CN101902190B  Method for estimating rotor position of switched reluctance motor without position sensor  Google Patents
Method for estimating rotor position of switched reluctance motor without position sensor Download PDFInfo
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 CN101902190B CN101902190B CN2010102387716A CN201010238771A CN101902190B CN 101902190 B CN101902190 B CN 101902190B CN 2010102387716 A CN2010102387716 A CN 2010102387716A CN 201010238771 A CN201010238771 A CN 201010238771A CN 101902190 B CN101902190 B CN 101902190B
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Abstract
Description
Technical field
Invention relates to a kind of method for estimating rotor position of switched reluctance motor without position sensor, belongs to the switched Reluctance Motor Control technical field.
Background technology
(Switched Reluctance Motor SRM) as a kind of novel governing system, not only has the principal advantages of AC and DC speed governing concurrently to switched reluctance machines, and possesses unique high speed performance and faulttolerant ability.This makes it obtain paying close attention to widely in AeroSpace and various civilian manufacturing AC and DC transmission field, has good application prospects and market value undoubtedly.For switched reluctance motor system, rotor position information is the prerequisite of its reliability service and high performance control in real time and accurately.In practical application at present; General shaft position sensor or other detection type position detectors of adopting obtains positional information; This has not only increased system cost and complexity, has reduced the whole system reliability of operation simultaneously, especially the application under harsh service conditionss such as some high temperature, high speed and oil pollution environment; Like aviation highspeed starting/generator, fuel pump motor, compressor etc.; The work of conventional position sensor is restricted, thus big limitations the scope of this type motor application, make that it is high temperature resistant, be fit to proper properties such as high speed, strong fault tolerance can not find full expression.Therefore, how the position of substitution transducer overcomes the deficiency that adopts position transducer to bring, and explores practical positionsensorfree technology and has crucial researching value.
Traditional positionsensorfree method that is applied to high speed is mainly based on the magnetic linkage or the inductance characteristic curve of motor; Nonlinear relation according to magnetic linkage or inductance and rotor position angle; Through tabling lookup or the method for nonlinear observation model is obtained rotor position information; Perhaps directly utilize the method for magnetic linkage or inductance threshold values directly to obtain commutation signal, thus the position of substitution transducer.Though these methods all are very classics and effective method; But they all have a common shortcoming; Be the associated electrical parameter of magnetic characteristic that they all depend on motor body very much, and very high to the electric symmetry requirement of motor, and the error source that angle is estimated is many.Before these methods of employing, at first must carry out inductance to motor, the measurement of electromagnetic propertys such as magnetic linkage, and the measurement of these parameters itself is exactly very complicated and loaded down with trivial details, and precision is limited; In addition, even to the motor of same model, software parameter all need be done corresponding modification when control.These problems must cause the portability of algorithm poor, directly have influence on the versatility of no position technique.
Summary of the invention
The problem that the present invention will solve is:
It is complicated to overcome traditional relevant no position algorithm preparation based on magnetic linkage or inductance, the Algorithm Error source is many, and problems such as portable difference obtain a kind of simple and be easy to realize the positionsensorfree location estimation strategy of highly versatile.
The present invention adopts following technical scheme for realizing abovementioned purpose:
The present invention is a kind of method for estimating rotor position of switched reluctance motor without position sensor; Based on the inductance of switched reluctance machines with the periodically variable basic characteristics of rotorposition; Phase inductance reaches maximum at the rotor aligned position; Therefore by just becoming negative, thereby there is the slope zero crossing in the phase inductance slope at the inductance maximum position.Therefore can realize that through following steps rotating speed is estimated and the estimation of rotorposition.
1) detects each phase current and terminal voltage in real time;
2) DSP each phase current of sampling and terminal voltage are calculated each phase magnetic linkage through digital integration;
3) the phase magnetic linkage is obtained realtime phase inductance divided by electric current;
4) in DSP, calculate the inductance difference of an interrupt cycle;
5) relatively each phase inductance is big or small, selects the inductance maximal phase as estimating phase;
6) at the selected estimation alpha region of step 5) with abovementioned steps 4) in institute's calculating inductance difference and zero balancing, if greater than 0 be high level, as if being low level smaller or equal to 0; Thereby obtain the pulse signal of zero crossing, the zero crossing position is the rotor aligned position;
7) differ 45 degree in the step 6) between adjacent two zerocrossing pulse trailing edges, i.e. 1/8 cycle, thus can estimate rotating speed and rotor position information.
This algorithm does not rely on the motor body parameter, also need not the measure static magnetic linkage etc. motor characteristic, algorithm is simple and be easy to realize that therefore not having the position strategy with respect to tradition has stronger versatility.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a switched reluctance machines governing system block diagram;
Fig. 2 is the relation of the three pole reactor and the rotorposition of 12/8 structure model machine;
Fig. 3 is model machine one a phase inductance characteristic curve;
Fig. 4 is inductance characteristic threedimensional relationship figure;
Fig. 5 is principle of the invention sketch map (A is example mutually);
Fig. 6 is zero passage detection pulse signal and position angle graph of a relation;
Fig. 7 is for after electric current gets into region of saturation current, and inductance curve and slope curve concern sketch map;
Inductance realtime computing technique FB(flow block) when Fig. 8 moves for motor;
Fig. 9 is the method for estimating rotor position of switched reluctance motor without position sensor schematic diagram of 0 degree for a kind of turnon angle of the present invention;
Figure 10 the present invention is a kind of to be fit to open/close the adjustable positionsensorfree rotorposition method of estimation of the angle of rupture.
Embodiment
The present invention utilizes the relation of inductance and rotorposition, estimates rotating speed and rotor position information through the method that detects each cycle maximum induction location point.
Be elaborated below in conjunction with the technical scheme of accompanying drawing to invention:
Fig. 1 is a switched reluctance machines governing system block diagram.The switched reluctance machines governing system mainly is made up of switched reluctance machines (SRM), power inverter, control system (DSP+CPLD), position transducer and electric current and voltage detection and protective circuit etc.Its middle controller is the core of system, and detection signal is gathered, calculated and handles, and accomplishes relevant control algolithm, thus the output control signal corresponding.Inductance among the present invention calculates and the algorithm of positionsensorfree technology is accomplished by controller, need not to add additional hardware.Phase current and phase winding voltage are detected by voltage, current sensor (LEM).
Fig. 2 is the relation of the three pole reactor and the rotorposition of 12/8 structure model machine.Shown in figure, the inductance curve is the cycle with 45 degree, and wherein each phase inductance differs 15 degree.If 0 degree angle is A phase stator tooth center line and rotor center line aligned position, 22.5 degree are rotor tooth utmost point center line aligned position.
Fig. 3 (A) is with model machine one phase inductance characteristic curve.The inductance characteristic curve has characterized the nonlinear relation between phase inductance and rotor position angle and the phase current three, the figure shows under the same current phase inductance family of curves of different rotor position.Can know that by figure phase inductance reduces with the increase of electric current, when electric current reaches certain value, inductance will occur saturated, and this moment, flattop appearred in inductance curve top.Its threedimensional relationship can be by formula (1) expression, and threedimensional relationship figure is as shown in Figure 4.Fig. 3 (B) is the phase inductance slope curve under the same current.
L＝L(θ，i)(1)
Fig. 5 is to be example explanation principle of the invention sketch map mutually with A.As shown in the figure, phase inductance curve, phase inductance slope curve, and slope zero crossing pulse signal.Pulse signal trailing edge position is the inductance maximum position.Between two adjacent trailing edges 45 degree, i.e. 1/8 Machine cycle.Zero passage detection pulse signal and position angle graph of a relation are as shown in Figure 6.
Fig. 7 (A) is for after electric current gets into region of saturation current, and inductance curve and slope curve concern sketch map.Fig. 7 (B) is near the inductance slope zero crossing sketch map inductance maximum position, can be known by this figure, after electric current reaches capacity, because inductance is saturated, flattop occurs at the inductance top, and a plurality of zero points possibly appear in the inductance slope, causes the location estimation error.But because in the motor actual moving process, owing to make the afterflow district electric current that gets into inductance decline district as far as possible little, with the negative torque that reduces to produce; So must before inductance 22.5 degree, turnoff; Thereby make near the position of 22.5 degree electric current much smaller than saturation current, when real electrical machinery moved, inductance slope negative sense zero crossing had only one; Be corresponding 22.5 degree positions, so the inventive method is fit to the position probing and the velocity estimation of switched reluctance machines operation fully.
Inductance realtime computing technique FB(flow block) when Fig. 8 moves for motor.Phase current and phase winding voltage are detected and are obtained by voltage, current sensor (LEM), after conditioning, in DSP, start the A/D sampling routine, sampling winding terminal voltage and phase current.Calculate the magnetic linkage size according to the integration formula.Wherein the magnetic linkage expression formula of a phase winding is:
ψ wherein _{k}Be k phase winding magnetic linkage, v _{k}Be k phase winding terminal voltage, R is a k phase winding equivalent resistance, i _{k}K phase winding electric current.Use numerical integrating, can following formula be dispersed turns to:
Wherein T is the sampling period, the some number of N for measuring, and n is the n measurement point.
Can obtain inductance value according to the relational expression between inductance and the magnetic linkage.
ψ(θ，i)＝L(θ，i)i (4)
This method is owing to introduced integral operation, and phase voltage, phase current detect error, and the variation of winding equivalent resistance, all can influence the precision of calculating, and the magnetic linkage when the relatively more suitable motor speed of this method is higher is estimated.
Fig. 9 is a kind of method for estimating rotor position of switched reluctance motor without position sensor schematic diagram of the present invention, and the motor turnon angle is 0 degree.If 0 degree angle is A phase stator tooth center line and rotor center line aligned position, 22.5 degree are rotor tooth utmost point center line aligned position, each phase phase difference 15 degree.
Wherein Fig. 9 (A) is processing method one schematic diagram:
It is the waveform that 0 each phase inductance when spending calculates in real time that Fig. 9 (A) is depicted as turnon angle, is example mutually with A, according to the relation between inductance and the position angle; Can know by figure; The inductance slope of inductance rising area will be more than or equal to 0 when 022.5 spends, and when the electric current afterflow descended the district to inductance, it is negative that the inductance slope becomes; Therefore 22.5 degree positions are that inductance slope negative sense is crossed zero position, so the inductance slope k can obtain pulse signal P as shown in the figure through after the zero balancing _{a}Signal output waveform is provided with relevant with the program of digital zerocrossing comparator.(1) as if k＞0, P _{a}＞0; K≤0, P _{a}=0.Then can obtain the waveform of Fig. 9 (A1).(2) as if k>=0, P _{a}＞0; K＜0, P _{a}=0.Then passable waveform to Fig. 9 (A2).The trailing edge of adjacent two pulses through detecting the gained pulse signal writes down the time T between two trailing edges _{Down}Get final product through type (6) and obtain rotary speed information, just can estimate the realtime position of rotor according to the realtime rotating speed that estimates.
n _{srm}＝7.5T _{down} (6)
Figure 10 is fit to open/close the adjustable positionsensorfree rotorposition method of estimation of the angle of rupture for the present invention is a kind of.When turnon angle shifts to an earlier date, can judge based on Fig. 9 method in theory to obtain the corresponding zero passage pulse signal.As inductance slope k＞0, P _{a}＞0; K≤0, P _{a}=0, therefore can obtain zerocrossing pulse signal shown in Figure 10 (A).But in the DSP numerical control system, the mode of inductance slope calculating is to calculate inductance sampled point difference and the ratio of interrupt cycle in the adjacent interruption, owing to only just calculating opening phase inductance; And the calculated value of inductance is 0 when turnoffing; Therefore in the moment that estimated phase is just opened, there is a sudden change in the missionary society of twice inductance sampled value before and after opening, make should cycle slope calculating value greater than 0; And the inductance slope calculating gets into the stable region in each sampling period afterwards; Therefore descend district's inductance slope less than 0 at inductance, and in the inductance rising area, the inductance slope is greater than 0; If adopt abovementioned numeral to cross the method for zero balancing, then can obtain the zerocrossing pulse waveform shown in Figure 10 (B).Can know by figure, in oneperiod, two pulses can occur, therefore adopt estimation rotating speed and rotorposition that abovementioned detection trailing edge estimation approach can't be correct.
For solving the problem that said method occurs at experimentation; The present invention proposes a kind of with said method with based on the estimation of the inductance size subregion location estimation strategy that combines of system of selection mutually; This method has been avoided the problem that occurs misvaluing the meter pulse under the situation opening in advance cleverly, and concrete grammar combines Figure 10 (C) to describe.
Shown in Figure 10 (C), this method is through threephase actual measurement inductance size relatively, select the inductance calculated value maximum as current estimation phase, this selects logic by shown in the table one mutually, promptly works as L _{a}＞L _{c}＞L _{d}The time, select A mutually as estimating phase; Work as L _{c}＞L _{b}＞L _{a}, select C mutually as estimating phase; Work as L _{b}＞L _{a}＞L _{c}, select B mutually as estimating phase.In case selected estimation phase; Then calculate current estimation phase inductance slope; And utilize the digital method of crossing zero balancing to obtain zerocrossing pulse signal PA, PB, the PC of single estimation phase, also can obtain one group of integrated pulse signal Puse that comprehensively respectively estimates phase zerocrossing pulse signal simultaneously.
Table one inductance zoned logic table
Because the trailing edge position of zerocrossing pulse signal PA, PB or PC is this phase inductance maximum position, and phase difference 45 is spent between adjacent two trailing edges, therefore catches the trailing edge of any one group of zerocrossing pulse signal, writes down the time T between two trailing edges _{Down}, can utilize formula (6) to calculate rotary speed information equally, estimate the rotor real time position simultaneously.And because abovementioned Puse signal, each trailing edge corresponding each phase inductance maximum position, 15 degree of therefore being separated by between the adjacent trailing edge in like manner can be estimated rotary speed information and rotor real time position through the method for catching trailing edge.
The inventive method is only confirmed rotor real time position and rotary speed information through the method for estimating adhoc location, possesses following advantage:
1) principle is simple, implements very convenient flexible;
2) program is simple, no complex calculations and form stores, and it is few to take software resource, and need not extra increase hardware;
3) do not need independent measurement static electromagnetic characteristic curve, saved the complicated setup procedure of traditional no position algorithm;
4) be fit to motor in middling speed, the rotating speed of high speed whole service scope is estimated and position probing, opens/closes the angle of rupture and all can adjust, and satisfies the motor runnability;
5) has very strong robustness, motor speed fluctuation, the detection that external disturbance can impact position;
6) not high to parameter of electric machine requirement, even under the not high situation of the inductance symmetry that causes owing to the motor processing problems, still can accurately estimate the maximum induction position;
7) algorithm is portable strong, highly versatile, and the rotating speed or the rotorposition that are fit to the regular tap reluctance motor of any structure and power grade are estimated.
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CN103401487A (en) *  20130715  20131120  中国矿业大学  Positionsensorfree control method suitable for fourquadrant operation of switch reluctance motor 
CN104393802B (en) *  20141107  20170613  南京航空航天大学  A kind of electric excitation biconvex electrode electric machine positionsensorless control method based on line voltage detection 
CN104579040A (en) *  20150120  20150429  中国矿业大学  Positionsensorless control method suitable for running of switched reluctance motor in wholespeed range 
CN104682808B (en) *  20150317  20170426  南京信息职业技术学院  Simplified flux methodbased fault tolerance operation method for switched reluctance motor speed adjusting system 
CN105305898B (en) *  20151119  20171215  南京信息工程大学  A kind of rotor position estimate method of positionless sensor of switched reluctance motor 
CN105897112B (en) *  20160525  20181211  南京航空航天大学  The positionsensorfree rotor position estimate method of highspeed cruising switched reluctance machines 
CN106026843B (en) *  20160615  20180410  南京晓庄学院  A kind of switched reluctance machines initial position estimation method based on time threshold 
CN106100499B (en) *  20160711  20180828  南京航空航天大学  Threephase electric excitation biconvex electrode electric machine positionsensorfree method based on line magnetic linkage 
CN107612452B (en) *  20170930  20190719  天津科技大学  Based on mutual inductance characteristic twophase synchronous excitation switch reluctance motor control method and system 
CN110120766B (en) *  20190513  20201127  中国矿业大学  Method for estimating position of rotor of switched reluctance motor based on virtual unit inductance vector 
CN110798114B (en) *  20191023  20210105  华中科技大学  Switched reluctance motor position sensorless control method based on overlapped phase inductance 
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US4959596A (en) *  19890403  19900925  General Electric Company  Switched reluctance motor drive system and laundering apparatus employing same 
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