CN101861500B - Cryogenic refrigerator and control method therefor - Google Patents

Cryogenic refrigerator and control method therefor Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101861500B
CN101861500B CN200880116901XA CN200880116901A CN101861500B CN 101861500 B CN101861500 B CN 101861500B CN 200880116901X A CN200880116901X A CN 200880116901XA CN 200880116901 A CN200880116901 A CN 200880116901A CN 101861500 B CN101861500 B CN 101861500B
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China
Prior art keywords
pressure
low
voltage
regulating valve
utmost point
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CN200880116901XA
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101861500A (en
Inventor
佐治脩好
高桥俊雄
吉永诚一郎
胁阪裕寿
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株式会社Ihi
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Priority to JP2007298812A priority Critical patent/JP2009121786A/en
Priority to JP2007-298812 priority
Application filed by 株式会社Ihi filed Critical 株式会社Ihi
Priority to PCT/JP2008/070108 priority patent/WO2009066565A1/en
Publication of CN101861500A publication Critical patent/CN101861500A/en
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Publication of CN101861500B publication Critical patent/CN101861500B/en

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B9/00Compression machines, plant, or systems, in which the refrigerant is air or other gas of low boiling point
    • F25B9/14Compression machines, plant, or systems, in which the refrigerant is air or other gas of low boiling point characterised by the cycle used, e.g. Stirling cycle
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B9/00Compression machines, plant, or systems, in which the refrigerant is air or other gas of low boiling point
    • F25B9/06Compression machines, plant, or systems, in which the refrigerant is air or other gas of low boiling point using expanders
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J1/00Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures
    • F25J1/003Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the kind of cold generation within the liquefaction unit for compensating heat leaks and liquid production
    • F25J1/0047Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the kind of cold generation within the liquefaction unit for compensating heat leaks and liquid production using an "external" refrigerant stream in a closed vapor compression cycle
    • F25J1/005Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the kind of cold generation within the liquefaction unit for compensating heat leaks and liquid production using an "external" refrigerant stream in a closed vapor compression cycle by expansion of a gaseous refrigerant stream with extraction of work
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J1/00Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures
    • F25J1/006Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the refrigerant fluid used
    • F25J1/0062Light or noble gases, mixtures thereof
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J1/00Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures
    • F25J1/006Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures characterised by the refrigerant fluid used
    • F25J1/0062Light or noble gases, mixtures thereof
    • F25J1/0065Helium
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J1/00Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures
    • F25J1/02Processes or apparatus for liquefying or solidifying gases or gaseous mixtures requiring the use of refrigeration, e.g. of helium or hydrogen Details and kind of the refrigeration system used; Integration with other units or processes; Controlling aspects of the process
    • F25J1/0243Start-up or control of the process; Details of the apparatus used; Details of the refrigerant compression system used
    • F25J1/0244Operation; Control and regulation; Instrumentation
    • F25J1/0245Different modes, i.e. 'runs', of operation; Process control
    • F25J1/0248Stopping of the process, e.g. defrosting or deriming, maintenance; Back-up mode or systems
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2309/00Gas cycle refrigeration machines
    • F25B2309/14Compression machines, plant or systems characterised by the cycle used
    • F25B2309/1401Ericsson or Ericcson cycles
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2400/00General features or devices for refrigeration machines, plants or systems, combined heating and refrigeration systems or heat-pump systems, i.e. not limited to a particular subgroup of F25B
    • F25B2400/16Receivers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2500/00Problems to be solved
    • F25B2500/27Problems to be solved characterised by the stop of the refrigeration cycle
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2600/00Control issues
    • F25B2600/25Control of valves
    • F25B2600/2519On-off valves
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B45/00Arrangements for charging or discharging refrigerant
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2245/00Processes or apparatus involving steps for recycling of process streams
    • F25J2245/02Recycle of a stream in general, e.g. a by-pass stream
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2270/00Refrigeration techniques used
    • F25J2270/14External refrigeration with work-producing gas expansion loop
    • F25J2270/16External refrigeration with work-producing gas expansion loop with mutliple gas expansion loops of the same refrigerant
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2270/00Refrigeration techniques used
    • F25J2270/90External refrigeration, e.g. conventional closed-loop mechanical refrigeration unit using Freon or NH3, unspecified external refrigeration
    • F25J2270/912Liquefaction cycle of a low-boiling (feed) gas in a cryocooler, i.e. in a closed-loop refrigerator

Abstract

A cryogenic refrigerator (10) which creates a cryogenic temperature condition by compressing and expanding working gas in a closed loop (11). The cryogenic refrigerator comprises a bypass line (22) allowing a high-pressure portion and a low-pressure portion to communicate with each other, a gas storage tank (24) located midway in the bypass line and including pressure regulation valves (23a, 23b) on the high-pressure side and the low-pressure side respectively, and a pressure control unit (26) controlling the pressure regulation valves. The pressure control unit (26) controls the pressure regulation valves (23a, 23b) such that the pressure in the gas storage tank (24) is equal to that in the closed loop at room temperature and in a stopped state and is between those in the high-pressure portion and the low-pressure portion and close to that in the low-pressure portion in an operating state.

Description

Cryogenic refrigerator and control method thereof

Technical field

The present invention relates to have and can cooled body be cooled off the to the utmost point cryogenic refrigerator and the control method thereof of the cooling capacity of low temperature.

Background technology

For high-temperature superconductor (HTS) equipment (for example superconducting power transmission cable, superconducting transformer, cryomotor, superconducting power are stored with superconducting coil, large-scale accelerator, nuclear fusion testing equipment, MHD generating, superconducting coil etc.) is cooled off, use cryogenic refrigerator (for example Bu Leidun circulating frozen machine or Sven-Gan Eriksson circulating frozen machine).

For example, under the situation that the high-temperature superconductor apparatus cools is used, and different, the minimum temperature scope is 65K, 40K, 30K, 20K etc. according to the kind of superconducting wire and purposes.In addition, at each temperature, the freezing degree that is output as 1~10kW, refrigerant gas uses the mist of helium (the about 4K of boiling point), neon (the about 27K of boiling point) or helium and neon etc.

For example, in patent documentation 1,2 and non-patent literature 1 related cryogenic refrigerator is disclosed.

The cascade turbine helium cryogenic liquefaction device of patent documentation 1 is characterised in that; As shown in Figure 1; Association constitutes; Constitute by neon freeze cycle that possesses turbocompressor 51, heat exchanger 52a~52e, turbine type decompressor 53 and the helium freeze cycle that possesses turbocompressor 54, heat exchanger 55a~55c, expansion turbine (turbine) 56, Joule-Thomson valve 57, helium is carried out precooling by the neon freeze cycle.

The purpose of the refrigerator of patent documentation 2 is; Can prevent the curing of cooling medium, prolong the cycle of safeguarding, produce big output; Do not produce vibration yet; As shown in Figure 2, be to possess centrifugal compressor 62 and turbine 63 and with the blade 64 of compressor 62 refrigerator 61 as 1 grade, the gas 65 that imports with the machine of being compressed 62 compressions and to turbine 63 is as the mist of for example helium and argon, helium and nitrogen etc.

Non-patent literature 1 discloses a kind of cryogenic refrigerator, and is as shown in Figure 3, and for high-temperature superconductive cable is cooled off, this device is cooled to 65K with liquid nitrogen (the about 77K of boiling point).

Patent documentation 1: japanese kokai publication sho 59-122868 number

Patent documentation 2: japanese kokai publication hei 11-159898 number

" the DESIGN OF OIL-FREE SIMPLETURBO TYPE 65K/6KW HELIUM AND NEON MIXTURE GASREFRIGERATOR FOR HIGH TEMPERATURESUPERCONDUCTING POWER CABLE COOLING " of non-patent literature 1:N.Saji etc.; CP613; Advancesin Cryogenic Engineering:Proceedings of the Cryogenic EngineeringConference; The 47th volume, 2002

Because the condensing temperature of the working gas (helium, neon etc.) that in above-mentioned cryogenic refrigerator, uses is very low, thus excellent aspect the liquefaction of avoiding decompressor inside, but exist the very problem points of high price.

In the cryogenic refrigerator of the working gas that uses such high price, must make the loading of gas minimum and till reaching steady running, pressure inside is remained necessarily from the starting of refrigerator.

; Along with the temperature in the refrigerator reduces; If for example from normal temperature (for example 300K) the to the utmost point low temperature (for example 60K) that is cooled, then the gas volume of this part becomes 1/5, thereby the pressure (1/2 when for example starting) in order to keep stipulating for the low-pressure low-temperature of the cryogenic refrigerator in running part; Be necessary to replenish working gas, thereby become 5/2 times in this part.

In addition, on the contrary, after running stops,, thereby be necessary working gas is discarded to the outside or is pumped to the pressure vessel of other setting because pressure raises.In this case, if be discarded to the outside, then the loss of the working gas of high price is big, if be pumped to pressure vessel, then the compressive resistance of pressure vessel becomes excessive.

And, stop at working pressure container not must increasing the whole compressive resistance of refrigerator in advance under the whole situation of refrigerator with keeping intact.In addition, in this case, when starting, exist excessive load and be applied to the problem on the compressor.

In addition, if owing to promptly stopping to wait refrigerator is stopped suddenly, then on high-tension side working gas passes through compressor and adverse current, and the compressor despining brings bad influence to driving system etc. sometimes.

The present invention invents in order to solve the above problems.That is, the invention reside in, a kind of cryogenic refrigerator and control method thereof are provided; This cryogenic refrigerator has the cooling capacity that can cooled body be cooled to the utmost point low temperature of regulation, does not use compressive resistance to surpass the pressure vessel of the pressure (for example 1MPa) of regulation, and; Do not carry out emitting and replenishing of working gas; Normal temperature from stop to work in utmost point low temperature, can the pressure of high-pressure section be remained almost certain, and; Even promptly stop, also can preventing the despining of compressor.

Summary of the invention

According to the present invention, a kind of cryogenic refrigerator is provided, this device through compression work gas in closed loop and the working gas after making compression expand, thereby generation utmost point low temperature, this cryogenic refrigerator possesses:

Bypass line is with the high-voltage section and the low voltage section connection of said closed loop;

Expansion box is positioned at the centre of this bypass line, has pressure-regulating valve respectively in high-pressure side and low-pressure side; And

Pressure control device is controlled this each pressure-regulating valve,

Wherein, at normal temperature and when stopping, said each pressure-regulating valve of this pressure control device control; Make that the pressure of expansion box is identical with the pressure of closed loop; When producing the running of utmost point low temperature, said each pressure-regulating valve of this pressure control device control makes the pressure of high-voltage section become the pressure of regulation.

According to preferred implementation of the present invention; The capacity of said expansion box is set at; When stopping and when becoming normal temperature, can the pressure in the said expansion box be remained below the reference pressure of regulation, and; When producing the running of utmost point low temperature, can the pressure of said high-voltage section be remained the running pressure of regulation.

Preferably, said pressure control device,

When the stopping of cryogenic refrigerator, said each pressure-regulating valve is remained standard-sized sheet,

In starting, surpass in said high-voltage section under the situation of the maximum pressure of stipulating, open and be connected on high-tension side pressure-regulating valve, be under the situation below the minimum pressure of stipulating in said high-voltage section, open the pressure-regulating valve that is connected to low-pressure side.

In addition, according to preferred implementation of the present invention, possess:

Normal temperature compressed machine is arranged on the normal temperature portion of said closed loop, and working gas is compressed to high pressure from the low pressure of regulation;

The 1st intermediate heat exchanger is positioned at the centre of said utmost point low-temp. portion and normal temperature portion, carries out heat exchange each other at working gas; And

Decompressor more is arranged on utmost point low-temp. portion side than the 1st intermediate heat exchanger, makes working gas carry out constant entropy expansion.

In addition, preferred, said normal temperature compressed machine is made up of a plurality of turbo-compressor from low pressure multi-stage compression to the said high pressure of said regulation,

Said decompressor is made up of a plurality of expansion turbine that are expanded to said low pressure from said high-pressure multi-stage,

In the centre of said a plurality of expansion turbine, possess a plurality of intermediate heat exchangers that carry out heat exchange at working gas each other.

In addition, according to the present invention, a kind of control method of cryogenic refrigerator is provided, through compression work gas in closed loop and the working gas after making compression expand, thereby produce utmost point low temperature, wherein,

At said cryogenic refrigerator, be provided with bypass line and expansion box, wherein, this bypass line is communicated with the high-voltage section and the low voltage section of said closed loop, and this expansion box is positioned at the centre of this bypass line, has pressure-regulating valve respectively in high-pressure side and low-pressure side,

At normal temperature and when stopping, controlling said each pressure-regulating valve, make that the pressure of expansion box is identical with the pressure of closed loop, when producing the running of utmost point low temperature, control said each pressure-regulating valve, make the pressure of high-voltage section become the pressure of regulation.

In addition; According to preferred implementation of the present invention, the capacity of said expansion box is set at, when stopping and when becoming normal temperature; Can the pressure in the said expansion box be remained below the reference pressure of regulation; And, when producing the running of utmost point low temperature, can the pressure of said high-voltage section be remained the running pressure of regulation.

Apparatus and method according to the invention described above possess bypass line and expansion box, wherein; High-voltage section and low voltage section that this bypass line will constitute the closed loop of cryogenic refrigerator are communicated with; This expansion box is positioned at the centre of this bypass line, has pressure-regulating valve respectively in high-pressure side and low-pressure side

Thereby; Control each pressure-regulating valve (for example when stopping, each pressure-regulating valve being remained standard-sized sheet); Make the pressure of expansion box at normal temperature and identical with closed loop when stopping, thereby can be below the reference pressure of regulation the default of the integral body that constitutes by closed loop, bypass line and expansion box.

In addition, thus, when the stopping of refrigerator, can make the entrance side of compressor and the pressure pressure equalization of outlet side, thereby, after stopping, can preventing to result from the despining of compressor of pressure differential of entrance side and the outlet side of compressor.

In addition; When producing the running of utmost point low temperature; Control said each pressure-regulating valve; Make the pressure of high-voltage section become the pressure of regulation, thereby even the low-pressure low-temperature part of the cryogenic refrigerator in the running is because temperature reduces for example 5/2 times the working gas when needing to start with the pressure reduction, also can be from the working gas of the additional appropriate section of expansion box.

So, the capacity of expansion box is set at, when stopping and when becoming normal temperature; Can the pressure in the expansion box be remained below the reference pressure of regulation, and, when producing the running of utmost point low temperature; Can the pressure of said high-voltage section be remained the running pressure of regulation, thereby have the cooling capacity that can cooled body be cooled to the utmost point low temperature of regulation, not use compressive resistance to surpass the pressure vessel of the pressure (for example 1MPa) of regulation; And; Do not carry out emitting and replenishing of working gas, the utmost point low temperature in the normal temperature from stop to the work can remain the pressure of high-pressure section almost certain.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the ideograph of the device of patent documentation 1.

Fig. 2 is the pie graph of the refrigerator of patent documentation 2.

Fig. 3 is the ideograph of the device of non-patent literature 1.

Fig. 4 is the figure that shows the 1st embodiment of the cryogenic refrigerator that the present invention relates to.

Fig. 5 is the figure that shows the 2nd embodiment of the cryogenic refrigerator that the present invention relates to.

The specific embodiment

Below, with reference to accompanying drawing, preferred implementation of the present invention is described.In addition, in each figure, the symbol identical, and the explanation of omission repetition to common part mark.

Fig. 4 is the figure that shows the 1st embodiment of the cryogenic refrigerator that the present invention relates to.

Cryogenic refrigerator 10 of the present invention is through compression work gas in closed loop 11 and the working gas after making compression expands and to produce the cryogenic refrigerator of utmost point low temperature.The expansion of preferred expansion turbine is constant entropy expansion.

In the figure, cryogenic refrigerator 10 of the present invention possesses the closed loop 11 of working gas circulation, in this closed loop 11, is provided with utmost point low temperature heat exchanger 12, normal temperature compressed machine the 14, the 1st intermediate heat exchanger 16 and decompressor 18.The working gas of circulation uses the mist of helium (the about 4K of boiling point), neon (the about 27K of boiling point) or helium and neon in closed loop 11.

Utmost point low temperature heat exchanger 12 is arranged on the utmost point low-temp. portion of closed loop 11, by working gas cooled body is cooled off indirectly.Cooled body is high-temperature superconductor (HTS) equipment (for example superconducting power transmission cable, superconducting transformer, cryomotor, superconducting power are stored with superconducting coil, large-scale accelerator, nuclear fusion testing equipment, MHD generating, superconducting coil etc.), and the outlet temperature of the utmost point low temperature heat exchanger 12 of utmost point low-temp. portion for example is 65K.

Normal temperature compressed machine 14 is a turbo-compressor for example, is arranged on the normal temperature portion (for example about 300K indoor) of closed loop 11, and working gas is compressed to high pressure from the low pressure of regulation.Preferably, the low pressure of regulation for example is 0.5~0.6MPa, and the high pressure of regulation for example is 1.0~1.2MPa, and the compression ratio of compressor is about 2.

In the downstream (high-pressure side) of normal temperature compressed machine 14, be provided with the gas cooler 15 of water-cooled, working gas that will temperature rises owing to compression by the cooling water of supplying with from the cooling water circulating device of outside 9 is cooled to about preferred 300K.

The 1st intermediate heat exchanger 16 is positioned at the centre of utmost point low-temp. portion and normal temperature portion, carries out heat exchange each other at the working gas of high-pressure side and low-pressure side.Through this heat exchange, the high-pressure side working gas is cooled to preferred 65~70K.

Decompressor 18 for example is an expansion turbine, more is arranged on utmost point low-temp. portion side than the 1st intermediate heat exchanger 16, the working gas constant entropy expansion that the 1st intermediate heat exchanger 16 is cooled off.Through the expansion of this expansion turbine, working gas produces the utmost point low temperature (for example 56K) of regulation.Preferably, expansion turbine is coaxial with turbo-compressor, by same motor driven.

The working gas of this utmost point low temperature is supplied to the utmost point low temperature heat exchanger 12; By working gas cooled body is cooled off indirectly, cool off indirectly, then by 16 pairs of on high-tension side working gas of the 1st intermediate heat exchanger; Be supplied to normal temperature compressed machine 14, be compressed once again.

Through above-mentioned formation, can be in closed loop 11 compression work gas, by decompressor 18 working gas after the compression is expanded, produce utmost point low temperature, cooled body is cooled to the utmost point low temperature of regulation.

In Fig. 4, cryogenic refrigerator 10 of the present invention also possesses bypass line 22, expansion box 24 and pressure control device 26.

Bypass line 22 directly is communicated with the high-voltage section and the low voltage section of closed loop 11.In this example, above-mentioned high-voltage section is the downstream of compressor 14, more specifically, is gas cooler 15 and the high-pressure side of the 1st intermediate heat exchanger 16 and the volume of connecting pipings from the inlet that is exported to decompressor 18 of compressor 14.In this example, above-mentioned low voltage section is the upstream side of normal temperature compressed machine 14, more specifically, is the low-pressure side of utmost point low temperature heat exchanger 12 and the 1st intermediate heat exchanger 16 and the volume that is exported to the connecting pipings of normal pressure compressor 14 from decompressor 18.

Expansion box 24 is positioned at the centre of bypass line 22, has pressure-regulating valve 23a, 23b respectively in high-pressure side and low-pressure side.

The capacity of expansion box 24 is set at; When stopping and when becoming normal temperature; Can the pressure in the expansion box 24 be remained below the reference pressure (for example 1MPa) of regulation; And, when producing the running of utmost point low temperature, can the pressure of high-voltage section be remained the running pressure (for example 1.0~1.2MPa) of regulation.

The capacity of this expansion box 24 is necessary for the volume of such expansion box: the gross mass of the gas except expansion box 24 in the closed loop of calculating according to the temperature and pressure in when running 11 and the high-voltage section when turning round are (in Fig. 4; Downstream for gas cooler 15) pressure (for example 1MPa) is filled to quality poor of the gas in the volume of the closed loop except expansion box 24 11 when stopping and under the normal temperature; Equal that pressure with the high-voltage section in when running is full of the quality of the gas under the situation in the expansion box 24 and the pressure of the low voltage section (in Fig. 4, being the upstream side of normal temperature compressed machine 14) during with running is full of quality poor of the gas under the situation in the expansion box 24.In addition, the temperature of expansion box is certain all the time.The pressure of expansion box when becoming the on high-tension side pressure in when running for maximum, when becoming the pressure of low voltage section for minimum.According to pressure differential and the volume under the certain condition of this temperature, obtain the quality of the gas that expansion box can absorb.Therefore, the capacity of expansion box 24 can be set at more than 3 times of volume of the low-temp low-pressure part that becomes utmost point low temperature and low pressure, is preferably set to 4~5 times.

In addition, pressure detector 25 is set, detected pressure data is inputed to pressure control device 26 in the high-voltage section of closed loop 11.

Pressure control device 26 is based on detected pressure data; At normal temperature and when stopping; Controlled pressure adjustment valve 23a, 23b, thus make the pressure of expansion box 24 identical with closed loop 11, when producing the running of utmost point low temperature; Control each pressure-regulating valve 23a, 23b, thus become high-voltage section and low voltage section the centre pressure and near the pressure (than the higher a little pressure of low voltage section) of low voltage section.

Use the cryogenic refrigerator 10 of above-mentioned formation, in the control method of cryogenic refrigerator of the present invention, carry out following control by pressure control device 26.

(A) when the stopping of cryogenic refrigerator 10, each pressure-regulating valve 23a, 23b are remained standard-sized sheet.Through this operation, when refrigerator stops, can making the entrance side of compressor 14 and the pressure pressure equalization of outlet side, thereby, the despining that produces owing to pressure of the compressor after can preventing to stop.

(B) at the prestart of cryogenic refrigerator 10, with each pressure-regulating valve 23a, 23b full cut-off.Through this operation, expansion box 24 is broken away from just start the high-pressure side afterwards and the pressure oscillation of low-pressure side, only start in closed loop 11.

(C) in the starting of cryogenic refrigerator 10, surpass in high-voltage section under the situation of the maximum pressure of stipulating (for example 1.1MPa), open on high-tension side pressure-regulating valve 23a.Through this operation, can prevent that high-voltage section from surpassing the maximum pressure of regulation, is recycled to expansion box 24 with unnecessary working gas.

(D) in the starting of cryogenic refrigerator 10, be under the situation below the minimum pressure (for example 0.9MPa) of regulation in high-voltage section, open the pressure-regulating valve 23b of low-pressure side.Through this operation, can working gas be replenished to the low voltage section of closed loop 11 from expansion box 24, the pressure that suppresses high-voltage section reduces.

Through the operation of (B)~(D), can accomplish the starting of cryogenic refrigerator 10, produce the steady running of utmost point low temperature.

The control of situation about stopping from the steady running that produces utmost point low temperature in addition, is also same as described above.That is, in the running, along with the temperature and pressure rising of the low-temp low-pressure part that becomes utmost point low temperature and low pressure, the pressure of low-pressure side rises, thereby, through the operation of above-mentioned (C), can unnecessary working gas be recycled to expansion box 24.

In addition; When the stopping of cryogenic refrigerator 10, through each pressure-regulating valve 23a, 23b being remained the operation of standard-sized sheet (A), thereby when the stopping of refrigerator; Can make the entrance side of compressor 14 and the pressure pressure equalization of outlet side; Thereby, after stopping, can preventing to result from the despining of compressor of pressure differential of entrance side and the outlet side of compressor 14.

Apparatus and method according to the invention described above; Possess expansion box 24, this expansion box is positioned at the centre of bypass line 22, has pressure-regulating valve 23a, 23b respectively in high-pressure side and low-pressure side; Wherein, High-voltage section and low voltage section that this bypass line will constitute the closed loop 11 of cryogenic refrigerator 10 are communicated with, thereby, through controlling each pressure-regulating valve (for example when stopping, each pressure-regulating valve 23a, 23b being remained standard-sized sheet); Make the pressure of expansion box 24 at normal temperature and identical with closed loop 11 when stopping, thereby can be below the reference pressure (for example 1MPa) of regulation the default of the integral body that constitutes by closed loop 11, bypass line 22 and expansion box 24.

In addition, thus, when the stopping of refrigerator, can make the entrance side of compressor 14 and the pressure pressure equalization of outlet side, thereby the despining that produces owing to pressure of the compressor after can preventing to stop.

In addition; When producing the running of utmost point low temperature, through controlling each pressure-regulating valve 23a, 23b, make the pressure of expansion box 24 become high-voltage section and low voltage section the centre pressure and near the pressure of low voltage section; Even thereby after the running beginning; Along with the temperature decline of the low-temp. portion in the refrigerator, the pressure of the working gas in the closed loop reduces, and also can replenish the working gas of appropriate section from expansion box.

For example; Be set at capacity under the situation more than 3 times of the low-temp low-pressure volume V partly that becomes utmost point low temperature and low pressure in the running expansion box 24; The reduction (for example to 1/2) of (for example from 300K to 60K) and pressure because the reduction of temperature; Thereby in order to keep the pressure (1/2 when for example starting) of low-temp low-pressure part, low-temp low-pressure partly is necessary to replenish working gas, thus when this part becomes starting 5/2 (2.5) doubly.

So, even the 1.5V of the part of deficiency is supplied to the low-temp low-pressure part from expansion box 24, also can the pressure of expansion box 24 be remained when stopping more than 1/2.

That is, be set at, when stopping and when becoming normal temperature through capacity with expansion box 24; Can the pressure in the expansion box 24 be remained below the reference pressure (for example 1MPa) of regulation, and, when producing the running of utmost point low temperature; Can the pressure of high-voltage section be remained the running pressure of regulation, thereby have the cooling capacity that can cooled body be cooled to the utmost point low temperature of regulation, not use compressive resistance to surpass the expansion box of the pressure (for example 1MPa) of regulation; And; Do not carry out emitting and replenishing of working gas, the utmost point low temperature in the normal temperature from stop to the work can remain the pressure of high-pressure section almost certain.

Embodiment

Fig. 5 is the figure that shows the 2nd embodiment of the cryogenic refrigerator that the present invention relates to.This example is that the outlet temperature of utmost point low-temp. portion is that 65K and cooling capacity are the embodiment of 3kW, and the P among the figure, T, H, G represent pressure (bar), temperature (K), mass flow (g/s) respectively.

In this example, normal temperature compressed machine 14 is compressed to the 2nd stage compressor 14B formation of high pressure (11.0bar) by the 1st stage compressor 14A that is compressed to the 1st intermediate pressure (8.03bar) between low pressure and the high pressure from the low pressure of stipulating (5.57bar) with from the 1st intermediate pressure.In the downstream (high-pressure side) of the 1st stage compressor 14A and the 2nd stage compressor 14B, be respectively arranged with the gas cooler 15 of water-cooled.

In addition, decompressor 18 is expanded to the 2nd decompressor 18B formation of low pressure (5.57bar) by the 1st decompressor 18A that is expanded to the 2nd intermediate pressure (10.29bar) between low pressure and the high pressure from high pressure (11.0bar) with from the 2nd intermediate pressure.

And, in the centre of the 1st decompressor 18A and the 2nd decompressor 18B, possess the 2nd intermediate heat exchanger 17 that carries out heat exchange at the working gas of low pressure and high pressure each other.

Preferred the 1st stage compressor 14A and the 2nd stage compressor 14B are respectively turbo-compressor; The 1st decompressor 18A and the 2nd decompressor 18B are respectively expansion turbine; The 1st stage compressor 14A and the 2nd decompressor 18B, the 2nd stage compressor 14B and the 1st decompressor 18A are coaxial respectively, respectively by same motor driven.

Other formations are identical with Fig. 4.

Confirm, through this formation, can be in closed loop 11 compression work gas, by the 1st decompressor 18A and the 2nd decompressor 18B the working gas after the compression is expanded, produce the utmost point low temperature of 56K, absorb the heat of 3kW from cooled body.

As stated, in the present invention, expansion box 24 is set, is connected to the high-pressure side (compressor outlet side) and the low-pressure side (returning side) of refrigerator by the pipe arrangement that possesses pressure-regulating valve 23a, 23b respectively (bypass line 22) in normal temperature portion.

Be high side pressure with reference to pressure in the control of pressure-regulating valve 23a, 23b; But pipe arrangement is connected on high-tension side pressure-regulating valve 23a " opens " valve when surpassing authorized pressure; Be connected to the pressure-regulating valve 23b that returns side and when authorized pressure reduces, be " opening ", intrasystem pressure is risen in the high-pressure side.

In addition, the volume of expansion box 24 is set to when running the time and keeps than returning the higher a little pressure of lateral pressure, even when stopping, becoming normal temperature in the system, also is no more than the interior as much as possible little volume of scope of design pressure.

In addition; Through constituting with turbo-compressor (the 1st stage compressor 14A and the 2nd stage compressor 14B) expansion turbine (the 1st decompressor 18A and the 2nd decompressor 18B) coaxial; By same motor driven, thereby can reclaim the power of expansion turbine and cut down motor power, and; Can expansion turbine be restricted to the rotary speed of motor; Prevent its hypervelocity in itself, thereby do not need the by-passing valve of expansion turbine or the choke valve of inlet, compressor can turn round with rated speed during from starting.

In addition; When the stopping of refrigerator; Open pressure-regulating valve 23a, 23b both; Make the pressure pressure equalization of suction port of compressor side and outlet side, thereby after stopping, can preventing to result from the despining of compressor of pressure differential of entrance side and the outlet side of compressor (the 1st stage compressor 14A and the 2nd stage compressor 14B).

Through above-mentioned formation, working gas is boosted by normal temperature compressed machine 14, by gas cooler 15 temperature of the gas after the rising is dropped near the normal temperature, passes the 1st intermediate heat exchanger 16, decompressor 18, and temperature is reduced, and pressure also descends.Cool off at 16 pairs of on high-tension side working gas of the 1st heat exchanger on one side from the gas that returns that absorbs heat as the cooled body of freezing load, on one side temperature rise near the normal temperature, be back to normal temperature compressed machine 14.The pressure ratio of high-pressure side and low-pressure side is approximately 2.Expansion box 24 is connected to refrigerator high-pressure side (compressor outlet side) and is returned side (suction port of compressor side) by the pipe arrangement that possesses pressure-regulating valve 23a, 23b respectively (bypass line 22).

Be high side pressure with reference to pressure in the control of pressure-regulating valve 23a, 23b; But pipe arrangement is connected on high-tension side pressure-regulating valve 23a " opens " valve when surpassing authorized pressure; Be connected to the pressure-regulating valve 23b that returns side and when authorized pressure reduces, be " opening ", intrasystem pressure is risen in the high-pressure side.The effect of these 2 pressure-regulating valve 23a, 23b makes on high-tension side pressure turn round, start, remain when stopping necessarily.

In addition, certainly, the invention is not restricted to above-mentioned embodiment, in the scope that does not break away from main idea of the present invention, can carry out various changes.

Claims (6)

1. cryogenic refrigerator, through compression work gas in closed loop and the working gas after making compression expand, thereby produce utmost point low temperature, this cryogenic refrigerator possesses:
Bypass line is with the high-voltage section and the low voltage section connection of said closed loop;
Expansion box is positioned at the centre of this bypass line, has pressure-regulating valve respectively in high-pressure side and low-pressure side; And
Pressure control device is controlled this each pressure-regulating valve,
Wherein, at normal temperature and when stopping, this pressure control device remains standard-sized sheet with said each pressure-regulating valve, makes that the pressure of expansion box is identical with the pressure of closed loop, and
When producing the running of utmost point low temperature; Said each pressure-regulating valve of this pressure control device control makes the pressure of high-voltage section become the pressure of regulation, wherein; Surpass in said high-voltage section under the situation of the maximum pressure of stipulating; This pressure control device is opened and is connected on high-tension side pressure-regulating valve, is that this pressure control device is opened the pressure-regulating valve that is connected to low-pressure side under the situation below the minimum pressure of stipulating in said high-voltage section.
2. cryogenic refrigerator according to claim 1; It is characterized in that the capacity of said expansion box is set at, when stopping and when becoming normal temperature; Can the pressure in the said expansion box be remained below the reference pressure of regulation; And, when producing the running of utmost point low temperature, can the pressure of said high-voltage section be remained the running pressure of regulation.
3. cryogenic refrigerator according to claim 1 is characterized in that possessing:
Normal temperature compressed machine is arranged on the normal temperature portion of said closed loop, and working gas is compressed to high pressure from the low pressure of regulation;
The 1st intermediate heat exchanger is positioned at the centre of utmost point low-temp. portion and said normal temperature portion, carries out heat exchange each other at working gas; And
Decompressor more is arranged on utmost point low-temp. portion side than the 1st intermediate heat exchanger, makes working gas carry out constant entropy expansion.
4. cryogenic refrigerator according to claim 3 is characterized in that,
Said normal temperature compressed machine is made up of a plurality of turbo-compressor from the low pressure multi-stage compression of said regulation to said high pressure,
Said decompressor is made up of a plurality of expansion turbine that are expanded to said low pressure from said high-pressure multi-stage,
In the centre of said a plurality of expansion turbine, possess a plurality of intermediate heat exchangers that carry out heat exchange at working gas each other.
5. the control method of a cryogenic refrigerator, through compression work gas in closed loop and the working gas after making compression expand, thereby produce utmost point low temperature, wherein,
At said cryogenic refrigerator, be provided with bypass line and expansion box, wherein, this bypass line is communicated with the high-voltage section and the low voltage section of said closed loop, and this expansion box is positioned at the centre of this bypass line, has pressure-regulating valve respectively in high-pressure side and low-pressure side,
At normal temperature and when stopping, said each pressure-regulating valve is remained standard-sized sheet, make that the pressure of expansion box is identical with the pressure of closed loop, and
When producing the running of utmost point low temperature; Control said each pressure-regulating valve, make the pressure of high-voltage section become the pressure of regulation, wherein; Surpass in said high-voltage section under the situation of the maximum pressure of stipulating; Opening and be connected on high-tension side pressure-regulating valve, is under the situation below the minimum pressure of stipulating in said high-voltage section, opens the pressure-regulating valve that is connected to low-pressure side.
6. the control method of cryogenic refrigerator according to claim 5; It is characterized in that, the capacity of said expansion box is set at, when stopping and when becoming normal temperature; Can the pressure in the said expansion box be remained below the reference pressure of regulation; And, when producing the running of utmost point low temperature, can the pressure of said high-voltage section be remained the running pressure of regulation.
CN200880116901XA 2007-11-19 2008-11-05 Cryogenic refrigerator and control method therefor CN101861500B (en)

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US20100275616A1 (en) 2010-11-04
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