CN101825665B  Method for detecting stochastic resonance transient electromagnetic weak signals  Google Patents
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随机共振瞬变电磁弱信号检测方法 Stochastic resonance transient electromagnetic method for detecting weak signal
()技术领域 () FIELD
[0001] 本发明涉及瞬变电磁检测技术，具体为一种基于尺度变换的随机共振瞬变电磁弱信号检测方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to a transient electromagnetic detection, particularly as a random scale transformation method of an electromagnetic resonance transient weak signal detection.
(二）背景技术 (B) Background Art
[0002] 瞬变电磁探测法具有快速探测能力、较好的空间分辨率等优点，近年来被广泛用于矿产勘查和水工环勘查等领域。 [0002] Transient Electromagnetic rapid detection method has the ability, better spatial resolution and other advantages, in recent years been widely used in mineral exploration and prospecting HYDRO like.
[0003] 众所周知，瞬变电磁探测的原理是：瞬变电磁波在向地下传播的过程中，受到各个地层中不同介质的衰减，不同介质对不同频率的瞬变电磁波衰减值是不同的。 [0003] It is well known that transient electromagnetic detection: transient electromagnetic wave during propagation in the underground, by the formation decay respective different media, different media for transient electromagnetic wave attenuation values are different at different frequencies. 因此，只要提取出回波信号中对应于不同物质的瞬变电磁信号的特征频谱，就可反演出地层中不同物质。 Therefore, if the echo signal is extracted corresponding to the transient electromagnetic signal characteristic spectrum of different substances, can inverse the formation of different substances.
[0004] 但是瞬变电磁检测接收采集到的信号是相当微弱的，目前的瞬变电磁信号检测大多采用传统的弱信号检测方法提取弱跳跃信号。 [0004] However, TEM detected received signal is collected quite weak, transient electromagnetic current detection signal are traditional weak signal detection method of detection of a weak signal skip. 这种方法对瞬变电磁信号的频率有较多限制，在信噪比为IOOdB的强噪声背景下，难以提取出目标信号，这就限制了瞬变电磁仪器的探测深度。 This approach has many restrictions on the frequency of transient electromagnetic signal in strong noise SNR IOOdB, it is difficult to extract a target signal, which limits the transient electromagnetic probing depth of the instrument. 另外传统的检测方法需要接收几十个甚至更多个周期的原始信号进行求均值，才能得到目标信号，因此信号采集时间比较长，数据采集量比较大。 Further conventional detection method needs to receive dozens or even more cycles of the original signal averaging is performed in order to obtain a target signal, the signal acquisition time is longer, a greater amount of data acquisition.
[0005] 随机共振系统是用于弱信号检测的方法之一。 [0005] Stochastic resonance system is one of a method for weak signal detection. 随机共振描述了过阻尼布朗粒子随机噪声和周期激励共同作用下，在非线性双稳态系统中所发生的跃迁现象。 Stochastic resonance is described overdamped Brownian random noise excitation period and under the action of a common, bistable nonlinear transition phenomena occurring in the system. 一般以非线性朗之万方程作为研究随机共振的理论模型。 General thousands nonlinear Langevin equation as a theoretical model for studying stochastic resonance. 当外界输入信号，并且噪声逐渐增加时，由于信号和噪声协同作用引发势阱触发，使得粒子能够在两个势阱之间反复跃迁。 When the external input signal, and the noise is gradually increased, since noise signals and trigger synergy potential well caused, so that particles can be repeatedly transition between the two potential wells. 由于双稳态之间的电势差远大于输入信号的幅值，从而使输出信号幅值大于输入信号幅值，起到了对输入信号有效的放大作用。 Since the electrical potential difference between the bistable much larger than the amplitude of the input signal, so that the output signal amplitude is greater than the amplitude of the input signal, it plays an effective role in amplifying the input signal. 同时因系统输出状态有规则的变化，能够有效地抑制系统输出状态中的噪声量，使系统输出信噪比（SNR)得到有效提高。 At the same time due to changes in the output state of the system has a rule, the amount of noise can be effectively suppressed output state of the system, the system output signal to noise ratio (SNR) improved effectively.
[0006] 基于四阶RimgeKutta算法进行随机共振应用于弱信号探测的数值计算研究，在适当选择系统参数和噪声强度时，通过随机共振可以将淹没于强噪声背景中的低频（频率小于0. IHz)弱信号清楚地识别出来。 [0006] Numerical calculation of random weak resonance signal detection is applied to Fourth Order RimgeKutta algorithm, when selecting the appropriate system parameters and the noise intensity, through stochastic resonance may be submerged in strong noise in the low frequency (frequency of less than 0 . IHz) weak signal clearly identified. 但是当被探测的强噪声背景下弱信号频率较高（频率大于0. IHz)时，直接数值计算表明无论是保持上述系统参数不变还是适当改变系统参数及噪声强度，均无法实现随机共振，输出状态的时域表明布朗粒子处于单阱中振荡。 However, when a high frequency weak signal is detected strong noise (frequency greater than 0. IHz), the direct numerical results show that both hold the same system parameters and system parameters appropriately changed or noise intensity, we were unable to achieve resonance, time domain output state indicates Brownian particle oscillation in a single well. 输入信号频率的增加导致产生随机共振的输入信号幅度阈值增加，需要信号输入幅值较大，才可能在随机共振系统发生随机共振。 Increasing the frequency of the input signal results in the generation of stochastic resonance input signal amplitude threshold is increased, a larger input signal amplitude, it may occur at random stochastic resonance resonance system. 而强噪声背景下的弱信号本身的信号幅值过小，难于产生随机共振；另外因为布朗粒子在双阱之间的跃迁速率跟不上大频率的外加驱动力，也是不能产生随机共振的原因。 And weak signal itself under heavy noise signal amplitude is too small, it is difficult to produce stochastic resonance; Further because Brownian large driving force is applied to keep up with frequency in the transition rate between the double well, it can not produce stochastic resonance causes .
[0007] 瞬变电磁探测所得目标信号就是在强噪声背景中的弱信号，且并非只是低频信号，现有的能够有效识别弱信号的随机共振方法对瞬变电磁探测的弱信号检测无能为力。 [0007] The resulting transient electromagnetic detection target signal is strong noise in the weak signals, and not just the lowfrequency signal, the conventional method of stochastic resonance can effectively identify a weak signal powerless transient electromagnetic detecting weak signal detection.
(三）发明内容[0008] 本发明的目的是提供一种随机共振瞬变电磁弱信号检测方法，采用尺度变换，将瞬变电磁检测接收的噪声中的大频率弱目标信号的频率降低若干个数量级，直至满足随机共振条件，产生共振后提高信噪比，提取时域压缩后的目标信号，再还原得到目标信号频 (Iii) Disclosure of the Invention [0008] The object of the present invention is to provide a stochastic resonance transient electromagnetic method for detecting weak signal using scaling, the transient frequency is the frequency of the electromagnetic signal detecting weak targets the received plurality of noise reduction magnitude until stochastic resonance condition is satisfied, the resonance noise ratio, extracting a target signal timedomain compression, and then reduced to give the target signal frequency
並レ曰o And Ritz said o
[0009] 本发明随机共振瞬变电磁弱信号检测方法，瞬变电磁探测接收信号为ns(t)， ns(t) = s(t)+n(t),s(t)为目标信号，s(t) = E AiCos (w,t+0为多个频率信号，其中=Ai 为目标信号幅度，Wi为目标信号频率，Wi范围是IX 10+¾的全频段，Oi为目标信号相位角。n(t)是均值为O、强度为D的高斯白噪声。所用随机共振系统以非线性朗之万方程为&石出： [0009] The present invention is stochastic resonance transient electromagnetic method for detecting a weak signal, the received signal is the transient electromagnetic probing ns (t), ns (t) = s (t) + n (t), s (t) is the target signal, s (t) = E AiCos (w, t + 0 into a plurality of frequency signals, wherein the target signal amplitude = Ai, Wi is the target signal frequency, Wi range IX 10 + ¾ fullband, phase angle Oi is the target signal .n (t) is the mean is O, D intensity of Gaussian white noise stochastic resonance system with a nonlinear equation & Langevin stone out:
[0010] [0010]
[0011] 式中V(x)表示映像对称平方势。 [0011] where V (x) represents the image symmetrical square potential.
[0012] [0012]
[0013] 式（1)可写为 [0013] Formula (1) can be written as
[0014] [0014]
[0015] 其中，X为系统输出，a、b为非线性系统结构參数，n(t)是均值为O、噪声强度为D 的高斯分布白噪声，当s(t) =Acos(cot+(j5)时，输入外力为高斯噪声驱动的余弦信号，调整參数a、b，该余弦信号可在双阱之间的跃迁，实现随机共振。《为信号频率，ct为信号相位角，A为信号幅度，A和D的単位均为任意単位。没有信号和噪声输入吋，方程（3)描述了一个有两个对称势阱的非线性系统，其底部位于\2 位置，而中央势垒高度为AV =0. 25a2/bo [0015] wherein, X is the system output, a, b is a nonlinear structure parameters of the system, n (t) is the mean is O, D is the noise intensity of Gaussian white noise, if s (t) = Acos (cot + ( when J5), Gaussian noise driving force input cosine signal, adjust the parameters a, b, which may be a cosine signal transitions between the double well, to achieve stochastic resonance. "is the signal frequency, ct is the signal phase angle, a is radiolabeling signal amplitude, a and D are arbitrary. Unit. inch no signal input and noise, equation (3) describes a linear system with two symmetrical potential well, which is located at the bottom \ 2 position, while the central barrier height is AV = 0. 25a2 / bo
[0016] 本方法对信号进行尺度变换，即令时域信号ns(t)的频域为NS(jw)，ns(mt)的频 [0016] The present method of scaling the signal, and even if timedomain signal ns (t) in the frequency domain NS (jw), ns (mt) of the frequency
域为+A/S J，式中m为非零常数。 Domain + A / S J, wherein m is nonzero constant. 时域信号压缩m倍，在频域中其频谱就扩展m倍，反 Compressing a time domain signal by m times, in the frequency domain to extend the spectrum m times, trans
之亦然。 And vice versa. 从而将瞬变电磁检测接收的噪声中的大频率弱目标信号的频率降低至小于0. IHz, 输入随机共振系统，产生共振后，提取时域压缩后的目标信号的共振频率，再还原得到目标信号频谱。 So that the transient frequency is the frequency of the electromagnetic signal detecting weak targets the received noise is reduced to less than 0. IHz, input stochastic resonance system, the resonance, the resonant frequency of the target signal to extract the timedomain compression, and then reduced to give the objective signal spectrum.
[0017] 本瞬变电磁弱信号随机共振检测方法具体实施步骤如下： [0017] This transient electromagnetic method for detecting weak signal stochastic resonance specific implementation steps are as follows:
[0018] 步骤I ：将信号ns (t)输入随机共振系统； [0018] Step I: The signal ns (t) input stochastic resonance system;
[0019] 步骤II ：判断系统是否共振，若发生共振，则保存引起共振的频率も；否则，跳转到步骤IV ； [0019] Step II: determining whether the resonance system, if the resonance occurs, the resonance frequency is caused mo saved; otherwise, skip to Step IV;
[0020] 判断系统是否 [0020] It is determined whether the system is
共振的方法： Resonance method:
[0021] 首先，将噪声n(t)输入随机共振系统，对输出信号进行功率谱估计，得到噪声平均功率谱强度Pn;n(t)通过普遍采用的矩阵实验室（MATLAB)软件自带的库函数生成； [0021] First, the noise n (t) input stochastic resonance system, the output signal of the power spectrum estimates, to obtain a noise power spectrum intensity average Pn; n (t) by a matrix commonly used laboratory (the MATLAB) with the software library function generator;
[0022] 然后，将信号ns(t)输入共振系统，对输出信号进行功率谱估计，当输出信号的功率谱中检测到有满足功率谱强度ろ>300x乃的频率fi，即为发生了共振，共振频率为も。 [0022] Then, the signal ns (t) input resonant system, the output signal power spectrum estimate, the power spectrum of the output signal when the detected power spectrum intensity satisfying the ro> 300x Fi is the frequency, that is, resonance occurs , resonance frequency mo.
[0023] 步骤III ：在ns(t)中，滤除步骤II中检测到的所有共振频率も，得到新的ns(t)，跳转到步骤I； [0023] Step III: in the ns (t), filtered off and step II of all the detected resonance frequency mo give new ns (t), proceeds to step I;
[0024] 步骤IV ：令m为记录压缩倍数的标记，初值为l，m = mXN，N为正整数，一般选择N =10。 [0024] Step IV: Let m be a multiple of the recording compression flag, the initial value of l, m = mXN, N being a positive integer, generally choose N = 10.
[0025] 如果m小于目标信号最高频率的10〜100倍，用尺度变换将信号ns(t)频域压缩m倍，得到新的ns(t)，之后跳转到步骤I ； [0025] If m is less than the target 10~100 times the highest frequency signal, converting the signal ns (t) mfold with frequencydomain compression scale, to give new ns (t), then proceeds to step I;
[0026] 如果m大于或等于目标信号最高频率的10〜100倍，跳转到步骤V ； [0026] If m is greater than or equal to the target 10~100 times the highest frequency signal, proceeds to step V;
[0027] 针对具体的应用领域，可以估计待测的目标信号的频率范围，为了保证把目标信号全部提取出来，将估计的待测目标信号的最高频率扩大10〜100倍，作为m的上限值。 [0027] for specific applications, the frequency range of the target signal can be estimated to be tested, in order to ensure all the extracted target signal, the target signal of the highest frequency measured the estimated expanded 10~100 times as the upper limit of m value.
[0028] 步骤V ：对各共振频率&进行还原，即各共振频率&分别乘以获得该共振频率时的m值，得到目标信号的真实频率。 [0028] Step V: & respective resonant frequency reduction, i.e. the resonance frequencies obtained by multiplying each & m value of the resonant frequency, to obtain the real frequency of the target signal.
[0029] 本发明瞬变电磁弱信号随机共振检测方法的优点为：1、针对传统随机共振系统只适用于低频信号的局限，引入尺度变换，消除随机共振系统对待检瞬变电磁信号的频率限制，准确检测得到其中的弱目标信号；2、本法能在信噪比为IOOdB的强噪声背景下，提取出目标信号，为提取深层目标信号提供了可能，从而使瞬变电磁探测仪器的探测深度加大， 探测精度提高，且效果稳定；可用于工程勘探和环境勘探，探测良导性矿体埋深和产状，探测蕴矿构造；3、数据采集时间短，采用本法只需接收4到8个周期的原始信号就能准确的提取目标信号，在提取相同精度的目标信号情况下，本算法数据采集量和采集时间都缩小了数十倍；4、本法对水层回波信号敏感，故特别适用于在地面探测含水层，断层含水性，煤层结构和陷落区；在井下探测采区内部和外围 [0029] The advantages of stochastic resonance transient electromagnetic method for detecting a weak signal of the present invention are: 1, the traditional system is suitable for stochastic resonance frequency signal limitations introduced scaling, eliminate random resonance frequency limit detection system treats transient electromagnetic signals , which give accurate detection of weak target signal; 2, this law can be strong noise SNR is lower IOOdB extract the target signal, provides the possibility to extract deep target signal, such that the transient electromagnetic surveying instrument probing depth increase, the detection accuracy is improved, and the results are stable; can be used for exploration and environmental engineering exploration, detection and depth good conductivity ore occurrence, Yun mine detection configuration; 3, the data acquisition time is short, only use Act received 48 cycles of the original signal can accurately extract a target signal, the target signal in the case of extracting the same precision, the present method of data acquisition and the acquisition time is reduced the amount of a few times; 4, the aqueous layer back Act wave signal sensitivity, it is particularly suitable for detecting the ground water level, water content of the fault, configuration and seam region fall; probe within underground mining area and the peripheral 及掘进头前方的储水结构；探测老窑及其含水性。 Driving storage structure and the front head; detecting and hydrous old kiln.
(四）附图说明 (Iv) Brief Description of Drawings
[0030] 图1为本瞬变电磁弱信号随机共振检测方法实施例的流程图； [0030] FIG electromagnetic transients stochastic resonance weak signal detection method of the present flowchart of one embodiment;
[0031] 图2为本瞬变电磁弱信号随机共振检测方法实施例中接收原始信号时域图； [0031] FIG. 2 is a stochastic resonance detection field view of the embodiment receives the original weak signal transient electromagnetic signals embodiment;
[0032] 图3为本瞬变电磁弱信号随机共振检测方法实施例中从原始信号中提取的目标信号时域图； [0032] Figure 3 present a weak signal transient electromagnetic method for detecting a target stochastic resonance view of the time domain signal extracted from the original signal in the embodiment;
[0033] 图4为本瞬变电磁弱信号随机共振检测方法实施例中提取的目标信号反演效果图。 [0033] FIG. 4 electromagnetic stochastic resonance weak signal detection target signal inversion renderings extracted embodiment of the present embodiment transients.
(五）具体实施方式 (E) Detailed Description
[0034] 本随机共振瞬变电磁弱信号检测方法实施例为某地地质实地勘测中使用情况，瞬变电磁探测接收信号为ns (t)，ns (t) = s (t) +n (t)，s⑴为目标信号，s (t) = Σ AiCos (w,t) 为多个频率信号，其中=Ai为目标信号幅度，其大小对系统影响很小，不作考虑，Wi为目标信号频率，Wi范围是IHz〜100000Hz。 Example [0034] This transient electromagnetic stochastic resonance weak signal detection method for a case where the field of geological survey, transient electromagnetic probing received signal ns (t), ns (t) = s (t) + n (t ), s⑴ as the target signal, s (t) = Σ AiCos (w, t) is a plurality of frequency signals, wherein the target signal amplitude = Ai, little effect on the size of the system, is not considered, Wi is the target signal frequency, Wi range IHz~100000Hz. n(t)是强度为D〜48. 5的高斯白噪声，由于从瞬变电磁探测接收信号是强噪声背景下的含噪信号，相对噪声来说目标信号能量很小，所以噪声强度用接收的含噪信号的强度近似，本例含噪信号强度为48. 5。 n (t) is white Gaussian noise intensity D~48. 5, since the received signal from the transient electromagnetic detection signal is noisy in strong background noise, the target signal energy to noise is small, the noise reception strength noisy signal intensity approximation, the signal strength of the present embodiment is noisy 48.5. 所用随机共振系统为 As used stochastic resonance system
[0035] x^axbxi +s{t) + n(t) [0035] x ^ axbxi + s {t) + n (t)
[0036] 其中，χ为系统输出，a、b为非线性系统结构参数，η (t)是均值为0、噪声强度为D 的高斯分布白噪声，当S(t) = Acos(G) t+Φ)时，输入外力为高斯噪声驱动的余弦信号，ω为信号频率，Φ为信号相位角，A为信号幅度，A和D的单位均为任意单位。 [0036] wherein, [chi] is the system output, a, b is a nonlinear structure parameters of the system, η (t) is zero mean noise intensity D white Gaussian noise, when S (t) = Acos (G) t when [Phi] +), external input cosine signal driven by Gaussian noise, signal frequency [omega], [Phi] is the phase angle of the signal, the signal amplitude a, the unit a and D are arbitrary units. 根据噪声强度D调整a、b使得随机系统产生共振，本例a = 0. 1，b = 1。 The adjustment of a noise intensity D, b stochastic system resonance such that, in this case a = 0. 1, b = 1.
[0037] 本瞬变电磁弱信号随机共振检测方法实施步骤如图1所示，具体如下： [0037] The present stochastic resonance transient electromagnetic method for detecting weak signal obtained in step 1, as follows:
[0038] 步骤I ：将信号ns (t)输入随机共振系统； [0038] Step I: The signal ns (t) input stochastic resonance system;
[0039] 步骤II ：判断系统是否共振，若发生共振，则保存引起共振的频率& ；否则，跳转到步骤IV ； [0039] Step II: determine whether the system resonance occurs if the resonance frequency of the resonance is caused by & saved; otherwise, skip to Step IV;
[0040] 判断系统是否共振的方法： [0040] The system determines whether the resonance method:
[0041] 首先，将噪声输入随机共振系统，对输出信号进行功率谱估计，得到噪声平均功率谱强度Pn; [0041] First, a random noise input resonance system, the output signal of the power spectrum estimates, to obtain a noise power spectrum intensity average Pn;
[0042] 然后，将信号ns(t)输入共振系统，对输出信号进行功率谱估计，当输出信号的功率谱中检测到有满足功率谱强度A >300χΡ„的频率fi，即为发生了共振，共振频率为&。 [0042] Then, the signal ns (t) input resonant system, the output signal power spectrum estimate, the power spectrum of the output signal when the detected power spectrum intensity satisfying A> 300χΡ "frequency Fi, that is, resonance occurs , & resonance frequency.
[0043] 步骤III ：在ns(t)中，滤除步骤II中检测到的所有共振频率fi，得到新的ns(t)，跳转到步骤I； [0043] Step III: in the ns (t), filtered off and step II of all the detected resonance frequency fi, get new ns (t), proceeds to step I;
[0044] 步骤IV ：令m为记录压缩倍数的标记，初值为1，m = mX 10，当m小于目标信号的最高频率fm = 100000的100倍，S卩小于107，用尺度变换将信号ns(t)频域压缩m倍，本例共进行了6次压缩，6次得到新的ns(t)后跳转到步骤I ； [0044] Step IV: Let m be a multiple of the recording compression flag, the initial value 1, m = mX 10, when m is less than the target signal times the highest frequency fm = 100 100000, S Jie less than 107, a signal with a scaling ns (t) m times the frequencydomain compression, the present embodiment a total of six times compression, to obtain new 6 ns (t) after jumping to step I;
[0045] 当第7次进入本步骤m = 10000000，等于目标信号最高频率的100倍，不再进行压缩，跳转到步骤V； [0045] When the present seventh step into the m = 10000000, equal to 100 times the highest frequency of the target signal, no compression, proceeds to step V;
[0046] 步骤V ：对各次压缩得到的共振频率进行还原，即各共振频率&分别乘以获得该共振频率时的m值，得到目标信号的真实频率。 [0046] Step V: a reduction of the resonance frequency of each of the obtained secondary compression, i.e. the resonance frequencies obtained by multiplying each & m value at the resonant frequency, to obtain the real frequency of the target signal.
[0047] 本例实测结果如下表： [0047] The measured results of the present embodiment in the following table:
[0048] [0048]
[0049] 瞬变电磁仪接收机采用了本发明的基于尺度变换的随机共振瞬变电磁弱信号检测方法编制的软件，在广西右江矿务局的里拉矿进行实地勘测验证。 [0049] TEM instrument receiver uses random scale transformation of the present invention an electromagnetic resonance transient weak signal detection method of preparing software, verification field survey YOUJIANG Bureau of Mines lira ore. 图2为瞬变电磁仪接收机接收的原始信号时域图，图中纵坐标为接收信号的电压值、单位为微伏，横坐标为时间、单位为秒，图3为采用本发明方法在接收的原始信号中提取的目标信号时域图，纵横坐标与图2相同；图4为对本发明方法提取的目标信号进行反演并用地质绘图软件（SURFER 软件）绘制的效果图，图中显示测线上测点80至240所在位置地下100米至200米之间有低阻异常，实地情况为测点80至240所在位置地下100米至200米之间有个水仓，反演结果与实地情况很好的吻合。 FIG 2 is a timedomain diagram of the original signal received by the receiver transient electromagnetic instrument, FIG ordinate the voltage value of the received signal, in units of microvolts, the abscissa is time, in seconds, FIG. 3 is a method of the present invention original received signal to extract a target signal timedomain diagram, the same vertical and horizontal coordinates of FIG. 2; FIG. 4 is a target signal the method of the present invention is extracted by inversion and mapping of geological mapping software (SURFER software) results showing mapping 80240 online measuring point there location between 100200 meters underground low resistivity anomalies, as measuring point on the ground where there is a 80240 Sump between 100200 meters underground location, and field inversion results situation in good agreement.
[0050] 上述实施例，仅为对本发明的目的、技术方案和有益效果进一步详细说明的具体个例，本发明并非限定于此。 [0050] The abovedescribed embodiments are merely specific examples of the objectives, technical solutions, and beneficial effects of the present invention are described in further detail, the present invention is not limited thereto. 凡在本发明的公开的范围之内所做的任何修改、等同替换、改进等，均包含在本发明的保护范围之内。 Where any modifications within the scope of the disclosure of the present invention, equivalent substitutions, improvements, etc., are included within the scope of the present invention.
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