CN101890570B - Electron-beam welding method for aluminum alloy and steel based on intermediate layer isolation control - Google Patents

Electron-beam welding method for aluminum alloy and steel based on intermediate layer isolation control Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101890570B
CN101890570B CN2010102025842A CN201010202584A CN101890570B CN 101890570 B CN101890570 B CN 101890570B CN 2010102025842 A CN2010102025842 A CN 2010102025842A CN 201010202584 A CN201010202584 A CN 201010202584A CN 101890570 B CN101890570 B CN 101890570B
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steel
welding
intermediate layer
silver
aluminum alloy
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CN2010102025842A
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CN101890570A (en
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张秉刚
张春光
陈国庆
冯吉才
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Harbin Institute of Technology
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Harbin Institute of Technology
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Abstract

The invention discloses an electron-beam welding method for aluminum alloy and steel based on intermediate layer isolation control, which belongs to the dissimilar metal electron-beam welding field and solves the problem that welded joints can be easily broken because a large number of brittle Fe-Al intermetallic compounds are produced when aluminum alloy and steel are welded by using the traditional welding method. The welding method comprises the following steps: before welding, prearranging a silver intermediate layer in a butt seam of an aluminum alloy plate to be welded and a steel plate, wherein the width of the silver intermediate layer is d, the thickness of the silver intermediate layer is delta, the purity of the silver intermediate layer is p, and both the thickness of the aluminum alloy plate to be welded and the thickness of the steel plate are d; fixing the aluminum alloy to be welded, steel and the silver intermediate layer with fixtures, and then placing in a vacuum welding chamber; fixing by spot welding with small electron beams, and then welding; and in the welding process, enabling the electron beam flow to deviate from the silver-steel contact surface for a distance of x, and making the electron beam flow acting on the silver intermediate layer. The welding method can be used for manufacturing aluminum/steel compound members in automobile industry, shipbuilding industry and the like as well as aerospace aluminum/steel airtight components.

Description

Based intermediate layer intercepts the aluminium alloy of control and the electro-beam welding method of steel
Technical field
The present invention relates to dissimilar metal electron beam welding field.
Background technology
Aluminium alloy has advantages such as density is low, specific strength is higher, plasticity is good, corrosion-resistant, is to satisfy present light in structure to quantize with energy savings, alleviate the ideal material of environmental pollution requirement.On warship, aluminium alloy structure is adopted with the upper part in the deck, not only can reduce the warship body weight significantly, practices thrift fuel consume, and can significantly reduce the center of gravity of warship body, strengthens the wind and wave resistance performance, and then improves headway and mobility.In automobile industry, in order to reach the purpose of loss of weight, the accessory at many non-bearings or underloading position all adopts aluminium alloy structure.Steel has the excellent comprehensive mechanical performance, is to use structural material the most widely in the industry.At home and abroad in the commercial production, the welded product of employing " aluminium+steel " dissimilar metal gets more and more and has realized good economic benefit and social benefit.Therefore, how to realize aluminium alloy and steel joint high-quality, be connected to become reliably and become more and more important, caused common attention.Welding for aluminium alloy and steel; Joint produces the fragility Fe-Al intermetallic compound of a large amount of continuous distributed during melting; Postwelding is cracking under the residual stress effect very easily; Be difficult to realize the two reliable connection, the joint of method manufacturings such as soldering, diffusion welding (DW), friction welding (FW) then receives the restriction of joint form and production efficiency, is difficult to be widely used.
Summary of the invention
When the objective of the invention is solve to use existing welding method aluminium alloy and steel being welded; Existence provides a kind of aluminium alloy of based intermediate layer obstruct control and the electro-beam welding method of steel because of producing the problem that a large amount of fragility Fe-Al intermetallic compounds cause the welding point easy fracture.
Based intermediate layer intercepts the aluminium alloy of control and the electro-beam welding method of steel, and its process is following:
Before the welding, in the abutment joint of aluminum alloy plate materials to be welded and steel board, presetting width is that d, thickness are that δ, purity are the silver-colored intermediate layer of p, and the thickness of said aluminum alloy plate materials to be welded and the thickness of steel board are d; It is indoor aluminium alloy to be welded and steel and silver-colored intermediate layer to be put into vacuum welding after fixing with anchor clamps then; Then, carry out spot welding with little beam deflection and fix, weld then;
During welding, make electronic beam current skew silver-steel contact-making surface x distance, and make electronic beam current act on the silver-colored intermediate layer.
The purity in said silver-colored intermediate layer is that p is greater than 99.95%;
The aluminum alloy plate materials to be welded and the specification of steel board are 80mm * 35mm * 2.0mm, and the thickness δ in silver-colored intermediate layer is that 1.0mm, length are 2.0mm for 80mm, width d; The aluminum alloy plate materials material is the 5A02 rustproof aluminum alloy, and the steel board material is the 0Cr18Ni9 austenitic stainless steel; It fixedly is that vacuum in the vacuum welding chamber reaches 4.5 * 10 that the little beam deflection of said usefulness carries out spot welding -5Carry out during Pa; The fixing parameter of said spot welding is: focus current 2450mA, the silver-solid line 3mA of steel butt joint millet cake, the silver-solid line 4mA of aluminium butt joint millet cake;
During welding, beam pulling silver-steel interface be 0.2mm apart from x, promptly the off beam amount is 0.2mm; Welding parameter is specially: accelerating potential is 55kV, and focus current is 2450mA, and the welding line is 11mA, and speed of welding is 360mm/min.
Good effect of the present invention: the present invention adopts fine silver as intermediate layer material; Iris action through electron beam off beam method and intermediate layer; Suppress the generation of fragility Fe-Al intermetallic compound, obtain flawless electro-beam welding joint, and obtain very high intensity; Good process repeatability, welding efficiency is high.The invention belongs to dissimilar metal electron beam welding field, be applicable to the manufacturing of aluminium/steel composite component and Aero-Space aluminium/steel air-tightness parts in the industry such as automobile, shipbuilding.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 presets fine silver intermediate layer and the fixing operation chart of spot welding; Fig. 2 is an electronic beam current active position sketch map.
The specific embodiment
The specific embodiment one: combine Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 that this embodiment is described, the based intermediate layer of this embodiment intercepts the aluminium alloy of control and the electro-beam welding method of steel, and its process is following:
Before the welding, in the abutment joint of aluminum alloy plate materials to be welded and steel board, presetting width is that d, thickness are that δ, purity are the silver-colored intermediate layer of p, and the thickness of said aluminum alloy plate materials to be welded and the thickness of steel board are d; It is indoor aluminium alloy to be welded and steel and silver-colored intermediate layer to be put into vacuum welding after fixing with anchor clamps then; Then, carry out spot welding with little beam deflection and fix, make the gap between intermediate layer and interface be lower than 0.10mm, weld then;
During welding, make electronic beam current skew silver-steel contact-making surface x distance, and make electronic beam current act on the silver-colored intermediate layer.
The electric current of said little beam deflection is generally 3-4mA; Said silver-steel contact-making surface is represented the contact-making surface of silver and steel.
Among Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, A is an aluminum alloy plate materials, and B is a steel board, and C is silver-colored intermediate layer, and D is an electron beam.
Utilize this embodiment, can control the temperature of aluminium-Yin contact-making surface through off beam, thereby realize both good connections; Utilize the iris action in silver-colored intermediate layer, can prevent that a large amount of liquid Fe atom and Al atom are in contact with one another, thereby can suppress the generation of Fe-Al intermetallic compound, improve joint microstructure; Simultaneously, utilize the fabulous plasticity in silver-colored intermediate layer, can alleviate the joint residual stress, finally improve strength of joint.
Electron beam welding technology have energy density height, heat input less, the energy input can accurately control, welding seam deep width ratio is big, welding deformation is little, weld seam and heat affected area crystal grain is thin, the vacuum welding does not receive advantages such as air pollution, in the connection of foreign material, has special advantages.Through presetting metallic intermediate layer, and the fusing ratio through each mother metal of electronics off beam method adjustment, be easy to butt joint tissue and control, suppress the generation of weld defect, thereby the realization aluminium alloy is connected with the high-quality of steel.
The present invention adopts fine silver as intermediate layer material; Fusing ratio through each mother metal of electron beam off beam method adjustment is easy to the butt joint tissue and controls, and can suppress the generation of fragility Fe-Al intermetallic compound through the iris action in intermediate layer; Can obtain flawless electro-beam welding joint; And obtain very high intensity, and good process repeatability, welding efficiency is high.The invention belongs to dissimilar metal electron beam welding field, be applicable to the manufacturing of aluminium/steel composite component and Aero-Space aluminium/steel air-tightness parts in the industry such as automobile, shipbuilding.
The specific embodiment two: this embodiment is that the thickness δ in said silver-colored intermediate layer is 1mm to the further qualification of the electro-beam welding method of the aluminium alloy of the based intermediate layer obstruct control of embodiment one and steel.
The specific embodiment three: this embodiment is that the purity in said silver-colored intermediate layer is that p is greater than 99.95% to the further qualification of the electro-beam welding method of the aluminium alloy of embodiment one or two based intermediate layer obstruct control and steel.
The specific embodiment four: this embodiment is that during welding, what electronic beam current squinted silver-steel contact-making surface is 0~0.2mm apart from x to the further qualification of the electro-beam welding method of the aluminium alloy of embodiment one, two or three based intermediate layer obstruct control and steel.
The specific embodiment five: this embodiment is the further qualification to the electro-beam welding method of the aluminium alloy of any one based intermediate layer obstruct control of embodiment one to four and steel; Carry out spot welding fixedly the time with little beam deflection, the electric current of said little beam deflection is 3mA~4mA.
The specific embodiment six: this embodiment is the further qualification to the electro-beam welding method of the aluminium alloy of any one based intermediate layer obstruct control of embodiment one to five and steel; At the said width that in the abutment joint of aluminum alloy plate materials to be welded and steel board, presets is that d, thickness are before δ, purity are the silver-colored intermediate layer of p, also to comprise following process:
Successively, then said aluminum alloy plate materials and steel board are carried out ultrasonic waves for cleaning in acetone, carry out drying then with 180#, 400# and the 800# liquid honing aluminum alloy plate materials to be welded and the interface and the near zone thereof of steel board.
The specific embodiment seven: this embodiment is the further qualification to the electro-beam welding method of the aluminium alloy of any one based intermediate layer obstruct control of embodiment one to six and steel; The aluminum alloy plate materials to be welded and the specification of steel board are 80mm * 35mm * 2.0mm, and the thickness δ in silver-colored intermediate layer is that 1.0mm, length are that 2.0mm, purity p are higher than 99.95% for 80mm, width d; The aluminum alloy plate materials material is the 5A02 rustproof aluminum alloy, and the steel board material is the 0Cr18Ni9 austenitic stainless steel; It fixedly is that vacuum in the vacuum welding chamber reaches 4.5 * 10 that the little beam deflection of said usefulness carries out spot welding -5Carry out during Pa; The fixing parameter of said spot welding is: focus current 2450mA, the silver-solid line 3mA of steel butt joint millet cake, the silver-solid line 4mA of aluminium butt joint millet cake.
The specific embodiment eight: this embodiment is the further qualification to the electro-beam welding method of the aluminium alloy of any one based intermediate layer obstruct control of embodiment one to seven and steel; During welding; Beam pulling silver-steel interface be 0.1mm apart from x, promptly the off beam amount is 0.1mm; Welding parameter is specially: accelerating potential is 55kV, and focus current is 2450mA, and the welding line is 11mA, and speed of welding is 360mm/min or 330mm/min.
When speed of welding was 360mm/min, welding point tensile strength can reach 179MPa;
When speed of welding was 330mm/min, welding point tensile strength can reach 169MPa.
The specific embodiment nine: this embodiment is the further qualification to the electro-beam welding method of the aluminium alloy of any one based intermediate layer obstruct control of embodiment one to seven and steel; During welding; Beam pulling silver-steel interface be 0.2mm apart from x, promptly the off beam amount is 0.2mm; Welding parameter is specially: accelerating potential is 55kV, and focus current is 2450mA, and the welding line is 11mA, and speed of welding is 360mm/min.
The welding point tensile strength of this embodiment can reach 183MPa.
The specific embodiment ten: this embodiment is the further qualification to the electro-beam welding method of the aluminium alloy of any one based intermediate layer obstruct control of embodiment one to seven and steel; During welding; Beam pulling silver-steel interface be 0mm apart from x, promptly electron beam is over against silver-steel interface; Welding parameter is specially: accelerating potential is 55kV, and focus current is 2450mA, and the welding line is 11mA, and speed of welding is 300mm/min.
The welding point tensile strength of this embodiment can reach 178MPa.

Claims (2)

1. based intermediate layer intercepts the aluminium alloy of control and the electro-beam welding method of steel, it is characterized in that its process is following:
Before the welding, in the abutment joint of aluminum alloy plate materials to be welded and steel board, presetting width is that d, thickness are that δ, purity are the silver-colored intermediate layer of p, and the thickness of said aluminum alloy plate materials to be welded and the thickness of steel board are d; It is indoor aluminium alloy to be welded and steel and silver-colored intermediate layer to be put into vacuum welding after fixing with anchor clamps then; Then, carry out spot welding with little beam deflection and fix, weld then;
During welding, make electronic beam current skew silver-steel contact-making surface x distance, and make electronic beam current act on the silver-colored intermediate layer;
The purity in said silver-colored intermediate layer is that p is greater than 99.95%;
The aluminum alloy plate materials to be welded and the specification of steel board are 80mm * 35mm * 2.0mm, and the thickness δ in silver-colored intermediate layer is that 1.0mm, length are 2.0mm for 80mm, width d; The aluminum alloy plate materials material is the 5A02 rustproof aluminum alloy, and the steel board material is the 0Cr18Ni9 austenitic stainless steel; It fixedly is that vacuum in the vacuum welding chamber reaches 4.5 * 10 that the little beam deflection of said usefulness carries out spot welding -5Carry out during Pa; The fixing parameter of said spot welding is: focus current 2450mA, the silver-solid line 3mA of steel butt joint millet cake, the silver-solid line 4mA of aluminium butt joint millet cake;
During welding, beam pulling silver-steel interface be 0.2mm apart from x, promptly the off beam amount is 0.2mm; Welding parameter is specially: accelerating potential is 55kV, and focus current is 2450mA, and the welding line is 11mA, and speed of welding is 360mm/min.
2. based intermediate layer according to claim 1 intercepts the aluminium alloy of control and the electro-beam welding method of steel; It is characterized in that at the said width that in the abutment joint of aluminum alloy plate materials to be welded and steel board, presets be that d, thickness are before δ, purity are the silver-colored intermediate layer of p, also to comprise following process:
Successively, then said aluminum alloy plate materials and steel board are carried out ultrasonic waves for cleaning in acetone, carry out drying then with 180#, 400# and the 800# liquid honing aluminum alloy plate materials to be welded and the interface and the near zone thereof of steel board.
CN2010102025842A 2010-06-18 2010-06-18 Electron-beam welding method for aluminum alloy and steel based on intermediate layer isolation control Expired - Fee Related CN101890570B (en)

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CN107649776B (en) * 2017-10-17 2020-07-07 常熟理工学院 Method for welding aluminum-based composite material plate and stainless steel plate by using electron beam with external magnetic field
CN108406076A (en) * 2018-01-14 2018-08-17 哈尔滨工业大学(威海) A kind of high-density alloy electron beam welding packing material and method
CN108581166B (en) * 2018-04-10 2021-01-15 上海工程技术大学 Method for inhibiting generation of Fe-Al intermetallic compound layer in aluminum/steel dissimilar metal welding
CN109128691B (en) * 2018-10-26 2020-11-06 山东钢铁集团日照有限公司 Preparation process of composite casting blank for high-carbon high-alloy steel plate
CN110039169B (en) * 2019-04-30 2021-04-02 中国船舶重工集团公司第七二五研究所 Electron beam welding method for titanium-aluminum dissimilar metal

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JP2002283080A (en) * 2001-03-22 2002-10-02 Japan Space Utilization Promotion Center Method for joining steel-based material and aluminum- based material

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CN1695870A (en) * 2005-06-16 2005-11-16 哈尔滨工业大学 Electron beam welding method of adding transition layer into compound between metals of titanium aluminium alloy

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