CN101839547A - 一种热泵热水器 - Google Patents

一种热泵热水器 Download PDF

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CN101839547A
CN101839547A CN200910215424A CN200910215424A CN101839547A CN 101839547 A CN101839547 A CN 101839547A CN 200910215424 A CN200910215424 A CN 200910215424A CN 200910215424 A CN200910215424 A CN 200910215424A CN 101839547 A CN101839547 A CN 101839547A
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heat exchanger
condenser
exchanger tube
heat exchange
heat
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CN101839547B (zh
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张茂勇
王建良
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AO Smith China Water Heater Co Ltd
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AO Smith China Water Heater Co Ltd
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT-GENERATING MEANS, e.g. HEAT PUMPS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H1/00Water heaters, e.g. boilers, continuous-flow heaters or water-storage heaters
    • F24H1/18Water-storage heaters
    • F24H1/20Water-storage heaters with immersed heating elements, e.g. electric elements or furnace tubes
    • F24H1/208Water-storage heaters with immersed heating elements, e.g. electric elements or furnace tubes with tubes filled with heat transfer fluid
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT-GENERATING MEANS, e.g. HEAT PUMPS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H1/00Water heaters, e.g. boilers, continuous-flow heaters or water-storage heaters
    • F24H1/18Water-storage heaters
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT-GENERATING MEANS, e.g. HEAT PUMPS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H4/00Fluid heaters characterised by the use of heat pumps
    • F24H4/02Water heaters
    • F24H4/04Storage heaters
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D20/00Heat storage plants or apparatus in general; Regenerative heat-exchange apparatus not covered by groups F28D17/00 or F28D19/00
    • F28D20/0034Heat storage plants or apparatus in general; Regenerative heat-exchange apparatus not covered by groups F28D17/00 or F28D19/00 using liquid heat storage material
    • F28D20/0039Heat storage plants or apparatus in general; Regenerative heat-exchange apparatus not covered by groups F28D17/00 or F28D19/00 using liquid heat storage material with stratification of the heat storage material
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D7/00Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary tubular conduit assemblies for both heat-exchange media, the media being in contact with different sides of a conduit wall
    • F28D7/02Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary tubular conduit assemblies for both heat-exchange media, the media being in contact with different sides of a conduit wall the conduits being helically coiled
    • F28D7/024Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary tubular conduit assemblies for both heat-exchange media, the media being in contact with different sides of a conduit wall the conduits being helically coiled the conduits of only one medium being helically coiled tubes, the coils having a cylindrical configuration
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28FDETAILS OF HEAT-EXCHANGE AND HEAT-TRANSFER APPARATUS, OF GENERAL APPLICATION
    • F28F13/00Arrangements for modifying heat-transfer, e.g. increasing, decreasing
    • F28F13/06Arrangements for modifying heat-transfer, e.g. increasing, decreasing by affecting the pattern of flow of the heat-exchange media
    • F28F13/08Arrangements for modifying heat-transfer, e.g. increasing, decreasing by affecting the pattern of flow of the heat-exchange media by varying the cross-section of the flow channels
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28FDETAILS OF HEAT-EXCHANGE AND HEAT-TRANSFER APPARATUS, OF GENERAL APPLICATION
    • F28F13/00Arrangements for modifying heat-transfer, e.g. increasing, decreasing
    • F28F13/14Arrangements for modifying heat-transfer, e.g. increasing, decreasing by endowing the walls of conduits with zones of different degrees of conduction of heat
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT-GENERATING MEANS, e.g. HEAT PUMPS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H1/00Water heaters, e.g. boilers, continuous-flow heaters or water-storage heaters
    • F24H1/18Water-storage heaters
    • F24H1/181Construction of the tank
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D20/00Heat storage plants or apparatus in general; Regenerative heat-exchange apparatus not covered by groups F28D17/00 or F28D19/00
    • F28D2020/0065Details, e.g. particular heat storage tanks, auxiliary members within tanks
    • F28D2020/0078Heat exchanger arrangements
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/14Thermal energy storage

Abstract

本发明涉及一种热泵热水器,属于热水器技术领域。该热水器包括压缩机、冷凝器、节流元件、蒸发器构成的热泵系统;所述冷凝器安置在热水器的水箱处,构成换热结构;所述冷凝器沿制冷剂流动方向由至少两段换热管串联而成,且前段换热管的流通面积大于后段换热管的流通面积。本发明由于冷凝器的换热能力得到有效提高,因此在换热面积相同时可有效改善热泵性能,在保证热泵获得良好运行效果的前提下,大幅降低冷凝器所需换热面积和重量,有效节省材料及其加工成本,减小结构尺寸,由此带来可靠性的提高,而结构和工艺的简单实用,则降低了成本,提高了产品的市场竞争力。

Description

一种热泵热水器
技术领域
[0001] 本发明涉及一种热泵热水器,尤其涉及热泵热水器的换热器结构改进,属于热水 器技术领域。
背景技术
[0002] 热泵热水器具有良好的节能效果,因此近年来发展迅速,目前小容量热泵热水器 中广泛应用的静态加热式机组中,氟水换热器通常置于热水罐内部,制冷剂高温蒸汽在管 内通过换热管将管外水体加热到所需温度,也有部分产品采用将冷凝换热管外绕于热水罐 外壁以解决内置换热器的腐蚀问题。同时,现有热泵热水器中所采用的氟水换热器均为等 管径内置式或外绕式氟水换热器,其传热能力较低。究其原因,主要是因为冷凝换热属复杂 的两相流换热,随着凝结液的增多,在湿蒸汽与管壁间的液膜也逐渐增厚,成为热交换的主 要障碍,导致冷凝器换热能力下降。且此类换热器材料耗费较多,成本高,重量大,占用空间 大,容易因出现各种腐蚀和应力集中而导致出现可靠性问题。许多厂家为节省成本不得不 选配较小的换热器,结果又带来热泵制热能力及其能效比(COP)的降低。
发明内容
[0003] 本发明的目的在于:针对上述现有技术存在的缺点,提出一种不仅换热效率高、而 且可以显著降低制造成本的热泵热水器。
[0004] 申请人在进行相关研究后认识到:如何选择合适的冷凝管内径等参数,以使在冷 凝全过程中各个冷凝阶段均具有更高的换热系数,特别是有效降低积聚于管壁处的凝结液 膜厚度,而又避免制冷剂在冷凝器中的流动阻力增加太多,从而与相应容量的压缩机等部 件的工作相适应,以提高整机运行效果,是需要解决的关键问题所在。
[0005] 为了达到以上目的,本发明的热泵热水器包括压缩机、冷凝器、节流元件、蒸发器 构成的热泵系统;所述冷凝器安置在热水器的水箱处,构成换热结构;其改进之处在于:所 述冷凝器沿制冷剂流动方向由至少两段换热管串联而成,且处于制冷剂上游的前段换热管 的流通面积大于后段换热管的流通面积。
[0006] 本发明进一步的完善是,所述前段与后段的流通面积之比为2-4、长度之比为 0.8〜1,效果更为理想。
[0007] 现有等径管换热器在冷凝初期,制冷剂的凝结换热强度大,换热系数高,但是随着 凝结液量的增多,附着于冷凝管内特别是中下部的凝结液逐级形成液膜,增加了与管外的 换热热阻,导致换热器整体冷凝效果有明显降低。
[0008] 而采用本发明的上述技术方案后,制冷剂在冷凝器内发生的冷凝过程被分段强 化,当进入充分发展的膜态冷凝阶段后,由于换热管管径缩小,借助减小通流截面积来提高 流速,从而减薄了液膜厚度,大幅提升了此阶段的换热能力。
[0009] 本发明由于冷凝器的换热能力得到有效提高,因此在换热面积相同时可有效改善 热泵性能,在保证热泵获得良好运行效果的前提下,大幅降低冷凝器所需换热面积和重量,有效节省材料及其加工成本,减小结构尺寸,由此带来可靠性的提高,而结构和工艺的简单 实用,则降低了成本,提高了产品的市场竞争力。
附图说明
[0010] 下面结合附图对本发明作进一步的说明。
[0011] 图1为本发明冷凝器的立体结构示意图。
[0012] 图2为图1实施例的平面投影视图。
[0013] 图3为图2的侧视图。
[0014] 图4为图3的俯视图。
[0015] 图5为本发明实施例一的结构示意图。
[0016] 图6为本发明实施例二的结构示意图。
[0017] 图中序号为:前段换热管1、后段换热管2、进气连通管3、制冷剂蒸汽入口 4、制冷 剂出口 5、热水出口 6、冷水进口 7、变径盘管8、水箱9、外壳10、内胆11。
具体实施方式
[0018] 本发明冷凝器的典型结构如图1至图4所示,其特点是沿制冷剂流动方向由前段 换热管1和后段换热管2串联而成,且前段换热管的通径大于后段换热管的通径,两段的通 径比为1. 7(流通面积比大约为3)、长度之比为1,其具体应用举例如下:
[0019] 实施例一
[0020] 本实施例的热泵热水器结构如图5所示,为发明的优选实施例:小型家用热泵热 水器中,包括压缩机、变径冷凝器、节流元件、蒸发器构成的热泵系统。其中前段换热管1和 后段换热管2串联构成的变径冷凝器——变径盘管8内置于储热水箱9中(冷凝器采用单 路换热而非多路分流),其中后一级盘管内径小于前一级,长度与前一级相当。
[0021] 工作时,热泵系统的制冷剂由制冷剂蒸汽入口 4进入前段换热管1,在经过后段换 热管2,由变径盘管8外的进气连通管3至制冷剂出口 5流出,而来自外界水源的冷水由冷 水进口 7进入水箱9,与变径盘管8直接换热后,从热水出口 6输出热水。水箱9的内胆11 与外壳10之间填充保温层。
[0022] 本实施例的热泵热水器与原有同类产品的比较试验如下表(测试条件见表,为热 泵热水器名义工况,水初温约15°C )。
[0023] 由此可见,本实施例的明显优势是,由于采用了变径管这种简单实用的方式,针对 冷凝换热过程中的主要矛盾即中后期换热特点进行强化换热,取得良好换热效果,同时又 不增加工艺生产难度,有效降低材料耗费及其成本,从而为设计高效热泵热水器奠定了基 石出。
[0024]
[0025] 实施例二
[0026] 本发明的另一实施例如图6所示,冷凝换热变径盘管8外绕于水箱9的内胆11夕卜 壁,位于保温层中,从而与内胆中的水进行间接换热,其整体借助保温层保温。
[0027] 实验证明,采用本实施例后,冷凝侧换热能力也得到显著提高,并且有效降低了所 需换热面积,因此显著节省材料,降低制造成本。
[0028] 除上述实施例外,本发明还可以有其他实施方式。凡采用等同替换或等效变换形 成的技术方案,均落在本发明要求的保护范围。

Claims (7)

  1. 一种热泵热水器,包括压缩机、冷凝器、节流元件、蒸发器构成的热泵系统;所述冷凝器安置在热水器的水箱处,构成换热结构;其特征在于:所述冷凝器沿制冷剂流动方向由至少两段换热管串联而成,且处于制冷剂上游的前段换热管的流通面积大于后段换热管的流通面积。
  2. 2.根据权利要求1所述的热泵热水器,其特征在于:所述前段换热管与后段换热管的 流通面积之比为2-4。
  3. 3.根据权利要求1所述的热泵热水器,其特征在于:所述前段换热管与后段换热管的 长度之比为0.8〜1。
  4. 4.根据权利要求1、2或3所述的热泵热水器,其特征在于:所述冷凝器为由前段换热 管和后段换热管串联构成的变径盘管。
  5. 5.根据权利要求4所述的热泵热水器,其特征在于:所述变径盘管内置于热水器的水 箱中。
  6. 6.根据权利要求4所述的热泵热水器,其特征在于:所述变径盘管外绕于热水器的水 箱内胆外壁。
  7. 7.根据权利要求6所述的热泵热水器,其特征在于:所述热水器水箱的内胆与外壳之 间填充保温层,所述变径盘管位于保温层中。
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US12/976,378 US20120060534A1 (en) 2009-12-26 2010-12-22 Heat pump water heater
CA2726394A CA2726394A1 (en) 2009-12-26 2010-12-23 Heat pump water heater

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CN102003836A (zh) * 2010-12-27 2011-04-06 堃霖冷冻机械(上海)有限公司 低温水源热泵机组
CN103344043A (zh) * 2013-07-16 2013-10-09 英特换热设备(浙江)有限公司 储热蓄水式热泵热水器及其室内机
CN112361607A (zh) * 2020-10-26 2021-02-12 珠海格力电器股份有限公司 一种热水机系统控制方法、装置及热水机系统

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CN102003836A (zh) * 2010-12-27 2011-04-06 堃霖冷冻机械(上海)有限公司 低温水源热泵机组
CN102003836B (zh) * 2010-12-27 2012-09-19 堃霖冷冻机械(上海)有限公司 低温水源热泵机组
CN103344043A (zh) * 2013-07-16 2013-10-09 英特换热设备(浙江)有限公司 储热蓄水式热泵热水器及其室内机
CN103344043B (zh) * 2013-07-16 2015-08-12 英特换热设备(浙江)有限公司 储热蓄水式热泵热水器及其室内机
CN112361607A (zh) * 2020-10-26 2021-02-12 珠海格力电器股份有限公司 一种热水机系统控制方法、装置及热水机系统
CN112361607B (zh) * 2020-10-26 2022-04-05 珠海格力电器股份有限公司 一种热水机系统控制方法、装置及热水机系统

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