CN101912037B - Bulking process of pig hair meal feed - Google Patents

Bulking process of pig hair meal feed Download PDF

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CN101912037B
CN101912037B CN2010102889286A CN201010288928A CN101912037B CN 101912037 B CN101912037 B CN 101912037B CN 2010102889286 A CN2010102889286 A CN 2010102889286A CN 201010288928 A CN201010288928 A CN 201010288928A CN 101912037 B CN101912037 B CN 101912037B
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pig hair
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Abstract

The invention discloses a bulking process of a pig hair meal feed, which is mainly applied in the field of bulked drinks. The technical problem to be solved by the invention is to provide the bulking process of the pig hair meal feed having the advantages of stable structure, good quality, easy extrusion and high nutritional value. The bulking process of the pig hair meal feed is characterized bycomprising the following process steps of: 1), removing pig palm hair from pig hair serving as a raw material, and crushing short hair, broken hair, pig skin scraps and leftovers with a crusher, wherein the crushing particle size is 3 to 5mm; 2), feeding the crushed material with a feeding device; 3), modifying with a modifer; and 4), adopting extrusion type bulking technology wherein in the extrusion type bulking technology, a single-screw extrusion type bulking system serves as processing equipment.

Description

A kind of bulking process of pig hair meal feed
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of bulking process of feed, especially the bulking process of pig hair meal feed.
Background technology
Want to produce a kind of qualified expanded pellet diet, at first to the selection of feedstuff composition, feedstuff to structure, the quality of final products, extrude difficulty, nutritive value, economic benefit and adapt to the influence of high levels of fat ability greatly when needing.Therefore, select raw material to make the batching valency still can keep high quality standards at lowest order, and processing charges is minimum, such ability is a challenge to each technical staff.Next be to the characteristic of feedstuff composition, selects suitable puffing process technique and in puffing process the expanded pellet diet product quality quality that is provided with exporting to each machined parameters, systematic parameter play crucial effects.So far do not find as yet that it is the report of raw material production expanded pellet diet that the pig of employing hair is arranged.
Expanded: as to refer to contain the raw material of certain proportion and certain moisture, through high temperature, after the HIGH PRESSURE TREATMENT; Starch gelatinization, the protein layering, moisture is superheat state; Reduce to normal pressure more at short notice, temperature decrease is under the effect of temperature difference pressure reduction; The feed volume expands rapidly, and moisture evaporates rapidly and forms the feed of quality short texture.
The advantage of expanded pellet diet: 1: the nutritive value that improves feed; 2: expanded pellet diet has porous, and proportion is little, can swim in the water surface, reduces water pollution; 3: the expanded pellet diet moisture content is low, is generally 6-9%, and shape-retaining ability is good, can long term storage; 4: expanded pellet diet is suitable especially makes the fishes and shrimps feed, and floatability is good, and the coefficient of volumetric expansion is low, and digestibility is high.
Puffing process technique mainly is divided into: intermittently bulking process, continuous swelling technology.Wherein continuous swelling technology is divided into again: air-flow continuous swelling technology, mobile laminar continuous swelling technology, extrusion type puffing technology.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem that the present invention will solve provides that a kind of Stability Analysis of Structures, quality are good, the bulking process of the pig hair meal feed extruding easily, be of high nutritive value.
For addressing the above problem, the technical scheme that the present invention adopts provides a kind of bulking process of pig hair meal feed, it is characterized in that the bulking process step of this pig hair meal feed is following:
1): adopting the pig hair is raw material, and the pig hair is plucked the pig palm fiber, and the undercoat that stays, broken wool, pigskin bits and leftover bits and pieces are pulverized through pulverizer again, and grinding particle size is 3-5mm;
2): through the feed arrangement charging; 3): modified through quality-adjusting device, adopt interpolation steam or interpolation moisture modified, adopt when adding steam regulation of texture, conditioning of texture; The steam addition is 20-45%, and boiler working pressure is 0.5~0.9Mpa, and the modified time is 100~150s; When adopting interpolation moisture modified; The moisture addition is 20-45%, and temperature is 100~120 ℃, and the modified time is 100~150s;
4): adopt the extrusion type puffing technology, as process equipment, the system parameter setting of said single screw rod extrusion type puffing system is: screw diameter is 65-105mm to said extrusion type puffing technology with single screw rod extrusion type puffing system; Screw slenderness ratio is 16-20:1; Thread pitch is 35-55mm, and lead angle is 20-40 °, and screw speed is 100-250rpm; Extrusion temperature is 100-200 ℃, and the annular die annular space is 8-12mm.
As the bulking process that further prioritization scheme of the present invention is described pig hair meal feed, it is characterized in that the bulking process step of this pig hair meal feed is following:
1): adopting the pig hair is raw material, and the pig hair is plucked the pig palm fiber, and the undercoat that stays, broken wool, pigskin bits and leftover bits and pieces are pulverized through pulverizer again, and grinding particle size is 3.5-4.5mm;
2): through the feed arrangement charging; 3): modified through quality-adjusting device, adopt interpolation steam or interpolation moisture modified, adopt when adding steam regulation of texture, conditioning of texture; The steam addition is 20-30%, and boiler working pressure is 0.6~0.8Mpa, and the modified time is 120~140s; When adopting interpolation moisture modified; The moisture addition is 20-30%, and temperature is 110 ℃, and the modified time is 120~140s;
4): adopt the extrusion type puffing technology, as process equipment, the system parameter setting of said single screw rod extrusion type puffing system is: screw diameter is 75-95mm to said extrusion type puffing technology with single screw rod extrusion type puffing system; Screw slenderness ratio is 17-19:1; Thread pitch is 40-50mm, and lead angle is 25-35 °, and screw speed is 120-200rpm; Extrusion temperature is 130-160 ℃, and the annular die annular space is 9-11mm.
As the bulking process that another further prioritization scheme of the present invention is described pig hair meal feed, it is characterized in that the bulking process step of this pig hair meal feed is following:
1): adopting the pig hair is raw material, and the pig hair is plucked the pig palm fiber, and the undercoat that stays, broken wool, pigskin bits and leftover bits and pieces are pulverized through pulverizer again, and grinding particle size is 4mm;
2): through the feed arrangement charging; 3): modified through quality-adjusting device, adopt interpolation steam or interpolation moisture modified, adopt when adding steam regulation of texture, conditioning of texture; The steam addition is 25%, and boiler working pressure is 0.7Mpa, and the modified time is 130s; When adopting interpolation moisture modified; The moisture addition is 25%, and temperature is 110 ℃, and the modified time is 130s;
4): adopt the extrusion type puffing technology, as process equipment, the system parameter setting of said single screw rod extrusion type puffing system is: screw diameter is 85mm to said extrusion type puffing technology with single screw rod extrusion type puffing system; Screw slenderness ratio is 18:1; Thread pitch is 45mm, and lead angle is 30 °, and screw speed is 175rpm; Extrusion temperature is 150 ℃, and the annular die annular space is 10mm.
Adopt above-mentioned pig hair puffing technical method in extrusion pressing puffing process, can significantly improve the digestibility of pig hair meal, improve the nutritive value of feed comprehensively.The feeding value of pig hair meal is two aspects: soya-bean cake is practiced thrift, the consumption of fish meal as protein sources in (1); (2) as lysine, practice thrift the addition of lysine in some animal and fowl fodder, lysine is 2 twices of feather meal.
The specific embodiment
Embodiment 1:It is raw material that pig hair meal puffing technical method of the present invention adopts pig hair meal, and said pig hair meal is to pluck undercoat, broken wool, pigskin bits and the leftover bits and pieces etc. that stay behind the pig palm fiber, and adopts the extrusion type puffing process that pig hair meal is carried out expanding processing.
Said its operation principle of extruding-puffing technique method is:
Can think a comparatively special flow reactor in the extruder machine boring of modern extruding and puffing technology.Feed is in the boring of extruder machine; Under high temperature, high pressure conditions through strong extruding, shearing, friction, mix, extrude the starch gelatinization, the albuminous degeneration that make in the feed, each component between the material produces strong physics and physicochemical change, material and on the both macro and micro structure, has all produced the big variation of tool.Feed has high moisture through high temperature, high pressure in the extruding reaction device simultaneously, makes the activity of various ANFs can obtain effectively passivation, the thoroughly deactivation of harmful germ.Thereby, make the finished product of extruder have excellent water tolerance and stability, be prone to characteristics such as digestion, absorption efficiency is high, bacteria containing rate is low, security is good.The adjustment extruder has related parameter can produce the aquatic feeds such as heavy property, buoyancy and half buoyancy of various performances, and this type feed meets handling characteristics and the requirement of fishes and shrimps aquatic animal.Meanwhile, extruder can also be used to improve the use value of feedstuff.
Said extruding-puffing technique method adopts single screw rod extrusion type puffing system as process equipment.
Said single screw rod extrusion type puffing system comprises: feed arrangement, quality-adjusting device, expanded machine body; Said feed arrangement adopts hopper outlet with scroll feeder or oscillating feeder, guarantees that feeding is stable; Said quality-adjusting device is to be used to produce the twin shaft differential quality-adjusting device that aquatic feeds and high-grade animal and fowl fodder are used, and the effect of quality-adjusting device is the process of carrying out hydrothermal treatment consists, softening raw material before the expanded feed; Said expanded machine body composition mainly contains compression sleeve, screw rod and die orifice three parts.
Let an extrusion type puffing system keep stable technical process, produce satisfactory expanded pellet diet, must grasp or measure whole job parameters or variable.These variablees can be divided into four types: raw material, machined parameters (comprising processing constant and processing variable or controlled variable), systematic parameter (technical process output valve), new product characteristic.
1, raw material
The pig hair meal main component of employing of the present invention is a hard protein matter, is called keratin.Wherein the hair of the overwhelming majority is made up of keratin, accounts for about 95% of whole hair.Other compositions comprise trace element, moisture and other elements.Wherein keratin is made up of the amino acid chain that about 20 seed amino acids form.Comprise cystine, methionine, leucine, valine, threonine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, tryptophan, isoleucine etc., wherein the content of cystine is the highest.Also contain the trace element of the kind more than 20 of having an appointment in the pig hair meal, mainly comprise zinc, calcium, manganese, cadmium, mercury, selenium, copper, cobalt, iron, titanium, molybdenum, nickel etc.
2, machined parameters
Machined parameters comprises processing constant and processing variable (or controlled variable).
A. process constant:
The extruder type, main engine power, screw slenderness ratio (L/D), screw rod configuration (comprising thread pitch, the lead angle degree), die orifice annular space.Extruder type of the present invention adopts single screw rod extrusion type puffing system; Main engine power is 30KW; Said screw slenderness ratio (L/D) is 85mm; Said thread pitch is 45mm, and said lead angle is 30 ℃; The die orifice annular space is 10mm.
B. processing variable (controlled variable):
Feeding moisture (adding steam or water), extruder machine boring temperature (extrusion temperature), screw speed.Interpolation quantity of steam of the present invention or interpolation amount of moisture are 25%; The extrusion temperature of machine boring is 150 ℃; Screw speed is 175rpm.
The work flow of extruding-puffing technique is:
Raw material processing → charging → modified → extrusion → the excision forming that feeds intake → oven dry → cooling → finished product
(1) raw material is handled
The pig hair is plucked undercoat, broken wool, pigskin bits and the leftover bits and pieces etc. that stay behind the pig palm fiber to be pulverized through pulverizer before expanded.Raw material granularity is determining the surface area that feed is formed, and granularity is thin more, and surface area is big more, and it is fast more that material absorbs in the steam moisture, helps carrying out modified, also makes the raising of puffing quality and output.The present invention is 4mm to the grinding particle size of pig hair.
(2) charging
Through the feed arrangement charging, for the quality that keeps dilated product and bulking machine ceaselessly, balancedly operate at full capacity, must make the mass flow that gets into bulking machine satisfy expanded needs.Pay special attention to effectively to eliminate and treat that expanded feed bin is because of former thereby uneven phenomenons of charging that cause such as knot arches.Charging is not enough, and expansion effect is undesirable; Charging is too much, and stifled easily machine causes productivity ratio to descend even " burning machine ".
(3) modified
Carry out modifiedly through quality-adjusting device, it is modified adopt to add steam or moisture.
Adopt when adding steam, in modified process, will add an amount of steam, the quality of steam also will have influence on modified quality.If it is too much to add steam, can make pig hair meal become soft, extruding force is not enough in the Builking cavity, influences expansion effect, if the steam that adds is not enough, can make the material gelatinization degree poor, is difficult to be shaped, and expanded effect is undesirable.Steam addition of the present invention is 25%.The steam that is supplied should keep steady pressure, and prevents to produce condensation, and the operating pressure of boiler should maintain 0.7MPa, is transported to quality-adjusting device steam pressure before and should be adjusted to 0.058~0.4Mpa, and the modified time is 130s.
When adopting interpolation moisture modified, moisture is modified to need the regular hour, so that improve the gentle water content of material, promotes starch gelatinization, and the modified time that different prescriptions is corresponding different is to satisfy the needs that the user produces the different formulations feed.The control temperature was between 130 ℃ when the present invention was modified, and humidity is 25%.When moisture is high, bonding better, but too much moisture will stop up nib, the cost of while during dried also will increase.
(4) extrusion that feeds intake
Expanded through extrusion type puffing equipment.In the boring of extruder machine, material is to extrude through the annular gap between in extruding screw, pressure rings and the boring of extruder machine.Under high temperature, high pressure conditions through strong extruding, shearing, friction, mix, extrude the starch gelatinization, the albuminous degeneration that make in the feed, each component between the material produces strong physics and physicochemical change, material and on the both macro and micro structure, has all produced the big variation of tool.Feed has high moisture through high temperature, high pressure in the extruding reaction device simultaneously, makes the activity of various ANFs can obtain effectively passivation, the thoroughly deactivation of harmful germ.Thereby, make the finished product of extruder have excellent water tolerance and stability, be prone to characteristics such as digestion, absorption efficiency is high, bacteria containing rate is low, security is good.The adjustment extruder has related parameter can produce the aquatic feeds such as heavy property, buoyancy and half buoyancy of various performances, and this type feed meets handling characteristics and the requirement of fishes and shrimps aquatic animal.Meanwhile, extruder can also be used to improve the use value of feedstuff.Simultaneously, the size of die orifice annular space also affects the output of bulking machine, and the output of the big more bulking machine of die orifice annular space is big more.The die orifice annular space is little, and to extrude resistance big, and the counter-pressure that causes is big, and power consumption is also big.So under the situation that does not influence the requirement of expanded parameter and product quality, adopt the big template of nib can improve the productivity ratio of bulking machine.The present invention is to when expanded, and the extrusion temperature in the machine boring is controlled at 150 ℃, and the annular die annular space is arranged to 10mm.
(5) at last with the feed excision forming of extruding, oven dry then, finished product is processed in cooling.Its profile of finished product after processing expands, density, and moisture, surface roughness, hardness, fragility absorbs fatty ability, the starch gelatinization program, water absorption rate, the water absorption index, the water dissolvable index, water float property all meets actual requirement to the stability of oxidation etc.
Adopt behind the above-mentioned extruding-puffing technique influence to the pig hair meal feed nutritive value:
1, under the extrusion condition to the influence of pig hair meal pepsin digestion rate
Pig hair meal pepsin digestion rate result is as shown in table 1 under the various extrusion conditions:
After expanded effect; Keratin external digestion rate increases considerably; This show extruding-puffing technique can very effective improvement keratic digestive conditions, the squeezing action quantity of the main inhibiting factor disulfide bond of keratin digestibility and utilization of can degrading significantly, thereby the exhibition of the tight helical conformation pine of the keratin that it is kept; On this basis; Keratin could form the molten fluidization dough with appropriate rheological characteristic in the extruder chamber, with smooth completion extrusion pressing puffing process, finally make keratin become the protein resource that digestibility is used.The result also shows in the table, says that from improving this angle of keratin digestibility expanded pig hair branch is better than the high-pressure hydrolysis process pig hair meal that generally adopts at present.
The pepsin digestion rate PDP (%) of pig hair meal under the various extrusion conditions of table 1
Influence (the rotating speed 175rpm of temperature (extrusion temperature); Moisture 25%)
Temperature (℃) PDP (%)
100 88.70
130 91.34
150 91.45
160 93.79
200 93.37
The influence of screw speed (150 ℃ of extrusion temperatures; Moisture 25%)
Rotating speed (rpm) PDD (%)
100 90.10
120 91.20
175 91.34
200 90.30
250 90.29
Add the influence (150 ℃ of extrusion temperatures, rotating speed 175rpm) of moisture
Moisture (%) PDD (%)
20 91.34
25 87.06
30 79.06
45 75.05
55 is expanded undesired
As above-mentioned; Digestibility generally increases substantially behind the pig hair meal extrusion; But the violent degraded of the disulfide bond that extrusion pressing puffing process causes will certainly have a negative impact to the utilizability of cystine in the product, and the validity of cystine becomes an important step of pig hair extruding-puffing technique.
2, under the extrusion condition to the influence of the effective cystine of pig hair meal (ADYS)
The extruding-puffing technique parameter is as shown in table 2 to the influence of effective cystine.
Table 2 extruding-puffing technique parameter is to the influence of the effective cystine of pig hair meal (ACYS)
Influence (the rotating speed 175rpm of temperature (extrusion temperature); Moisture 25%)
Temperature (℃) ACYS (%)
100 1.21
130 1.16
150 1.20
160 1.25
200 1.33
The influence of screw speed (150 ℃ of extrusion temperatures; Moisture 25%)
Rotating speed (rpm) ACYS (%)
100 1.21
120 1.13
175 1.16
200 1.23
250 1.33
Add the influence (150 ℃ of extrusion temperatures, rotating speed 175rpm) of moisture
Moisture (%) ACYS (%)
20 1.33
25 1.16
30 1.05
45 1
55 is expanded undesired
Contrast 0.00 before pig hair meal is expanded
Use in the food protein formulation about effective cystine (ADYS); In the pig hair meal extruding-puffing technique, introduced same notion; Specifically be meant expanded pig hair meal external through enzymolysis can be free state or the cystine actual content that combines with soluble peptide relevant; The essence that can reflect problem, and also be convenient to detect with the situation that this notion is assessed cystine in the extrudate.
Without its keratin of pig hair meal of extrusion processing closely helical conformation stop the enzymolysis of digestive ferment; Cystine is extremely difficult free, and what also be difficult to produce solubility contains cystine peptide section, therefore for pig hair raw material; Its cystine vitro detection capable of using is zero; Expanded effect makes separates the protein disulfide bond degraded, is prone to enzyme turns usefulness into, and cystine is easy to dissociate out.The result shows in the table 2, and the extrusion temperature increases, and effectively cystine decline particularly when swelling temperature is higher than 180 ℃, suitably improves extruder rotating speed and raw material and goes into machine moisture in the product, helps improving the content of effective cystine, but is not clearly.
3, pig hair meal amino acid bio utilization rate under the extrusion condition
Pig hair meal is as protein sources, and its amino acid bio is learned and tired is the emphasis of paying close attention to.
Pig hair meal amino acid bio utilization rate result is as shown in table 3 under the various extrusion conditions:
Tire like table 3 pig hair meal amino acid bio
The expanded pig hair meal highly pressured hydrolysis of amino acid title pig hair meal
Valine equal 87.94 84.98
Methionine 83.11 78.03
Isoleucine 85.96 90.03
Leucine 86.45 86.43
Tyrosine 83.34 81.16
Phenylalanine 88.95 87.79
Lysine 68.25 65.24
Threonine 81.46 78.01
Histidine 78.01 69.81
Arginine 88.36 86.94
Cystine 58.43 60.92
Asparatate 72.64 63.09
Serine 85.93 86.12
Glutamic acid 81.80 79.29
Alanine 86.41 84.00
Proline 71.07 81.55
Amino acid population mean 78.66 77.80
Shown in the above table, the amino acid bio of expanded pig hair meal is learned to tire and is higher than the highly pressured hydrolysis pig hair meal basically.
Brief summary:
Adopt bulking process parameter of the present invention, pig hair meal can significantly improve its digestibility behind extrusion, improves the nutritive value of feed comprehensively.
Embodiment 2:
Work as employing:
1): adopting the pig hair is raw material, and the pig hair is plucked the pig palm fiber, and the undercoat that stays, broken wool, pigskin bits and leftover bits and pieces are being pulverized through pulverizer, and grinding particle size is 3,5,3.5 or 4.5mm;
2): through the feed arrangement charging;
3): modified through quality-adjusting device, adopt interpolation steam or interpolation moisture modified, adopt when adding steam regulation of texture, conditioning of texture; The steam addition is 20%, 30% or 45%, and boiler working pressure is 0.5,0.6,0.8 or 0.9Mpa, and the modified time is 100,120,140 or 150s; When adopting interpolation moisture modified; The moisture addition is 20%, 30% or 45%, and temperature is 100 or 120 ℃, and the modified time is 100,120,140 or 150s;
4): adopt the extrusion type puffing technology; As process equipment, the system parameter setting of said single screw rod extrusion type puffing system is said extrusion type puffing technology with single screw rod extrusion type puffing system: screw diameter is 65,75,95,105mm, and screw slenderness ratio is 16:1,17:1,19:1 or 20:1; Thread pitch is 35,40,50 or 55mm; Lead angle is 20,25,40 or 35 °, and screw speed is 100,120,200 or 250rpm, and extrusion temperature is 100,130,200 or 160 ℃; The annular die annular space is 8,9,12 or 11mm, the time.Also can reach the identical effect of embodiment 1.

Claims (1)

1. the bulking process of a pig hair meal feed is characterized in that the bulking process step of this pig hair meal feed is following:
1): adopting the pig hair is raw material, and the pig hair is plucked the pig palm fiber, and the undercoat that stays, broken wool, pigskin bits and leftover bits and pieces are pulverized through pulverizer again, and grinding particle size is 4mm;
2): through the feed arrangement charging;
3): modified through quality-adjusting device, adopt interpolation steam or interpolation moisture modified, adopt when adding steam regulation of texture, conditioning of texture; The steam addition is 25%, and boiler working pressure is 0.7MPa, and the modified time is 130s; When adopting interpolation moisture modified; The moisture addition is 25%, and temperature is 110 ℃, and the modified time is 130s;
4): adopt the extrusion type puffing technology, as process equipment, the system parameter setting of said single screw rod extrusion type puffing system is: screw diameter is 85mm to said extrusion type puffing technology with single screw rod extrusion type puffing system; Screw slenderness ratio is 18:1; Thread pitch is 45mm, and lead angle is 30 °, and screw speed is 175rpm; Extrusion temperature is 150 ℃, and the annular die annular space is 10mm.
CN2010102889286A 2010-09-21 2010-09-21 Bulking process of pig hair meal feed Active CN101912037B (en)

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CN102987060A (en) * 2012-12-21 2013-03-27 张很文 Production process of fly maggot powder
CN103027189A (en) * 2012-12-31 2013-04-10 张很文 Production technology of expanded feather meal feed
CN103549119A (en) * 2013-11-08 2014-02-05 江南大学 Method for improving digestion rate of outer skin of chicken feet by extrusion and swelling
CN110699411A (en) * 2019-11-07 2020-01-17 江南大学 Preparation method of eggshell membrane polypeptide

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