CN101894357B - Video media watermark protection method - Google Patents

Video media watermark protection method Download PDF

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CN101894357B
CN101894357B CN201010147148XA CN201010147148A CN101894357B CN 101894357 B CN101894357 B CN 101894357B CN 201010147148X A CN201010147148X A CN 201010147148XA CN 201010147148 A CN201010147148 A CN 201010147148A CN 101894357 B CN101894357 B CN 101894357B
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watermark
information
video
embedded
video media
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CN201010147148XA
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CN101894357A (en
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刘红梅
李煌
黄继武
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中山大学
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Abstract

The invention provides a video media watermark protection method and belongs to the field of multimedia signal processing. By modifying a frame structure of the video media, the watermark data is embedded into each frame respectively, and watermark embedding is implemented by directly modifying the control information of the video media. The method has the advantages of: 1) simple principle, easyimplementation, direct operation on code streams, and strong practicality; 2) no need of encoding/decoding process during embedding, no influence of watermark information on the video substantially, and high imperceptible property; and 3) good universality, and capacity of embedding the watermark by only knowing the format of the code streams and finding a proper embedding position.

Description

一种视频媒体的水印保护方法 A video watermarking method for protecting media

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明属于多媒体信号处理领域,特别是涉及一种保护视频媒体的水印方法。 [0001] The present invention pertains to multimedia signal processing, and more particularly to a method of watermarking video media protection. 背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 近十几年来,数字多媒体正逐渐渗透到人们的日常生活中。 [0002] Over the last decade, digital multimedia is gradually penetrate into people's daily lives. 在各种多媒体信息中, 数字视频占据着非常重要的位置。 In a variety of multimedia information, the digital video occupies a very important position. 随着多媒体处理技术及互联网的迅猛发展,人们获取到视频的途径更为方便,但随之出现了诸多问题如版权纠纷、非法传播等等。 With the rapid development of multimedia technology and the Internet, people get into the way video is more convenient, but it appears many problems such as copyright disputes, illegal distribution and so on. 因此,视频水印技术成为信息安全领域一个重要的研究课题。 Therefore, video watermarking technology has become an important research topic in the field of information security.

[0003] 水印技术可以在不影响视频质量的情况下,将用户信息、版权信息等嵌入到视频文件中,能用于作品所有权的鉴定和追踪非法用户等方面。 [0003] In the case of watermarking technology can not affect the video quality, user information, copyright information embedded in the video file can be used to identify and trace illicit ownership and other aspects of the user's work. 随着互联网时代到来,网上交易也变得越加平凡。 With the advent of the Internet age, online trading has become increasingly commonplace. 对于如何有效保障流媒体信息,防止作品被非法传播等都是商家急切想解决的问题。 For information on how to effectively protect streaming media, it works to prevent problems from illegal dissemination of all businesses eager to solve. 在网络商城中,用户购买了商品之后,需要为该商品打上用户信息进行标识, 从而确定商品的拥有者身份。 After the online shopping mall, the user buy the goods, need to be marked with the user identification information for commodities, in order to determine the identity of the owner of the goods. 那么这一过程必须在商品交易过程中完成,这就对于操作的实时性提出了很高的要求。 Then this process must be completed in commodity trading process, which for real-time operation makes high demands. 目前,许多水印算法都需要进行编解码的处理,时间上的开销较大,不能很好满足该性能要求。 Currently, many watermarking algorithms need to be treated codec, spending time on large, well not meet the performance requirements. 因此,研究一种直接修改码流信息的快速视频水印具有一定的现实意义和实际应用价值。 Therefore, the study modify a direct stream of fast video watermark information has practical significance and practical value.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0004] 本发明的目的在于克服现有水印嵌入方法需要复杂的编解码计算的不足,提供一种简单方便的视频媒体的水印保护方法。 [0004] The object of the present invention to overcome the deficiencies existing watermark embedding methods require complex calculations codec, there is provided a simple and convenient method for video media watermark protection.

[0005] 为了实现上述发明目的,采用的技术方案如下: [0005] In order to achieve the above object, the technical solution adopted is as follows:

[0006] 一种保护视频媒体的水印方法,包括水印嵌入过程,所述水印嵌入过程根据视频媒体的帧结构,将水印数据分割后嵌入到每一帧中,水印的嵌入通过直接修改视频媒体的控制信息实现。 [0006] A watermarking method for protecting video media, comprising a watermark embedding process, the watermark embedding process video media frame structure, each frame of the embedded watermark data after the division, the watermark is embedded by modifying the video media direct control information to achieve.

[0007] 上述技术方案中,所述视频媒体的控制信息为MPEG-2格式中的比特率标识符,或者MKV封装格式中的Void标识符。 [0007] In the above aspect, the control information of the video media bit rate in MPEG-2 format identifier, or an identifier Void MKV encapsulation format.

[0008] 当视频格式为MPEG-2时,水印嵌入的具体过程包括如下步骤: [0008] When the video format is MPEG 2-, the watermark embedding process specifically includes the following steps:

[0009] 11)读取码流信息,寻找码流中的比特率标识符,找到比特率的表示信息; [0009] 11) reads the information stream, the bit rate to find the code stream identifier, to find the information indicating the bit rate;

[0010] 12)选取比特信息的若干个比特进行修改,将所要嵌入的水印信息直接替换,如嵌“0”时置“0”,嵌“1”时置“1”; [0010] 12) to select a plurality of bit information bits are modified, will be a direct replacement for the embedded watermark information, such as "0" is embedded, "0", the insert "1" is set to "1";

[0011] 13)返回步骤11),查找下一个比特率标识符,直到水印信息嵌入完毕。 [0011] 13) returns to the step 11), find the next identifier bit rate, until the watermark information is completed.

[0012] 与水印嵌入相对应的水印提取过程包括如下步骤: [0012] and the corresponding watermark embedding watermark extraction process comprising the steps of:

[0013] 21)读取码流,查找比特率标识符; [0013] 21) reads the code stream, the bit rate to find the identifier;

[0014] 22)根据比特信息的选定比特位来决定提取水印信息为“1”或者“0” ; [0014] 22) to determine extract the watermark information is "1" or "0" according to the selected bit information bit;

[0015] 23)返回步骤21),寻找下一个比特率标识符,直到所提取的水印信息长度达到原来长度。 [0015] 23) returns to the step 21), find the next identifier bit rate, until the extracted watermark information length to achieve the original length. [0016] 本发明的原理为:视频码流信息中的比特率(bit rate)代表的意思是指每秒钟传输解码的数据量大小,在MPG格式中是以18位长度比特表示,基本的传输单位为400bit。 Principle [0016] The present invention is: a bit rate (bit rate) stream of video information representative of is meant an amount of data transmitted per second, decoding the size, length of 18 bits is represented in a basic format MPG transmission unit is 400bit. 经测试实验表明,当修改18位比特的最低两位时,传输的最大误差比特为3个基本单位的误差量。 Experiments show that the tested, when modifying the two lowest bits 18, the maximum bit transmission error is an error in the amount of three basic units. 当传输速率为最常用的5121Λ时(由低到高算起第8位为1,其他比特位为0),假设修改误差量为最大,由00变为11,此时的误差量为11Λ。 When the transmission rate is most commonly used when 5121Λ (from low to high counting position 8 is 1, the other bits are 0), assuming the amount of modification of the maximum error by 00 becomes 11, the amount of error in this case 11Λ. 最大的误差率为1/512的大小, 并且该误差不会传递影响到视频中的其他包,计算PSNR(峰值信噪比)接近于无穷大,表明了视频质量基本不下降。 The maximum size of an error rate of 1/512, and the error does not affect the other transmitted video packets, calculating PSNR (Peak SNR) approaches infinity, indicating that the video quality is not substantially lowered. 人眼对于如此小的变化是无法察觉的。 The human eye for such a small change is imperceptible. 由于码流格式都是有固定标准进行规范,因此具有广泛的适用性。 Since the stream format is a fixed standard specification, and therefore has broad applicability.

[0017] 当视频封装格式为MKV时,水印嵌入的具体过程包括如下步骤: [0017] When the video format is encapsulated MKV, watermark embedding process specifically includes the following steps:

[0018] 31)读取码流信息,寻找码流中的Void标识符,找到该标识符的表示信息; [0018] 31) reads the code stream information, looking Void identifier code stream, information indicating the found identifier;

[0019] 32)选取Void信息的若干个比特进行修改,将所要嵌入的水印信息直接替换,如嵌“0”时置“0”,嵌“1”时置“1”; [0019] 32) Void select several bits of information to be modified, will be a direct replacement for the embedded watermark information, such as "0" is embedded, "0", the insert "1" is set to "1";

[0020] 33)返回步骤31),查找下一个Void标识符,直到水印信息嵌入完毕。 [0020] 33) returns to the step 31), find the next Void identifier until completion of watermark information.

[0021] 与水印嵌入相对应的水印提取过程包括如下步骤: [0021] and the corresponding watermark embedding watermark extraction process comprising the steps of:

[0022] 41)读取码流,查找Void标识符; [0022] 41) reads the code stream, an identifier lookup Void;

[0023] 42)根据Void信息的选定比特位来决定提取水印信息为“1”或者“0” ; [0023] 42) to determine extract the watermark information is "1" or "0" according to the selected bit Void information;

[0024] 43)返回步骤41),寻找下一个Void标识符,直到所提取的水印信息长度达到原来长度。 [0024] 43) returns to the step 41), looking for the next Void identifier until the extracted watermark information length to achieve the original length.

[0025] 本发明的原理为:视频MKV封装格式中,全局控制信息Global elements中Void 标识符暂时没有被使用。 Principle [0025] The present invention is: a video MKV encapsulation format, the control information is global in Void Global elements temporary identifier not used. Void标识符后的内容主要为了避免文件数据受到破坏,同时也是预留了足够的空间作为以后扩充内容时使用。 The main contents of the Void identifier used to expand the contents of file data in order to avoid future damage, but also set aside enough space for the. 在目前的标准格式中,Void后的内容基本是全零数据,不影响视频数据的使用,文件数据解码时会跳过该段内容,因此可以作为水印的嵌入载体。 In the current standard format, the contents Void substantially all zero data, does not affect the video data, the segment will skip decoding contents data file, can be embedded as a watermark carrier.

[0026] 本发明可以根据视频文件的长度进行改变。 [0026] The present invention may be varied according to the length of the video file. 当拥有较大的嵌入空间的时候可以采用重复嵌入的方法来提高水印的安全性能。 When embedded with the larger space can be embedded repeatedly employed methods to improve the security of watermark. 本发明也可以适用于其他开源格式的视频码流,分析码流格式选取可作为嵌入载体的控制信息,在固定窗口中进行查找嵌入即可。 The present invention is also applicable to other open source format video stream, stream analyzing control information format selected may be embedded as carrier, to find to be embedded in the fixed window.

[0027] 本发明具有如下优点: [0027] The present invention has the following advantages:

[0028] 1)、原理简单,能很容易实现;直接对码流进行操作,具有很强的实时性; [0028] 1), the principle is simple, it can be easily achieved; operate directly on stream, with strong real-time;

[0029] 2)、嵌入时无须进行任何编解码过程,水印信息对视频基本没有影响,不可察觉性较高; [0029] 2), without the need for any codec process embedding watermark information on the video had no effect, higher imperceptibility;

[0030] 3)、有很好的通用性,只要知道码流的格式寻找到合适的嵌入位就可以用该方法进行水印嵌入。 [0030] 3), we have good versatility, as long as the stream to know the format to find the right bit can be embedded by the watermark embedding method.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0031 ] 图1是MPG视频码流格式示意图; [0031] FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram format MPG video stream;

[0032] 图2是嵌入位置bit rate所在位置结构示意图; [0032] FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the location of the embedded position configuration rate bit;

[0033] 图3是MKV封装格式中Void标识位所在结构示意图; [0033] FIG. 3 is a schematic configuration where the encapsulation format identification bits MKV Void;

[0034] 图4查找过程示意图; [0034] FIG. 4 schematic lookup process;

[0035] 图5水印嵌入流程图;[0036] 图6为本发明在测试视频中的帧图像及嵌入水印后视频的帧图像,其中图6a,6c 为原始的视频截图,6b,6d为嵌入水印信息后的视频截图。 [0035] The watermark embedding flowchart of FIG. 5; [0036] FIG. 6 of the present invention in the test frame from the video image and the watermarked image of the video frame, wherein FIG 6a, 6c to the original video shots, 6b, 6d embedded video capture after the watermark information.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0037] 本发明的具体操作分为水印嵌入和视频认证两个过程,嵌入过程如下: [0037] Specific operation of the present invention is divided into two authentication and video watermark embedding process, embedding process is as follows:

[0038] 1)读取一定大小的码流信息,寻找码流中的比特率标识符(bit rate, 18bits),找到比特率的表示信息; [0038] 1) reading the bit stream information of a certain size, to find the code stream identifier bit rate (bit rate, 18bits), to find the information indicating the bit rate;

[0039] 2)选取18位比特信息的最低2个比特进行修改,将要嵌入的信息直接修改。 [0039] 2) Select the lowest 18 bit information bits and 2 to modify the information to be embedded directly modified. 如嵌“0”时置“0”,嵌“1”时置“1”; If set, "0" is embedded, "0", the insert "1" is set to "1";

[0040] 3)返回步骤1,查找下一个标识符,直到水印信息嵌入完毕。 [0040] 3) returning to step 1, find the next identifier, watermark information until completion.

[0041] 视频水印提取步骤如下: [0041] The video watermark extraction steps are as follows:

[0042] 1)利用同样大小窗口读取码流,查找比特率标识符(bit rate); [0042] 1) reading the bit stream, the bit rate to find the identifier (bit rate) by the same size of the window;

[0043] 2)根据18位比特的最低两位来决定提取水印信息为“1”或者“0”; [0043] 2) to determine extract the watermark information is "1" or "0" according to the 18 lowest two bits;

[0044] 3)返回步骤1,寻找下一个标识符,直到水印信息长度达到原来信息长度时结束提取。 [0044] 3) returning to step 1, find the next identifier, the watermark information length until the end of the extraction information to achieve the original length.

[0045] 下面结合附图对本发明做进一步的说明。 [0045] The following drawings further illustrate the present invention in combination.

[0046] 图1为MPEG-2中节目码流(PQ的结构。从图中可以看到码流文件是由许多个Sequence单位来组成的。因此在每一个视频序列段中进行信息修改,所影响到的范围也只是对当前整个长度的kquence。 [0046] Figure 1 is the MPEG-2 program stream (Structure of PQ. As can be seen from FIG code stream file is composed of a plurality of units consisting of Sequence therefore modify the information in each segment a video sequence, the only affects the range of the current kquence entire length.

[0047] 图的头结构示意图。 [0047] FIG head structure of FIG. 由头结构示意图可以知道,每个单位中都有一个固定的结构安排。 A schematic view of the head structure may know, in each unit has a fixed structural arrangements. 由kquence序列起始标识符(OOOOOIB;?)标识着当前为一个kquence 的开始,然后查找到之后的一定位置就为水印的嵌入位置。 Kquence a sequence start identifier (OOOOOIB ;?) identifies the beginning of a current kquence, and after the predetermined position to find the location of the embedded watermark. 嵌入水印的具体位置距离标识符的位数由码流的结构所决定。 Bits embedded watermarks from the specific location is determined by the structure identifier stream.

[0048] 图3为MKV封装结构示意图。 [0048] FIG. 3 is a schematic MKV package. 由结构示意图可以知道,每个单位中都有一个固定的结构安排。 Can be known by the schematic structure of each unit has a fixed structural arrangements. 文件起始符为0xlA45DFA3,寻找到该标识位之后就可以开始寻找Void标识位。 File start character is 0xlA45DFA3, then to find the identification bit can begin to look Void flag. 由于该标识位EC容易跟其他数据相同,所以必须结合其内容寻找。 Since the same flag EC easily with other data, it must be combined with the contents to find. 当找到EC标识之后,判断其后内容全部为0则可以确定为Void标识位。 After identification found EC, followed by determining the contents of all 0 Void flag may be determined.

[0049] 图4为查找过程示意图。 [0049] FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of the search process. 在确定水印嵌入位置时,通过在缓存区中滑动窗口的方法进行寻找。 When determining the position of the watermark embedding, by looking for the sliding window method in a buffer. 窗口开始由缓存区的左边开始进行查找,若找到匹配的标识符,则调用水印嵌入程序,否则就继续往下查找,直到缓冲区的尾部。 Window to start by the beginning of the buffer zone on the left to find, if the matching identifier is found, the call watermark embedding program, otherwise it continues to look down until the tail of the buffer.

[0050] 图5为视频水印嵌入流程图。 [0050] FIG. 5 is a flowchart showing a video watermark embedding. 首先将码流装载到缓存区中。 The first stream is loaded into the buffer. 然后查找标识符,在MPG文件中查找的是^^仙^^ Star Code (0x000001B!3)。 Then look identifier, look at the MPG file is ^^ fairy ^^ Star Code (0x000001B! 3). 准确定位kquence的起始位置之后,就嵌入水印信息。 After kquence the correct start position of watermark information can be embedded. 接着判断水印的嵌入是否已经结束。 It is then determined whether the embedded watermark has ended. 当水印嵌入完毕时就停止嵌入直接完成,否则就循环进行查找标识位嵌入水印,直到水印嵌入完成为止。 When embedding complete stop directly embedded completed, otherwise the cycle to find flag embedded watermark, the watermark embedding until completion. 当缓存区的数据处理完成之后,重新装载新的数据。 When the data buffer is completed, the new data reload. 如果由于文件太短且需嵌入位数较多,文件处理结束时水印没有嵌入完成,返回嵌入的位数。 If you need more because the file is too short and embedded digits, the end of the file is not embedded watermark processing is complete, return the embedded digits. 可以重新根据码流速率跟长度进行嵌入位数调整。 Embedding bits can be re-adjusted in accordance with the length of the code stream rate.

[0051] 图6为实验结果比较。 [0051] Figure 6 compares the experimental results. 两组视频都是在嵌入USbits的版权信息之后进行对比的。 Two videos are compared after USbits the copyright information is embedded. (a)为Discovery节目中的视频截图,视频格式为MPG格式(b)为嵌入水印信息后对应帧的截图。 (A) for the Discovery of the video capture program, the video format is MPG format (b) is a screenshot watermarked information corresponding frame. (c)为奥斯卡影片《老无所依》的视频截图,视频封装格式为MKV,(d)为嵌入水印信息后对应帧的截图。 (C) Oscar movie video capture "Old Men", the video encapsulation format MKV, (d) is the watermarked frame information corresponding screenshot. 从实验结果可以看出,人眼无法分辨出是否嵌入了水印。 As can be seen from the experimental results, the human eye can not distinguish whether the embedded watermark. 对截取的视频图像进行比对,计算其PSNR值也是趋向无穷。 Video image taken for comparison, also calculated PSNR value tends to infinity.

Claims (3)

1. 一种视频媒体的水印保护方法,包括水印嵌入过程和水印提取过程,所述水印嵌入过程根据视频媒体的帧结构,将水印数据分别嵌入到每一帧中,其特征在于水印的嵌入通过直接修改视频媒体的控制信息实现,当视频为MPEG-2格式的TS流时,水印嵌入过程为修改视频媒体的PES包中控制信息比特率标识符的内容,当视频为MKV封装格式时,水印嵌入过程为修改视频媒体的全局控制信息Global elements中Void标识符的内容。 A video watermarking media protection method, comprising watermark embedding process and the watermark extracting process, the watermark embedding process in accordance with the frame structure of the video media, the watermark data are embedded into each frame, characterized in that the watermark is embedded by direct modification control information of the video media to achieve, when the video format is MPEG-2 TS stream, watermark embedding process to modify the PES packets of video media content control information identifier bit rate, when the video format to MKV encapsulation, watermarks embedding process to modify the global video media content control information identifier Void global elements.
2.根据权利要求1所述的视频媒体的水印保护方法,其特征在于水印嵌入的具体过程包括如下步骤:11)读取码流信息,寻找码流中的待嵌入标识符,找到标识符的表示信息;12)选取该标识位信息的若干个比特进行修改,将所要嵌入的水印信息直接替换,如嵌“0”时置“0”,嵌“1”时置“1”;13)返回步骤11),查找下一个标识符,直到水印信息嵌入完毕。 The watermark video media protection method according to claim 1, characterized in that the embedding of the specific process includes the following steps: 11) reads the code stream information, to find to be embedded in the code stream identifiers, identifiers found represents information; 12) to select the identification bit information of a plurality of bits to be modified, will be embedded information directly replace, insert as "0" is set to "0" embedded "1" is set to "1"; 13) returns step 11), find the next identifier, watermark information until completion.
3.根据权利要求2所述的视频媒体的水印保护方法,其特征在于与水印嵌入相对应的水印提取过程包括如下步骤:21)读取码流,查找标识符;22)根据标识位信息的选定比特位来决定提取水印信息为“1”或者“0”;23)返回步骤21),寻找下一个标识符,直到所提取的水印信息长度达到原来长度。 The video media watermark protection method according to claim 2, characterized in that the watermark embedding process corresponds to the watermark extraction comprising the steps of: 21) reads the code stream, lookup identifier; 22) according to the identification information bits selected bit is determined to extract the watermark information "1" or "0"; 23) returns to the step 21), find the next identifier, until the extracted watermark information length to achieve the original length.
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