CN101860154B - Special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for large power wind-driven generator set - Google Patents

Special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for large power wind-driven generator set Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101860154B
CN101860154B CN201010178020XA CN201010178020A CN101860154B CN 101860154 B CN101860154 B CN 101860154B CN 201010178020X A CN201010178020X A CN 201010178020XA CN 201010178020 A CN201010178020 A CN 201010178020A CN 101860154 B CN101860154 B CN 101860154B
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phase
winding
permanent
generator
magnetic
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CN101860154A (en
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刘文斌
张晓华
曾翔君
房鲁光
刘文涛
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Xinjiang Quanxin Environmental Protection New Technology Co., Ltd.
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XINJIANG QUANXIN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION NEW TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention discloses a special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for a large power wind-driven generator set. The multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator is of a 6-phase 12-winding direct-driven permanent-magnetic synchronic generator. 12 windings are divided into four sets of three-phase symmetric windings, and neutral point of the four sets of three-phase symmetric windings is not connected with each other. Two sets of windings are installed inside one stator groove of each winding, and the phase difference of the two sets of windings is 180 degree. The special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for the large-power wind-driven generator set has small power grade and reduces the design and manufacturing difficulty of the motor. A plurality of groups of independent power sources are provided for the multi-phase generator, so additional separation is not required. Therefore, the manufacturer of the generator and the converter is free from providing multiple power grades, thereby favoring the optimized design of the generator and the converter.

Description

A kind of special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for large power wind-driven generator set
Technical field
The present invention relates to the wind-powered electricity generation field, refer to a kind of special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for large power wind-driven generator set especially.
Background technology
Wind-powered electricity generation unit renewal speed is accelerated and single-machine capacity maximizes is a kind of global trend.The mainstream model of commercialization wind-powered electricity generation unit is the unit about single-machine capacity 1.5 megawatts in the world at present, but also has the unit of 2-3 megawatt to drop into commercialized running.Mainstream model is then taking place by the conversion of the following unit of MW class to the MW class unit in the domestic market.Estimate that the above unit of 2 megawatts might become main force's type in market after 2009, the rise of offshore wind farm and development then can promote the commercialization of bigger capacity type.The above wind-powered electricity generation unit of MW level is the main flow of current wind generating technology, and single-machine capacity has reached 5MW at present, and further to higher grade development, to adapt to the requirement of following offshore wind farm.
At present, directly driven wind-powered unit scheme can improve the efficient of system greatly owing to do not need gearbox, and shortens the fault mean time between maintenance (MTTR), improves its reliability.But directly the scheme of driving needs the total power electronic power convertor to realize the speed Control of blower fan.Because the conventional electric pressure of wind-driven generator is merely 690V (or 960V), this makes full power convertor must handle bigger electric current, not only causes the bulky of passive component such as filter reactance, causes also that in addition the problem of efficient is very outstanding.In order to reduce the expense of power semiconductor and passive component, conventional solution is to adopt two traditional level current transformer parallel connections to share capacity, but this is the not high way of a kind of efficient.Some nearest researchs show that many level current transformers not only have the harmonic performance more superior than two level current transformers, but also have higher efficient.Therefore in the low-pressure system of wind power generation, adopt many level current transformers to become a current research focus.Because the topological structure more complicated of many level current transformers, the semiconductor device that needs is more, and it is very big therefore to directly apply to its cost expense of low-pressure system.In addition; Under the occasion of low-voltage, high-current; There is bigger voltage fluctuation in the dc-link capacitance of many level current transformers; But also need carry out the Balance Control of capacitance voltage, particularly in wind power system, the influence of transition wind energies such as high wind or turbulent flow is very disadvantageous for the Balance Control of capacitance voltage.Therefore, need multi-phase permanent synchronous generator a kind of and that many current levels device adapts to mutually.
Summary of the invention
Problem to prior art exists the object of the present invention is to provide a kind of wind power generation special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronous generator.
For realizing above-mentioned purpose; Special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for large power wind-driven generator set of the present invention is 6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators; 12 windings are divided into the symmetrical winding of quadruplet three; And the neutral point of quadruplet three-phase symmetric winding is not connected, and this motor has all been installed two cover windings in the same stator slot of every phase winding, and this two covers winding has 180 ° of phase differences.
Further, said quadruplet three symmetrical windings have 30 ° of phase differences in twos successively.
Further, the cover winding in the said two cover windings is placed on the limit, upper strata of stator slot, and another set of winding is placed on the lower floor limit of stator slot.
Further, said 6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators are 6 phase salient pole radial permanent magnet synchronous generators.
Further, the power grade of said 6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators is 2.5MW, and electric pressure is 690V, and the permanent magnet material of 6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators is neodymium iron boron B r=1.3T, H c=987kA/m, motor number of pole-pairs p=20, total groove is counted Q=288, every extremely every phase groove number The unit motor is counted t=4, unit number of slots Z 0=72, unit motor number of pole-pairs p 0=5, winding period: 2-1-1-1-1.
Further; The power grade of said 6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators is 3KW; Electric pressure is 690V; The total groove of motor is counted Q=72; Number of phases m=6; Number of pole-pairs p=15, every extremely every phase groove number unit motor number unit number of slots winding period is 1-0-1-0-0.
Further, said 6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators produce many group isolation three phase mains through polyphase windings.
Further, the two cover windings of said 6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators in the same stator slot of every phase winding are used for parallelly connected with two three level rectifiers, to eliminate or to weaken the voltage fluctuation of its dc-link capacitance mid point.
Special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for large power wind-driven generator set of the present invention, power grade is less, and motor design and manufacture difficulty also reduce relatively.In existing monomotor wind power system, electronic power convertor also can adopt the current transformer parallel connection of a plurality of same structures to realize, but this need isolate every current transformer; And multiphase generator of the present invention itself provides many groups of separate power supplys, does not need extra isolation.Therefore for the manufacturer of generator and current transformer, too many power grade need be provided, this helps realizing the optimal design of generator and current transformer.This technology can fully adapt to the market expectation and the existing technical capability of China of China's high-power wind turbine unit requirement production domesticization.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is 2.5MW 6 winding construction of 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators mutually;
Fig. 2 a, Fig. 2 b, Fig. 2 c and Fig. 2 d are quadruplet winding axis locus distribution map;
Fig. 3 is 6 phase 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators and the hybrid current transformer wind power technology of three level scheme schematic diagrams of the present invention;
Fig. 4 a is the phase current and the electric capacity mid-point voltage pulsation simulation waveform of 3L-NPC inverter list group operation;
Fig. 4 b is the phase current and the electric capacity mid-point voltage pulsation simulation waveform of two groups of 3L-NPC inverter parallels;
Fig. 5 a is the output waveform of single group 3L-NPC;
Fig. 5 b is the output waveform before and after two groups of 3L-NPC parallel connected in reverse phase.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1:
It is 2.5MW that the present invention adopts power grade, and electric pressure is 6 phases, the 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators that 690V forms, and this motor has all been installed two cover windings in the stator slot of every phase winding.
As shown in Figure 1, this figure a pair of utmost point that only drawn.A-a, B-b, C-c and D-d, E-e, F-f are respectively electrical degree and differ 120 ° three phase windings among the figure, then differ 30 ° between these two covers, three phase windings.In like manner X-x, Y-y, Z-z and U-u, M-m, N-n differ 120 ° three phase windings, and also differ 30 ° between two covers, three phase windings.A-a, B-b, C-c and X-x, Y-y, Z-z are that two covers differ 180 ° winding; D-d, E-e, F-f and U-u, M-m, N-n also differ 180 °.Two overlap the winding that differs 180 ° is placed in the same stator slot, and wherein a cover winding is placed on the limit, upper strata of groove, and another set of winding is placed on the lower floor limit of groove, and the permanent magnet material of 6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators is neodymium iron boron B r=1.3T, H c=987kA/m, motor number of pole-pairs p=20, total groove is counted Q=288, every extremely every phase groove number The unit motor is counted t=4, unit number of slots Z 0=72, unit motor number of pole-pairs p 0=5, winding period: 2-1-1-1-1.6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators produce many group isolation three phase mains through polyphase windings.The single-phase parameter of 6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators, as shown in table 1 below:
Table 1
2.5MW the structural parameters of 6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators are as shown in table 2 below:
Table 2
Capacity S N(kW) 2500
Generator frequency f (Hz) 10
Rotation speed n N(rmp) 30
Effective volume V (m 3) 13.021
Permanent magnet (neodymium iron boron) quality m m(kg) 4047
Efficiency eta (%) 96.77
Voltage regulation Δ U (%) 2.59
Stator winding (copper) quality m Cu(kg) 2521.56
The quality m of stator yoke portion j(kg) 5247.4
Rotating pole-piece quality m p(kg) 8554
Support quality G 2(kg) 9101
Motor gross mass M (kg) 35139
As shown in Figure 3; Magneto alternator of the present invention produces many groups through the polyphase windings design and isolates three phase mains; In above-mentioned generator Structure, per three groups connect into Y shape (phase phasic difference 120 degree) in 12 symmetric windings, can constitute one group of three phase mains like this.So 12 windings can form 4 groups of three phase mains altogether, owing to be not electrically connected between each group three phase mains, so they constitute the power supply of isolating mutually.Not only can simplify the parallel connection of current transformer, also can realize the series connection of current transformer.In the scheme of Fig. 3, through directly utilizing the stator leakage reactance of generator, the current transformer of Multiphase Parallel does not need the Boost inductance, and this can reduce the cost and the volume of passive component greatly, improves the efficient of system.
Generator is designed to 6 phases, whenever comprises that mutually a pair of space differs 180 ° reverse winding (in Fig. 3, being labeled as 0 ° and 180 ° and 30 ° and 210 ° respectively).Reverse winding is used to the parallel connection of two three level VIENNA rectifiers, in order to eliminate or to weaken the voltage fluctuation of its dc-link capacitance mid point.
Pressure scope during DC bus-bar voltage is brought up to through the series connection of VIENNA rectifier, inverter section can adopt the three-level inverter (can adopt 3L-NPC or 3L-FLC) of one group or two groups parallel connection.Improve busbar voltage and can make full use of the application advantage of three-level current transformer, reduce the current class of output current transformer on the one hand, also can simplify the Filter Design that is incorporated into the power networks on the other hand in middle pressure scope.Consider from output capacity, press in one group the 3L current transformer to be equivalent to the parallel connection of two groups of low pressure 2L current transformers.
In high-power directly driven wind-powered system, adopt multi-phase permanent synchronous generator and the hybrid full power convertor of three level can realize high efficiency transformation of electrical energy.Compare with traditional two level parallel connection scheme, its semiconductor device loss can reduce by 50%, and because the number of filter reactance can reduce half, so the loss of filter reactance also can reduce by 50%.The cost of two kinds of unsteady flow schemes is then approaching; So improving constantly along with the power of fan grade; It will be very promising application mode that the hybrid current transformer of three level substitutes two level current transformer parallel connections, and multi-phase permanent synchronous generator of the present invention is that the application of the hybrid current transformer of three level in wind turbine generator provides the foundation.
Embodiment 2:
It is 3KW that the present invention can also select power grade according to the actual requirements for use; Electric pressure is 6 phases, the 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators that 690V forms; 12 windings of this motor are divided into the symmetrical winding of quadruplet three, and the neutral point of quadruplet three-phase symmetric winding is not connected.The axis of quadruplet three-phase symmetric winding distributes shown in Fig. 2 a, 2b, 2c, 2d in the locus of motor internal.Can find out from Fig. 2 a, 2b,, move 30 ° of six-phase motors just formed two Y if the neutral point of this two covers winding is linked to each other.It can also be seen that the cover of two among Fig. 2 c, 2d winding overlaps windings with two of Fig. 2 a, 2b respectively 180 ° of phase differences are arranged.At motor internal; Winding is placed in the same groove shown in winding shown in Fig. 2 a and Fig. 2 c; Just be placed on the upper strata Bian Shi of groove when winding shown in Fig. 2 a, winding shown in Fig. 2 c just is placed on the lower floor limit of same groove, otherwise; When winding shown in Fig. 2 c is placed on the upper strata Bian Shi of groove, winding shown in Fig. 2 a just is placed on the lower floor limit of same groove.Winding is laid according to same principle shown in winding shown in Fig. 2 b and Fig. 2 d.The total groove of motor is counted Q=72; Number of phases m=6; Number of pole-pairs p=15, every extremely every phase groove number unit motor number unit number of slots winding period is 1-0-1-0-0.The winding period is for the winding of which phase is installed in each groove of description unit motor.For example, the groove-phase relation of each unit motor is among the design:
A 1-C 3-B 2-A 4-B 3-A 1-C 4-B 2-C 1-B 3-A 2-C 4-A 3-C 1-B 4-A 2-B 1-A 3-C 2-B 4-C 3-B 1-A 4-C 2
Above the label of the sequence phase winding representing to lay successively in 24 grooves of unit motor among the design, the label of phase can be with reference to shown in figure 2a, 2b, 2c, the 2d.Other two unit motors also exist same groove and mutually corresponding relation, like this, just can draw all grooves and mutually relation through the winding period.
Generator is designed to 6 phases, whenever comprises that mutually a pair of space differs 180 ° reverse winding (in Fig. 3, being labeled as 0 ° and 180 ° and 30 ° and 210 ° respectively).Reverse winding is used to the parallel connection of two three level rectifiers, in order to eliminate or to weaken the voltage fluctuation of its dc-link capacitance mid point.
Three level rectifiers (or inverter) of diode clamp formula adopt the method for space vector modulation; Its electric capacity mid point can produce the mains ripple of three times of fundamental frequencies; Its reason is that middle vector can cause phase current to inject the electric capacity mid point in the modulator; And then causing that capacitance voltage is pulsed or the electric capacity midpoint potential is unbalance, the pulsation of mid-point voltage is relevant with the size of the percentage modulation power-factor of load and phase current.Three-level current transformer for two groups of parallel connections; Because structure is symmetry fully; If its output voltage (current phase) is inverting each other, first group of current transformer causes that second group of current transformer was then just opposite when the electric capacity midpoint potential raise so; Cause that the electric capacity current potential descends, so can produce the pulsation neutralization effect after the parallel connection.Following emulation and experimental waveform have provided the principle that pulsation is offset.
Fig. 5 a has provided the output waveform of single group of 3L-NPC, and Fig. 5 b has provided two groups of 3L-NPC inverters of parallel connected in reverse phase and offset the experimental waveform that the dc-link capacitance mid point is pulsed automatically.Fig. 4 a has provided phase voltage (CH1) and the A of line voltage (CH2), the electrical network A phase of single group of 3L-NPC inverter output, the phase current (CH3 and CH4) of B two phases; Fig. 4 b has provided two groups of inverter direct-flow side parallel connection front and back electric capacity mid-point voltage (CH1 and CH2) and phase current (CH3 and CH4) waveforms separately.It is thus clear that in the time of two groups of current transformer current-sharings of control, the mains ripple of dc-link capacitance mid point is well offset.
Existing wind-driven generator is three phase electric machine mostly; And we propose is multi-phase permanent synchronous generator scheme, and the multi-phase permanent synchronous generator is except having higher reliability (for example, when wherein a phase short circuit or when opening circuit; Can three phase windings that fault belongs to mutually be excised; Other respectively overlaps winding and still can normally move, and three phase electric machine can not be so), and can also isolation be provided for the current transformer parallel connection; This can eliminate threephase generator and connect the circulation problem that parallelly connected current transformer produces, and promptly need not to carry out complicated circulation control.In addition; Because the leakage inductance of each phase of generator can be served as the Boost inductance of rectifier; Therefore multiphase generator can be so that rectifier realizes that (this is similar to frequency converter can directly connect motor to no inductor design; And extra reactor need be provided), this is superior to the shortcoming that rectifier in the threephase generator must be realized parallel connection through inductance greatly.The 3rd; The isolated windings of multiphase generator can also provide current transformer to realize series connection; Series connection can improve rectifier output voltage; Also be the important way of sharing generator capacity, improve the design (for example our two groups of parallel connections of employing 3L-NPC inverter of proposition can realize the effect that 4 groups of 2L current transformers are parallelly connected) that voltage also helps inverter section.
Although preceding text have carried out detailed description and explanation to the embodiment of patent of the present invention through instance; But what should indicate is; Those skilled in the art can carry out various changes and modification to above-mentioned execution mode, but these do not break away from the scope that spirit of the present invention and claim are put down in writing.

Claims (12)

1. special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for large power wind-driven generator set; It is characterized in that; Said multi-phase permanent synchronous generator is 6 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators mutually, and 12 windings are divided into the symmetrical winding of quadruplet three, and the neutral point of quadruplet three-phase symmetric winding is not connected; This motor has all been installed two cover windings in the same stator slot of every phase winding, this two covers winding has 180 ° of phase differences; The power grade of said 6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators is 2.5MW, and electric pressure is 690V, and the permanent magnet material of 6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators is neodymium iron boron B r=1.3T, H c=987kA/m, motor number of pole-pairs p=20, total groove is counted Q=288, every extremely every phase groove number The unit motor is counted t=4, unit number of slots Z 0=72,
Unit motor number of pole-pairs p 0=5, winding period: 2-1-1-1-1.
2. special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for large power wind-driven generator set as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, said quadruplet three symmetrical windings have 30 ° of phase differences in twos successively.
3. special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for large power wind-driven generator set as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, the cover winding in the said two cover windings is placed on the limit, upper strata of stator slot, and another set of winding is placed on the lower floor limit of stator slot.
4. special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for large power wind-driven generator set as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, said 6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators are 6 phase salient pole radial permanent magnet synchronous generators.
5. special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for large power wind-driven generator set as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, said 6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators produce many group isolation three phase mains through polyphase windings.
6. special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for large power wind-driven generator set as claimed in claim 1; It is characterized in that; The two cover windings of said 6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators in the same stator slot of every phase winding are used for parallelly connected with two three level rectifiers, to eliminate or to weaken the voltage fluctuation of its dc-link capacitance mid point.
7. special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for large power wind-driven generator set; It is characterized in that; Said multi-phase permanent synchronous generator is 6 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators mutually, and 12 windings are divided into the symmetrical winding of quadruplet three, and the neutral point of quadruplet three-phase symmetric winding is not connected; This motor has all been installed two cover windings in the same stator slot of every phase winding, this two covers winding has 180 ° of phase differences; The power grade of said 6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators is 3KW; Electric pressure is 690V; The total groove of motor is counted Q=72; Number of phases m=6; Number of pole-pairs p=15, every extremely every phase groove number unit motor number unit number of slots winding period is 1-0-1-0-0.
8. special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for large power wind-driven generator set as claimed in claim 7 is characterized in that, said quadruplet three symmetrical windings have 30 ° of phase differences in twos successively.
9. special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for large power wind-driven generator set as claimed in claim 7 is characterized in that, the cover winding in the said two cover windings is placed on the limit, upper strata of stator slot, and another set of winding is placed on the lower floor limit of stator slot.
10. special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for large power wind-driven generator set as claimed in claim 7 is characterized in that, said 6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators are 6 phase salient pole radial permanent magnet synchronous generators.
11. special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for large power wind-driven generator set as claimed in claim 7 is characterized in that, said 6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators produce many group isolation three phase mains through polyphase windings.
12. special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for large power wind-driven generator set as claimed in claim 7; It is characterized in that; The two cover windings of said 6 phases, 12 winding direct-drive permanent-magnetism synchronous generators in the same stator slot of every phase winding are used for parallelly connected with two three level rectifiers, to eliminate or to weaken the voltage fluctuation of its dc-link capacitance mid point.
CN201010178020XA 2010-05-20 2010-05-20 Special multi-phase permanent-magnetic synchronic generator for large power wind-driven generator set Expired - Fee Related CN101860154B (en)

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CN102868246B (en) * 2012-09-19 2015-07-22 武汉新能源接入装备与技术研究院有限公司 High-capacity low-speed permanent-magnet wind-driven generator
CN104092317A (en) * 2014-06-26 2014-10-08 珠海凌达压缩机有限公司 Stator structure and motor
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