machine, pass through coordinate transformation method, calculate rotating table of numerical control machine around Xaxisφ angle, in its planposition that rotates to φ=0 °, definition coordinate system X ' OY ', and with the spatial coordinate of spherical center (X of standard ball _{ψ 1}, Y _{ψ 1}, Z _{ψ 1}), (X _{ψ 2}, Y _{ψ 2}, Z _{ψ 2}) ..., (X _{ψ n}, Y _{ψ n}, Z _{ψ n}) be transformed into the coordinate (X on coordinate system X ' OY ' _{ψ 1}', Y _{ψ 1}', Z _{ψ 1}'), (X _{ψ 2}', Y _{ψ 2}', Z _{ψ 2}') ..., (X _{ψ n}', Y _{ψ n}', Z _{ψ n}'), wherein
X _{ψi}′＝X _{ψi}???????????????????(3)
Y _{ψi}′＝Y _{ψi}cosZ _{ψi}sinφ??????(4)
Z _{ψi}′＝Y _{ψi}sinφ+Z _{ψi}cosφ????(5)
I=1 in formula, 2 ..., n, through type (3)Shi (5) is converted to X ' OY ' with the sphere center position coordinate of standard ball by coordinate system XOY; Standard ball centre of sphere point (X _{ψ i}', Y _{ψ i}', Z _{ψ i}') and point (X _{ψ j}', Y _{ψ j}', Z _{ψ j}') between around the rotational angle theta of Z axis _{ij}Tried to achieve by formula (6):
R in formula be the centre of sphere apart from the distance of rotary table axis of rotation Z axis, the equation of a circle of standard ball centre of sphere track is expressed as:
(X′X _{0}′) ^{2}+(Y′Y _{0}′) ^{2}＝R ^{2}????(7)
Coordinate figure (X with three centre ofs sphere _{ψ i}', Y _{ψ i}'), (X _{ψ j}', Y _{ψ j}'), (X _{ψ k}', Y _{ψ k}') substitution formula (7), obtain the central coordinate of circle (X of centre of sphere track _{0}', Y _{0}') and the centre of sphere apart from the distance R of the axis of rotation of rotary table, with R substitution formula (6), try to achieve point (X _{ψ i}', Y _{ψ i}', Z _{ψ i}') and point (X _{ψ j}', Y _{ψ j}', Z _{ψ} _{j}') between rotational angle theta _{ij}, according to the nominal value θ of this angle _{ij}' and calculate angular errors δ by formula (1) _{Z}(θ _{ij}); In like manner, obtain the angular errors of other position;
Rotating table of numerical control machine is around the measurement of Xaxis angular errors:
When if rotating table of numerical control machine is measured angular errors around Xaxis, control transposition at rotating table of numerical control machine and drive servomotor in the slewing area of Xaxis, make it rotate respectively φ _{1}, φ _{2}..., φ _{m}Angle, and measure the spatial coordinate of spherical center (X of standard ball on rotating table of numerical control machine _{φ 1}, Y _{φ 1}, Z _{φ 1}), (X _{φ 2}, Y _{φ} _{2}, Z _{φ 2}) ..., (X _{φ m}, Y _{φ m}, Z _{φ m}), calculate standard ball spatial coordinate of spherical center (X _{φ 1}, Y _{φ 1}, Z _{φ 1}), (X _{φ} _{2}, Y _{φ 2}, Z _{φ 2}) ..., (X _{φ m}, Y _{φ m}, Z _{φ m}) coordinate figure that is projected to the YOZ plane is: (O, Y _{φ 1}, Z _{φ 1}), (O, Y _{φ 2}, Z _{φ 2}) ..., (O, Y _{φ m}, Z _{φ m}); Obtain standard ball spatial coordinate of spherical center (O, Y on rotating table of numerical control machine by formula (8) _{φ i}, Z _{φ i}) and (O, Y _{φ j}, Z _{φ j}) between included angle _{ij}
Wherein, rotating table of numerical control machine swings geometrical relationship around Xaxis:
According to formula (8) and formula (9), by the spatial coordinate of spherical center value of standard ball on rotating table of numerical control machine, try to achieve rotating table of numerical control machine around the rotational angle φ of Xaxis _{ij}, and according to the nominal value φ of this angle _{ij}' and calculate angular errors δ by formula (1) _{X}(φ _{ij}).
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: rotating table of numerical control machine is the critical component that is applied to fiveaxis linkage machine tools, the positional precision of rotary table gyration is the key influence factor that determines location of workpiece benchmark, motion benchmark, therefore the angular errors of rotating table of numerical control machine detection technique is most important to the assurance of machine finish, is the key technology that high precision machine tool must solve.The present invention utilizes standard ball and infrared threedimension workpiece probe to form measuring system, and according to the detection of standard ball movement position, reverse goes out rotating table of numerical control machine home position and angular errors, for the angular errors compensation of rotary table provides foundation.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the fundamental diagram of twofreedom rotating table of numerical control machine;
Fig. 2 is the standard ball position view;
Fig. 3 is that standard ball is measured the track schematic diagram;
Fig. 4 is standard ball initial position schematic diagram;
Fig. 5 is that rotating table of numerical control machine swings the geometrical relationship schematic diagram around Xaxis.
The specific embodiment
The present invention is further illustrated below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment.
1. method for measuring angular errors of rotating table of numerical control machine
The schematic diagram of twofreedom rotating table of numerical control machine as shown in Figure 1.According to the needs of workpiece processing, rotating table of numerical control machine drives servomotor and corner driving driven by servomotor by transposition, does respectively the gyration of twofreedom around Xaxis and Z axis.And the angular errors of rotating table of numerical control machine is the important indicator of rotary table system performance, is also directly determining the machining accuracy of numerical control machining center.Rotating table of numerical control machine is defined as respectively around the angular errors of Xaxis and Z axis:
δ _{X}(θ _{i})＝θ _{i}θ _{i}′????(1)
δ _{Z}(θ _{j})＝θ _{j}θ _{j}′????(2)
θ in formula _{i}, θ _{j}Be respectively the actual measurement corner value around Xaxis and Z axis rotation, θ _{i}', θ _{j}' be respectively the nominal corner value around the rotation of Xaxis and Z axis.
In order to measure the angular errors of rotating table of numerical control machine, the present invention adopts highprecision standard ball as measuring basis, standard ball is supported by base bracket, be fixed on workbench, determine the actual motion track of rotating table of numerical control machine by the locus of measurement standard ball, obtain the angular errors of rotating table of numerical control machine with the method.
Concrete measurement scheme is as follows: a standard ball is fixed on workbench, by base as shown in Figure 2.Control respectively the rotating table of numerical control machine transposition and drive servomotor and corner driving servomotor, make rotating table of numerical control machine do respectively the gyration of twofreedom around Xaxis and Z axis.And the infrared threedimension workpiece probe is arranged on main shaft of numerical control machine tool, in order to the centre of sphere movement locus position coordinates of measurement standard ball, and obtain the angular errors of rotating table of numerical control machine.Below narrate respectively rotating table of numerical control machine around the Z axis angular errors and around the measuring method of Xaxis angular errors.
2. rotating table of numerical control machine is around the measuring method of Z axis angular errors
Transposition drives servomotor rotating table of numerical control machine is fixed on apart from a certain angle position φ of horizontal plane, then controls corner driving driven by servomotor rotating table of numerical control machine and rotates around Z axis, as shown in Figure 3, makes it rotate respectively ψ _{1}, ψ _{2}..., ψ _{n}Angle, and measure the spatial coordinate of spherical center (X of standard ball on rotating table of numerical control machine _{ψ 1}, Y _{ψ 1}, Z _{ψ 1}), (X _{ψ 2}, Y _{ψ 2}, Z _{ψ 2}) ..., (X _{ψ n}, Y _{ψ n}, Z _{ψ n}).For the convenient corner that calculates rotating table of numerical control machine, by coordinate transformation method, calculate rotating table of numerical control machine around Xaxisφ angle, in its planposition that rotates to φ=0 °, definition coordinate system X ' OY ', and with the spatial coordinate of spherical center (X of standard ball _{ψ 1}, Y _{ψ 1}, Z _{ψ 1}), (X _{ψ 2}, Y _{ψ 2}, Z _{ψ 2}) ..., (X _{ψ n}, Y _{ψ n}, Z _{ψ n}) be transformed into the coordinate (X on coordinate system X ' OY ' _{ψ 1}', Y _{ψ 1}', Z _{ψ 1}'), (X _{ψ 2}', Y _{ψ 2}', Z _{ψ 2}') ..., (X _{ψ n}', Y _{ψ n}', Z _{ψ n}').Wherein
X _{ψi}′＝X _{ψi}???????????????????(3)
Y _{ψi}′＝Y _{ψi}cosφZ _{ψi}sinφ????(4)
Z _{ψi}′＝Y _{ψi}sinφ+Z _{ψi}cosφ????(5)
I=1 in formula, 2 ..., n.Through type (3)Shi (5) can be converted to X ' OY ' by coordinate system XOY with the sphere center position coordinate of standard ball.
Standard ball centre of sphere point (X _{ψ i}', Y _{ψ i}', Z _{ψ i}') and point (X _{ψ j}', Y _{ψ j}', Z _{ψ j}') between around the rotational angle theta of Z axis _{ij}Can be tried to achieve by following formula:
R in formula be the centre of sphere apart from the distance of rotary table axis of rotation Z axis, its value can be by three
The coordinate figure of the centre of sphere is tried to achieve.The equation of a circle of standard ball centre of sphere track can be expressed as:
(X′X _{0}′) ^{2}+(Y′Y _{0}′) ^{2}＝R ^{2}????(7)
(X in formula _{0}', Y _{0}') be the central coordinate of circle of centre of sphere track.Coordinate figure (X with three centre ofs sphere _{ψ i}', Y _{ψ i}'), (X _{ψ j}', Y _{ψ j}'), (X _{ψ k}', Y _{ψ k}') substitution formula (7), can obtain the central coordinate of circle (X of centre of sphere track _{0}', Y _{0}') and the centre of sphere apart from the distance R of the axis of rotation of rotary table, with R substitution formula (6), can try to achieve point (X _{ψ i}, Y _{ψ i}', Z _{ψ i}') and point (X _{ψ j}', Y _{ψ j}', Z _{ψ j}') between rotational angle theta _{ij}, according to the nominal value θ of this angle _{ij}' and calculate angular errors δ by formula (1) _{Z}(θ _{ij}).In like manner, can obtain the angular errors of other position.
3. rotating table of numerical control machine is around the measuring method of Xaxis angular errors
When if rotating table of numerical control machine is measured angular errors around Xaxis, the position A of standard ball as shown in Figure 4, rotating table of numerical control machine has certain scope around the rotation (swing) of Xaxis, controls transposition and drive servomotor in its scope, makes it rotate respectively φ _{1}, φ _{2}..., φ _{m}Angle, and measure the spatial coordinate of spherical center (X of standard ball on rotating table of numerical control machine _{φ 1}, Y _{φ 1}, Z _{φ 1}), (X _{φ 2}, Y _{φ 2}, Z _{φ 2}) ..., (X _{φ} _{m}, Y _{φ m}, Z _{φ m}).Around the corner of Xaxis, calculate standard ball spatial coordinate of spherical center (X for the convenient rotating table of numerical control machine that calculates _{φ 1}, Y _{φ 1}, Z _{φ 1}), (X _{φ 2}, Y _{φ 2}, Z _{φ 2}) ..., (X _{φ m}, Y _{φ m}, Z _{φ m}) coordinate figure that is projected to the YOZ plane is: (O, Y _{φ 1}, Z _{φ 1}), (O, Y _{φ 2}, Z _{φ 2}) ..., (O, Y _{φ m}, Z _{φ m}).
Fig. 5 illustrates rotating table of numerical control machine and swings the geometrical relationship schematic diagram around Xaxis, according to the diagram geometrical relationship, can obtain standard ball spatial coordinate of spherical center (O, Y on rotating table of numerical control machine _{φ i}, Z _{φ i}) and (O, Y _{φ j}, Z _{φ j}) between included angle _{ij}Computing formula:
Wherein, rotating table of numerical control machine swings geometrical relationship around Xaxis:
According to formula (8) and formula (9), by the spatial coordinate of spherical center value of standard ball on rotating table of numerical control machine, can try to achieve rotating table of numerical control machine around the rotational angle φ of Xaxis _{ij}, and according to the nominal value φ of this angle _{ij}' and calculate angular errors δ by formula (1) _{X}(φ _{ij}).
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