CN101910891B - Thermally switched absorptive window shutter - Google Patents

Thermally switched absorptive window shutter Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101910891B
CN101910891B CN 200880124576 CN200880124576A CN101910891B CN 101910891 B CN101910891 B CN 101910891B CN 200880124576 CN200880124576 CN 200880124576 CN 200880124576 A CN200880124576 A CN 200880124576A CN 101910891 B CN101910891 B CN 101910891B
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polarizer
radiant energy
absorptive
device
temperature
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CN 200880124576
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101910891A (en )
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理查德·M·鲍尔斯
威尔·麦卡锡
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雷文布里克有限责任公司
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B13/00Optical objectives specially designed for the purposes specified below
    • G02B13/001Miniaturised objectives for electronic devices, e.g. portable telephones, webcams, PDAs, small digital cameras
    • G02B13/0015Miniaturised objectives for electronic devices, e.g. portable telephones, webcams, PDAs, small digital cameras characterised by the lens design
    • G02B13/002Miniaturised objectives for electronic devices, e.g. portable telephones, webcams, PDAs, small digital cameras characterised by the lens design having at least one aspherical surface
    • G02B13/0045Miniaturised objectives for electronic devices, e.g. portable telephones, webcams, PDAs, small digital cameras characterised by the lens design having at least one aspherical surface having five or more lenses
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E06DOORS, WINDOWS, SHUTTERS, OR ROLLER BLINDS IN GENERAL; LADDERS
    • E06BFIXED OR MOVABLE CLOSURES FOR OPENINGS IN BUILDINGS, VEHICLES, FENCES OR LIKE ENCLOSURES IN GENERAL, e.g. DOORS, WINDOWS, BLINDS, GATES
    • E06B9/00Screening or protective devices for wall or similar openings, with or without operating or securing mechanisms; Closures of similar construction
    • E06B9/24Screens or other constructions affording protection against light, especially against sunshine; Similar screens for privacy or appearance; Slat blinds
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B13/00Optical objectives specially designed for the purposes specified below
    • G02B13/06Panoramic objectives; So-called "sky lenses" including panoramic objectives having reflecting surfaces
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour
    • G02F1/13Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells
    • G02F1/132Thermal activation of liquid crystals exhibiting a thermo-optic effect
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E06DOORS, WINDOWS, SHUTTERS, OR ROLLER BLINDS IN GENERAL; LADDERS
    • E06BFIXED OR MOVABLE CLOSURES FOR OPENINGS IN BUILDINGS, VEHICLES, FENCES OR LIKE ENCLOSURES IN GENERAL, e.g. DOORS, WINDOWS, BLINDS, GATES
    • E06B9/00Screening or protective devices for wall or similar openings, with or without operating or securing mechanisms; Closures of similar construction
    • E06B9/24Screens or other constructions affording protection against light, especially against sunshine; Similar screens for privacy or appearance; Slat blinds
    • E06B2009/2464Screens or other constructions affording protection against light, especially against sunshine; Similar screens for privacy or appearance; Slat blinds featuring transparency control by applying voltage, e.g. LCD, electrochromic panels
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S50/00Arrangements for controlling solar heat collectors
    • F24S50/80Arrangements for controlling solar heat collectors for controlling collection or absorption of solar radiation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour
    • G02F1/13Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells
    • G02F1/133Constructional arrangements; Operation of liquid crystal cells; Circuit arrangements
    • G02F1/1333Constructional arrangements; Manufacturing methods
    • G02F1/1335Structural association of optical devices, e.g. polarisers, reflectors or illuminating devices, with the cell
    • G02F1/133509Filters, e.g. light shielding masks
    • G02F1/133514Colour filters
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour
    • G02F1/13Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells
    • G02F1/133Constructional arrangements; Operation of liquid crystal cells; Circuit arrangements
    • G02F1/1333Constructional arrangements; Manufacturing methods
    • G02F1/1335Structural association of optical devices, e.g. polarisers, reflectors or illuminating devices, with the cell
    • G02F1/133528Polarisers
    • G02F1/133533Colour selective polarisers
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour
    • G02F1/13Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells
    • G02F1/133Constructional arrangements; Operation of liquid crystal cells; Circuit arrangements
    • G02F1/1333Constructional arrangements; Manufacturing methods
    • G02F1/1335Structural association of optical devices, e.g. polarisers, reflectors or illuminating devices, with the cell
    • G02F1/133528Polarisers
    • G02F1/133536Reflective polarizers
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour
    • G02F1/13Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells
    • G02F1/133Constructional arrangements; Operation of liquid crystal cells; Circuit arrangements
    • G02F1/1333Constructional arrangements; Manufacturing methods
    • G02F1/1335Structural association of optical devices, e.g. polarisers, reflectors or illuminating devices, with the cell
    • G02F1/133528Polarisers
    • G02F2001/133538Polarisers with a spatial distribution of the polarisation direction

Abstract

本发明披露一种热控开关吸收性百叶窗(100),其可以是自调节的“可开关吸收器”设备,当高于阈值温度时,该设备可以吸收大约100%的入射光,当低于阈值温度时,可以吸收大约50%的入射光。 The present invention discloses a thermally switched absorptive shutter (100), which may be a self-adjusting "switchable absorber" device, when the temperature is above a threshold, the device may absorb about 100% of incident light, when less than when the threshold temperature, can absorb about 50% of incident light. 百叶窗(100)可形成如下:在所述两个吸收性偏振器(101、103)之间的安装热致去偏器(102)。 Blinds (100) may be formed as follows: the installation of heat between the two absorptive polarizers (101, 103) depolarizer (102). 对于辐射能的这种控制的发生可以不取决于百叶窗设备(100)的传导性和绝缘性,可以保持入射可见光的图像和色彩性质,也可以不保持。 For the control of such radiant energy may not occur depending on the shutter device (100) of conductive and insulating properties, and color images can be kept properties of incident visible light, it may not be maintained. 其能量效率暗示,在无需外部电源或操作者信号的情况下,其能够用于调节建筑物,车辆或其他结构的内部温度和照明。 Which implies that the energy efficiency, in the case where no external power or signal an operator, which can be used to adjust the internal temperature and lighting a building, vehicle or other structure. 由于百叶窗设备(100)还具有美学上的影响。 Since the shutter device (100) also has an influence on the aesthetics. 另外,百叶窗设备(100)可以用作建筑物材料。 Further, the shutter device (100) may be used as a building material.

Description

热控开关吸收性百叶窗 Thermally switched absorptive shutter

[0001] 相关申请的交叉参考 [0001] CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0002] 本申请依据35U.SC§ 119(e)要求美国临时专利申请n0.61/015,598的优先权,该申请提交于2007 年12 月20 日,标题为“Thermally Switched Absorptive LiquidCrystal Window Shutter”,以及美国专利申请n0.12/340, 552的优先权,该申请提交于2008 年12 月19 日,标题为“ThermalIy Switched Absorptive WindowShutter”,全部公开内容通过引用方式结合于此。 [0002] This application is based on 35U.SC§ 119 (e) of US Provisional Patent Application No. n0.61 / 015,598, and filed on December 20, 2007, entitled "Thermally Switched Absorptive LiquidCrystal Window Shutter "and US Patent application n0.12 / 340, priority 552, filed on December 19, 2008, entitled" ThermalIy Switched Absorptive WindowShutter ", the entire disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

[0003] 本申请也涉及美国专利申请n0.12/172,158,该申请提交于2008年7月11日,标题为“Thermally switched reflective optical Shutter,,。 [0003] This application is also related to US Patent Application n0.12 / 172,158, filed on July 11, 2008, entitled "Thermally switched reflective optical Shutter ,,.

技术领域 FIELD

[0004] 本申请涉及通过选择性吸收控制光和辐射热的固态设备。 [0004] The present application relates to a solid-state device controlling the absorption of light by selective radiant heat. 更具体地,本申请涉及被动和/或主动的光调节和温度调节膜、材料和设备。 More particularly, the present application relates to passive and / or active light adjustment and temperature adjustment film, materials and equipment.

背景技术 Background technique

[0005] 多种应用(例如调节建筑物中的日照的热量)可使用光学方法控制辐射能(例如,光和热)的流动。 [0005] variety of applications (e.g. in building heat sunlight control), optical methods may be used to control radiant energy (e.g., light and heat) flow. 例如,光暗化(photodarkening)材料可结合到窗户中,在遮光玻璃镜片中已经普遍使用了光暗化材料以便在由紫外(“UV”)辐射激发时选择性地衰减入射光。 For example, photodarkening (photodarkening) material may be incorporated into the windows, it has been widely used in the light-shielding material photodarkening the glass lens so as to selectively attenuate the radiation incident upon excitation by the ultraviolet ( "UV"). 这样的材料可用于通过暗化削弱明亮的日光,从而调节结构的内部温度,并通过再次变得透明而允许人造光或漫射日光无阻碍经过。 Such materials can be used by darkening weakening bright sunlight, thereby adjusting the internal temperature of the structure becomes transparent again by allowing sunlight or diffuse artificial light through unobstructed. 这样的系统是无源(被动)的和自调节的,除了为操作需要环境UV光之外不需要外部信号。 Such a system is passive (passive) and self-regulating, in addition to the operating environment requires no external UV light signal. 然而,因为它们由UV光控制而不是由温度控制,所以这样的系统在温度调节应用中的使用受限制。 However, since they are controlled by the UV light instead of the temperature control, so this system is used in temperature control applications is limited. 例如,它们在天气寒冷时可阻挡需要的日光,同时在天气炎热时阻挡不需要的日光。 For example, they can block sunlight needed in cold weather, while blocking unwanted sunlight during hot weather.

[0006] 在控制辐射能流动的另一实例中,系统可使用热暗化材料,该热暗化材料在材料温度增加或降低超过预定值的时候可变色并可增加材料吸收光的量。 [0006] In another example of the control flow of radiant energy, the system can use the heat of a dark material, the heat-dark material to increase or decrease exceeds a predetermined value when increasing the amount of the material can change color and a light absorbing material temperature. 例如,在MI的WestOlive的Pletotint公司生产的可在两片玻璃之间层合并且加入到窗户中的热暗化材料。 For example, in the MI of the WestOlive Pletotint produced can be laminated between two sheets of glass and the heat added to the dark window material.

[0007] 另外,电暗化滤光器(例如电气控制液晶设备)已加入到窗户中。 [0007] Further, the electric darkening filter (e.g. a liquid crystal device Electric Control) has been added to the windows. 这些设备具有的缺点是,需要持续供电来操作,并需要大量基础设施(配线、开关、传感器、控制系统,等等)作为它们的装置的一部分。 These devices have the disadvantage that requires continuous power to operate, and requires a large amount of infrastructure (wiring, switches, sensors, control systems, etc.) as part of their device. 此外,这样的设备基于并使用相同的基础技术,例如LCD视频显示器。 Further, such devices and based on the same underlying technology, such as LCD video display. 电暗化窗户滤光器本质上是具有单个巨大像素的黑色和白色视频显示器。 Power darkened window filter is essentially a single huge black and white pixels a video display. LCD视频显示器中的液晶被设计成具有非常高的“清亮点(clearing point) ”(LC相变并变为不受控制的、无序的、各向同性的液体的温度),从而防止显示器在正常操作温度和亮度级下变黑。 LCD video display of the liquid crystal is designed to have a very high "clearing point (clearing point)" (LC phase transition and becomes uncontrolled, random, isotropic temperature of the liquid), thereby preventing the display normal operating temperature and black level luminance. 多年来显示器设计的目的是发展满足其它关键设计目的的液晶剂型(liquid crystalformulation),该设计目的例如是开关速度,该开关速度具有尽可能高的清亮点以允许显示器在较高温度下运转且没有失败模式,并且加入了商业上可获得的LC混合物的电暗化窗户滤光器共享该特点。 Over the years the design of the display object is the development of liquid formulations to meet critical design other purposes (liquid crystalformulation), which is designed, for example, switching speed, the switching speed as high as possible to allow the display clearing point operate at higher temperatures and without failure mode, and joined the electrodarkening window filters commercially available LC mixtures share the characteristics.

[0008] 包括在本说明书的背景技术部分中的信息包括在此仅用于技术参见的目的并且不被看作本发明要限定的范畴的主题,该信息包括了这里引用的任何参考文献及其任何描述或讨论。 [0008] The information included in this Background section of this specification are included herein only refer to techniques for purposes and are not to be regarded as subject of the invention is defined by the scope of the information including any references cited herein and any description or discussion.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0009] 在本公开的技术的一个实施方式中,热控可开关设备被描述为调节光和辐射能的透射和吸收。 [0009] In one embodiment of the present disclosure of the technology, the thermal control device may be described as a switching regulator and absorption of radiant energy transmitted light. 该设备可包括两个吸收性偏振器(absorptive polarizer)和放置在两个偏振器之间的热致去偏器(thermotropic depolarizer)。 The apparatus may comprise two absorptive polarizer (absorptive polarizer) and placed between two polarizers thermotropic depolarizer (thermotropic depolarizer). 在第一温度下,该设备可吸收第一百分比的入射辐射能并可使得第二百分比的入射辐射能透射穿过该设备。 At a first temperature, the first device may absorb a percentage of the incident radiant energy and a second percentage of the incident radiant energy that is transmitted through the device. 在第二温度下,该设备可吸收第三百分比的入射辐射能并可使得第四百分比的入射辐射能透射穿过该设备。 At a second temperature, the device may absorb the incident radiant energy and a third percentage of the percentage of the incident radiant energy such that the fourth transmitted through the device. 另外,当可开关设备温度高于阈值温度时,多达100%的入射光可由该设备吸收,当可开关设备温度低于阈值温度时,多达50%的入射光可由该设备吸收。 Further, when the switching device may be a temperature above a threshold temperature, up to 100% of incident light absorbed by the device, when the switching device may be a temperature below the threshold temperature, up to 50% of incident light absorbed by the device. 热致去偏器在温度低于阈值温度时可调整入射光的偏振。 Thermotropic depolarizer at a temperature below the threshold temperature adjust polarization of incident light. 此外,吸收性偏振器中的一个或更多可以是相对于辐射能的偏振而频率选择的。 In addition, absorptive polarizers may be one or more of radiant energy with respect to the polarization of the selected frequency.

[0010] 在一个示范性实施例中,第一偏振器和第二偏振器每个都可限定透明区域并可允许未偏振福射能透射穿过设备。 [0010] In this embodiment, the first polarizer and the second polarizer may each define a transparent region may allow unpolarized Four radiant energy transmitted through the device in one exemplary embodiment. 可开关设备也可包括向电(electrotropic)控制系统,从而在阈值温度下补充和致动热致去偏器。 Can switch to an electrical apparatus may also include (electrotropic) control system, and to supplement actuation thermotropic depolarizer at a threshold temperature. 向电控制系统可包括至少一个控制器、与控制器连接的电源以及与控制器连接的温度传感器。 The electrical control system may include at least one controller, with the controller connected to the power source and a temperature sensor connected to the controller.

[0011] 本发明的另一实施例可采用绝缘玻璃单元(insulating glassunit)的形式。 Examples may take the form of an insulating glass unit (insulating glassunit) to another [0011] embodiment of the present invention. 绝缘玻璃单元可包括第一玻璃板和第二玻璃板。 Insulating glass unit may comprise a first glass and second glass sheets. 绝缘玻璃单元也可包括安置在第一玻璃板和第二玻璃板之间的第一偏振器。 Insulating glass unit may also include a first glass plate disposed between the first and the second glass sheet polarizer. 第一偏振器可吸收多达50%的入射辐射能,并可透射大部分未吸收辐射能。 The first polarizer can absorb up to 50% of incident radiant energy, and transmits most unabsorbed radiation. 另外,绝缘玻璃单元可包括安置在第一玻璃板和第二玻璃板之间的第二偏振器以及可安置在第一偏振器和第二偏振器之间的热致去偏器。 The insulating glass unit can comprise glass plate disposed between the first and the second glass plate and a second polarizer disposed between the first polarizer and the second polarizer thermotropic depolarizer. 热致去偏器可在温度低于阈值温度时调整入射光的偏振。 Thermotropic depolarizer may adjust polarization of incident light at a temperature below a threshold temperature. 在温度高于阈值温度时,多达100 %的入射光可由该设备吸收,并且在温度低于阈值温度时,多达50%的入射光可由该设备吸收。 When at temperatures above a threshold temperature, up to 100% of incident light absorbed by the apparatus, and at a temperature below a threshold temperature, up to 50% of incident light absorbed by the device. 进一步地,第二偏振器可在热致去偏器温度高于阈值温度时吸收多达100%的由第一偏振器透射的辐射能,并可在热致去偏器温度低于阈值温度时透射多达100%的由第一偏振器透射的福射能。 Furthermore, when the second polarizer can absorb up to 100% transmission of radiant energy by the first polarizer depolarizer temperature above a threshold temperature induced heat, and may thermotropic depolarizer temperature below a threshold temperature up to 100% of the transmission transmitted by the first polarizer Four radiant energy.

[0012] 在另一实施例中,公开了使用热控开关吸收性光学百叶窗(TSAOS)设备调节入射辐射能的吸收和透射的方法。 [0012] In another embodiment, disclose the use of thermally switched absorptive optical shutters (the TSAOS) adjusting the absorption apparatus and method for transmitting incident radiant energy. 该设备可包括第一吸收性偏振器、第二吸收性偏振器以及设置在第一偏振器和第二偏振器之间的热致去偏器,其中第一偏振器和第二偏振器可定向成相互交叉。 The apparatus may comprise a first absorptive polarizer, the second absorptive polarizer, and the heat is disposed between the first polarizer and the second polarizer depolarizer, wherein the first polarizer and the second polarizer may be oriented to cross each other. 该设备可被设置成使得辐射能入射到其上,并且在第一温度下该设备可从该设备吸收第一百分比的辐射能并可使得第二百分比的辐射能透射穿过该设备。 The apparatus may be arranged such that the radiation incident thereon, at a first temperature and the percentage of the first device can absorb radiant energy from the apparatus and such that a second percentage of the radiant energy transmitted through the equipment. 另外,在第二温度下该设备可从该设备吸收第三百分比的辐射能并可使得第四百分比的辐射能透射穿过该设备。 Further, the temperature of the device at a second percentage of the radiant energy may be absorbed from the third device and a fourth percentage of the radiant energy that is transmitted through the device. 此外,在第一温度高于阈值温度时,在第一吸收操作中,第一偏振器和第二偏振器可吸收多达100%的辐射能。 Further, when the temperature is higher than a first threshold temperature, the absorption in the first operation, the first polarizer and the second polarizer can absorb up to 100% of the radiant energy. 可替换地,在第二温度低于阈值温度时,在第一偏振器和第二偏振器之间透射的辐射能的一部分可被去偏振。 Alternatively, a portion, at a second temperature below the threshold temperature, between the first polarizer and the second polarizer transmission of radiant energy may be depolarized. 在此情况下,该设备可透射多达50%的辐射能并可吸收多达50%的辐射能。 In this case, the apparatus can be up to 50% of the radiant energy transmission and can absorb up to 50% of the radiant energy.

[0013] 另一实施例是用于调节辐射能的反射和透射的方法。 [0013] Another embodiment is reflective of radiant energy and a method for adjusting the transmission. 吸收性偏振器可被定向为与极性旋转偏振器交叉,并且热致去偏器可置于偏振器和极性旋转偏振器之间。 Absorptive polarizer can be oriented to cross the polarity-rotating polarizer, and thermotropic depolarizer can be placed between the polarizer and the polarity-rotating polarizer. 吸收性偏振器和极性旋转偏振器可在热致去偏器温度高于阈值温度时吸收多达100%的入射辐射能,并在热致去偏器温度低于阈值温度时,多达100 %的入射辐射能可穿过吸收性偏振器、热致去偏器和极性旋转偏振器透射。 Absorb up to 100% of incident radiant energy absorptive polarizer and a polarity-rotating polarizer may depolarizer at a temperature above a threshold temperature heat, and when the thermotropic depolarizer temperature below a threshold temperature, up to 100 % of incident radiant energy may pass through the absorptive polarizer, thermotropic depolarizer and polarity-rotating polarizer transmission.

[0014] 由于百叶窗设备进一步在附图中图解并在所附权利要求中限定,其它特性、详述、效用和优点会根据以下百叶窗设备的各种实施例的更详细的书面描述变得明显。 [0014] Since the shutter device is further illustrated and defined in the appended claims, in the drawings, other characteristics described in detail, utility and advantages will become more apparent from the detailed written description of the various embodiments of the shutter device.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0015] 图1是热控开关吸收性百叶窗设备的一个实施例的剖面示意图,示出夹在两个吸收性偏振滤光器之间且附接到透明衬底的热敏去偏器材料层。 [0015] FIG. 1 is a schematic sectional view of the absorbent switch shutter device according to one embodiment of the thermal control, is shown sandwiched between two absorptive polarizing filters and attached to a transparent heat-sensitive substrate material layer polarizer . 为百叶窗设备的冷态示出入射光的行为。 Cold shutter device is shown in the behavior of the incident light.

[0016] 图2是图1的百叶窗设备的实施例的剖面示意图,不同之处在于,为百叶窗设备的热态示出入射光的行为。 [0016] FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of an embodiment of the shutter device of FIG. 1, except that the thermal state of the shutter device shown incident behavior.

[0017] 图3是热控开关吸收性百叶窗设备的另一实施例的示意性图示,其中,吸收性偏振器限定了孔径或透明区域,从而允许一些源自外部源的未偏振光穿过百叶窗设备而不更改。 [0017] FIG. 3 is a schematic illustration of another thermally switched absorptive shutter device of the embodiment, wherein the absorbing polarizer defines an aperture or transparent area, so as to allow some of the unpolarized light from an external source through without changing the shutter device.

[0018] 图4是热控开关吸收性百叶窗设备的附加实施例的示意性图示,其中,为美观或其它原因包括可选颜色的滤光器。 [0018] FIG. 4 is a schematic illustration of an additional embodiment of the absorbent thermal switch shutter device in which, for aesthetic or other reasons include optional color filters.

[0019] 图5是热控开关吸收性百叶窗设备的另外的实施例的示意性图示,其中,通过添加两个透明电极和控制系统而利用电致去偏器取代热致去偏器,或使其另外地用作电致去偏器。 [0019] FIG. 5 is a schematic illustration of another embodiment of the thermal switch absorptive shutter device in which, by adding two transparent electrodes and a control system utilizing electroluminescence depolarizer thermotropic depolarizer substituted, or Additionally it is used as electrically depolarizer.

[0020] 图6是热控开关吸收性百叶窗设备的附加实施例的示意性图示,其中,热致去偏器被去除并且吸收性偏振器自身是热致的。 [0020] FIG. 6 is a schematic illustration of an additional embodiment of the absorbent thermal switch shutter device, wherein the thermotropic depolarizer is removed and absorptive polarizers are thermotropic itself. 为百叶窗设备的冷态示出入射光的行为。 Cold shutter device is shown in the behavior of the incident light.

[0021] 图7是图6的实施例的示意性图示,不同之处在于,为百叶窗设备的热态示出入射光的行为。 [0021] FIG. 7 is a schematic illustration of an embodiment of FIG. 6, except that the thermal state of the shutter device shown incident behavior.

[0022] 图8是既处于热态又处于冷态的示范性热致吸收性偏振器的示意性图示。 [0022] FIG. 8 is both in hot and in a schematic illustration of an exemplary cold heat absorptive polarizer.

[0023] 图9是热控开关吸收性百叶窗设备的附加实施例的示意性图示,其中,第一偏振器是极性旋转偏振器。 [0023] FIG. 9 is a schematic illustration of an additional embodiment of the absorbent thermal switch shutter device, wherein a first polarity-rotating polarizer is a polarizer.

[0024] 图10是处于冷态的示范性的极性旋转偏振器的示意性图示。 [0024] Figure 10 is a schematic illustration of a polarity-rotating polarizer exemplary cold state.

[0025] 图11是示范性的光电吸收性偏振器的示意性图示。 [0025] FIG. 11 is a schematic illustration of a photoelectric absorptive polarizer exemplary.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0026] 在此公开的技术涉及关于辐射能(例如,可见光、UV光、红外光等)的对窗户或相似材料或结构的透射率的基于温度的控制,所述辐射能潜在包括太阳光谱的全部范围,其目的在于,基于外部天气状况、内部温度或该两者的任意结合来调节进入结构中的热流。 [0026] In the technology disclosed herein relates to radiant energy on (e.g., visible light, UV light, infrared light, etc.) the transmittance of a window or a similar material or structure based on the controlling the temperature of the solar spectrum radiant energy comprises potential full range, and its object is to regulate the heat flow in the structure of any binding external weather conditions, or the internal temperature of both. 该技术可用作房屋或构造材料,从而基于温度调节穿过窗户、天窗和其它透明材料的辐射能(包括可见光、UV光、IR光)的流动,因此在高温下限制辐射能(例如日光)进入。 This technique may be used as house construction or materials, so based on the temperature regulation through windows, skylights and other transparent materials radiation (including visible light, UV light, the IR light) flow, thus limiting the radiant energy (e.g. sunlight) at elevated temperature enter. 因此,该技术可用来通过控制它们吸收的太阳辐射的量来调节房屋和其它结构的内部温度。 Therefore, this technique can be used to regulate the internal temperature by houses and other structures to control the amount of solar radiation they absorb.

[0027] 该技术可用作具有温响应(temperature-responsive)光学去偏器的设备,例如,夹在两个吸收性偏振滤光器之间的热致液晶,从而调节光能的经过。 [0027] This technique may be used with the temperature response (temperature-responsive) depolarizer optical apparatus, e.g., sandwiched between two polarizing filters absorptive thermotropic liquid crystal, thereby adjusting the light energy passes. 经过该设备的入射能可取决于所使用的偏振器的吸收效率。 After entering the absorption efficiency of the device may depend on the polarizer can be used. 例如,对于在所关注的工作频带宽度上吸收辐射能的效果非常好的偏振器,多达一半的入射辐射能在该设备温度低于阈值温度(例如,液晶的清亮点)时经过该设备,并且多达100%的入射辐射能在温度高于阈值温度时可由该设备吸收,产生热控开关吸收性光学百叶窗(在下文中称为“TSAOS”或“百叶窗”)。 For example, through the effect of the device for the working frequency bandwidth of interest very good radiation absorbing polarizer, up to half of the incident radiant energy device at a temperature below a threshold temperature (e.g., liquid crystal clearing point), the and up to 100% of incident radiant energy absorbed by the device at a temperature above a threshold temperature, thermal switched absorptive optical shutters (referred to as "the TSAOS" or hereinafter "shutters").

[0028] 出于美观、能量管理或其它原因的需要,低效偏振器,或效率依赖于频率的偏振器可用来影响温度高于或低于阈值温度时的吸收的百分比。 [0028] For desired appearance inefficient polarizer, energy management or other reasons, the efficiency depends on the frequency or polarization can be used to influence the percentage of absorption at a temperature above or below a threshold temperature. 该效应也可反向以使TSAOS设备在冷态下可以是吸收性的,或该效应可扩大以使TSAOS设备的透射率在透明态下可更高,或该效应可延迟以使TSAOS设备的吸收率在吸收态下可更低。 This effect can be reversed to TSAOS device in the cold state may be absorbent or can be expanded to the effect that the transmittance TSAOS device may be higher in the transparent state, or the effect may be delayed so that the device TSAOS absorption rate may be lower in absorption into. 为了美观或能量管理的原因,或为了其它原因,该效应可反向。 Energy management or for aesthetic reasons or for other reasons, this effect may be reversed.

[0029] 电暗化材料也可用来调节光的透射。 [0029] electrodarkening materials may be used to adjust the light transmittance. 最广泛使用的电暗化材料是夹在两个高效吸收性偏振器之间的液晶,该两个高效吸收性偏振器主要通过吸收使经过它们的光的衰减略多于50%。 Electrodarkening most widely used material is a liquid crystal sandwiched between two high absorptive polarizer, the two high absorptive polarizers primarily by absorption attenuation of light passing through them so that slightly more than 50%. 该材料的光透射由透明的、传导性的材料(例如铟锡氧化物(ITO))的涂层形成的电场所控制。 The light transmissive material electric field control is formed of a transparent, conductive coating material (e.g., indium tin oxide (the ITO)) is. 这些液晶面板通常用于视频显示器中,在房屋材料中仅非常有限地使用。 These are usually used in a liquid crystal panel video display, only very limited use in the housing material. 其原因部分地在于利用它们需要相当多的基础设施,包括电配线和电源,并需要成熟的控制系统、传感器和算法,或广泛的用户输入,从而设置材料的状态,并因此通过它们调节光、热和辐射能。 The reason is partially that use them require considerable infrastructure, including power supply and wiring, and requires sophisticated control systems, sensors and algorithms, or extensive user input, thereby setting the state of the material, and therefore by adjusting the light thereof , heat and radiation. 在现有技术中,将液晶设备用作百叶窗受限于电气操作的(即,电暗化)面板。 In the prior art, the liquid crystal device as limited to the electrically operated shutters (i.e., electrically dimming) panel.

[0030] 另外,热控开关(thermal switches)可允许热能在其接通(ON)或封闭态(closedstate)下经过,但防止热能在它们其断开(OFF)或打开态(opened state)下经过。 [0030] Further, the thermal switch (thermal switches) may allow energy in its ON (ON) state or a closed (closedstate) through, but prevents them in its off (OFF) or open state (opened state) thermal energy after. 这些开关可以是机械继电器(mechanical relay),其依靠在两个传导表面(通常由金属制成)之间的接触从而使热能够通过。 These switches may be a mechanical relay (mechanical relay), which rely on contact between the two conducting surfaces (usually made of metal) so that heat can pass. 当两个表面后撤(withdrawn)时,热能可能物无法它们之间传导,除非通过空隙。 When the two surfaces retreat (Withdrawn), the heat conduction between them may not matter, unless through the gap. 如果该设备放置在真空中,那么可防止打开态下的热传导。 If the device is placed in vacuum, it is possible to prevent thermal conduction under the open state. 热控开关的另一类型可涉及将气体或液体泵入腔室内,或从腔室抽出气体或液体。 Another type of thermal switch may involve a liquid or gas pumped into the chamber or is withdrawn from the gas or liquid chamber. 当腔室被充满时,它可以导热。 When the chamber is filled, it can be thermally conductive. 当腔室为空时,可以没有传导,尽管穿过腔室的辐射转移仍可发生。 When the chamber is empty, there may be no conduction, although radiative transfer through the chamber may still occur.

[0031] 由于吸收的光变成热,光开关也可以是热控开关,以便控制日照的热增量。 [0031] Since the absorption of the light into heat, the optical switch may be a thermal switch, in order to control the heat gain sunshine. 光可由光学滤光器阻挡,该滤光器可吸收或反射某些频率的光而允许其它频率的光经过,因此该滤光器行为类似光开关。 Optical filter blocking light may be, the filter or absorb light of certain frequencies can be reflected while allowing other frequencies of light passes, so that the filter behaves like a light switch. 同样,机械百叶窗的附加物可将包括滤光器的其它透明材料转变为光开关。 Similarly, the mechanical shutter may be other transparent material additions include a filter is converted into an optical switch. 在一个实例中,当百叶窗打开时,光可容易地经过,并且当百叶窗关闭时,没有光可穿过百叶窗。 In one example, when the shutters are open, the light can be easily passes, and when the shutter is closed, no light can pass through the louvers. 如果机械百叶窗被电暗化材料(例如液晶像素)取代,那么该开关是“接近固态”,其除光子、电子和液晶分子自身外没有移动部分。 If the mechanical shutters substituted electrodarkening material (e.g. liquid crystal pixel), then the switch is "near solid", which has no moving parts other photons, electrons, and an outer liquid crystal molecule itself. 其它电暗化材料,例如在Azens等人的美国专利N0.7,099,062中描述的电暗化材料,可实现相似的功能。 Other electrical dark material, e.g. electrodarkening Azens materials described in U.S. Patent No. N0.7,099,062 et al, a similar function can be achieved. 这些光学滤光器/光开关的组合不是无源(被动)的,而是必须由外部电信号操作。 The optical filter / optical switch combination is not passive (passive), but must be operated by an external electrical signal.

[0032] 在材料温度提高或降低超过预定值的时候,热暗化材料可变色并可增加由材料吸收的光的量。 [0032] When the material temperature exceeds a predetermined increase or decrease the value of the thermal material may be dark color and amount of light absorbed by the material. 光的降频转换(down-conversion)产生热,并因此在吸收期间热吸收性材料的温度可能根据该材料的环境温度而增加。 Down-converting the light (down-conversion) to generate heat, and the temperature of heat absorbent material may increase depending on the ambient temperature of the material during the absorption. 然而,该效应在许多应用中可以是有利的,并可在其它应用中被实际上忽略。 However, this effect in many applications may be beneficial and may in fact be ignored in other applications. 扭曲向列(twisted nematic)液晶显示器利用吸收性偏振器,例如,如果温度升高到高于它们的“清亮点”温度,则液晶显示器完全变黑,因为,在液化(各向同性)状态下,无序的液晶分子不能影响经过它们的光的偏振。 The liquid crystal display using twisted nematic absorptive polarizer (twisted nematic), e.g., if the temperature rises above their "clearing point" temperature, the liquid crystal display is completely black, since, in a liquefied (isotropic) state , disordered liquid crystal molecules does not affect the polarization of light passing through them. 如果显示器使用交叉的偏振器,那么近50%的入射光可在第一偏振器处被吸收,并且其它50%可在第二偏振器处吸收,导致近100%的不透明度。 If the display is crossed polarizers, then nearly 50% of incident light may be absorbed at the first polarizer, and the other 50% may be absorbed at the second polarizer, resulting in nearly 100% opacity. 然而,如果偏振器以相差小于90度的角度取向,或如果第三偏振器以偏斜角放置在它们之间,那么液晶显示器在温度高于它的清亮点时可以不是完全的不透明的。 However, if the polarizer is oriented at an angle by less than 90 degrees, or if the third polarizer is placed at an offset angle therebetween, the liquid crystal display at a temperature above its clearing point may not be completely opaque.

[0033] 吸收性偏振器采用许多形式,并可吸收给定的线偏振或圆偏振的光。 [0033] The absorptive polarizer take many forms, and can absorb light of a given linearly polarized or circularly polarized. 某些晶体吸收一种偏振光比吸收另一种更多。 Some crystal absorbs light of one polarization than the other more absorbent. 已经使用这样的晶体布置来制造人造偏振片(Polaroidfilm),普通的吸收性偏振器。 It has been used to manufacture such a crystal arrangement polaroid (Polaroidfilm), conventional absorptive polarizer. 它也使用掺碘的聚乙烯醇(PVA)塑料来制造。 It is also doped with iodine using polyvinylalcohol (PVA) plastic. 该塑料经拉伸从而使聚合物链优选在一个方向上排列。 The stretched plastic so that the polymer chains are preferably arranged in one direction. 平行于链而偏振的光被吸收,并且平行于链而偏振的光被透射。 Chains parallel to the polarization of the light is absorbed, and the parallel light to the polarization of the chains is transmitted. 另外,吸收性偏振器可由某些类型的液晶制作。 In addition, certain types of absorptive polarizers of the liquid crystal can be produced. 吸收性液晶偏振器(LCP)可直线地或圆形地偏振。 The absorbent liquid crystal polarizer (LCP) can be linearly or circularly polarized. 因此,一种螺旋性的光(即,右旋或左旋的)被透射并且相反的螺旋性的光被吸收。 Thus, one handedness of light (i.e., right-handed or left-handed) is transmitted and light of the opposite handedness is absorbed.

[0034] 对本文档来说,术语“热吸收性”在此用来描述具有随温度变化或直接受温度控制的可变吸收性的设备或材料。 [0034] The purposes of this document, the term "heat absorption" is used herein to describe a change in a variable or directly affected by the absorbent material, or the temperature control device with temperature. 术语“辐射能”用来指代遵守光学定律的可见光、红外光、紫外光和其它波长的光。 The term "radiation" is used to observe the visible light, infrared light of the laws of optics, UV light and other wavelengths. 在此使用的术语“光学的”指代材料或设备关于辐射能的任意效应,例如,吸收、反射、透射、偏振、去偏振,或漫射。 As used herein, the term "optical" refers to a material or device of any effect on the radiant energy, e.g., absorption, reflection, transmission, polarization, depolarization, or diffuse.

[0035] 对本文档来说,术语“热致去偏器”意指这样一种材料,在该材料中,去偏振(例如偏振的旋转)随温度而变化或直接受温度控制。 [0035] The purposes of this document, the term "thermotropic depolarizer" is meant a material in the material, to polarization (e.g. polarization rotation) varies with temperature control, or directly affected by the temperature. 构造热致去偏器的一个示范性方式是,将热致液晶保持在两个配向层(alignment layer)之间。 One exemplary embodiment is configured thermotropic depolarizer that the thermotropic liquid crystal held between two alignment layer (alignment layer). 热致液晶分子的取向既受配向层影响(例如受它们的化学作用和结构影响),又受温度或温度梯度影响。 Orientation of the thermotropic liquid crystal molecules aligned by both affected layers (e.g. by their chemical structure and influence the role), but also by the temperature gradient or temperature influence. 在具有向列态的热致液晶中,该结构可用作波块(wa V eb I ο ck),其中,光的各种频率和带宽的偏振的旋转取决于温度,并且其中,波块的类晶结构在温度高于阈值温度时瓦解。 In the thermotropic liquid crystal having a nematic state, the wave structure may be used as a block (wa V eb I ο ck), wherein rotation of polarized light at various frequencies and bandwidths depend on the temperature, and wherein the block wave type crystal structure collapse at temperatures above a threshold temperature. 提供对于热致液晶的描述作为实例,并且该描述不应被认为是限制TSAOS设备的范畴。 For description provided as an example of thermotropic liquid crystal, and this description it should not be considered as limiting the scope of the TSAOS device.

[0036] 对本文档来说,术语“低清亮点”意指这样的清亮点,该清亮点被选择成使得在设备的正常操作中,操作态之间(例如,在液晶中的向列态和各向同性态之间,或在其它有序态和各向同性之间)的功能转换的发生可作为设备的正常操作的一部分,并且“清亮点”大约落入设备的操作温度的正常范围内。 [0036] The purposes of this document, the term "low clearing point" means a clearing point, the clearing point is chosen such that during normal operation of the device, between an operating state (e.g., liquid crystal in the nematic state, and between the isotropic state, or a function for switching between the isotropic and the other ordered state) may be used as part of the normal operation of the device, and "clearing point" falls within the range of about normal operating temperatures of the device . 这使在显示器中使用的低清亮点剂型与高清亮点剂型区分开,该高清亮点剂型的清亮点设置得足够高,以使显示器正常操作中绝不发生操作态之间的转换,并且该清亮点落在设备的操作温度的正常范围外。 This clearing point of the low dosage used in a display area separately from a high clearing dosage, the dosage high clearing clearing point high enough to make the conversion between the operation state of the display in the normal operation never occur, and that the clearing point fall within the normal range of operating temperatures of the device outside. 低清亮点设备的一个实例可以是这样的热吸收性百叶窗,其清亮点设置成低于在通常使用中遮蔽的窗户所经受的接近85摄氏度的最高温度,该接近85摄氏度的最高温度适当地低于通常在显示器中使用的高清亮点。 An example of a low clearing point device may be a heat absorptive shutter, which is disposed below the clearing point close to the maximum temperature of 85 degrees Celsius masked in normal use is subjected window, which is close to the maximum temperature of 85 ° C suitably low It is generally used in a high clearing point in the display. 在另一实例中,在高温地区夏天受充分日光影响的窗膜或室外视频显示器(例如,气泵表)可达到85°C的温度。 In another example, the high-temperature region in the summer sunlight sufficiently affected by the window film or outdoor video display (e.g., air pump table) can reach a temperature of 85 ° C. 因此,意图经受住这些状况的“低清亮点”设备应具有低于85°C的清亮点,而“高清亮点”设备应具有高于85°C的清亮点。 Accordingly, it is intended to withstand these conditions "low clearing point" shall have the device below the clearing point of 85 ° C, and "high clearing point" shall apparatus having a clearing point of 85 ° C above.

[0037] 对本文档来说,术语“开关”包括但不限于固态的、电气的、光学的和机械的设备,以便选择性阻挡或准许能量流动,并包括数字式开关(例如,晶体管和继电器)和模拟式调节器(例如,电子管和变阻器)两者。 [0037] The purposes of this document, the term "switch" includes, but is not limited to a solid state, electrical, optical and mechanical devices, to selectively block or permit the flow of energy, and includes a digital switch (e.g., transistors and relays) both analog and regulator (e.g., tubes and varistor). 此外,用于选择性阻挡或准许气体或液体流动的阀门可认为类似于开关,因此,原则上,两个术语可互换使用。 Further, for selectively block or permit the flow of gas or liquid valve may be considered to be similar switch, therefore, in principle, the two terms are used interchangeably. 通过该定义,TSAOS设备可以是这样的固态光开关,其基于TSAOS设备的温度而从其“打开”或透射态移动到其“关闭”或吸收态。 By this definition, TSAOS device may be a solid state optical switch based on the temperature TSAOS device from its "open" state or the transmission is moved to its "off" state or absorption.

[0038] 对本文档来说,术语“无源(被动)”指代这样的物体或设备,其可响应于环境状况,但可独立于外部信号或源自操作员的指令而操作。 [0038] purposes of this document, the term "passive (passive)" refers to such a device or object, which may be responsive to environmental conditions, but may be independent of external signals or instructions from the operator operates. 因此,设备可包括许多复杂组件(包括移动部件),并在此处的叙述中仍当作无源设备。 Thus, the apparatus may comprise many complex components (including moving parts), and still in the passive device as described herein. 相似地,尽管用户撤销模式可包括在设备中,但这样的设备的被动性质本质上不可改变。 Similarly, although the user may be included in the cancel mode device, but can not change the nature of the passive nature of such devices. 相反,主动设备可以是需要用户输入以便执行它的正常功能的设备。 In contrast, the active device may be a need for a user input device in order to perform its normal function. 作为这些定义的实例,光敏遮光玻璃可以是(无源)被动设备,而由墙壁开关或调光开关操作的标准灯泡可以是主动设备。 As examples of these definitions, a photosensitive glass may be a light shielding (passive) driven device, and by a wall switch or dimmer switch operation standard light bulbs can be an active device.

[0039] 对本文档来说,术语“去偏器”指代这样的物体、设备或物质,其通过衰减之外的一些方式旋转或以其它方式改变经过它的光的偏振矢量。 [0039] In this document, the term "depolarizer" refers to such objects, a device or substance which rotate or otherwise alter the polarization of the light passing through it by some means other than the vector of attenuation. 分别地,术语“偏振器”指代这样的物体、设备或物质,该物体、设备或物质阻挡一种极性的光而透射正交极性的光,或在阻挡圆形偏振光的情况下,透射相反螺旋性偏振光。 Separately, the term "polarizer" refers to such an object, equipment or materials, the object, device or substance blocking light of one polarity orthogonal to the polarity of the transmitted light, or circularly polarized light in the case of the barrier transmissive polarized opposite handedness. 最通常地,该阻挡由吸收引起。 Most commonly, the absorption caused by the barrier.

[0040] 也应理解,仅当在反射性偏振器中发生一些吸收时,可在吸收性偏振器中发生一些反射,但该两种类型可依靠不同的操作原理并产生性质不同的光学效应。 [0040] should also be understood that, while some absorption occurs only in the reflective polarizer, the reflection may occur in a number of absorptive polarizers, but both types may rely on different operating principles and properties have different optical effects. 当论述吸收性偏振器时,对论述来说,假设吸收性偏振器在吸收一种极性的光并透射其它极性的光方面100%有效(或效率接近100% )是方便的。 When discussing absorptive polarizer, for discussion, it is assumed that absorptive polarizer light absorption of one polarity and transmits light 100% effective in terms of other polar (or efficiency approaching 100%) is convenient. 然而,在实践中,这些偏振器的效率可能低于100% (例如,由于设计选择或设计和制造限制),偏振器可以是部分反射性的并具有频率依赖和空间依赖的反射、吸收和透射特征(例如,由于设计选择或设计和制造限制)或其任意的结合,并且这不应解释为限制本发明的范畴。 However, in practice, the efficiency of these polarizers may be less than 100% (e.g., due to design or select the design and manufacturing constraints), the polarizer may be partially reflective and having spatially dependent and frequency-dependent reflection, absorption and transmission characteristics (e.g., due to design or select the design and manufacturing constraints) or any combination thereof, and it should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention.

[0041] 通常,本发明的一个实施例可采用一种形式的热致光学去偏器,其可与两个透明偏振器一起使用,从而构造热控开关吸收性光学百叶窗。 The optical thermotropic depolarizer [0041] Generally, an embodiment of the present invention may take a form which may be used with two polarizers transparent, so that the absorbent structure thermally switched optical shutters. TSAOS设备可允许光和辐射能在低温下经过,并在高温下吸收这样的光和辐射能。 TSAOS device may allow radiant energy at a low temperature after light and absorb light radiation at such a high temperature. 去偏器可经选择或设计以使它的偏振态在预定温度改变(例如,该去偏器可以是热致的,因此在预定温度改变偏振态)。 Depolarizer may be selected or designed so that its polarization state changed at a predetermined temperature (e.g., de-polarizer may be thermally induced, thus changing the polarization state at a predetermined temperature). TSAOS设备也可用于如下应用中,在所述应用中,通过控制房屋、车辆或其它结构吸收的太阳辐射的量而调节房屋、车辆或其它结构的温度。 TSAOS device may also be used in the following applications, in the application, the control housing, the amount of vehicles or other structures absorb solar radiation while adjusting the temperature of the house, vehicle or other structure.

[0042] 在TSAOS设备的一个实施中,可连续布置两个吸收性偏振滤光器,其可透射平行于它们自己的偏振光,并可吸收垂直偏振的光。 [0042] In one embodiment TSAOS device may be arranged in succession two absorptive polarizing filters, which themselves may be parallel to the transmission polarized light and vertically polarized light absorption. 当吸收性偏振器平行定向时,可吸收多达50%的入射辐射能。 When the absorptive polarizer parallel orientation, can absorb up to 50% of incident radiant energy. 当吸收性偏振器相互垂直定向时,可在一个偏振器处阻挡多达50%的光,并且由第一吸收性偏振器透射的多达50%的剩余光可由第二吸收性偏振器阻挡。 When the absorptive polarizers oriented perpendicular to each other, may block up to 50% of a polarizer at the light, and transmitted by the first absorbing polarizer up to 50% of the remaining light blocked by the second absorptive polarizer. 在此情况下,穿过两个吸收性偏振器的光的透射可以是非常少的(经常少于1% ),并且大部分光(经常接近100% )可被吸收。 In this case, the light passing through the two absorptive polarizers can be transmitted is very small (often less than 1%), and most of the light (often close to 100%) can be absorbed.

[0043] TSAOS设备的一个实施例包括可透射平行于它们自己的偏振的偏振光并可吸收垂直偏振光的两个吸收性偏振滤光器。 An embodiment [0043] TSAOS apparatus embodiment comprises a transmissive polarization parallel to their own polarized light and absorbs two absorptive polarizing filters vertically polarized light. 因此,近50%的入射光可被吸收。 Thus, nearly 50% of incident light may be absorbed. 实际上,也可被吸收小附加量,因此穿过两个平行偏振器的光透射可以是30 %〜40 %。 In fact, it may also be a small additional amount absorbed, so the light transmission through two parallel polarizers may be 30% ~ 40%. 在偏振器相互垂直定向时,可在一个偏振器处阻挡近50%的光,并且在另一偏振器处阻挡近50%的光。 Orientation to each other in vertical polarizer, may block almost 50% of light in a polarizer at blocking and nearly 50% of the light at the other polarizer. 在此情况下,穿过两个滤光器的光的透射可少于1%,并且大部分光(接近100% )可被吸收。 In this case, it may be less than 1% transmission through both filters light, and most of the light (close to 100%) can be absorbed.

[0044] 在另一实施中,可改变经过它的光的偏振的可开关去偏器可以与两个或更多个吸收性偏振器一起配置。 [0044] In another embodiment, it may be changed through the polarization of the light switchable depolarizer may be configured with two or more absorptive polarizers. 在该实施的一个实施例中,可开关去偏器可以是夹在两片透明的微观结构材料(例如聚合物涂敷玻璃或聚合物膜)之间的液晶。 In one embodiment of this embodiment, the switchable depolarizer may be a liquid crystal sandwiched between two transparent microstructure of the material (e.g., polymer coated glass or polymer film). 可开关去偏器可被特殊地选择或设计为热致的,因此它的偏振态在预定温度转变。 Switchable depolarizer may be specially selected or designed to thermally induced, so that the polarization state at a predetermined transition temperature. 在“断开”状态下,入射光的偏振态可基本上不受去偏器影响,并且在“接通”状态下,已经经过第一偏振器的特定偏振光可以旋转设定量。 In the "OFF" state, the polarization state of the incident light to be substantially free from the influence of the polarizer, and in the "on" state, a specific polarized light has passed the first polarizer may be a set amount of rotation. 这通常是为了,根据所需的光学效应而使得光与第二偏振器排列在平行态或垂直态。 Usually to, depending on the desired optical effect such that the light with the second polarization state is aligned parallel or perpendicular state. 因此,两个吸收性偏振滤光器和液晶(例如,具有向列态的热致液晶)的组合可构成可开关吸收器,该吸收器根据液晶状态吸收多达50%或多达100%的入射光。 Thus, a combination of two absorptive polarizing filters and a liquid crystal (e.g., having a nematic thermotropic liquid crystal state) may constitute switching absorber, the absorber liquid crystal state absorb up to 50% or up to 100% the incident light. 因此,两个吸收性偏振滤光器和液晶的组合可构成可开关吸收器,该吸收器根据液晶状态(并因此根据温度)吸收多达50%或多达100%的入射光。 Thus, two absorptive polarizing filters and the liquid crystal composition may form a switchable absorber, the absorber liquid crystal state (and thus depending on the temperature) up to 50% or absorb up to 100% of incident light. 这样的热吸收性百叶窗可使用其设计操作温度范围在约-30摄氏度至60摄氏度之间的液晶或液晶剂型,该温度范围可与人们通常耐受的温度相符,和/或适于人类生活的环境的户外地面温度的设计清亮点相符,例如,高于约-40摄氏度并低于约85摄氏度。 Such heat absorption louvers may use its design operating temperature range between about -30 degrees Celsius to 60 degrees Celsius liquid or liquid dosage forms, the temperature range may match people generally resistant temperature, and / or for human life outdoor environment consistent surface temperature of the clearing point of the design, e.g., greater than about -40 degrees Celsius and below about 85 degrees Celsius.

[0045] 包括液晶的许多材料展示出热致性质,液晶在这里称为“清亮点”的温度上从有序态或“接通”态(例如,结晶、向列或近晶状(smectic))转换到无序态或“断开”态(例如,液体、各向同性、或非偏振)。 [0045] From the ordered state or "on" the temperature of many materials exhibit thermotropic properties, referred to herein as liquid crystal "clearing point" includes a liquid crystal state (e.g., crystalline, smectic or nematic (smectic) ) into a disordered state or "off" state (e.g., liquid, isotropic, or non-polarized). 例如,4-丁基氰基联苯(4-butylcyanobiphenyl) (CB)液晶可具有接近16.5摄氏度的清亮点,而6CB液晶可具有接近29.0摄氏度的清亮点,并因此在温度接近室温的状况下“熔化”(即,变得各向同性)。 For example, 4-butyl-cyanobiphenyl (4-butylcyanobiphenyl) (CB) of the liquid crystal may have a clearing point close to the 16.5 degrees Celsius, and the liquid crystal may have a close 6CB clearing point 29.0 ° C, and thus at a temperature close to room conditions " melting "(i.e., become isotropic). 4CB和6CB的混合物可具有在这两个值之间的清亮点,该清亮点接近线性地与混合物中每种成分的百分比成正比。 The mixture may have 6CB 4CB and clearing point between these two values, the clearing point is linearly proportional to the percentage of the proximity of each mixture component. 在“断开”状态下,入射光的偏振态可基本不受去偏器影响,并且在“接通”状态下,已经经过第一偏振器的特定偏振光可旋转设定的量(例如,45或90度,但也可以是180或270度,或其它不能被45整除的值)。 In the "OFF" state, the polarization state of the incident light can not substantially affect the depolarizer, and in the "on" state, has passed a certain amount of polarization rotation of the first polarizer may be set (e.g., 45 or 90 degrees, but it may also be 180 or 270 degrees, or other values ​​that can not be divisible by 45).

[0046] 在一些实施中,TSAOS设备可处在冷态(例如,结晶、向列或近晶状)下,并吸收多达50%的到达它的光或其它辐射能,并透射近40%的光或其它辐射能。 [0046] In some implementations, the device may be in the TSAOS cold (e.g., crystalline, nematic or smectic), the absorption and reaches up to 50% of its light or other radiation, and transmits nearly 40% light or other radiation. 在热(例如,各向同性)状态下,TSAOS设备可吸收多达100%的入射光。 In the hot (e.g., isotropic) state, the TSAOS device can absorb up to 100% of incident light. 因此,TSAOS设备可形成热控开关的吸收性光学百叶窗。 Thus, TSAOS optical louver device can form the absorbent thermal switch. 相反转换也是可能的,即,百叶窗在寒冷时是吸收性的并在炎热时是透射性,并且该相反转换可取决于偏振器和去偏器层的精确布置。 And vice-versa is also possible, i.e. the louver is absorbent and, when hot is transmissive in the cold, and vice-versa may depend on the precise arrangements polarizer and depolarizer layer.

[0047] 在详细解释公开的实施例之前,应该理解,本发明在它的应用中不受限于所示出的具体布置的详述,因为本发明能具有其它实施例。 [0047] Before explaining the disclosed embodiments, it should be understood that the present invention is not limited in its application to the details of the particular arrangement shown, since the present invention is capable of other embodiments. 同样,在此使用的术语是为了描述的目的而不是限制。 Similarly, the terminology used herein is for the purpose of description and not of limitation.

[0048] 图1是TSAOS设备100的一个实施例的图解剖面图。 [0048] FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic cross-sectional view of one embodiment TSAOS device 100. 如图1中所示,热致去偏器层102可设置在两个吸收性偏振滤光器101和103之间,并可附接到光学透明衬底104。 In Figure 1, the thermotropic depolarizer layer 102 may be disposed between the two absorptive polarizing filters 101 and 103, and may be attached to the optically transparent substrate 104. 在通常情况下,外部光源可以是未偏振的白光(即,强度处于可见频谱、近UV频谱和近IR频谱的主要带宽范围的光)。 Under normal circumstances, the external light source may be unpolarized white light (i.e., the intensity of the visible spectrum, the bandwidth of the main light near UV spectrum and near-IR spectrum). 在百叶窗设备100的一个应用中,外部光源可以是太阳。 In one application of the shutter device 100, the external light source may be the sun. 然而,TSAOS设备100也可在外部光源不是白光(例如是蓝色天空的漫射辐射能)时运行。 However, TSAOS apparatus 100 may be external light source is not white light (e.g., blue sky diffuse radiation) runtime.

[0049] 在一个实施例中,入射光可首先经过外部吸收性偏振器101。 [0049] In one embodiment, the incident light can first pass through the outer absorptive polarizer 101. 偏振器的形式可包括Polaroid™膜或可以是吸收性液晶偏振器(LCP),尽管其它形式也可使用。 In the form of polarizers may include Polaroid ™ film may be absorbent or liquid crystal polarizer (LCP), although other forms may also be used.

[0050] 近50%入射光可具有与外部吸收性偏振器101的偏振垂直的偏振,并可由外部吸收性偏振器101吸收。 [0050] nearly 50% of the incident may have a polarization and an external absorptive polarizer 101 is perpendicular to the polarization, and is absorbed by the outer absorptive polarizer 101. 在具有与外部吸收性偏振器101的偏振平行的偏振的剩余光中,一些百分比可由热致去偏器102吸收,和/或通过外部吸收性偏振器101离轴吸收,并且剩余光可透射穿过。 The remaining external light having a polarization parallel absorptive polarizer 101 polarizing, some may be thermally induced to the percentage absorption polarizer 102, and / or by the absorptive polarizer 101 absorb external off-axis, and the remaining light may be transmitted through too.

[0051] 一旦入射光经过外部吸收性偏振滤光器101,入射光(例如,日光)可进入热致去偏器102,该热致去偏器102可以是能展示出两种偏振态的设备或材料。 [0051] Once the incident light through the outer absorptive polarizer filter 101, incident light (e.g., sunlight) may enter the thermotropic depolarizer 102, the thermotropic depolarizer 102 may be a device capable of exhibiting two polarization states or materials. 在它的热(例如,各向同性或液体)态下,经过热致去偏器102的偏振光可不受影响。 In its thermal (e.g., isotropic or liquid) under the state, through the thermotropic depolarizer 102 may be polarized unaffected. 在它的冷(例如,向列或结晶)态下,热致去偏器102可使入射光的偏振矢量旋转一固定量。 In its cold (e.g., nematic or crystalline) state under the thermotropic depolarizer 102 allows rotation of the polarization vector of the incident light of a fixed amount. 在一个实施例中,热致去偏器102可以是可使光的偏振矢量旋转90度的扭曲向列液晶。 In one embodiment, the thermotropic depolarizer 102 may allow the light polarization vector 90 degrees rotation twisted nematic liquid crystal. 然而,可使用各种其它设备和材料,包括可与外部吸收性偏振器101成45度角定向的向列液晶。 However, various other devices and materials comprising 101 oriented at 45 degrees with the external absorptive polarizer nematic liquid crystal. [0052] 一旦光穿过了热致去偏器102,则剩余偏振光可到达内部吸收性偏振器103,该偏振器103也称作“检偏镜(analyzer)”,其中,光可根据偏振态被吸收或透射。 [0052] Once the light passing through the thermotropic depolarizer 102, the polarized light can reach the interior of the remaining absorptive polarizer 103, a polarizer 103 which is also referred to as "the analyzer (Analyzer)", wherein the light according to polarization state is absorbed or transmitted. 内部吸收性偏振器103可定向成使得它的偏振垂直于外部吸收性偏振器101的偏振。 Inner absorptive polarizer 103 may be oriented such that its polarization is perpendicular to the outer absorptive polarizer 101 polarizing. 因此,在百叶窗设备100的热态下,当光的偏振矢量不可旋转时,光的极性可垂直于内部反射性偏振器103的极性,并且近100%的光可以被吸收。 Thus, in the hot state louver device 100, when the polarization vector of the light is not rotated, the polarity of the polarity of the light may be perpendicular to the interior of the reflective polarizer 103, and nearly 100% of the light may be absorbed. 然而,在冷态下,当光的偏振矢量不可旋转90度并可平行于内部吸收性偏振器103时,少量光可由内部吸收性偏振器材料吸收,并且其余光可透射穿过。 However, in the cold state, when the polarization vector of the light is not rotated by 90 degrees and is parallel to the inner absorptive polarizer 103, a small amount of light may be absorbed inner absorptive polarizer material and the rest may be transmitted through the light.

[0053] 在图1中示出了针对冷态的入射光的行为,其中,外部吸收性偏振器101可吸收多达50%的入射光。 [0053] FIG. 1 shows in a cold state behavior for incident light, wherein the outer absorptive polarizer 101 can absorb up to 50% of incident light. 剩余光可经过热致去偏器102,其中,光的偏振矢量可旋转,然后光可经过内部吸收性偏振器103或检偏镜,其中光基本不受影响。 The remaining light may pass through the thermotropic depolarizer 102, wherein the polarization vector of the light can be rotated, and then through an interior of the light absorptive polarizer 103 or the analyzer where the light is substantially unaffected. 然后光可经过可选的透明衬底104并最终离开TSAOS设备100。 And then the light can eventually exit TSAOS device 100 through an optional transparent substrate 104. 因此,在百叶窗设备100的冷态下,该设备100可用作衰减器,该衰减器可吸收到达其外表面的光的近50%,可反射少量光,并可使其余的光透射到内表面。 Thus, in the cold state louver apparatus 100, the apparatus 100 can be used as an attenuator, the attenuator may absorb nearly 50% of the light reaches the outer surface, may be a small amount of reflected light, and make the rest of the light transmitted into the surface.

[0054] 图2是与图1相同的实施例的剖面示意图,不同之处在于,为TSAOS设备100的热态示出入射光的行为。 [0054] FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the same embodiment of FIG. 1, except that, for the heat TSAOS device 100 illustrated state behavior of the incident light. 热致去偏器102不可影响经过它的光的偏振矢量。 Thermotropic depolarizer 102 not affect its light through the polarization vector. 因此,到达内部吸收性偏振器103的任何光都可具有与内部吸收性偏振器103的极性垂直的极性,并且近100%的光可被吸收。 Thus, any light reach the interior of the absorptive polarizer 103 may have a polarity with the polarity of vertical inner absorptive polarizer 103, and nearly 100% of the light may be absorbed. 因此TSAOS设备100可用作遮光物,该遮光物可吸收到达其外表面的光的近100%。 Thus TSAOS device 100 may be used as shielding material, the shielding material may reach nearly 100% absorption of light in the outer surface thereof.

[0055] 因此,在TSAOS设备100的冷态下,该设备100可透射的光能是到达它的外表面的光能的略少于一半,由此在热态下,TSAOS设备100可透射少于I %的光能。 [0055] Thus, in the cold state TSAOS device 100, 100 may be light transmissive optical energy reaching the device is slightly less than half of its outer surface, whereby in the hot state, device 100 may transmit less TSAOS in I% of light energy. 因此,TSAOS设备100可用来基于TSAOS设备100的温度来调节进入结构的光或辐射热的流动。 Thus, TSAOS device 100 may be used to regulate the flow of heat into the configuration of a light or radiation based on a temperature of 100 TSAOS device.

[0056] 在该实施例中,透明衬底104可为结构支撑和方便的原因而存在。 [0056] In this embodiment, the transparent substrate 104 may be a structural support and convenience reasons exist. 透明衬底104可被去除而不显著改变TSAOS设备100的功能。 The transparent substrate 104 may be removed without significantly altering the function TSAOS device 100. 可替换地,透明衬底104可放置在TSAOS设备100的外表面而不是内表面上,或透明衬底104可放置在两个表面上,在TSAOS设备100的功能层中的一个或更多或其结合之间插入,而不显著影响它的功能。 Alternatively, the transparent substrate 104 may be placed on the outer surface of the device 100 rather than TSAOS inner surface, or a transparent substrate 104 may be placed on both surfaces, one or more functional layers TSAOS device 100 or binding interposed therebetween, without significantly affecting its function. 此外,透明衬底104可设置在百叶窗设备100的内表面上,如图1和2中所示,并且透明衬底104不需要对所有波长透明。 Further, the transparent substrate 104 may be disposed on the inner surface of the shutter device 100, as shown in Figures 1 and 2, and the transparent substrate 104 need not be transparent to all wavelengths. 另外,只要被透射的波长用作热能、照明或用于其它目的,透明衬底104可以是长通、短通或带通的滤光器。 Further, as long as the wavelength of transmitted energy, illumination or for other purposes, the transparent substrate 104 may be a long-pass, short-pass or band-pass filter. 然而,为了方便和成本,透明衬底104通常优选将普通透明材料(例如玻璃或丙烯酸树脂)用作衬底。 However, for convenience and cost, the transparent substrate 104 is generally preferred to ordinary transparent material (e.g. glass or acrylic resin) is used as the substrate.

[0057] 通常,用眼睛来看对数标度。 [0057] Generally, a logarithmic scale eye view. 因此,入射光的50%衰减或许可能看起来主观地认为是接近原始未偏振光的亮度的84%,尽管它根据具体状况或境况可能比此更大或更小。 Thus, 50% of the incident light attenuation perhaps may seem subjectively considered to be close to the original 84% of non-polarized light intensity, although it may be greater than this depending on the situation or circumstances or less. 作为美观、人和能量管理因素的平衡,初步证据表现出,近10%〜20%的入射太阳能的热态散射和50%〜70%的入射太阳能的冷态散射对于窗户应用来说可以是需要的。 As a balanced appearance, and the energy management factors, preliminary evidence showing, scattering hot nearly 10% ~ 20% of incident solar energy and scatter cold 50% ~ 70% of the incident solar energy for window applications may be needed of. 然而,对于TSAOS设备的不同应用和实施例来说,可能需要不同的透射级。 However, for different applications and embodiments TSAOS device, it may require a different transmission stages.

[0058] 在制造TSAOS设备的一个示范性过程中,第一步可以是形成液晶(LC)盒或“瓶”。 [0058] In one exemplary manufacturing process TSAOS device, the first step may be a liquid crystal (LC) cassette or "bottle." 两片二氧化硅涂敷(钝化)玻璃可被划出预定尺寸并放置在衬底架中。 Two silica coating (passivation) the glass can be drawn in a predetermined size and placed in the substrate holder. 如果在玻璃上具有铟锡氧化物(ITO)低发射率涂层,那么它可被腐蚀,在原位留下Si02。 If having indium tin oxide (ITO) low emissivity coating on the glass, it can be corroded, Si02 left in place. 然后片材可放置在48KHz超声波清洁器(例如,功率级设置为8的Crest Truesweep清洁器)中15分钟,使用pH中性皂,该pH中性皂以每加仑去离子(DI)水(纯度为280hm或更好)混合一盎司pH中性皂的配比混合。 Then the sheet may be placed in an ultrasonic cleaner 48KHz (e.g., power level to Crest Truesweep cleaner 8) for 15 minutes, a pH neutral soap, in the neutral pH soap per gallon of deionized (DI) water (purity or 280hm is better) mixing one ounce mixing ratio pH neutral soap. 如有聚酰亚胺(PI)受潮问题,那么片材可以用Detrex皂重洗。 If polyimide (PI) moisture problems, the sheet may be shuffled with Detrex soap. 更大的片材可改为使用商用玻璃清洗机(例如,Billco 600系列)清洁。 Larger sheets may be used instead commercial glass cleaner (e.g., Billco 600 series) cleaning. 可用异丙醇(IPA)使片材干燥,并且片材可放置在80-85摄氏度的干燥炉中,按无水储存和分段运输(staging)的需要持续近120分钟或更长,并且然后可放置在臭氧清洁器中近15分钟。 Available isopropanol (IPA) drying the sheet, and the sheet may be placed in a 80-85 ° C oven drying, storage and staging anhydrous (the staging) continuing need approximately 120 minutes or more, and then may be placed in an ozone cleaner for nearly 15 minutes. 然后通过旋涂(spin coating),该旋涂以500RPM的转速持续10秒,继之以2000RPM的转速持续45秒,在溶剂中溶解的PI定向层可被沉积。 Then by spin-coating (spin coating), the spin coating rotation speed is 500RPM for 10 sec, followed by 45 seconds of speed 2000RPM, dissolved in a solvent in the PI alignment layer may be deposited. 一致的涂层需要每平方英寸片材近lml。 Consistent coating required per square inch of the sheet near lml. 对于过大以致于不能旋涂的片材,PI溶液可由喷墨打印机沉积。 For too large to the sheet can not be spin-coated, PI was deposited by an inkjet printer. 在涂敷后,衬底可在85摄氏度下被加热近5分钟,从而快速去除任何剩余溶剂,然后可在180-190摄氏度下烘烤近一小时,从而使PI固化。 After coating, the substrate may be heated at 85 ° C nearly 5 minutes to quickly remove any residual solvent, then baked at 180-190 ° C for nearly an hour, so that the cured PI. 炉门不应打开,直到内部温度为85摄氏度或更低。 The door should not be opened until the internal temperature of 85 C or less.

[0059] 然后片材可储存在50摄氏度的真空炉中直到被使用,从而防止PI表面的污染。 [0059] The sheet was then stored at 50 degrees C until it is used a vacuum oven, thereby preventing contamination of the surface of the PI. 然后片材可放置在真空夹具中,从而将它们保持在适当位置,并用聚丙烯或铝块摩擦,用双边条带固定的摩擦布材料覆盖该聚丙烯或铝块。 Then the sheet may be placed in a vacuum fixture, so as to hold them in place, and with a polypropylene or an aluminum friction blocks, covering the aluminum block or polypropylene strips fixed by the double rubbing cloth material. 摩擦块可在没有向下压力(除其自重之外)的情况下,沿相同方向推过表面25次。 The friction pad can be no downward pressure (in addition to its own weight), the surface 25 pushed through in the same direction. 然后可在片材的未涂敷侧上标记出(例如,用记号笔)摩擦方向。 May then be marked (e.g., with a marker) in the direction of rubbing on the uncoated side of the sheet. 然后多个7.5微米的间隔珠可通过喷气(air puff)机器施加于一个片材的摩擦面,并且摩擦方向与第一衬底成90度角定向的第二片材可以通过摩擦侧向下(rubbed-side-down)的方式放置在第一片材顶部。 And a plurality of spacer beads of 7.5 microns by the jet (air puff) machine applied to a friction surface of the sheet, the first substrate and the rubbing direction of 90 degrees to the second sheet may be oriented side by friction ( rubbed-side-down) manner placed on top of the first sheet. 边缘可首先用不可与液晶相互作用的光学粘合剂(例如,Norlin 68)密封,然后用防水密封剂(例如,Loctite 349)密封,留下至少两个打开的孔口,每个孔口都接近Icm宽。 First, the edge may be unavailable to interact with the liquid crystal optical adhesive (e.g., Norlin 68) sealed and waterproof sealants (e.g., Loctite 349) sealing, leaving at least two open orifices, each orifice are close Icm wide. Norlin 68可用剂量至少为4000mJ/cm2的UV固化,并在50°C下烘烤12小时,或允许在室温下固化一整个星期。 Norlin 68 useful doses of at least 4000mJ / cm2 of UV curing, and baked for 12 hours at 50 ° C, or allowed to cure at room temperature for a whole week.

[0060] 然后瓶(具有部分密封的边缘的两个片材)可放置在具有20milliTorr或更低压力,温度低于清亮点并高于液晶凝固点的真空装载机中,并下降到含有液晶(例如,5份6CB、1.25份E7和0.008份811的清亮点为35°C的混合物)的槽中。 [0060] Then the bottle (the sheet having two edge portions of the seal) can be placed in 20milliTorr or lower pressures, and higher than the clearing point temperature below the freezing point of the liquid crystal in a vacuum loader having, down to and containing a liquid crystal (e.g. , 5 parts 6CB, 1.25 parts and 0.008 parts of E7 clearing point of the mixture 811 of 35 ° C) of the groove. 液晶可由毛细作用抽取到瓶内。 Extracting liquid crystal by capillary action into the bottle. 在装载完成时,瓶可从真空室移除,孔口可用Norlin 68和Loctite 349密封,并且可重复固化步骤,务必避免液晶混合物不必要地暴露于UV光。 When loading is complete, the bottle can be removed from the vacuum chamber, the orifice can be used Norlin 68 Loctite 349 and sealed, and the curing step may be repeated, the liquid crystal mixture is important to avoid unnecessary exposure to UV light. 一旦瓶被制造,然后可将其进一步构造成完成的TSAOS设备。 Once the bottle is made, and may be further configured to complete TSAOS device. 示范性的TSAOS设备可包括独立的热吸收性滤光器(例如,LC瓶、偏振器,以及仅UV防护)和具有层合到一个窗框的热吸收性滤光器的绝缘玻璃单元(IGU)或“双框玻璃”。 Exemplary TSAOS device may comprise a separate heat-absorbing filter (e.g., the LC bottle, polarizers, UV protection and only) having laminated to a heat-absorbing filter window frame insulated glass unit (IGU ) or "double frame glass." LC瓶可与光学清洁片材粘合剂(例如,光学清洁粘合剂3M 8141和3M 8142)和吸收性偏振器膜(例如,Nitto Denko GU-1220DUN)的层多次层合,从而制造热吸收性滤光器。 LC bottle layer can be optically clear adhesive sheet (e.g., optically clear adhesive 3M 8141 and 3M 8142) and the absorptive polarizer film (e.g., Nitto Denko GU-1220DUN) repeatedly laminated, thereby manufacturing a thermal The absorbent filter. 然后可应用UV屏蔽层(例如,GamColor 1510UV膜)。 Then UV shielding layer (e.g., GamColor 1510UV film) may be applied. 所有层合步骤可在具有1,000级下吸式排风罩(downdraft hood)的10,000级的净化室环境中执行,从而防止微粒在任何粘合层中引起气泡。 All lamination step may be performed in a class 10,000 clean room environment with the 000-stage suction hood (downdraft hood), thereby preventing any particles causing air bubbles in the adhesive layer.

[0061] 由瓶构造TSAOS设备的过程开始于,使用6ft自动/手动辊压层合机将粘合剂应用于瓶。 [0061] a bottle TSAOS device configuration process begins using 6ft automatic / manual roll laminator applying an adhesive to the bottle. 通过在水准旋钮(leveling knobs)上使用预置增量,可在层合机上设置高度,从而避免损坏瓶。 By using the preset level on incremental knob (leveling knobs), the height may be provided on the laminator, so as to avoid damage to the bottles. 3M 8141的一个层可施加于瓶,之后是吸收性偏振器层。 A layer of 3M 8141 may be applied to the bottle, followed by absorbing polarizer layer. 该过程可在瓶的反面上重复,偏振器膜从先前的层旋转90°。 This process may be repeated on the reverse side of the bottle, the polarizer film is rotated 90 ° from the previous layer. 3M 8141的另一个层可应用于瓶的任意一侧,然后可施加UV屏蔽层,作为最后步骤。 Another layer of 3M 8141 on either side may be applied to bottles, UV shielding layer may then be applied, as a final step. 此时,瓶已成为热吸收性滤光器。 At this time, the bottle has become a heat absorption filter.

[0062] 可替换地,软瓶可由两个偏振器直接形成。 [0062] Alternatively, the bottle may be directly formed on the soft two polarizers. 一种方法可包括从聚合物膜的拉延和伸展方向上自然形成定向层,或依靠上述摩擦将定向层应用于它们。 A method of forming an alignment layer may comprise natural draw from the polymer film and the extending direction, or by means of the alignment layer is applied to the friction thereof. 在此情况下,一旦第二偏振器已经放置在顶部并且与底部上的第一偏振器成90度角,那么LC可通过上述孔口装载,或可作为薄膜涂敷到偏振器上(例如,通过照相凹版制版法(gravure process)),或可“溢出或泼浇(glopped)”到偏振器上,并且辊压平面(例如,用薄片轧辊(laminatingroller))。 In this case, once the second polarizer has to be placed on top and on the bottom of the first polarizer angle of 90 degrees, then by the above-described LC loading aperture, or as a film applied to the polarizer (e.g., by gravure-plate method (gravure process)), or "spillage or pouring (glopped)" to the polarizer, and the rolling plane (e.g., a sheet roll (laminatingroller)). 在任一种情况下,瓶的边缘之后都可由热封(例如,用高温烙铁,例如345摄氏度的烙铁)密封,或用虎钳和热风枪密封,其温度为540摄氏度,或高于偏振膜熔化温度并可产生可接受的软边封的一些其它温度。 In either case, after the bottle edge can be (e.g., high temperature soldering iron, the soldering iron, for example, 345 degrees Celsius) seal, and a hot air gun, or vise sealed by heat sealing, at a temperature of 540 degrees Celsius, or higher than the melting polarizing film temperature may have some other temperature pharmaceutically soft edge seal. 然后UV阻挡膜可层合到瓶,如上所述。 UV barrier film may then be laminated to the bottle, as described above.

[0063] 为了由LC瓶制造绝缘玻璃单元(“I⑶”),需要进一步的层合。 [0063] In order to manufacture an LC bottle insulated glass unit ( "I⑶"), requiring further lamination. 可向热吸收性滤光器给予位于UV屏蔽上的两个连续的3M 8142层。 It may be administered to the heat-absorbing filter located in two successive 3M 8142 UV-shielding layer. 然后也可向通常比瓶大1-2英寸(in)的窗玻璃(无论是未加工的、退火的、热强化的、化学强化的,或钢化的)给予两个连续的3M 8142层。 To the normal ratio can then Bottle 1-2 inches (in) of the glazing (either raw, annealed, heat strengthened, chemically strengthened or tempered) 3M 8142 administering two successive layers. 在钢化玻璃上的层可与在边沿下面的条带层合,从而防止3M 8142完全遮盖玻璃。 Layer on the glass below the rim may be laminated strips, thereby preventing 3M 8142 completely cover glass. 然后可从LC瓶和钢化玻璃窗移除粘合衬背(adhesive backing)。 Fusible may then be removed back (adhesive backing) LC from glass bottles and windows. 每个的粘合侧都可放置在一起,然后最后一次穿过层合机,再次设置适于层合并防止损坏瓶的高度。 Each of the adhesive side can be placed together, and then the last time through the laminator layers were provided adapted to prevent damage to the height of the bottle again. 现在,组件可具有在它周围构筑的标准绝缘玻璃单元。 Now, the assembly can have a standard insulating glass unit constructed around it. 具有干燥剂的标准铝IGU隔离片可用来使两块IGU玻璃分隔,并可附接到具有PIB联结珠的玻璃并且用聚异丁烯(PIB)热熔密封剂密封在边缘周围。 Standard aluminum having a desiccant may be used to IGU spacer IGU two glass partition, PIB and having coupling attached to the glass beads and treated with polyisobutylene (PIB) hot melt sealant sealing around the edges. 现在I⑶已准备好运送和安装。 I⑶ now ready to delivery and installation.

[0064] 图3是TSAOS设备的另一实施例的示意性图示,其中,在偏振器101和103中的一个或两个中具有缺口105,从而允许一些源自外部源的未偏振光经过百叶窗设备而不更改。 [0064] FIG. 3 is a schematic illustration of another embodiment of TSAOS device, wherein a notch 105 and 101 in one or both of the polarizer 103, thereby allowing some of the unpolarized light from an external source through without changing the shutter device. 这些缺口105可采用孔洞或条带形式,或可替换地,偏振器材料自身可以用条带或斑点形式。 These holes or notches 105 may take the form of strips, or alternatively, a polarization filter material itself may be in the form of stripes or spots. 然而,本领域技术人员会理解,有许多种不需要在此详述的塑造缺口105的可替换方法。 However, those skilled in the art will appreciate, there are many types of alternative shaped notches need not be detailed herein a method 105. 例如,该实施例可用在提供相对清晰的视野的窗户中。 For example, this embodiment may be used in providing a relatively clear view of the windows. 在此情况下,吸收性偏振器101和103的衰减或阻碍可与透过普通纱窗观看相似。 In this case, the absorptive polarizer 101 and the attenuator 103 may be similar to or hinder viewing by ordinary screens.

[0065] 使用具有缺口105的吸收性偏振器101和103取代统一的偏振器,可在所有情况下增加穿过百叶窗设备的能量的透射,并因此可降低设备在热态下反射光和辐射能的能力。 [0065] 105 having a notch 101 and absorptive polarizer 103 polarizer substituted uniform, can increase the transmitted energy through the shutter device in all cases, and thus the device can reduce the hot state in the reflected light and radiant energy Ability. 然而,在冷态透明度比热态吸收性更重要的情况下,该布置可以是有利的。 However, in the cold state of transparency is more important than the case where the absorbent hot, this arrangement may be advantageous.

[0066] 可以注意到,相似效应可通过使两个吸收性偏振器旋转以相互成大于零度并小于90度的角度来实现,但是该方法仅增加热态下百叶窗的透明度,并可(取决于百叶窗的精确几何形状和去偏器的精确性质)在冷态下降低透明度。 [0066] It may be noted, similar effects can be rotated to each other greater than zero degrees and less than 90 degrees be achieved by two absorptive polarizers, which only increased but the transparency of the hot shutter, and (depending on the precise geometry and precise nature depolarizer shutter) reduce the transparency in the cold state. 在此情况下,偏振器有效操作,冷态下的透明度可不高于50% (该状态在两个理想偏振器以平行取向放置时发生)。 In this case, the effective operation of the polarizer, the transparency in the cold state may not be higher than 50% (this condition occurs when the two are placed in parallel over the polarization orientation). 然而,如果偏振效率低于100%,那么在舍弃热态下的吸收性的情况下,在冷态下可实现更高透明度。 However, if the polarization efficiency less than 100%, then in the case where the absorbent discard the hot state, in the cold state to achieve higher transparency.

[0067] 在可替换实施例中,液晶或定向层中的缺口,或液晶或定向层的其它间隔可产生与在偏振器中具有缺口的实施例相似的效应,而且在一些情况下,这可以更简单或另外地更被需要。 [0067] In an alternative embodiment, the liquid crystal or the alignment layer in a gap, or other spacing of the liquid crystal or the alignment layer can produce the effect of having a notch in the polarizer analogously to example embodiments, and in some cases, this may otherwise simpler or more is required. 同样,任意种类的缺口105都可布置成以使仅间接光能够经过百叶窗。 Similarly, any type of notch 105 is arranged to be such that only indirect light can pass through the louver.

[0068] 图4是TSAOS设备的附加实施例的示意性剖面图示,其中,添加可选彩色滤光器106。 [0068] FIG. 4 is a schematic sectional view of an additional embodiment TSAOS device, wherein the color filter 106 is added alternatively. 其它形式的彩色滤光器106可包括带反射器(例如分布式Bragg反射器(DBR)或梳状滤光器),其可被设计成反射窄幅波长并透射其它全部波长,或可包括带通滤光器(例如,彩色玻璃或塑料的片材),该带通滤光器可被设计成透射一定范围的波长并反射或吸收其它全部波长。 Other forms may include a color filter 106 with a reflector (such as a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) or a comb filter), which may be designed to reflect a narrow range of wavelengths and transmits all other wavelengths, or may comprise a belt pass filter (e.g., colored glass or plastic sheet), the band pass filter may be designed to transmit a range of wavelengths and reflect or absorb all other wavelengths.

[0069] 在图4中,彩色滤光器106被示作位于百叶窗设备的外表面上。 [0069] In FIG. 4, the color filter 106 is shown as located on the outer surface of the shutter device. 然而,本领域技术人员会理解,通过将彩色滤光器106设置在百叶窗设备中的其它层后面,可以产生不同的美观的或光学效应。 However, those skilled in the art will appreciate that, by the color filter 106 disposed behind the shutter device in the other layers, can produce different aesthetic or optical effects. 例如,通过将彩色滤光器106放置在百叶窗设备的内表面上,当百叶窗设备处于热态或100%吸收态时,对于外部观察者,颜色可以是不明显的。 For example, by the color filter 106 is placed on the inner surface of the shutter device, when the shutter device is in a hot state or 100% absorption, for an external observer, the color may not be apparent.

[0070] 使用彩色滤光器可降低穿过冷态或50%吸收态下的百叶窗设备透射的光和辐射能的量。 [0070] using a color filter amount transmitted through the shutter device or cold 50% absorption into light and radiant energy may be reduced. 然而,该布置在美观、关键波长抑制或热态吸收性比冷态透明度更重要的情况下可以是有利的。 However, this arrangement in the case of appearance, critical wavelength or inhibit the thermal state of the absorbent is more important than the cold transparency may be advantageous.

[0071] 可替换地,百叶窗设备可使用一个或更多的有色偏振器(即,不吸收或反射整个可见光谱的偏振器)而不是附加彩色滤光器层来取代吸收性偏振器中的一个。 [0071] Alternatively, the shutter device may use one or more colored polarizers (i.e., does not absorb or reflect the entire visible spectrum polarizer) instead of an additional color filter layer instead of an absorptive polarizers . 一个示范性有色偏振器可以是在热态或吸收态下产生绿色的Nitto Denko G1220DUN偏振膜。 One exemplary colored polarizer may be a polarizing film produced Nitto Denko G1220DUN in the green state or absorption into heat.

[0072] 图5是TSAOS设备的另外的实施例的示意性图示,其中,利用操作一个或更多的致动器107的电驱动控制系统108补充了热致去偏器102。 [0072] FIG. 5 is a schematic illustration of another embodiment of TSAOS device, wherein, by the operation of one or more electric drive control system 108 of the actuator 107 supplemented thermotropic depolarizer 102.

[0073] 致动器107的示范形式可以是透明的传导材料(例如氧化锡或铟锡氧化物(ITO))的薄层,该材料可用作电阻加热器,从而将电能作为热散失,以便提高热致去偏器102的温度。 [0073] The exemplary form of the actuator 107 may be a transparent conductive material (such as tin oxide or indium tin oxide (the ITO)) in a thin layer, the material can be used as a resistive heater, whereby electrical energy as heat loss to increasing the temperature to 102 thermotropic polarizer. 致动器107的另一示范形式是在施加电压时膨胀或收缩的压电材料,因此使热致去偏器102的体积收缩或膨胀,从而激励或抑制某些相变或热膨胀和缩小效应。 Another exemplary form of the actuator 107 is expanded or contracted when a voltage is applied to the piezoelectric material, so that the thermotropic depolarizer 102 volume expansion or shrinkage, thereby exciting or suppressing certain phase change or thermal expansion effects in and out. 本领域技术人员可以理解,其它类型致动器可用来影响去偏器102的热致性能或使热致性能偏向,而不背离本发明的精神。 Those skilled in the art will be appreciated that other types of actuators may be used to affect the performance thermotropic depolarizer 102 is biased or thermotropic properties, without departing from the spirit of the invention.

[0074] 控制系统108可包括温度传感器、电源和控制器硬件。 [0074] Control system 108 may include a temperature sensor, a power supply and controller hardware. 控制系统108的示范形式可以是包括热电偶的恒温器和LCD控制器,该热电偶连接到可编程微型控制器并由小型电池或光点电池供电。 Exemplary form of the control system 108 may be a LCD and a thermocouple temperature controller, thermocouple connected to a programmable microcontroller by a small battery or battery powered light spot. 在被感测的温度上升到高于阈值或降低到低于阈值时,控制系统可向致动器(或多个致动器)107施加AC或DC电压,以使热致去偏器的偏振性质可改变(例如,通过强制或激励液晶分子重新定向)。 In the sensed temperature rises above a threshold value or falls below a threshold value, the control system may be applied AC or DC voltage to the actuator (or multiple actuators) 107, such that the thermotropic depolarizer polarization properties may be changed (e.g., by forcing or driving the liquid crystal molecules reorient). 该实施例的操作和使用与在图1和图2中示出的实施例的操作和使用在其它方面相似。 Operation and use of the operation and use embodiments Example Example in FIG. 1 and FIG. 2 shows similar in other respects.

[0075] 图6是TSAOS设备的附加实施例的示意性图示,其中,热致去偏器102被去除,并且吸收性偏振器101'和103'中的一个或两个是热致变的。 [0075] FIG. 6 is a schematic illustration of an additional embodiment TSAOS device, wherein the thermotropic depolarizer 102 is removed, and one or two absorptive polarizers 101 'and 103' are thermotropic . 如此设计热致吸收性偏振器101'和103',以使它们可在热态下正常偏振,并可在冷态下最低程度偏振或不偏振。 Designed such thermotropic absorptive polarizers 101 'and 103', so that they can be polarized normal hot state, and a minimum degree of polarization of unpolarized or in the cold state. 在一个示范形式中,这些偏振器由吸收性“记忆合金”纳米杆组成,该纳米杆在热态下首尾相连排列,从而形成吸收性偏振器,并在冷态下竖直排列,从而形成不偏振的、最低程度吸收性的结构。 In one exemplary form, the polarizer is an absorbent "Memory Alloys" nano-rods, nano-rods which are arranged end to end in the hot state, to thereby form an absorbent polarizer, arranged vertically and in the cold state, so as not to form polarization, minimally absorbent structure. 可替换地,热致偏振器可以是液晶偏振器。 Alternatively, the polarizer may be a thermotropic liquid crystal polarizer. 因此,在冷态下,进入百叶窗的未偏振光可遇到非偏振态下的外部偏振器101',并且光可不受它显著影响,然后光可遇到非偏振态下的内部热致吸收性偏振器103',并且光也可不受内部热致吸收性偏振器103'显著影响。 Thus, in the cold state, unpolarized light entering the blind can be encountered under non external polarizer polarization state 101 ', and the light which can not significantly affected, then light may encounter the internal heat under non-absorptive polarization state a polarizer 103 ', and the light from the interior may be thermotropic absorptive polarizer 103' significant effect. 因此,除了与穿过透明衬底和非偏振态下的热致吸收性偏振器101'与103'的透射有关的一些微量吸收、反射和散射,基本上100%的入射光可穿过百叶窗透射。 Thus, except for some trace associated with the transmission through the transparent substrate under heat and a non-polarization absorptive polarizer 101 'and 103' absorption, reflection and scattering, substantially 100% transmission of the incident light may pass through the louver .

[0076] 图7是图6的实施例在热态下的示意性图示。 [0076] FIG. 7 is a diagram of Example 6 schematically illustrates in the hot state. 在此情况下,热致吸收性偏振器101'和103'两者都处于它们的全偏振配置,它们之间没有去偏器。 In this case, thermotropic absorptive polarizer 101 'and 103' are both in their full polarization configuration, there is no depolarizer therebetween. 因此,在未偏振光遇到外部热致吸收性偏振器101'时,多达50%的光可被吸收,与其它实施例相同。 Accordingly, when the unpolarized light encounters the external heat absorptive polarizers 101 ', up to 50% of the light may be absorbed, the same as in the other embodiments. 经过的光具有相反极性,并因此多达100%的经过的光可由内部热致吸收性偏振器103'吸收。 Passing light having opposite polarity, and thus up to 100% of the light passing by the internal thermotropic absorptive polarizer 103 'absorption. 因此,百叶窗在冷态下透射性可高达100%,并且在热态下的百叶窗的吸收性可高达100%。 Accordingly, the louver in the cold state up to 100% transmittance, and the absorbent shutter at up to 100% hot state. 与在其它实施例中相同,该理想反射可在两个热致吸收性偏振器101'和103'以分开近90度定向时发生。 As in other embodiments, the reflection may occur when over two thermotropic absorptive polarizers 101 'and 103' are oriented 90 degrees apart near. 在热态下透射和反射的量可通过使两个热致吸收性偏振器101'和103'错位(misalign)来调整,并且在冷态下透射和吸收的量可通过在两个热致吸收性偏振器101'和103'之间 The amount of transmission and reflection in the hot state may be adjusted by moving the two thermotropic absorptive polarizers 101 'and 103' offset (misalign), and the transmission and absorption quantity in the cold state can be induced by absorption of heat in two between the polarizer 101 'and 103'

放置去偏器来调整。 Depolarizer placed adjusted.

[0077] 图8是在热态和冷态下的示范性热致吸收性偏振器101的示意性图示。 [0077] FIG. 8 is a schematic illustration of actuator 101 absorptive polarizers in the exemplary heat in hot and cold. 在该示范性实施例中,偏振器101是可由平行元件109构成的吸收性偏振器。 In the exemplary embodiment, the polarizer 101 is parallel elements 109 may be formed of absorptive polarizer. 在该实施例中的偏振器是具有由区段(segment) 110构成的元件109的MEMS (微机电系统)设备,该区段110由可根据温度改变物理形状的吸收性热致材料制成。 In this example embodiment is a polarizer, the segment 110 is made of section (segment) MEMS 110 109 constituting the element (MEMS) devices can be caused by a temperature change material in accordance with the physical shape of the absorbent heat. 这样的材料的实例可包括但不限于形状记忆合金,例如铜-铝-镍合金。 Examples of such materials may include but are not limited to shape memory alloys such as copper - aluminum - nickel alloys. 在该示范性实施例中,区段110可被形成为使得它们在高温下平放,并在低温下从表面上直立。 Embodiment, the segments 110 may be formed in the exemplary embodiment is such that they lie at an elevated temperature, and upstanding from the upper surface at a low temperature. 因此,在温度高于某个阈值温度时,单独的区段110可充分平放,从而相互进行物理接触,并可形成连续的吸收性偏振器109。 Thus, when the temperature is above a certain threshold temperature, the individual segments 110 may be sufficiently flat, so that physical contact with each other, and forming a continuous absorbing polarizer 109. 然而,可以理解,其它形式的热致吸收性偏振器也是可能的,包括由液晶或纳米工程化的光学和光子材料或所谓“超材料(metamaterial) ”构成的版本,而且这些或其它形式的热致吸收性偏振器可用来取代图8中示出的设计,而不改变该实施方式的基本性质、意图或机能。 However, it will be appreciated that other forms of thermotropic absorptive polarizers are possible, including versions made of liquid crystal or nano-engineered optical and photonic materials or so-called "super-materials (Metamaterial)", and these or other forms of heat absorptive polarizer can be used instead of the design shown in FIG. 8, without changing the basic nature of this embodiment, or intended function.

[0078] 图9是TSAOS设备的另一实施例的示意性图示,其中,外部吸收性偏振器被“极性旋转”偏振器101替代。 [0078] FIG. 9 is a schematic illustration of another embodiment of TSAOS device, wherein the outer absorptive polarizer 101 is alternatively "polar rotation" polarizer. 到目前为止,因为吸收性偏振器吸收相反极性的光而反射性偏振器反射相反极性的光,所以极性旋转偏振器可将相反极性的光转变为极性一致的光。 So far, since the absorptive polarizer absorbing light of opposite polarity reflective polarizer opposite to the polarity of the reflected light, so that polarity-rotating polarizer may be opposite to the polarity of light into uniform light polarity. 因此,偏振器101透射性可高达100%,并且离开它的所有的光都具有相同极性。 Thus, the polarizer 101 may be up to 100% transmittance, and leaves all its light have the same polarity. 在图9中,极性一致的入射光到达外部偏振器101并且穿过偏振器101透射。 In FIG. 9, the same polarity of the incident light reaches the external through the polarizer 101 and the polarizer 101 is transmitted. 同样在图9中,相反极性的光到达外部偏振器101并被“旋转”以使它的极性与外部极性旋转偏振器101的极性一致。 Also in FIG. 9, the opposite polarity to the external light polarizer 101 and "spin" so that its external polar polarity-rotating polarizer 101 having identical polarity.

[0079] 图9示出在冷态下的实施例的操作,其中,偏振光进入冷的、有序状态(例如,扭曲向列态)下的去偏器102,因此,去偏器102可操作以使所有经过它的光的极性旋转,从而使光的极性与内部吸收性偏振器或检偏镜103的极性一致。 [0079] Figure 9 illustrates operation of the embodiment in a cold state, wherein the polarized light enters the cold, ordered state (e.g., a twisted nematic mode) under the depolarizer 102, therefore, may depolarizer 102 operation so that all its light through rotation of the polarity, the polarity of the light so that the internal absorptive polarizer 103 or the analyzer consistent polarity. 内部吸收性偏振器103可以是与前述其它实施例中的吸收性偏振器相同的标准吸收性偏振器。 Inner absorptive polarizer 103 may be the same as the other embodiments of the absorbing polarizer standard absorptive polarizer. 由于被去偏振的光的极性与内部吸收性偏振器103的极性一致,所以它可穿过偏振器103透射。 Since the same polarity to the polarity of the polarization of the light inside the absorptive polarizer 103, so that it can pass through the polarizer 103 is transmitted. 因此,在该实施例中,TSAOS设备在冷态下的透射性可达100%。 Thus, in this embodiment, the transmissive TSAOS device in the cold state up to 100%. 在热态下,去偏器102可变得无序(即,液体或各向同性态)并且不可影响经过它的光的极性。 In the hot state, the depolarizer 102 may become disordered (i.e., liquid or isotropic state) and the light passing through it can not influence the polarity. 因此,由于光可具有与内部吸收性偏振器103的极性相反的极性,所以多达100%的光可被吸收。 Accordingly, since the light may have a polarity of the inner absorptive polarizer 103 opposite to, up to 100% so that light may be absorbed. 因此,TSAOS设备在热态下的吸收性可达100%。 Thus, TSAOS the absorbent device in the hot state up to 100%.

[0080] 图10是极性旋转偏振器设备的示范形式的示例性图示,包括线栅偏振器111、反射镜112和去偏器113。 [0080] FIG. 10 is an exemplary illustration of an exemplary form of a polarity-rotating polarizer device, including a wire grid polarizer 111, a mirror 112 and the depolarizer 113. 在极性一致的光到达线栅偏振器111时,光可穿过线栅偏振器111透射。 When light reaches a consistent polarity of the wire grid polarizer 111, light may pass through the wire grid polarizer 111 is transmitted. 然而,在极性相反的光到达线栅偏振器111时,光可以成45度角反射到反射镜112,该反射镜112也可用45度角反射光,以使光可以再次在它原来方向上运动。 However, the light reaching the wire grid polarizer 111, the light may be reflected at 45 degrees to the mirror 112, the mirror 112 may also be a 45 degree angle of the reflected light, so that light may polarity opposite to its original direction again in movement. 此时,被反射的光可经过永久去偏器(也称作波块或波片),该永久去偏器使得光的极性旋转特定量(通常为90度)。 At this time, it reflected light may pass through the permanent depolarizer (also referred to as a block or a wave plate), such that the polarity of the permanent depolarizer light rotates by a certain amount (typically 90 degrees). 因此,被反射的光的极性现在可与透射光的极性一致。 Thus, the polarity of the reflected light can now be consistent with the polarity of the transmitted light. 所以,极性旋转偏振器可使得多达100%的到达它的光透射,而且确保所有的光可具有相同极性。 Therefore, polarity-rotating polarizer may be such that it reaches up to 100% light transmission, but also ensures that all the light may have the same polarity.

[0081] 应该认识到,光学元件的多种其它布置可实现相同效应,而且也可发现其它类型的极性旋转偏振器,包括基于纳米结构化的光学或光子材料的偏振器材料,所谓“超材料”,以及根据不同原理运行的其它材料。 [0081] It should be appreciated that other arrangements of multiple optical elements to achieve the same effect, but can also be found in other types of polarity-rotating polarizer comprising a polarization-based filter material nanostructured optical or photonic material, so-called "super material ", as well as other materials that operate according to different principles. 然而,本实施的基本机能、意图和性能不受所采用的极性旋转偏振器的精确性质影响。 However, the basic function of the present embodiment, is intended to influence the precise nature and properties are not employed polarity-rotating polarizer.

[0082] 图11是另一类型的吸收性偏振器(光电偏振器)的示意性图示,其中,杆状吸收性元件109已被光电条带所取代。 [0082] FIG. 11 is another type of absorptive polarizer (polarizer photo) is a schematic illustration, wherein the rod-like absorbent member 109 has been replaced by the photo strip. 在一个实施例中,这些条带109可以是Shottky型二极管,该Shottky型二极管通过低带隙半导体(例如锗)薄膜位于高带隙半导体(例如硅)薄膜顶部上而构成。 In one embodiment, these strips 109 may be a Shottky diode, the Shottky diode via a low band gap semiconductor (e.g., Ge) film in the high band gap semiconductor (e.g., silicon) on top of the thin film configuration. 然而,其它光电材料或设备也可被替换,且基本上不改变TSAOS设备的该实施例的性质和机能。 However, other materials or optoelectronic device may also be replaced, and does not substantially change the properties and functions TSAOS device according to this embodiment. 在该布置中,尽管光电条带109可吸收(例如,以热的形式)达到它的具有相反极性的光的大部分,但该光的大部分也可以电位(电势)的形式被吸收,可收集该电位(电势)以便形成电流。 In this arrangement, although the strap 109 may photoelectric absorption (e.g., in the form of heat) to achieve most of its light in the opposite polarity, but most of the light can be in the form of the potential (potential) is absorbed, this potential can be collected (potential) to form a current. 光电设备的设计和功能在现有技术中已经得到良好的描述并且不需要在此进一步详述。 Design and function of optoelectronic devices in the prior art has been well described and need not be further detailed herein.

[0083] 然而,应该理解,本实施方式中可采用一个或多个光电偏振器,以使由一个或多个偏振器阻挡的光的部分可通过电能形式被利用。 [0083] However, it should be understood that the present embodiment may employ one or more photo polarizers, so that a portion of the light by one or more polarizers may be utilized by a barrier in the form of electric energy. 这可在百叶窗的常规热致吸收性行为之外发生。 This may occur in a conventional thermally-induced absorption behavior than blind.

[0084] TSAOS设备可以是被动的和自调节的(不需要外部信号或用户输入以进行操作),并因此可认为是“智能材料”。 [0084] TSAOS devices may be passive and self-adjusting (no user input or an external signal to operate), and thus may be considered a "smart materials." TSAOS设备也可被理解为近固态光开关。 TSAOS device may also be understood as a near solid state light switch. 在一些实施方式中,除液晶分子薄膜外,开关可在除光子和电子之外不含有移动部件。 In some embodiments, the film in addition to the liquid crystal molecules, the switch may not contain moving parts other than the photons and electrons. TSAOS设备可基于温度、经过它的光和辐射能的量来进行调节。 TSAOS device may be based on temperature, after which the amount of radiant energy of light to be adjusted. 因此该百叶窗可用于通过控制太阳能或其它入射光能的反射和吸收来帮助调节建筑物、车辆和其它结构的内部温度。 Thus by controlling the shutter may be used to reflect incident solar energy or other energy absorption and to help adjust the internal temperature of the buildings, vehicles and other structures.

[0085] TSAOS设备可具有多种配置。 [0085] TSAOS device may have a variety of configurations. 例如,TSAOS设备可被配置成透射和吸收漫射的可见光,并且它可用作半透明建筑物材料(例如玻璃砖、调光玻璃(privacy glass)和织构聚合物(textured polymers))的美观的、能量调节的替换件。 For example, the TSAOS device may be configured to transmit and diffuse visible light absorption, and it can be used as a translucent building material (e.g. glass bricks, light control glass (privacy glass) and texture polymer (textured polymers)) of the aesthetic , replacement of energy regulation. 可替换地,TSAOS设备可被配置成透射和吸收稍有散射的平行可见光。 Alternatively, TSAOS device may be configured to transmit and absorb little visible light scattering parallel. 在此情况下,该设备可用作透明建筑物材料(例如玻璃或聚合物窗户)的美观的、能量调节的替换件。 In this case, the apparatus may be used as a transparent beautiful building material (e.g., window glass or polymer), the replacement of energy regulation. 进一步地,TSAOS设备可被配置成在可见频谱中示出反射、吸收或透射峰,并可用作彩色玻璃(stained glass)、有色窗户(tintedwindows)或窗户贴花(appliqu6)和涂层,或人造彩色光源的能量调节的替换件。 Further, the TSAOS device may be configured in the visible spectrum shown reflection, absorption or transmission peaks, and can be used as colored glass (stained glass), the colored windows (tintedwindows) or window decals (appliqu6) and the coating, or artificial adjusting the energy of the light source color replacement. TSAOS设备的物理例示可以是厚或薄、坚固或薄弱、坚硬或柔软、由单片构成或由独立的部件构成,这些因素不以任何显著方式改变设备的运行。 Physical embodiment shown TSAOS device may be thick or thin, weak or strong, rigid or flexible, or is made of a single piece constituted by independent members, these factors do not change the operation of the equipment in any significant manner.

[0086] 另外,TSAOS设备的性能可通过提高或降低它的导热性和/或热容量以改善它的冷态光透射、吸收或反射来增强。 [0086] Further, the performance may be TSAOS device by increasing or decreasing its thermal conductivity and / or thermal capacity to improve its cold state light transmission, absorption or reflection enhanced. 此外,通过调节一个或两个偏振层的结构(例如,通过使偏振材料的条带或斑点与透明材料交替)来提高TSAOS设备的在冷态和热态下的透明度。 Further, by adjusting one or both of the polarizing layer structure (e.g., by tape or a strip of polarizing material with a transparent material are alternately spots) to increase transparency TSAOS device at the cold and hot. 另外,在热态下可通过调节偏振器相对于彼此的定向(即,在热态下角度小于90度会产生低于100%的吸收)来提高TSAOS设备的透明度,但是这样不能提高冷态下的透明度。 Further, in the hot state with respect to each other by adjusting the orientation of the polarizer (i.e., in the hot state under an angle less than 90 degrees will have absorbed less than 100%) to improve the transparency TSAOS device, but this does not improve the cold state, transparency. 在冷态下可通过调整由去偏器提供的偏振光的旋转来提高或降低TSAOS设备的透明度。 In the cold state can be increased or decreased by adjusting the transparency of the TSAOS device provided by the polarization rotating depolarizer. 也可通过附加可选特征而为某些应用增强TSAOS设备的功能,该附加可选特征例如抗反射涂层、半反镜(部分反射镜,partialmirror)、低发射率涂层、聚光镜片(concentratinglenses)、空隙或真空隙、相变材料、半透明绝热体,其包括但不限于泡沫玻璃和硅土气凝胶(silica aerogel)或其任意组合。 May also be enhanced by some additional optional features for the application function TSAOS device, additional optional features such as the anti-reflective coating, a half mirror (partial reflecting mirror, partialmirror), low-emissivity coating, a condenser lens (concentratinglenses ), true void or voids, the phase change material, translucent insulation, including but not limited to foam glass and silica airgel (silica aerogel), or any combination thereof.

[0087] 各种偏振器类型(包括但不限于功能随温度改变的拉伸的聚合物偏振器、液晶偏振器、镜面反射(specular)吸收性偏振器、散射吸收性偏振器、热致偏振器,以及极性旋转偏振器)可用任意数量的不同布置组合,从而实现与本申请中描述的效应相似的效应,而不从根本上偏离本发明的精神。 [0087] The polarizers of various types (including but not limited to functional changes with temperature stretched polymer polarizers, a liquid crystal polarizer, specular reflection (Specular) absorptive polarizer, a scattering absorptive polarizer, the polarizer thermotropic and a polarity-rotating polarizer) a combination of any number of different arrangements are available to achieve a similar effect to the effect described in the present application, without departing from the spirit of the present invention is fundamentally. 例如,吸收性偏振器可被选择以使每个偏振器都具有不同的偏振性质(例如,偏振性质可以是相反的,如在不同频率下的镜面反射对漫射,或反射性对吸收性)。 For example, absorptive polarizers may be selected such that each polarizer having different polarization properties (e.g., polarization properties may be reversed, such as specular reflection at different frequencies for diffusing absorbent or reflective) .

[0088] 尽管关于TSAOS设备的能量输送的最大控制可在吸收的波长的范围尽可能大的时候发生,但彩色滤光器层的添加可为美观或其它原因而改变经过TSAOS设备的光的透射频谱(即,颜色)。 [0088] Although control on the maximum energy delivery device TSAOS may occur in the wavelength range of the absorption time as large as possible, but the color filter layer is added for aesthetic or other reasons may be varied through the light transmission device TSAOS spectrum (ie, color). 另外,通过添加一个或多个带阻滤光器从而反射特定波长的光,可以向TSAOS设备的表面添加对该设备效率影响最小的反射性“颜色”。 Further, by adding one or more bandstop filters so that the reflected light of a particular wavelength, may be added to minimize the effect of the surface TSAOS device reflective "color" to the device efficiency. 获得的光学性质不与任意其它建筑物材料的光学性质密切相似。 The optical properties obtained does not closely resemble the optical properties of any other building materials. 为美观、热和光管理或其它原因,可以使用频谱选择性偏振器,该偏振器仅对特定范围(或多个范围)的波长进行操作,而且可以使用对于特定范围(或多个范围)或波长具有不同偏振效率和吸收性与反射性程度的偏振器。 For aesthetic, optical and thermal management or other reasons, the use of spectrum selective polarizer, which polarizer only a specific range (or ranges) of operating wavelengths, and can be used for a particular wavelength or range (or ranges) an absorbent having a different polarization efficiency and the degree of the reflective polarizer.

[0089] 尽管TSAOS设备的材料和结构可以是刚性的,但为了使TSAOS设备执行在此描述的功能不需要刚性。 [0089] While the materials and structures TSAOS device may be rigid, but in order to TSAOS device to perform the functions described herein need not be rigid. 此外,尽管TSAOS设备的各种组件以附加或直接物理接触的形式示出或描述,但是,如果组件是邻接但物理分离的,TSAOS设备也可以操作。 In addition, although the various components in the form of additional TSAOS device in direct physical contact or shown or described, however, if the component is adjacent to, but physically separate, may operate TSAOS device. 因此,尽管TSAOS设备可实施为固体(例如,窗户、玻璃块、拱肩(spandrel)或可移动面板)或固体组(例如,附于光学工作台的多个部件),该设备也可实施为柔性物体,例如可应用于玻璃窗、拱肩或玻璃块建筑物材料的帐篷材料、覆盖物(blanket)、窗帘或贴花膜。 Thus, although the TSAOS device may be implemented as a solid (e.g., windows, glass blocks, spandrel (spandrel) or movable panel) or the solid component (e.g., a plurality of members attached to the optical bench), the device can also be implemented as flexible object, for example, can be applied to windows, tent materials, or spandrel glass block for building materials, the covering (Blanket), curtains or decal.

[0090] 另外,多种可替换材料可用来制造TSAOS设备,包括金属、陶瓷、半导体、玻璃、聚合物、蜡、盐、纳米结构化和微米结构化的光子材料、超材料、液晶、冰、液体,以及蒸汽。 [0090] Further, many alternative materials may be used for producing TSAOS device, including metals, ceramics, semiconductors, glass, polymers, waxes, salts, nano-structured and structured microns photonic materials, metamaterials, liquid crystal, ice, liquid, and vapor. 该设备可包括被设计成增强它的绝热性质的特征,该特征包括但不限于例如空隙、真空隙、泡沫、珠子、纤维垫或气凝胶。 The apparatus may include features designed to enhance its thermal insulating properties, which include but not limited to features such as voids, the voids true, foam, beads, fiber mat or an airgel. TSAOS设备也可包括被设计成改善热感测、响应和转换温度精确性能力的特征,例如传导粘合剂、具有大或小的热质量的材料,以及相变材料。 TSAOS device may also be designed to include improved thermal sensing, the accuracy of temperature characteristic response and the ability to convert, for example a conductive adhesive, having a large or small thermal mass of the material, and phase change material. 另外,TSAOS设备可包括被设计成改善将热向外传导的速率的特征,并且TSAOS设备可足够厚和刚性,从而用作车辆或建筑物墙体的结构组件。 Further, the device may comprise TSAOS designed to improve the rate of heat transfer out of the features and TSAOS device can sufficiently rigid and thick, such as a structural component of the vehicle or a building wall. TSAOS设备可被包裹在复曲面周围或在复曲面上形成,并可用颜色增强美观,或该设备可以伪装以便与常规建筑物材料更相似。 TSAOS device can be wrapped or formed around a toric surface on the complex, and can be used to enhance the color appearance, or the device can be disguised to be more similar to conventional building materials. 热变色颜料可添加到某些表面上,从而在其炎热或寒冷时进行显示。 Thermochromic pigment may be added to certain surfaces, for display thereon during hot or cold.

[0091] 添加剂(例如手征性液晶)可包括在热致去偏器中,从而设置偏振光的旋转的优选方向。 [0091] Additives (e.g., chiral liquid crystal) may be included in the thermotropic depolarizer, thereby setting the preferred direction of rotation of polarized light. 这可提高状态之间转换的速度和光学性质。 This can improve the speed and the state transitions between the optical properties. 溶剂(例如,Merck的液晶溶剂ZLI1132)可用作基础,从而形成液晶混合物。 Solvents (e.g., Merck's liquid crystal ZLI 1132 solvent) used as the base, thereby forming the liquid crystal mixture. 另外,例如,添加剂可包括在去偏器中,从而改善转换的温度稳定性,或降低去偏器对特定波长或波长范围的光或能量的敏感性,以降低对由UV光引起的分解(breakdown)的化学敏感性,从而防止某些波长的光被吸收和防止光转化为热,或减轻由于其它部件的分解引起的转换温度的变化。 Further, for example, the additive may be included in the depolarizer, thereby improving the temperature stability of the converter or to reduce the sensitivity of the depolarizer specific wavelength or range of wavelengths of light or energy to reduce decomposition caused by UV light (the Breakdown) chemosensitivity to prevent certain wavelengths of light are absorbed light into heat and to prevent, or reduce the transition temperature due to decomposition of the other components due to a change. 例如,可引入己烷和三氯甲烷,以调整液晶的凝固温度或降低粘度。 E.g., hexane and chloroform may be introduced to adjust the solidification temperature or decreasing the viscosity of the liquid crystal. 机械增强可添加到重新定向部件,使它们朝向或远离入射光,或改变它们的波长响应或视厚度。 Mechanical reinforcement member may be added to redirect the incident light toward or away from them, or to change their wavelength response or apparent thickness.

[0092] 各层的精确布置可改变并且(取决于所选择的材料和波长)不同的层可组合成单个层、物体、设备或材料,而不改变TSAOS设备的基本结构和功能。 [0092] The precise arrangement of the layers may vary and (depending on the material and the selected wavelength) different layers may be combined into a single layer, objects, devices, or materials, without altering the basic structure and function of TSAOS device. 尽管上面的描述含有许多特性,但这些不应解释为限制本发明的范畴,而应解释为仅提供本发明的某些实施例的说明。 While the above description contains many features, but these should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention, but should be construed to illustrate only certain embodiments of the present invention. 存在制作不同材料的并在不同配置下的TSAOS设备的各种可能。 The presence of a variety of different materials and made in different configurations TSAOS device is possible. 例如,结构可以是可膨胀的或可以是针对水下或在外层空间(而不是在标准大气(例如,大气压力))的使用最优化的。 For example, the structure may be expandable, or may be for underwater or outer space (rather than in a standard atmosphere (e.g., atmospheric pressure)) using optimized.

[0093] 另外,TSAOS设备可加入一个或多个附加偏振器(无论是相互平行或旋转以相互成某个角度,或者平行于原有两个偏振器或旋转与之成某个角度,),以便在TSAOS设备内的各位置处更改光的偏振态。 [0093] Further, the TSAOS device may add one or more additional polarizers (either parallel or rotated at an angle to each other, or parallel to the existing two rotating polarizer or at an angle with each other), to change the light at each position in the polarization state TSAOS device. 偏振角和液晶分子取向的众多组合可用来产生不同的光学效应(例如,冷时的吸收性代替热时的吸收性,可透射态下的不同颜色,等等)。 Numerous combinations of the polarization angle and orientation of the liquid crystal molecules can be used to produce different optical effects (e.g., the absorbent when the absorbent in place of heat during the cold, a different color for the transmissive state, etc.). 去偏器可采用向列、扭曲向列、近晶、固体/晶体、盘状(discotic)、手征性,以及其它物理/分子态的多种不同的组合,以及可替换液晶技术(例如,聚合物稳定的胆固醇、聚合物向列、以及具有或不具有电场的宾主单元(guest-host cell)、有织纹表面(textured surface)、内部引导线、或使部件分子重定向的其它工具。 Depolarizer can be nematic, twisted nematic, smectic, solid / crystals, disc-shaped (the discotic), chiral, and many different combinations of other physical / molecule state, and liquid crystal technology alternative (e.g., cholesterol stable polymer, the polymer nematic and guest-host cell with or without an electric field (guest-host cell), textured surfaces (textured surface), inner guide wire, or to other molecules redirected tool part.

[0094] 可以制造在冷态下漫射并在热态下镜面反射的去偏器(以及反向的),该去偏器在一个或两个状态下为乳白色,与温度改变不同地改变透射光和吸收光的色平衡,并且在处于热态和冷态时相似地具有不同的色平衡。 [0094] may be manufactured as a milky white, with the temperature changes variously changes in one or two states depolarizer hot state of specular reflection (and reverse), go polarizer and cold state under diffuse transmittance color balance of light and absorbing light, and the like have different color balance when in the hot and cold. 另外,可以使用对于光的各种偏振(例如,圆形的、椭圆形的和直线的)中的任何偏振进行作用的偏振器。 Further, the polarizer may be used for any acts of the various polarization polarization of the light (e.g., circular, oval and a straight line) in the. 这样的实施例被明确要求作为本发明的一部分。 Such embodiments are explicitly requested as part of the invention.

[0095] 不影响本发明的核心原理的众多其它变更是存在的。 [0095] does not affect the core principles of the invention are numerous other changes are present. 例如,去偏器或一个或多个偏振器在性质上可以是机械的,根据温度变化而物理地旋转90度(或旋转一些其它量)。 For example, a depolarizer or more polarizers or may be mechanical in nature, according to the temperature change is physically rotated by 90 degrees (or some other amount of rotation). 可替换地,热致去偏器可被设计成使它的温度影响它操作的波长的范围,而不是(或另外地)影响它的去偏能力。 Alternatively, the thermotropic depolarizer may be designed such that its temperature affect its operation range of wavelengths, instead of (or in addition) to bias affects its ability. 例如,由具有非常高的热膨胀系数的材料制造的波块会具有该性质。 For example, a block made of a material wave having a very high coefficient of thermal expansion of the properties may have. 该设备中任意或全部的层可由掺杂的纳米结构化或微米结构化的材料构成,包括但不限于常规光子晶体。 The apparatus of any or all of the structured layer may be doped with nano- or micro-structured material, including but not limited to, conventional photonic crystals.

[0096] 将TSAOS设备用作热调节建筑物材料,可通过谨慎安置该设备来增强这种使用。 [0096] The thermal conditioning TSAOS device as building materials, such use may be enhanced by careful placement of the device. 例如,TSAOS设备可放置在屋子南面的屋檐下,以使设备在冬天处于全日照下,并且在夏天太阳在天空中较高位置时受屋檐遮蔽。 For example, the TSAOS device may be placed under the eaves of the house to the south, so that the device is in full sun in the winter and in the summer by the sun roof shielding high in the sky. 可替换地,TSAOS设备可用来取代传统天窗,或用作附加在普通玻璃窗或玻璃块上的嵌板或贴花。 Alternatively, the TSAOS sunroof apparatus may be used to replace the traditional, normal, or as attached to a glass window or a glass block panel or decal. 在一些情况下,也可需要在热吸收性材料或设备后面放置不透明的吸收能量材料,以使在冷(透明)态下的热能吸收最大化。 In some cases, it may be desirable energy absorbing opaque material disposed behind the heat absorbent material or device to enable the cold (transparent) state under heat maximize absorption. 在其它情况下,也可需要在热吸收性材料或设备后面放置反射材料,以使在冷(透明)态下的热能吸收最小化。 In other cases, the reflective material may need to be placed behind the heat absorbent material or device to enable the cold (transparent) state under heat absorption is minimized.

[0097] 尽管在此公开的TSAOS设备可用作建筑物材料,特别是用作暴露于日光的结构的外层(external skin),但它也可通过多种其它方式使用。 [0097] Although the apparatus disclosed herein may be used as a building material TSAOS particular structure is used as the outer layer exposed to sunlight (external skin), but it can also be used by a variety of other ways. 例如,热吸收性材料或设备可被结合到浴室门中,以使热水或蒸汽的存在导致该门变得不透明、漫射、半透明或遮护,确保使用者的隐私。 For example, the thermal absorbent material or device may be incorporated into the shower doors, so that the presence of hot water or steam to cause the door to become opaque, diffusive, translucent or shield, to ensure the privacy of users. 相似地,咖啡壶可由热吸收性材料制造,以使热咖啡在壶中的存在对于任何观察者是明显的。 Similarly, the coffee maker may be heat absorbent material, so that the heat present in the coffee pot for any apparent to the observer.

[0098] 另外,TSAOS设备可用来显示温度控制的图像。 [0098] Further, TSAOS image display apparatus may be used to control the temperature. 这样的图像(包括文本、线图、企业标识和单色照片)可通过以下方式来实现:以所需图像的形状布置热吸收性材料,或通过选择性改变在特定区域的热吸收性材料的温度响应,因此图像在特定温度下或在特定温度范围下显现,或通过操纵液晶定向层或其它分子定向过程以使在特定区域的材料的热吸收响应增强或减弱,从而形成图像,或通过基本上不改变图像的性质和它的基础技术的其它方法。 Such image (including text, charts, corporate logos and pictures in monochrome) can be achieved by: in the shape of a desired image disposed heat absorbent material, or by selectively varying the heat absorbing material in a specific region temperature response, the image or visualized under specific temperature range at a specific temperature, or by manipulating the liquid crystal alignment layer further molecular orientation processes or so in response to increase or decrease the heat absorbing material is a specific region, thereby forming an image, or by substantially the nature of the image without changing its basic methods and other techniques. 这样的图像可包括光学元件,例如反射镜、半透明反射镜(half-miiror)、光栅、栅格,以及fresnel透镜,以使热吸收性材料或设备在高温和低温下展示出明显不同的光学性质。 Such image may include an optical element such as a mirror, a half mirror (half-miiror), gratings, grids, and a fresnel lens, so that the heat absorbing material or optical devices exhibit significantly different at high and low temperatures nature.

[0099] 尽管已在此示出和描述若干示范性实施例,但应该理解,本发明不限于这些特定配置。 [0099] Although shown and described several embodiments in this exemplary embodiment, it is to be understood that the present invention is not limited to these specific configurations. 可选组件(例如抗反射涂层或膜、透镜、棱镜膜,以及直接感光偏振器)可添加或移动,从而适应特定应用或特定制造方法的需要,并且一些实施例的降级形式可通过去除或替换某些部件来产生。 Optional components (e.g., anti-reflective coating or film, a lens, a prism film, and a transparent light polarizer) may be added or moved to meet the needs of a particular application or a particular manufacturing method, and degraded forms of some embodiments can be obtained by removing or Alternatively certain components to produce. 尽管本发明的各种实施例已在上面通过某种程度的特性来描述,或根据一个或多个个别实施例来描述,但本领域技术人员可对公开的实施例做出多种修改,而不背离本发明的精神或范畴。 Although various embodiments of the present invention have been described above in some degree by the characteristics of, or to describe the embodiment according to one or more individual embodiments, those skilled in the art can make various modifications of the embodiments disclosed, but without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention.

[0100] 本申请意指上面描述中包含的和在附图中示出的全部内容仅被解释为说明特定实施例并且不是限制。 [0100] The present application means that the entire contents of the above description and the drawings included shown to be construed as merely illustrate particular embodiments and not limiting. 所有方向参考(例如邻近的、远端的、较高的、较低的、内部的、夕卜部的、向上的、向下的、左、右、侧面的、前、后、顶部的、底部的、上面的、下面的、竖直的、水平的、顺时针方向的,以及逆时针方向的)仅用来确定的目的,以辅助读者理解本发明,但是不形成限制,特别是对本发明的位置、取向或使用的限制。 All directional references (e.g. proximate and distal end, higher, lower, internal Bu Xi portion, up, down, left and right, sides, front, back, top, bottom , above, below, vertical, horizontal, clockwise, and) for determination purposes only counterclockwise, to aid the reader in understanding the invention, but not limiting form, in particular the position of the present invention. , orientation, or use of restriction. 连接参考(例如附接的、耦接的、连接的,以及接合的)应该被广泛意义地解释,并可包括在一系列元件之间具有中间部件和在元件之间具有相对运动,除非另外指出。 Connection references (e.g., attached, coupled, connected, and joined) should be broadly interpreted meaning and may include intermediate members between a series element and the relative movement between elements unless otherwise indicated . 同样,连接参考不需要暗指两个元件直接连接并处于相互固定关系。 Similarly, connection references do not need to imply that two elements are directly connected and in fixed relation to each other. 光的透射、吸收和反射的指定的百分比应理解为仅是说明性的而不能被当作限制性的。 The light transmission, absorption and reflection of the percentage designated be construed as merely illustrative and are not be regarded as limiting.

[0101] 此外,尽管已根据操作的特定仪器、配置、部件、系统和方法而描述了本发明,但阅读了本公开的本领域技术人员会认识到,如在此描述的,可对实施例和/或它们的操作做出某些变化或更改而不背离本发明的精神和范畴。 [0101] Further, despite According to a particular instrument operation, configuration, components, systems and methods described in the present invention, but the reading of the present disclosure to those skilled in the art will recognize that, as described herein, may be embodiments and / or their operation to make certain variations or changes without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. 在此公开的各种实施例、操作、部件和配置通常是示范性的而不限制范畴。 In the various embodiments disclosed herein, operations, components and configurations generally are exemplary and not to limit the scope. 因此,本发明的正确范畴由所附权利要求限定。 Thus, by the proper scope of the invention defined in the appended claims.

Claims (48)

  1. 1.一种用于调节光和辐射能的透射和吸收的热控可开关设备,包括: 至少两个吸收性偏振器;以及安装在所述两个吸收性偏振器之间的热致去偏器,其中在第一温度下,所述设备吸收第一百分比的入射辐射能,并使第二百分比的所述入射辐射能透射穿过所述设备; 在第二温度下,所述设备吸收第三百分比的所述入射辐射能,并使第四百分比的所述入射辐射能透射穿过所述设备。 1. A method for adjusting the light transmittance of radiant energy and thermal control device may switch the absorbent, comprising: at least two absorptive polarizers; and a heat is mounted between the two absorptive polarizers depolarizer , wherein at a first temperature, the first absorption apparatus percentage of the incident radiant energy, and a second percentage of the incident radiant energy transmitted through the apparatus; at a second temperature, the the absorption of the incident radiant energy of said third apparatus percent, and the fourth percentage of the incident radiant energy transmitted through the device.
  2. 2.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中,所述热致去偏器是低清亮点热致去偏器。 2. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the thermotropic depolarizer is a low clearing point thermotropic depolarizer.
  3. 3.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中, 所述热致去偏器在低于阈值温度时调节入射光的偏振; 在高于所述阈值温度时,多达100%的入射光被所述设备吸收;以及在低于所述阈值温度时,多达50%的入射光被所述设备吸收。 3. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the thermal regulation depolarizer polarization incident at less than the threshold temperature; at above the threshold temperature, up to 100% of incident light being said absorption device; and below the threshold temperature, up to 50% of incident light is absorbed by the device.
  4. 4.根据权利要求3所述的设备,其中,所述第一温度、所述第二温度和所述阈值温度在操作温度范围内。 4. The apparatus according to claim 3, wherein said first temperature, said second temperature and the threshold temperature within the operating temperature range.
  5. 5.根据权利要求4所述的设备,其中,所述操作温度范围是-30摄氏度至85摄氏度。 5. The apparatus as claimed in claim 4, wherein said operating temperature range is from -30 degrees Celsius to 85 degrees Celsius.
  6. 6.根据权利要求4所述的设备,其中,所述阈值温度使得所述热致去偏器从有序态转换为无序态。 6. The apparatus according to claim 4, wherein the threshold temperature such that the thermotropic depolarizer from an ordered state to the disordered state. · ·
  7. 7.根据权利要求6所述的设备,其中,所述阈值温度在所述操作温度范围内。 7. The apparatus according to claim 6, wherein the threshold temperature within said operating temperature range.
  8. 8.根据权利要求3所述的设备,其中,所述阈值温度是低清亮点。 8. The apparatus of claim 3, wherein the threshold temperature is low clearing point.
  9. 9.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中,所述吸收性偏振器中的至少一个相对于所述辐射能的偏振是频率选择性的。 9. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the absorptive polarizers with respect to at least one of the radiant energy frequency selective polarization.
  10. 10.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中,所述吸收性偏振器中的至少一个是漫射偏振器。 10. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the absorptive polarizers least one diffuse polarizers.
  11. 11.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中,所述吸收性偏振器中的至少一个是热致吸收性偏振器。 11. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the absorptive polarizers of at least one thermotropic absorptive polarizer.
  12. 12.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中,所述吸收性偏振器中的至少一个是光电吸收性偏振器。 12. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the absorptive polarizers least one photo absorptive polarizer.
  13. 13.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中,所述吸收性偏振器中的至少一个是极性旋转偏振器。 13. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the absorptive polarizers at least one polarity-rotating polarizer.
  14. 14.根据权利要求13所述的设备,其中, 在高于阈值温度时,所述设备仅透射0%的入射辐射能,以及在低于所述阈值温度时,所述设备透射多达100%的入射辐射能。 14. The apparatus according to claim 13, wherein, above a threshold temperature, the device transmits only 0% of the incident radiant energy, and below the threshold temperature, the transmitting device up to 100% the incident radiant energy.
  15. 15.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中,所述设备是薄且柔软的膜的形式。 15. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said device is a thin and flexible form of a film.
  16. 16.根据权利要求1所述的设备,进一步包括透明衬底,所述透明衬底支撑所述至少两个吸收性偏振器中的第一吸收性偏振器、所述至少两个吸收性偏振器中的第二吸收性偏振器、以及所述热致去偏器。 16. Apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising a transparent substrate, a transparent substrate supporting a first absorptive polarizer at least two absorptive polarizers of the at least two absorptive polarizers a second absorptive polarizer, and the thermotropic depolarizer.
  17. 17.根据权利要求16所述的设备,其中,所述透明衬底是刚性板。 17. Apparatus according to claim 16, wherein said substrate is a transparent rigid plate.
  18. 18.根据权利要求16所述的设备,其中,所述透明衬底进一步包含长通滤光器、短通滤光器或带通滤光器,并且仅对某些波长的辐射能是可透过的。 18. The apparatus according to claim 16, wherein the transparent substrate further comprises a long pass filter, short pass filter or a band pass filter, and only certain wavelengths of radiant energy permeable before.
  19. 19.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中,所述设备结合到构造材料中,以便调节进入在建筑物、车辆内的入射光的流动,并调节所述建筑物、车辆的内部温度。 19. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the device is incorporated into the construction material in the building in order to regulate the flow of incident light in the vehicle, and adjusting said building, the interior temperature of the vehicle.
  20. 20.根据权利要求19所述的设备,其中,所述构造材料是绝缘玻璃单元。 20. The apparatus according to claim 19, wherein the construction material is an insulating glass unit.
  21. 21.根据权利要求1所述的设备,进一步包括以下部件中的至少一个:外部反射器或半反镜、彩色滤光器、UV或有害辐射滤光器、透明衬底、用于提供绝热的填充的或中空的空间、抗反射涂层、传导或绝缘的粘合剂、相变材料和低发射率涂层或设备。 21. The apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising at least one of the following components: an external reflector or half mirror, a color filter, UV radiation or harmful filter, a transparent substrate, for providing thermal insulation or filled hollow space, antireflective coatings, conductive or insulating adhesive, the phase change material and the low-emissivity coating or device.
  22. 22.根据权利要求3所述的设备,其中,所述至少两个吸收性偏振器均限定了透明区域并允许未偏振辐射能透射穿过所述设备。 22. The apparatus according to claim 3, wherein the at least two absorptive polarizers are transparent region and allows defining unpolarized radiation transmitted through the device.
  23. 23.根据权利要求22所述的设备,进一步包括电致控制系统,以便在所述阈值温度下补充和致动所述热致去偏器。 23. The apparatus according to claim 22, further comprising an electrical actuator control system, in order to supplement and actuate the thermotropic depolarizer at the threshold temperature.
  24. 24.根据权利要求23所述的设备,其中,所述电致控制系统进一步包括: 控制器; 与所述控制器连接的电源;以及与所述控制器连接的温度传感器。 24. The apparatus according to claim 23, wherein said electrical actuator control system further comprising: a controller; a power source connected to the controller; and a temperature sensor connected to the controller.
  25. 25.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中,由所述设备调节的辐射能的波长范围包括可见光、红外线和紫外线的中的至少一种。 25. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the said wavelength range adjustment device comprises at least one radiant energy in the visible, infrared and ultraviolet.
  26. 26.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中,所述至少两个吸收性偏振器中的至少一个是频谱选择性偏振器。 26. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the at least two absorptive polarizers, at least one spectral selective polarizer. · ·
  27. 27.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中,所述至少两个吸收性偏振器中的第一吸收性偏振器和第二吸收性偏振器均具有不同的偏振效率、偏振响应中的至少一个,或者所述第一吸收性偏振器和所述第二吸收性偏振器在不同频率上。 27. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the at least two absorptive polarizers in the first absorbing polarizer and the second absorptive polarizer has a different polarization efficiency, in response to at least one of the polarization , or the first absorptive polarizer and the second absorptive polarizer on different frequencies.
  28. 28.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中,所述至少两个吸收性偏振器中的第一吸收性偏振器和第二吸收性偏振器中的每个在不同频率上均具有不同的偏振性质。 28. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the at least two absorptive polarizers in the first absorbing polarizer and the second absorptive polarizers each having a different polarization at different frequencies nature.
  29. 29.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中,所述至少两个吸收性偏振器中的第一吸收性偏振器和第二吸收性偏振器中的每个均包括多个偏振器的组合。 29. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein each of said at least two absorptive polarizers in the first absorbing polarizer and the second absorptive polarizer includes a combination of a plurality of the polarizer.
  30. 30.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中,所述热致去偏器包含液晶。 30. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the thermotropic depolarizer comprises a liquid crystal.
  31. 31.根据权利要求30所述的设备,其中,所述液晶进一步包含与所述液晶混合的添加剂,以影响所述液晶的光学性质中的至少一个,或影响所述液晶的物理状态之间的转换速度。 31. The apparatus according to claim 30, wherein said crystal further comprises an additive mixed with the liquid to affect the physical state of the optical properties between said at least one liquid crystal, or the influence of the liquid crystal conversion speed.
  32. 32.根据权利要求31所述的设备,其中,所述添加剂包含与所述液晶混合的第二类液晶。 32. The apparatus according to claim 31, wherein the additive comprises a second type of liquid mixed with the liquid crystal.
  33. 33.根据权利要求31所述的设备,其中,所述添加剂被选择成改进所述设备对环境状况的机能响应的稳定性。 33. The apparatus according to claim 31, wherein the additive is selected to improve the stability of the function in response to the environmental conditions of the device.
  34. 34.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中,所述热致去偏器基于所述热致去偏器的频率依赖性质被设计或选择,所述频率依赖性质与偏振光的旋转有关,从而影响所述设备的颜色、光,或能量透射、吸收和反射性质中的一个或更多。 34. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the thermotropic depolarizer based on the frequency-dependent properties of the thermotropic depolarizer is designed or selected, and the frequency-dependent properties related to the rotation of polarized light, whereby Effects of the device color, light, or energy transmission, absorption and reflection properties of one or more.
  35. 35.一种绝缘玻璃单元,包含: 第一玻璃板; 第二玻璃板;安置在所述第一玻璃板和所述第二玻璃板之间的第一偏振器,所述第一偏振器吸收多达50%的入射辐射能并透射未吸收的辐射能的大部分; 安置在所述第一玻璃板和所述第二玻璃板之间的第二偏振器;以及安置在所述第一偏振器和所述第二偏振器之间的热致去偏器,所述热致去偏器在低于阈值温度时调节入射光的偏振,其中在高于所述阈值温度时,多达100 %的入射光被所述绝缘玻璃单元吸收, 在低于所述阈值温度时,多达50%的入射光被所述绝缘玻璃单元吸收;以及当所述热致去偏器高于所述阈值温度时,所述第二偏振器吸收由所述第一偏振器透射的辐射能多达100 %,并在所述热致去偏器低于所述阈值温度时,所述第二偏振器透射由所述第一偏振器透射的辐射能多达100%。 35. An insulated glass unit, comprising: a first glass sheet; a second glass plate; a first polarizer disposed between the first glass sheet and the second glass plate, said first absorbing polarizer up to 50% of the incident radiant energy and transmits most of the radiant energy not absorbed; disposed between the first glass sheet and a second glass plate of the second polarizer; and disposed in said first polarization between the second polarizer and the thermotropic depolarizer, the thermotropic depolarizer while adjusting the incident polarization below a threshold temperature, which is higher than the threshold temperature, up to 100% incident light is absorbed in the insulating glass unit, at less than the threshold temperature, up to 50% of incident light absorbed by the insulating glass unit; and when the thermotropic depolarizer is above the threshold temperature when said second polarizer transmitting absorbed by the first polarizer radiation up to 100% and said thermotropic depolarizer is below the threshold temperature, transmitted by the second polarizer the first polarizer transmits radiant energy up to 100%.
  36. 36.一种用于调节入射辐射能的吸收的可开关百叶窗设备,包括: 第一热致吸收性偏振器;以及第二热致吸收性偏振器,其中, 在高于阈值温度时,低至0%的入射辐射能由所述设备透射; 在低于所述阈值温度时,多达50%的所述入射辐射能由所述设备透射,并且进一步其中, 在第一温度下,第一百分比的所述入射辐射能被所述设备吸收,并且第二百分比的所述入射辐射能透射穿过所述设备;以及在第二温度下,第三百分比的所述入射辐射能被所述设备吸收,并且第四百分比的所述入射辐射能透射穿过所述设备。 36. A method for regulating the absorption of the incident radiant energy can switch shutter device, comprising: a first thermotropic absorptive polarizer; a second and a thermotropic absorptive polarizer, wherein, above a threshold temperature, low 0% of the incident radiant energy transmitted by said apparatus; at less than the threshold temperature, up to 50% of the incident radiant energy from said transmission device, and further wherein, at a first temperature, one hundredth the incident radiation can be absorbed division ratio of the device, and the second percentage of the incident radiant energy transmitted through the device; and at a second temperature, a third percentage of the incident radiation the apparatus can be absorbed, and the fourth percentage of the incident radiant energy transmitted through the device.
  37. 37.一种用于调节入射辐射能的吸收和透射的方法,包括: 提供热控开关吸收性光学百叶窗(TSAOS)设备,所述热控开关吸收性光学百叶窗设备包括第一吸收性偏振器、第二吸收性偏振器、以及设置在所述第一吸收性偏振器和所述第二吸收性偏振器之间的热致去偏器,其中,所述第一吸收性偏振器和所述第二吸收性偏振器被定向成相互交叉; 在第一温度下,从所述TSAOS设备吸收第一百分比的所述辐射能,并穿过所述TSAOS设备透射第二百分比的所述辐射能;以及在第二温度下,从所述TSAOS设备吸收第三百分比的所述辐射能,并穿过所述TSAOS设备透射第四百分比的所述辐射能。 37. A method of transmission and absorption for adjusting the incident radiant energy, comprising: providing a thermally switched absorptive optical shutters (the TSAOS) apparatus, the heat switched absorptive optical shutter device comprises a first absorptive polarizer, a second absorptive polarizer, and disposed in thermal depolarizer between said first absorbing polarizer and the second absorptive polarizer, wherein the polarizer and said first absorbent two absorptive polarizers are oriented to cross each other; at a first temperature from the first absorption apparatus TSAOS percentage of the radiant energy, and through said second percentage transmission apparatus of the TSAOS radiation; and at a second temperature, from the percentage of the third TSAOS device radiant energy absorption, and transmission apparatus through said fourth TSAOS percent radiant energy.
  38. 38.根据权利要求37所述的方法,其中, 在所述第一温度高于阈值温度时,吸收第一百分比的所述辐射能的操作进一步包括利用所述第一偏振器和所述第二偏振器吸收多达100%的辐射能;以及在所述第二温度低于所述阈值温度时,所述方法进一步包括: 使得在所述第一偏振器和所述第二偏振器之间透射的所述辐射能的一部分被去偏振; 使多达50%的所述辐射能透射穿过所述TSAOS设备;以及吸收多达50%的所述辐射能。 38. The method according to claim 37, wherein, when the temperature is higher than a first threshold temperature, the radiant energy absorbed by the first operation further comprises using the percentage of the first polarizer and the the second polarizer absorb up to 100% of the radiant energy; and when the second temperature is lower than the threshold temperature, the method further comprising: in that the first polarizer and the second polarizer a portion of the radiant energy between the transmission depolarized; up to 50% of the radiant energy transmitted through the TSAOS device; and up to 50% of the absorption of radiant energy.
  39. 39.根据权利要求38所述的方法,进一步包括将与所述第二偏振器交叉的所述第一偏振器定向在非正交方向上,以增加所述入射辐射能的透射。 39. The method according to claim 38, further comprising crossing said second polarizer and said first polarizer is oriented at a non-orthogonal direction as to increase the transmittance of the incident radiant energy.
  40. 40.一种用于调节辐射能的吸收和透射的方法,包括: 将第一吸收性热致偏振器定向成与第二吸收性热致偏振器交叉; 在高于阈值温度时,用所述第一热致偏振器和第二热致偏振器吸收多达100%的入射福射能;以及在低于所述阈值温度时,透射多达100 %的所述入射辐射能,所述第一热致偏振器和第二热致偏振器在低于所述阈值温度时停止偏振。 40. A method for absorbing and adjusting the transmission of radiant energy, comprising: a first absorptive polarizer oriented thermotropic and thermotropic second absorptive polarizer intersect; above a threshold temperature, with the a first polarizer and a second thermotropic thermotropic polarizer absorb up to 100% of incident radiant energy Fu; and below the threshold temperature, the incident radiant energy transmittance up to 100%, the first thermotropic thermotropic polarizer and the second polarizer polarizing stopped at less than the threshold temperature.
  41. 41.一种用于调节辐射能的吸收和透射的方法,包括: 将吸收性偏振器定向成与极性旋转偏振器交叉; 将热致去偏器设置在所述偏振器与所述极性旋转偏振器之间; 在所述热致去偏器高于阈值温度时,利用所述吸收性偏振器和所述极性旋转偏振器吸收多达100%的入射福射能;以及在低于阈值温度时,多达100 %的所述入射辐射能透射穿过所述吸收性偏振器、热致去偏器和所述极性旋转偏振器。 41. A method for absorbing and transmission of radiant energy, comprising adjusting: the absorptive polarizer oriented to cross the polarity-rotating polarizer; thermotropic depolarizer disposed with the polarity of the polarizer between the rotating polarizer; when the thermotropic depolarizer above a threshold temperature, with the absorptive polarizer and the polarity-rotating polarizer absorb up to 100% of incident radiant energy Fu; and less than when the threshold temperature, up to 100% of the incident radiant energy transmitted through the absorptive polarizer, thermotropic depolarizer and said polarity-rotating polarizer.
  42. 42.一种用于显示图像的方法,包括: 在表面上以所需图像的形状布置热吸收性材料或设备,其包括至少两个吸收性偏振器和位于两个吸收性偏振器之间的热致去偏器;以及在高于特定阈值温度或温度范围时,从所述热吸收性材料反射入射光,其中,所述图像变得可见。 42. A method for displaying an image, comprising: on a surface to a desired shape of an image arrangement heat absorbent material or device, including between at least two absorptive polarizers located two absorptive polarizers thermotropic depolarizer; and above a certain threshold temperature or temperature range, the incident light is reflected from heat absorbent material, wherein the image becomes visible. · ·
  43. 43.根据权利要求42所述的用于显示图像的方法,其中,布置热吸收性材料或设备进一步包括移除区域中的所述热吸收性材料以形成图像区域。 43. The method for displaying an image according to claim 42, wherein the heat absorbent material or device disposed in the region further comprises removing the heat absorbent material to form an image region.
  44. 44.根据权利要求42所述的方法,进一步包括: 将反射性光学元件结合到所述热吸收性材料中;以及当所述热吸收图像被激活时,改变所述热吸收性材料的光学响应。 44. The method according to claim 42, further comprising: a thermally bonded to the absorbent material reflective optical element; and when the heat-absorbing image is activated, change the optical response of the heat absorbent material .
  45. 45.根据权利要求42所述的方法,进一步包括,使得去偏器在所述热吸收性材料中具有空间依赖的旋转角。 45. The method of claim 42, further comprising, such depolarizer having a spatially dependent rotation angle in the heat absorbent material.
  46. 46.根据权利要求42所述的方法,进一步包括,使得一个或多个偏振器在所述热吸收性材料中具有空间依赖的偏振效率。 46. ​​The method according to claim 42, further comprising one or more such polarizer having a polarization-dependent spatial efficiency in the heat absorbent material.
  47. 47.一种用于调节建筑物、车辆的内部温度的方法,所述方法包括: 将热吸收性材料放置在结构的外部上,所述热吸收性材料包括至少两个吸收性偏振器和位于两个吸收性偏振器之间的热致去偏器;以及将所述热吸收性材料的温度响应反向,由此所述热吸收性材料在低温下主要吸收入射辐射能,而在高温下对于入射辐射能相对更透明,相对更能吸收入射辐射能,或两种情况皆有。 47. A method for adjusting a building, the method of the internal temperature of the vehicle, said method comprising: a heat-absorbing material is placed on the outside of the structure, the heat absorbent material comprises at least two absorptive polarizers located heat between two absorptive polarizers depolarizer; and the temperature of the thermal response of inverse absorbent material, whereby the heat absorption of incident radiation energy absorbent material primarily at low temperatures, whereas at elevated temperatures relatively more transparent to the incident radiant energy, relatively more absorbing incident radiant energy, or both of in there.
  48. 48.根据权利要求47所述的方法,进一步包括,将所述热吸收性材料布置在所述结构上,以便在低温下或在冬季接受最多的入射辐射能,并在高温下或夏季接受最少的入射辐射能。 48. The method of claim 47, further comprising the heat absorbent material disposed on the structure, or to accept up to incident radiant energy at low temperatures in the winter and summer temperatures or at least acceptable the incident radiant energy.
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