CN101891522A - Novel vegetable seedling composite substrate and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Novel vegetable seedling composite substrate and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101891522A
CN101891522A CN2010102455573A CN201010245557A CN101891522A CN 101891522 A CN101891522 A CN 101891522A CN 2010102455573 A CN2010102455573 A CN 2010102455573A CN 201010245557 A CN201010245557 A CN 201010245557A CN 101891522 A CN101891522 A CN 101891522A
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China
Prior art keywords
composite substrate
days
add
vegetable seedling
percent
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CN2010102455573A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
何水林
王再兴
宫德义
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HUIAN INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
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HUIAN INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
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Priority to CN2010102455573A priority Critical patent/CN101891522A/en
Publication of CN101891522A publication Critical patent/CN101891522A/en
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention discloses a novel vegetable seedling composite substrate and a preparation method thereof. The novel vegetable seedling composite substrate consists of sawdust serving as a main raw material, an organic fertilizer, urea and microelements. The organic fertilizer in the vegetable seedling composite substrate is prepared from chicken manure and fermented pig manure according to a proportion of 1:1; the ratio of the sawdust to the organic fertilizer is 75-80:25-20; quickly available nutrients of N, P and K are added, wherein the addition amount of N is 300mg/kg, the addition amount of P is 500mg/kg and the addition amount of K is 1,500mg/kg; and the microelements are boron, zinc and magnesium, wherein Zn and B are more than or equal to 0.2 percent, the Mg is more than or equal to 9 percent, and the addition amount of the microelements is 800g/ton. The preparation method for the composite substrate comprises the following steps of: (1) mixing and stirring the sawdust, the chicken manure and the fermented pig manure uniformly, and adding water until the water content accounts for 50 to 60 percent; (2) adding 1.0 to 1.5 percent of urea and stirring uniformly; (3) making a pile, covering a thin film, performing wet compost for 7 to 10 days, and spreading to air for 2 days; (4) adding No.1 zymophyte, fermenting for 8 to 10 days, after hyphae are full of the pile, turning the pile, performing wet compost for 10 days, and spreading to air until the water content accounts for 40 percent; (5) adding No.2 zymophyte, and stacking for 7 days; and (6) adding the quickly available nutrients of N, P and K and the microelements, and bagging to obtain the finished product, namely the novel vegetable seedling composite substrate.

Description

A kind of novel vegetable seedling composite substrate and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The present invention is specifically related to a kind of novel vegetable seedling composite substrate and preparation method thereof.
Background technology
Vegetable factoryization is grown seedlings, and cultivating strong sprout is the important step that modern vegetables produce, and the height of the quality of growing seedlings has mainly depended on seedling medium.
The peat composed of rotten mosses that conventional substrate adopts costs an arm and a leg, and is Nonrenewable resources, and excessive exploitation can destroy ecotope marshy.Therefore, utilize wide material sources, cheap agricultural wastes to be subjected to attention both domestic and external as the alternative matrix of the peat composed of rotten mosses.Facilities vegetable substrate culture technology can solve the generation and the salt marsh problem of facility cultivation soil continuous cropping disease effectively, if can base oneself upon the various places resource, gather materials on the spot, the recycling agricultural wastes substitute the synthetic facilities vegetable cultivation matrix of the peat composed of rotten mosses, must bring huge social, economy and ecological benefits.
Summary of the invention
The peat composed of rotten mosses that the objective of the invention is to adopt at conventional substrate costs an arm and a leg, non-renewable, excessive exploitation can cause the destructive problem of ecotope, propose a kind of preparation method of novel vegetable seedling composite substrate, thereby realize utilizing agricultural wastes to substitute the preparation of the synthetic facilities vegetable cultivation matrix of the peat composed of rotten mosses.
This method is main raw material with the wood chip, cooperate fertilizer and trace element to form, its each composition weight proportioning is: fertilizer is pressed the 1:1 composition of proportions by chicken manure and fermentation pig manure, wood chip and fertilizer are the proportioning of 75-80:25-20, adding N, P, K quick-acting nutritious (N:300 mg/kg, P:500mg/kg, K:1500mg/kg) and trace element is water miscible boron, zinc, magnesium, Zn, B 〉=0.2% wherein, Mg 〉=9%, addition are the 800g/ ton.Concrete preparation flow is: ⑴ wood chip, chicken manure, fermentation pig manure mix to be mixed thoroughly, adds water to water content 50-60%; ⑵ add 1.0-1.5% urea and mix thoroughly; ⑶ system heap, coating film, stack retting 7-10 days, turning stack retting 7-10 days again, airing 2 days; ⑷ add zymophyte No. 1, ferment treated that mycelia climbed full windrow in 80-10 days after, turning once more, stack retting 10 days, airing is 40% to water content; ⑸ add zymophyte and banked up for No. 27 days; ⑹ add N, P, K is quick-acting nutritious and micro-, pack, and finished product is a kind of novel vegetable seedling composite substrate.
The seedling management technology of compound seedling medium
1. the seedling dish is selected: find to adopt composite interstitial substance to carry out grow seedlings of vegetable, should select the seedling dish of different size to the different sorts vegetables.Cucurbitaceae vegetable is generally selected the 54-72 porose disc for use; Cauliflower in the brassicaceous vegetable, wild cabbage, Chinese cabbage can be selected 72 porose discs for use, and Plantula Brassicae chinensis can be selected 288 porose discs for use, and lettuce class is selected 128 porose discs for use, and the green onion seedling selects for use 288 porose discs to be advisable.
2. spice, sabot: substrate material is poured in the plastic tank into the water content that tempers 55-60%, sabot.The matrix material is filled to the dish plane, scrapes off unnecessary material, and per 10 dishes stack Cheng Yiduo, gently presses from top to down about 1cm, can row's dish.Each furrow of growing seedlings (bed) row is coiled 2 row, so that bookkeeping.Row is coiled back matrix and will be watered permeablely, waters that to there are flowing out to the bottom be degree.After planting, cover seed with former matrix.
3. precision drilling: can do rate of emergence test and seed pre-sowing treatment before broadcasting earlier, promptly multiple the solarization and final election.If rate of emergence 〉=85%, 1 of general every bunch planting; If percentage of germination is 75%-85%, can broadcast 2; ≤ 70% every bunch planting 2-3 grain is to guarantee full stand.Seedling 1 strain is stayed in every cave, and unnecessary seedling removes between emerging in back 3 days, stays strong a little less than going during thinning.
4. water management: after planting water once permeablely again, allow matrix suction moisture, seed and matrix fully merge, and are beneficial to the seed suction and emerge.The back matrix of watering sinks down into below the dish peritreme slightly, flows out certain water storage space, is beneficial to the later stage management of watering.Coating film is incubated, preserves moisture behind winter, the spring seeding and growing seedling.The covering sunshade net of growing seedlings in summer, autumn is preserved moisture.In time open coverture after emerging; Cotyledon is expanded to the growth of first true leaf will suitably control water during phase beginning, in order to avoid produce " high pin " seedling because appropriateness is high, with dried slightly more than the 2cm of upper strata, lower floor sees that " wetting " is degree.Watered once " Bao Shui " in general 2 days and get final product, but summer and autumn the morning 9:00 to afternoon 16:00 to shelter from heat or light, in case the medium overdrying causes the seedling dehydration here to be withered.First true leaf grows will strengthen water management, guarantees that water content of substrate is not less than 65%, and late fall, winter, spring, general 2-3d watered once, and summer and every day in early autumn water once.Water all need irrigate at every turn, and the Kong Youshui that promptly tries to get to the heart of a matter oozes out.Guarantee that the matrix top layer is dried.Generally to the 3rd true leaf grow or field planting before 7d, control water hardening, short root once more, keep water content of substrate 55-60% to get final product.
5. fertilization strategy: we discover, generally emerging about the 12d of back, the matrix nutrition level obviously descends, seedling performance nutritive deficiency, wherein outstanding to lack the N symptom, so after emerging, promptly will topdress about 10d, can water the thin solution of executing carbon ammonium: composite fertilizer=1:3, concentration 0.1-0.15%.5-7d waters once more at interval.Cucurbitaceae vegetable whole process is watered fertile 1 time, and brassicaceous vegetable is watered fertile 2 times, and solanaceous vegetable is longer seedling stage, water and execute more than 3 times.
6. temperature control: grow seedlings in summer, early autumn to carry out finely ventilate, the work of sheltering from heat or light, control in the canopy or seedling furrow temperature is not higher than 38. ℃ as far as possible; Winter, spring grow seedlings and should tighten defense warmingly, make every effort to nocturnal temperature and are not less than 10 ℃.When meeting with cold current, can in booth, add a cover little shed, to improve heat insulation effect.
7. pest control: adopt substrate seedling that disease hazard does not generally take place, but it is individual less to grow seedlings in booth, general trialeurodes vaporariorum, Liriomyza class pest take place more, and available Provado adds efficient Cypermethrin foliage-spray control.Other insect pest can prevent and treat with reference to all kinds of vegetables pest Prevention Technique.
Vegetable seedling composite substrate by above method preparation has following advantage: ⑴ and has good physical and chemical character, can guarantee the coordination of water, gas, thermal conditions, can satisfy the needs ventilative, preserve moisture and fertility that loosen; ⑵ have the nutritive element of an amount of ratio, satisfies the requirement that normal growth is grown; ⑶ potential of hydrogen is moderate, satisfies the suit requirement of growing in the neutral environment of most of vegetables; ⑷ this composite interstitial substance effect is suitable with peat composed of rotten mosses commodity matrix effect, but price only is 41% of a peat composed of rotten mosses commodity matrix, and growing seedlings for vegetable factoryization provides the composite interstitial substance of cheap price and excellent quality; ⑸ change the seedling management technology, compares with ordinary method, and this technology is easy, and is workable, suitable and the different environment of growing seedlings (raise seedling in greenhouse, land for growing field crops protection are grown seedlings) use.
Embodiment
Batching:
Fertilizer is pressed the 1:1 composition of proportions by chicken manure and fermentation pig manure, wood chip and fertilizer are the proportioning of 75-80:25-20, adding N, P, K quick-acting nutritious (N:300 mg/kg, P:500mg/kg, K:1500mg/kg) and trace element is water miscible boron, zinc, magnesium, Zn, B 〉=0.2% wherein, Mg 〉=9%, addition are the 800g/ ton.
Concrete preparation flow is:
⑴ wood chip, chicken manure, fermentation pig manure mix to be mixed thoroughly, adds water to water content 50-60%; ⑵ add 1.0-1.5% urea and mix thoroughly; ⑶ system heap, coating film, stack retting 7-10 days, turning stack retting 7-10 days again, airing 2 days; ⑷ add zymophyte No. 1, ferment treated that mycelia climbed full windrow in 80-10 days after, turning once more, stack retting 10 days, airing is 40% to water content; ⑸ add zymophyte and banked up for No. 27 days; ⑹ add N, P, K is quick-acting nutritious and micro-, pack, and finished product is a kind of novel vegetable seedling composite substrate.The wood chip that is come out by above fabrication techniques can fully become thoroughly decomposed, and has showed water-absorbent and moisture holding capacity preferably, adapts to the base mateiral as compound seedling medium.
Below be the several embodiments of the present invention, further specify the present invention, but the present invention be not limited only to this according to claim.
Embodiment 1
Batching:
Fertilizer is pressed the 1:1 composition of proportions by chicken manure and fermentation pig manure, wood chip and fertilizer are the proportioning of 75:25, adding N, P, K quick-acting nutritious (N:300 mg/kg, P:500mg/kg, K:1500mg/kg) and trace element is water miscible boron, zinc, magnesium, Zn, B 〉=0.2% wherein, Mg 〉=9%, addition are the 800g/ ton.
Concrete preparation flow is:
⑴ wood chip, chicken manure, fermentation pig manure mix to be mixed thoroughly, adds water to water content 50%; ⑵ add 1.0% urea and mix thoroughly; ⑶ system heap, coating film, stack retting 7d, turning is stack retting 7d again, airing 2d; ⑷ add zymophyte No. 1, after fermentation 8d treats that mycelia climbs full windrow, and turning once more, stack retting 10d, airing is 40% to water content; ⑸ add No. 2 7d that bank up of zymophyte; ⑹ add N, P, K is quick-acting nutritious and micro-, pack, and finished product is a kind of novel vegetable seedling composite substrate.
Embodiment 2
Batching:
Fertilizer is pressed the 1:1 composition of proportions by chicken manure and fermentation pig manure, wood chip and fertilizer are the proportioning of 77:23, adding N, P, K quick-acting nutritious (N:300 mg/kg, P:500mg/kg, K:1500mg/kg) and trace element is water miscible boron, zinc, magnesium, Zn, B 〉=0.2% wherein, Mg 〉=9%, addition are the 800g/ ton.
Concrete preparation flow is:
⑴ wood chip, chicken manure, fermentation pig manure mix to be mixed thoroughly, adds water to water content 55%; ⑵ add 1.2% urea and mix thoroughly; ⑶ system heap, coating film, stack retting 8d, turning is stack retting 8d again, airing 2d; ⑷ add zymophyte No. 1, after fermentation 9d treats that mycelia climbs full windrow, and turning once more, stack retting 10d, airing is 40% to water content; ⑸ add No. 2 7d that bank up of zymophyte; ⑹ add N, P, K is quick-acting nutritious and micro-, pack, and finished product is a kind of novel vegetable seedling composite substrate.
Embodiment 3
Batching:
Fertilizer is pressed the 1:1 composition of proportions by chicken manure and fermentation pig manure, wood chip and fertilizer are the proportioning of 80:20, adding N, P, K quick-acting nutritious (N:300 mg/kg, P:500mg/kg, K:1500mg/kg) and trace element is water miscible boron, zinc, magnesium, Zn, B 〉=0.2% wherein, Mg 〉=9%, addition are the 800g/ ton.
Concrete preparation flow is:
⑴ wood chip, chicken manure, fermentation pig manure mix to be mixed thoroughly, adds water to water content 60%; ⑵ add 1.5% urea and mix thoroughly; ⑶ system heap, coating film, stack retting 10d, turning is stack retting 10d again, airing 2d; ⑷ add zymophyte No. 1, after fermentation 10d treats that mycelia climbs full windrow, and turning once more, stack retting 10d, airing is 40% to water content; ⑸ add No. 2 7d that bank up of zymophyte; ⑹ add N, P, K is quick-acting nutritious and micro-, pack, and finished product is a kind of novel vegetable seedling composite substrate.
Performance test
Overlap the comparatively matrix production technique of science 1.. set up one, make the fertilizer nutrition source can add 20-25% to, improved 2-3 doubly than the nutrition source addition of other technology, matrix nutrition is horn of plenty more.The product proterties is fit to the use that coil in all kinds of vegetables cave, nutrient cup is grown seedlings fully.Nursery effect is near peat composed of rotten mosses commodity matrix level.
2. having solved is the matrix suction difficulty that substrate material occurs with the wood chip, and the problem of water conservation difference has realized with cheap, abundant, reproducible wood chip resource being that base mateiral is produced seedling medium.Only 0.784 yuan of the cost of every dish seedling medium is saved 1.091 yuan/dish than peat composed of rotten mosses commodity medium, has very strong price advantage.

Claims (3)

1. novel vegetable seedling composite substrate and preparation method thereof, it is characterized in that: it is to be main raw material with the wood chip, cooperates fertilizer, urea and trace element are formed.
2. according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: fertilizer is pressed the 1:1 composition of proportions by chicken manure and fermentation pig manure in this vegetable seedling composite substrate, wood chip and fertilizer are the proportioning of 75-80:25-20, add N, P, the quick-acting nutritious wherein N:300 of K mg/kg, P:500mg/kg, K:1500mg/kg; Trace element is water miscible boron, zinc, magnesium, Zn, B 〉=0.2% wherein, and Mg 〉=9%, addition are the 800g/ ton.
3. one kind as described in the claim 1,2, and it is characterized in that: the preparation method of composite interstitial substance is: ⑴ wood chip, chicken manure, fermentation pig manure mix to be mixed thoroughly, adds water to water content 50-60%; ⑵ add 1.0-1.5% urea and mix thoroughly; ⑶ system heap, coating film, stack retting 7-10d, turning stack retting 7-10 days again, airing 2d; ⑷ add zymophyte No. 1, after fermentation 8-10d treats that mycelia climbs full windrow, and turning once more, stack retting 10d, airing is 40% to water content; ⑸ add No. 2 7d that bank up of zymophyte; ⑹ add N, P, K is quick-acting nutritious and micro-, pack, and finished product is a kind of novel vegetable seedling composite substrate.
CN2010102455573A 2010-08-05 2010-08-05 Novel vegetable seedling composite substrate and preparation method thereof Pending CN101891522A (en)

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104402605A (en) * 2014-11-20 2015-03-11 苏州市相城区盛胡特种养殖专业合作社 Slow-release vegetable nutrient soil and preparation method thereof
CN105315028A (en) * 2014-06-11 2016-02-10 江苏沃野生物科技发展有限公司 Production process of vegetable seedling breeding substrate
CN104086243B (en) * 2014-05-30 2016-05-25 杭州师范大学 A kind of vegetable seedling substrate and preparation method thereof
CN106380251A (en) * 2016-08-31 2017-02-08 宿州市埇桥区九里梦种植专业合作社 Preparation method of matrix soil dedicated for seedling culture of fruit radish
CN106518529A (en) * 2016-11-09 2017-03-22 蚌埠学院 Compound biochar-based slow-release fertilizer and application method thereof
CN107879783A (en) * 2017-09-26 2018-04-06 无为县良峰现代生态农业有限公司 One kind utilizes wood chip composting gourd, fruit and vegetable seedling nutritious soil base-material and preparation method thereof
CN108401844A (en) * 2018-01-24 2018-08-17 天津农学院 A kind of fruit tree plant matter soil and the preparation method and application thereof for crossing the conversion of simple stomach pig chicken

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CN101391922A (en) * 2008-11-10 2009-03-25 马宏达 Formulating method of yield nutrient fluid for inonotus obliquus cultivation
CN101391925A (en) * 2008-10-28 2009-03-25 山东省农业科学院土壤肥料研究所 Production method of champignon three-stage strain medium and strain material bag by using branch section material
CN101496486A (en) * 2009-03-13 2009-08-05 新疆巴音郭楞蒙古自治州农业科学研究所 Method for cultivating mushroom
CN101570450A (en) * 2008-04-29 2009-11-04 吴继高 Preparation method of black fungus compost
CN101766113A (en) * 2010-01-25 2010-07-07 大连普瑞康生物技术有限公司 Method for preparing dendrobium officinale culture medium

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101570450A (en) * 2008-04-29 2009-11-04 吴继高 Preparation method of black fungus compost
CN101391925A (en) * 2008-10-28 2009-03-25 山东省农业科学院土壤肥料研究所 Production method of champignon three-stage strain medium and strain material bag by using branch section material
CN101391922A (en) * 2008-11-10 2009-03-25 马宏达 Formulating method of yield nutrient fluid for inonotus obliquus cultivation
CN101496486A (en) * 2009-03-13 2009-08-05 新疆巴音郭楞蒙古自治州农业科学研究所 Method for cultivating mushroom
CN101766113A (en) * 2010-01-25 2010-07-07 大连普瑞康生物技术有限公司 Method for preparing dendrobium officinale culture medium

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104086243B (en) * 2014-05-30 2016-05-25 杭州师范大学 A kind of vegetable seedling substrate and preparation method thereof
CN105315028A (en) * 2014-06-11 2016-02-10 江苏沃野生物科技发展有限公司 Production process of vegetable seedling breeding substrate
CN104402605A (en) * 2014-11-20 2015-03-11 苏州市相城区盛胡特种养殖专业合作社 Slow-release vegetable nutrient soil and preparation method thereof
CN106380251A (en) * 2016-08-31 2017-02-08 宿州市埇桥区九里梦种植专业合作社 Preparation method of matrix soil dedicated for seedling culture of fruit radish
CN106518529A (en) * 2016-11-09 2017-03-22 蚌埠学院 Compound biochar-based slow-release fertilizer and application method thereof
CN107879783A (en) * 2017-09-26 2018-04-06 无为县良峰现代生态农业有限公司 One kind utilizes wood chip composting gourd, fruit and vegetable seedling nutritious soil base-material and preparation method thereof
CN108401844A (en) * 2018-01-24 2018-08-17 天津农学院 A kind of fruit tree plant matter soil and the preparation method and application thereof for crossing the conversion of simple stomach pig chicken

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Application publication date: 20101124