CN101838551A - 蜡油非临氢降凝生产工艺 - Google Patents

蜡油非临氢降凝生产工艺 Download PDF

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CN101838551A
CN101838551A CN 200910137090 CN200910137090A CN101838551A CN 101838551 A CN101838551 A CN 101838551A CN 200910137090 CN200910137090 CN 200910137090 CN 200910137090 A CN200910137090 A CN 200910137090A CN 101838551 A CN101838551 A CN 101838551A
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reactor
wax oil
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tower
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CN101838551B (zh
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刘锦升
胡建和
李建伟
王新龙
包继敏
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Xinjiang modern special oil Polytron Technologies Inc
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WULUMUQI MODERN PETROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING Co Ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G11/00Catalytic cracking, in the absence of hydrogen, of hydrocarbon oils
    • C10G11/10Catalytic cracking, in the absence of hydrogen, of hydrocarbon oils with stationary catalyst bed
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G55/00Treatment of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen, by at least one refining process and at least one cracking process
    • C10G55/02Treatment of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen, by at least one refining process and at least one cracking process plural serial stages only
    • C10G55/06Treatment of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen, by at least one refining process and at least one cracking process plural serial stages only including at least one catalytic cracking step
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G73/00Recovery or refining of mineral waxes, e.g. montan wax
    • C10G73/02Recovery of petroleum waxes from hydrocarbon oils; Dewaxing of hydrocarbon oils
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2300/00Aspects relating to hydrocarbon processing covered by groups C10G1/00 - C10G99/00
    • C10G2300/10Feedstock materials
    • C10G2300/1033Oil well production fluids
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2300/00Aspects relating to hydrocarbon processing covered by groups C10G1/00 - C10G99/00
    • C10G2300/20Characteristics of the feedstock or the products
    • C10G2300/30Physical properties of feedstocks or products
    • C10G2300/302Viscosity
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2300/00Aspects relating to hydrocarbon processing covered by groups C10G1/00 - C10G99/00
    • C10G2300/20Characteristics of the feedstock or the products
    • C10G2300/30Physical properties of feedstocks or products
    • C10G2300/304Pour point, cloud point, cold flow properties
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2400/00Products obtained by processes covered by groups C10G9/00 - C10G69/14
    • C10G2400/10Lubricating oil

Abstract

本发明涉及一种蜡油非临氢降凝生产工艺,该生产工艺是以蜡油为原料,通过选择合适的催化剂控制反应器的温度,提高润滑油的产量和质量,减少了副产物的产量。该工艺解决了现有技术中存在的基础油收率低、产品粘度范围较窄、经济效益低等缺陷。该工艺投资小操作简单,能够生产特种油品的基础油。

Description

蜡油非临氢降凝生产工艺
技术领域
[0001] 本发明涉及一种以蜡油为原料生产润滑油基础油的非临氢降凝生产工艺。 背景技术
[0002] 目前,国内炼油厂蜡油生产润滑油基础油一般采用临氢降凝工艺和冷冻降凝工 艺。临氢降凝工艺存在设备投资大,需要氢气且在1000°c的高温4〜5MPa的压力下生产, 安全运行费用较高,技术推广应用受到一定条件限制。冷冻降凝工艺仅能对重柴进行降凝, 并且油品质量低。
[0003] 申请号为98122191. 2,公开号为CN1258721A的中国专利,公开了一种润滑油非临 氢降凝生产工艺,其独立权利要求为:“1、一种润滑油非临氢降凝生产工艺,其特征在于包 括以下步骤:(A)减压原料油经加热炉进入反应器,在反应器里经催化反应后进入常压分 馏塔;(B)从常压分馏塔底出来的常压重油进入减压塔进行减压分馏;(C)从常压塔分馏塔 顶出来的干气、液态烃、溶剂油及水蒸汽经冷凝后,进入吸收脱吸塔进行吸收,并对吸收轻 烃组分的饱和吸收剂进行脱吸。(D)从吸收脱吸塔吸脱后的吸收剂进入稳定塔,液态烃从 稳定塔顶部溢出,塔底汽油由稳定塔抽出。,,该专利存在的问题是:反应器的反应温度高达 380〜430°C,这样能耗高、副产品多、润滑油收率低、安定性差,并且由于液态烃收率高,产 生的液态烃在加热炉消耗不完,必须建立液态烃回收系统,并会缩短催化剂的使用寿命。
[0004] 我厂在实际生产过程中,发现采用传统工艺润滑油基础油产率不高,通过工艺改 进,适当降低反应器温度,可以大幅提高润滑油基础油的产率。
[0005] 本发明所要解决的技术问题是:现有技术中,以蜡油为原料,通过非临氢降凝生产 工艺来生产润滑油基础油,得到的润滑油基础油产率不高,并且润滑油粘度范围较窄。此外 反应温度设定较高时,会缩短催化剂的使用寿命,并且由于温度高,反应过程中伴随有大量 烃类的裂解,造成液态烃产率高,润滑油基础油中烯烃多而品质变差。
[0006] 为解决上述技术问题,本发明提供以下技术方案:
[0007] 一种蜡油非临氢降凝生产工艺,包括以下步骤:
[0008] (A)蜡油经加热炉加热至280〜360°C ;
[0009] (B)进入固定床反应器进行非临氢催化反应;
[0010] (C)进入常压塔进行常压分馏,常压塔塔顶温度为100〜135°C ;
[0011] (D)从常压塔底出来的常底油经减压炉,加热至260〜410°C,然后进入减压塔进 行减压分馏,减压塔塔顶温度为50〜80°C,残压为IOmmHg ;
[0012] 其中,反应器温度为260〜320°C,反应压力为0. 15〜0. 3MPa。
[0013] 进一步的优选实施方式是,反应器温度为280〜300°C。
[0014] 更进一步的优选实施方式是,反应器中的催化剂孔径直径为5A
(1 A=l0-10m)o
[0015] 更进一步的优选实施方式是,蜡油经过两次以上反应器反应。[0016] 非临氢降凝催化剂质量标准【催化剂孔径直径5 A (5X10-10m)】
[0017]
[0018] 主要产品的收率及技术指标如下: [0019] 产率 技术指标 [0020] 富气收率(富气包括干气、液态烃等) 1〜 -3% (1 :量比)[0021] 溶剂油收率(常一线) 3〜 -10% (] ■量比)[0022] 燃料油收率(常二线) 5〜 ‘20% (] ■量比)[0023] 燃料油凝点。c -10 〜-35 °C [0024] 润滑油组分收率 70 - -90% ( 重量比)[0025] 润滑油组分收率 70 - -90% ( 重量比)[0026] 其中减一线收率 5〜 10% (1 【量比)[0027] 减二线收率 10 - -30% ( 重量比)[0028] 减三线收率 10 - -30% ( 重量比)[0029] 减底油收率 10 - -20% ( 重量比)[0030] 润滑油凝点。c _5〜 --30 [0031] 其中减一线凝点。c _5〜 --10 [0032] 减二线凝点。c -10 〜-20 [0033] 减二线凝点。c -10 〜-25 [0034] 减底油凝点 _5〜 --30 [0035] 润滑油粘度(100°c )mm2/s 5 - -40 [0036] 其中减一线粘度 5 - -10 [0037] 减二线粘度 10 - -20 [0038] 减三线粘度 15 - -30 [0039] 减底油粘度 20 - -40 [0040] 润滑油闪点(开口)°c 110 ‘ 〜230 [0041] 其中减一线闪点(开口) 110 ‘ 〜170 [0042] 减二线闪点(开口) 150 ‘ 〜200[0043] 减三线闪点(开口) 170〜210
[0044] 减底油闪点(开口) 〜230
[0045] 本技术方案相对于已有技术的优点是:富气中液态烃由5〜10%降至1〜2%,液 态烃和干气一起作为加热炉燃料,而不需设立液态烃回收系统,大大降低了设备投资,生产 过程也更加安全。催化剂再生周期由3个月左右提升到一年左右,并且由于较少存在过度 反应,基础油中的烯烃含量大幅度下降,所以润滑油基础油的品质也有明显提升,基础油收 率也由40〜50%提升至70〜90%。
[0046] 本发明所取得的有益效果是:
[0047] 1)通过选择合适的催化剂,控制好合适的反应器反应温度,不仅大大提高了润滑 油基础油收率,而且大大提高了润滑油品质。
[0048] 2)反应器温度低,催化剂不会被烧坏,延长了催化剂使用寿命。
[0049] 3)非临氢降凝工艺可以在常压、不用氢气条件下进行脱蜡降凝,工艺具有流程简 单、投资省和效益高的特点。
[0050] 4)产品线长,在得到溶剂油、燃料油的同时,还得到特种油品的基础油。
[0051] 此外,适当降低反应器温度,富气产率低,富气中的液态烃产量小,增强了装置运 行安全性;富气中干气通入加热炉做燃料,降低能源燃料消耗,减少环境污染,优化生产环境.
附图说明
[0052] 图1单反应器工艺流程图
[0053] 图2串联反应器工艺流程图
具体实施方式
[0054] 下面结合附图对具体实施方式进行说明。
[0055] 实施例1
[0056] 在图1中,工艺路线为:原料经泵1加热炉2——反应器3——常压塔 4-—减压炉8-----减压塔9,反应器温度280°C,反应器压力0. 20MPa。
[0057] 在图1中,原料蜡油经泵1,进加热炉2加热后进入反应器3进行催化脱蜡反应,之 后进入常压塔4进行常压分馏,常一线5出溶剂油,常二线6出燃料油,常底油7进减压炉 8加热,之后进入减压塔9,分馏出的润滑油经减一线10、减二线11、减三线12出,剩下减底 油13。
[0058] 原料蜡油质量分析
[0059]
[0060] 溶剂油质量指标
[0061] 密度0.72外观无色透明液体
[0062]
[0063] 燃料油质量指标
[0064] 外观淡黄色液体,凝点_8°C,闪点80°C,密度0. 8268[0065]
[0066]
[0067] 实施例2
[0068] 在图1中,工艺路线为:原料经泵1加热炉2——反应器3——常压塔 4-—减压炉8-----减压塔9,反应器温度290°C,反应压力0. 22MPa
[0069] 溶剂油质量指标
[0070] 密度0.714外观无色透明液体
[0071]
[0076] 实施例3
[0077] 在图2中,工艺路线为:原料经泵1加热炉2——反应器3——常压炉 4反应器5常压塔6—减压炉10——减压塔11,反应器温度280 V,反应器压力 0.25MPa。
[0078] 在图2中,原料蜡油经泵1,进加热炉2加热后进入反应器3进行催化脱蜡反应,然 后进入常压炉4加热,进反应器5再次催化脱蜡反应后,进入常压塔6分馏,常一线7出溶 剂油,常二线8出燃料油,常底油9进减压炉10加热,之后进入减压塔11,分馏出的润滑油 经减一线12、减二线13、减三线14出,剩下减底油15。在实施例3中,加热炉2和常压炉4 加热温度相同。
[0079] 溶剂油质量指标
[0080] 密度0.70外观无色透明液体
[0081]
[0082] 燃料油质量指标
[0083] 外观淡黄色液体,凝点-20°C,闪点70°C,密度0. 8118
[0084]
[0085]

Claims (5)

  1. 一种蜡油非临氢降凝生产工艺,包括以下步骤:(A)蜡油经加热炉加热至280~360℃;(B)进入固定床反应器进行非临氢催化反应;(C)进入常压塔进行常压分馏,常压塔塔顶温度为100~135℃;(D)从常压塔底出来的常底油经减压炉,加热至260~410℃,然后进入减压塔进行减压分馏,减压塔塔顶温度为50~80℃,残压为10mmHg;其特征在于:反应器温度为260~320℃,反应压力为0.15~0.3MPa。
  2. 2. 一种如权利要求1所述的蜡油非临氢降凝生产工艺,其特征在于:反应器温度为 280 〜300"C。
  3. 3. —种如权利要求1或2任一项所述的蜡油非临氢降凝生产工艺,其特征在于:催化 剂的孔径直径为5 A (5 X 10-10m)。
  4. 4. 一种如权利要求1或2任一项所述的蜡油非临氢降凝生产工艺,其特征在于:蜡油 经过两次以上反应器反应。
  5. 5. 一种如权利要求3所述的蜡油非临氢降凝生产工艺,其特征在于:蜡油经过两次以 上反应器反应。
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