CN101816829B - Chromium residue detoxifying process - Google Patents

Chromium residue detoxifying process Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101816829B
CN101816829B CN2010101749086A CN201010174908A CN101816829B CN 101816829 B CN101816829 B CN 101816829B CN 2010101749086 A CN2010101749086 A CN 2010101749086A CN 201010174908 A CN201010174908 A CN 201010174908A CN 101816829 B CN101816829 B CN 101816829B
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China
Prior art keywords
chromium
reducing agent
chromium residue
acid
sodium
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CN2010101749086A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101816829A (en
Inventor
李顺灵
陈俊杰
杨秋岭
黄立志
袁明涛
李万灵
燕战军
赵豆豆
李常慧
张鋆浩
潘志恒
杨海龙
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河南金谷环保工程设备有限公司
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Priority to CN2010101749086A priority patent/CN101816829B/en
Publication of CN101816829A publication Critical patent/CN101816829A/en
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Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of chromium residue detoxifying, and discloses a chromium residue detoxifying process. The process comprises the following steps of: performing wet grinding on chromium residue, adding water into the chromium residue to prepare chromium residue slurry; and after being subjected to acid-leaching reduction reaction, performing solid-liquid separation on the chromium residue slurry to obtain a filter cake, namely the detoxified chromium residue. The process is characterized in that: under the condition of not changing the original alkaline environmentof the chromium residue, a reducing agent 1 is added into the chromium residue directly, and then the reducing agent and the chromium residue are subjected to wet grinding to form particles with 100 to 300 meshes; and the water is added to prepare the chromium residue slurry with 30 to 45 baume degrees, wherein the reducing agent 1 is sodium sulphide, sodium bisulfide, sodium thiosulfate or sodium pyrosulfite. The process has simpleness, thorough detoxification, no chromium return phenomenon and easy implementation of mass production; and the process prolongs effective reduction reaction time, improves reaction efficiency, saves the using amount of acid during the acid-leaching reduction, and has low processing cost because Cr6+ in the chromium residue is subjected to two times of dissolution and reduction.

Description

A kind of chromium residue detoxifying process
Technical field
The invention belongs to the chromium residue detoxifying technical field, particularly a kind of chromium residue detoxifying process.
Background technology
The chromic salts industry is an important industry indispensable in the national economy, is mainly used in aspects such as plating, tanning, printing and dyeing, medicine, catalyst, corrosion inhibition for metal.The main waste residue that discharges in the chromium salt production process (being the chromium slag) is a kind of hazardous waste with severe toxicity, wherein Cr VI (Cr 6+) be the root of toxicity.According to analysis result, with Cr to China's part chromium dreg chemistry composition characteristics 2O 3Metering, total chromium average quality percentage composition is about 3~5% in the chromium slag, and Cr VI average quality percentage composition is about 1~5%.There are six kinds of components to contain Cr in the chromium slag 6+, be respectively Sodium Chromate Tetrahydrate 99, calcium chromate, chromium calcium aluminate and alkali formula ferric chromate, calcium silicates-calcium chromate solid solution and iron calcium aluminate-calcium chromate solid solution.Wherein Sodium Chromate Tetrahydrate 99 and free calcium chromate are water-soluble phase, by surface water, rainwater dissolving, are the origin that the chromium slag pollutes in the recent period easily; Though all the other four kinds of components are insoluble in water, but storing up in the open in the process for a long time, through weathering and aquation easily cause the chromium slag to environment in, long-term pollution.
Chromium residue detoxifying always is a headache difficult problem of chromic salts industry, the tradition detoxification is long too harsh or too high because of processing cost because of reaction condition because of the detoxifcation recovery time, causes not finding out yet so far real effective, an economic and workable chromium residue detoxifying process.
Summary of the invention
For overcoming the deficiencies in the prior art part, the object of the present invention is to provide a kind of reaction efficiency height, chromium residue detoxifying process that cost is low.
For achieving the above object, the technical scheme taked of the present invention is as follows:
A kind of chromium residue detoxifying process, with the wet lapping of chromium slag, add water and make the chromium dreg slurry, Separation of Solid and Liquid after the acidleach reduction reaction, separate the filter cake that obtains and be detoxification chromium slag, its special feature is: do not changing under the original alkaline environment condition of chromium slag, promptly directly to wherein adding reducing agent 1 therewith wet lapping to 100~300 orders, add water and make the chromium dreg slurry that concentration is 30~45 Baume degrees, described reducing agent 1 is vulcanized sodium (Na 2S), NaHS (NaHS), sodium thiosulfate (Na 2S 2O 3) or sodium pyrosulfite (Na 2S 2O 5), the addition of reducing agent 1 is reduced to trivalent chromium and is as the criterion will survey 60~90% of Cr VI total amount in the chromium slag.
Take all factors into consideration from treatment effect and financial cost, reducing agent 1 is preferably vulcanized sodium (Na 2S) or sodium pyrosulfite (Na 2S 2O 5).
During the acidleach reduction, used acid can be selected in those skilled in the art's normal ranges (mainly being dilute sulfuric acid and other spent acid), but the present invention advocates the preferred concentrated sulfuric acid.The concentrated sulfuric acid is meant mass concentration greater than 75% sulfuric acid, advocates among the present invention that the mass concentration of the concentrated sulfuric acid is 93% or 98%.
In the chromium dreg slurry of 30~45 Baume degrees; add acid and reducing agent 2 and carry out acidleach reduction reaction (reaction time, general 2~10h got final product); the addition of acid is 5~6 to be as the criterion with the pH value that can control the chromium dreg slurry, and the addition of reducing agent 2 is lower than national standard emission request " chromium slag contaminated improvement environmental protection technology standard " and (HJ/T301-2007) is as the criterion can control Cr VI final in the detoxification chromium slag and total chrome content.Reducing agent 2 wherein is that those skilled in the art's routine is selected, and specifically can be ferrous sulfate (FeSO 4).
For making waste water reach zero-emission, after the Separation of Solid and Liquid, the filtrate 1 that obtains returns wet lapping and system chromium dreg slurry operation is recycling.
Behind the operation certain hour, the salts substances of actual measurement (mainly is Mg in the waste water after the Separation of Solid and Liquid (being filtrate 1) 2+, Al 3+, Fe 3+, Cr 3+) and SO 4 2-When excessive concentration consequently influences detoxifying effect, in filtrate 1, add alkaline matter and regulate pH value to 6~9 of filtrate 1 with precipitation Mg wherein 2+, Al 3+, Fe 3+, Cr 3+And SO 4 2-, Separation of Solid and Liquid once more, the filtrate 2 that obtains returns wet lapping and system chromium dreg slurry operation is recycling.When the adding alkaline matter carried out wastewater treatment, the main chemical reactions of generation had:
Cr 3++3OH -→Cr(OH) 3↓;
M x++xOH -→M(OH) x↓;
M in the formula X+Represent salts substances Mg 2+, Al 3+, Fe 3+Or Cr 3+, and form Mg (OH) behind the alkali reaction 2, Al (OH) 3, Fe (OH) 3, Cr (OH) 3Deng sediment, SO 4 2-With Ca 2+Reaction forms CaSO 4Sediment, these sediments are deviate from from waste water through Separation of Solid and Liquid, thereby reduce salts substances and SO in the recirculated water 4 2-Concentration.
Described alkaline matter is NaOH, CaO or Ca (OH) 2
The sulfuric acid mist that the concentrated sulfuric acid adds fashionable generation absorbs with alkali lye or water, and the waste liquid after the absorption returns the wet method pulverizing and system chromium dreg slurry operation is recycling.Wherein alkali lye is those skilled in the art's routine selection, is generally NaOH solution.
For refuse is got utilization, detoxification chromium slag is cured landfill or is used as roadbed material or is used as cement building material so that general industry is useless admittedly.
Technological principle of the present invention: adopt the wet lapping technology that the chromium slag is fully ground in wet type ball (rod) mill, grind in the process, calcium chromate in the chromium slag and chromium calcium aluminate lattice structure are destroyed, under the effect of acidic circulation water/waste liquid, water-soluble Cr VI and the continuous stripping of solubility in acid Cr VI enter liquid phase in the chromium slag, and the poisonous Cr VI of stripping constantly with reducing agent 1 first time reduction reaction takes place and is converted into avirulent trivalent chromium; Continue to add water slurrying afterwards, add reducing agent 2, add acid simultaneously and adjust the pH value of slurries, the water-soluble Cr VI of surplus and the thorough stripping of solubility in acid Cr VI and the reducing agent 2 generation reduction reactions second time are carried out the acidleach reduction and detoxication in the chromium slag, Cr VI is converted into avirulent trivalent chromium fully the most at last, after the Separation of Solid and Liquid, adds alkaline matter and adjust the pH value in filtrate, making trivalent chromium conversion is in the chromium slag after chromium hydroxide precipitation is fixed on detoxifcation, thereby reaches the purpose of chromium residue detoxifying.The main reduction reaction that detoxification processes takes place has:
4Cr 2O 7 2-+3S 2-+16H 2O→8Cr(OH) 3↓+3SO 4 2-+8OH --------①
4Cr 2O 7 2-+6S 2-+19H 2O→8Cr(OH) 3↓+3S 2O 3 2-+14OH ------②
2Cr 2O 7 2-+3S 2O 5 2-+14H +→4Cr 3++6SO 4 2-+7H 2O----------③
Cr 2O 7 2-+6Fe 2++16H +→6Fe 3++2Cr 3++8H 2O--------------④
Formula 1., 2. select vulcanized sodium (Na for use for reducing agent 1 2S) reduction reaction that takes place the time, 3. formula selects sodium pyrosulfite (Na for use for reducing agent 1 2S 2O 5) time reduction reaction that takes place, 4. formula selects ferrous sulfate (FeSO for use for reducing agent 2 under sour environment 4) time reduction reaction that takes place.
Reducing agent uses financial cost relatively:
Compare ferrous sulfate (FeSO for example 4) and sodium pyrosulfite (Na 2S 2O 5) be used separately as the processing cost of reducing agent.Suppose Cr VI (Cr in the raw material chromium slag 6+) the quality percentage composition be 4% (with Na 2Cr 2O 72H 2The O meter), required reducing agent consumption of chromium residue detoxifying per ton and Economic and Efficiency Analysis are as follows:
(1) with ferrous sulfate (FeSO 4) make reducing agent
Na 2Cr 2O 7·2H 2O~6FeSO 4·7H 2O
298~6×278=1668
1 ton of chromium slag needs reducing agent FeSO in theory 47H 2The consumption computing formula of O is:
χ theory=1688 * 4%/298=224 (kg)
(2) make reducing agent with sodium pyrosulfite
2Na 2Cr 2O 7·2H 2O~3Na 2S 2O 5
2×298=596~3×190=570
1 ton of chromium slag needs reducing agent Na in theory 2S 2O 5The consumption computing formula be:
χ theory=570 * 4%/596=38 (kg)
According to the existing market market, the ferrous (FeSO of commercial sulphuric acid 4) price by 400 yuan/ton, industrial sodium pyrosulfite (Na 2S 2O 5) price be 1700 yuan/ton, so 1 ton of chromium slag needs the cost of reducing agent to be respectively: ferrous sulfate (FeSO 4) be 89.6 yuan, sodium pyrosulfite (Na 2S 2O 5) be 64.6 yuan.Therefore, the present invention adds reducing agent at twice, compares traditional disposable interpolation reducing agent 2 (FeSO 4) carry out the acidleach reduction reaction, can reduce processing cost, improve a day treatment scale.Take all factors into consideration economic benefit and detoxifying effect, to be reduced to trivalent chromium be criterion to the use amount that the present invention recommends reducing agent 1 will survey 60~90% of Cr VI total amount in the chromium slag.
Good effect of the present invention is:
(1) directly carries out the reduction reaction first time not changing under the original alkaline environment condition of chromium slag to wherein adding reducing agent 1, and adding reducing agent 2 is proceeded reduction reaction for the second time under follow-up sour environment, prolonged effective reduction reaction time, improved reaction efficiency, the consumption of used acid when having saved the acidleach reduction reaction.On still being the mixing of materials uniformity, effective reaction time all is improved than conventional art.
(2) can directly add the concentrated sulfuric acid during acidleach reduction and detoxication, change the mode of tradition with diluting concentrated sulfuric acid, effectively utilized the reaction heat of the concentrated sulfuric acid on the one hand, maximum temperature can reach more than 70 ℃ during redox (being acidleach reduction reaction of the present invention), not only overcome the low obstacle of extremely frigid zones temperature, but also shortened the redox reaction time; Reduce material on the other hand with addition of amount, improved a day treatment scale.
(3) the chromium slag Separation of Solid and Liquid that obtains behind the acidleach reduction and detoxication, waste liquid (filtrate 1/ filtrate 2) is recycling, realizes wastewater zero discharge, and cost is saved in using water wisely.
(4) behind the acidleach reduction and detoxication, add alkaline matter and carry out wastewater treatment, form CaSO 4, Mg (OH) 2, Al 2(OH) 3, Fe 2(OH) 3And Cr (OH) 3Deng sediment, trivalent chromium (Cr 3+) all be converted into Cr (OH) 3Sediment is deviate from sediment from waste liquid, total chrome is reduced.
(5) the chromium slag after the technology detoxifcation of the present invention reaches " chromium slag contaminated improvement environmental protection technology standard " (HJ/T301-2007) standard-required fully; nontoxic chromium slag is with the useless admittedly landfill that is cured of general industry; perhaps as roadbed material; perhaps be used as cement building material and carry out the changing waste into resources utilization, effectively reduce and reduced Cr in the chromium slag 6+Pollution on the environment and destruction.
(6) technical process of the present invention is simple, the Cr VI (Cr in the chromium slag 6+) through twice stripping and twice reduction, detoxifcation is thorough, nothing is returned the chromium phenomenon, accomplishes scale production easily, processing cost is low.
Description of drawings
Accompanying drawing is a process chart of the present invention.
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment technical scheme of the present invention is done into a ground and introduce in detail, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited thereto:
Embodiment 1
Process chart as shown in drawings:
The first step places chromium slag and reducing agent 1 in wet type ball (rod) grinding machine, grinds to 200 orders the water-soluble and solubility in acid Cr VI (Cr in the chromium slag 6+) constantly stripping, the water-soluble (Cr of stripping 6+) constantly with reducing agent 1 first time reduction reaction takes place and be converted into trivalent chromium (Cr 3+), the chromium slag is tentatively detoxified.Wherein, reducing agent 1 is vulcanized sodium (Na 2S), to be reduced to trivalent chromium be criterion to its consumption in order will survey 90% of Cr VI total amount in the chromium slag.
Second step, chromium slag after the preliminary detoxifcation in the first step is inserted hollander tub, and feeding recirculated water prepares the chromium dreg slurry in hollander tub, controlling its concentration is 40 Baume degrees, then the chromium dreg slurry is pumped in the redox jar, and in the redox jar, adding the reducing agent 2 and the concentrated sulfuric acid (mass concentration 93%), control chromium dreg slurry pH is 5.5, makes the water-soluble and solubility in acid Cr VI (Cr in the chromium slag 6+) thorough stripping and reducing agent 2 generation reduction reaction----acidleach second time reduction and detoxications, the reaction of acidleach reduction and detoxication continues 2h, with Cr VI (Cr 6+) be reduced into trivalent chromium Cr fully 3+Wherein, reducing agent 2 is ferrous sulfate (FeSO 4), its addition is can control the Cr of final actual measurement in the detoxification chromium slag 6+Being lower than the national standard emission request with total chrome content is as the criterion.
The 3rd step; after the acidleach reduction and detoxication in second step carries out fully; the chromium dreg slurry is carried out Separation of Solid and Liquid; the filter cake that obtains is detoxification chromium slag; it meets " chromium slag contaminated improvement environmental protection technology standard " (HJ/T301-2007) standard-required fully; be cured landfill or be used as roadbed material or be used as cement building material and carry out the changing waste into resources utilization so that general industry is useless admittedly, filtrate 1 can be used as directly delivery cycle utilization in wet type ball (rod) grinding machine and hollander tub of recirculated water simultaneously.
Embodiment 2
Be with the difference of embodiment 1: in second step, the mass concentration of the concentrated sulfuric acid is 98%; In the 3rd step, after the Separation of Solid and Liquid, in the filtrate 1 that obtains, add the pH value to 6 that alkaline matter NaOH regulates filtrate 1, wait to survey Mg wherein 2+, Al 3+, Fe 3+, Cr 3+Post precipitation, Separation of Solid and Liquid once more, the filtrate 2 that obtains is returned in wet type ball (rod) grinding machine and the hollander tub recycling; Other is all with embodiment 1.
Embodiment 3
Be with the difference of embodiment 1: in the 3rd step, after the Separation of Solid and Liquid, in the filtrate 1 that obtains, add the pH value to 8 that alkaline matter CaO regulates filtrate 1, wait to survey Mg wherein 2+, Al 3+, Fe 3+, Cr 3+And SO 4 2-Post precipitation, Separation of Solid and Liquid once more, the filtrate 2 that obtains is returned in wet type ball (rod) grinding machine and the hollander tub recycling; Other is all with embodiment 1.
Embodiment 4
Be with the difference of embodiment 1: in second step, when in the redox jar, adding the concentrated sulfuric acid, the supporting acid mist absorption system (forming) that is provided with by absorption tower, air-introduced machine and circulating pump etc., absorb the sulfuric acid mist that produces with alkali lye NaOH solution, the waste liquid after the absorption returns in wet type ball (rod) grinding machine and the hollander tub recycling; Other is all with embodiment 1.
Embodiment 5
Be with the difference of embodiment 1: in second step, when in the redox jar, adding the concentrated sulfuric acid, the supporting acid mist absorption system (forming) that is provided with by absorption tower, air-introduced machine and circulating pump etc., water absorbs the sulfuric acid mist that produces, and the waste liquid after the absorption returns in wet type ball (rod) grinding machine and the hollander tub recycling; In the 3rd step, after the Separation of Solid and Liquid, in the filtrate 1 that obtains, add alkaline matter Ca (OH) 2Regulate the pH value to 9 of filtrate 1, wait to survey Mg wherein 2+, Al 3+, Fe 3+, Cr 3+And SO 4 2-Post precipitation, Separation of Solid and Liquid once more, the filtrate 2 that obtains is returned in wet type ball (rod) grinding machine and the hollander tub recycling; Other is all with embodiment 1.
Embodiment 6
Be with the difference of embodiment 5: in the first step, use wet type ball (rod) grinding machine that the chromium slag is ground to 100 orders, reducing agent 1 is sodium pyrosulfite (Na 2S 2O 5), to be reduced to trivalent chromium be criterion to its consumption in order will survey 60% of Cr VI total amount in the chromium slag; In second step, handling the chromium dreg slurry concentration that obtains through hollander tub is 30 Baume degrees, and control chromium dreg slurry pH is 6, carries out acidleach reduction and detoxication 10h in the redox jar; Other is all with embodiment 5.
Embodiment 7
Be with the difference of embodiment 5: in the first step, use wet type ball (rod) grinding machine that the chromium slag is ground to 300 orders, reducing agent 1 be NaHS (NaHS), and its consumption is will survey 70% of Cr VI total amount in the chromium slag to be reduced to trivalent chromium be criterion; In second step, handling the chromium dreg slurry concentration that obtains through hollander tub is 45 Baume degrees, and control chromium dreg slurry pH is 5, carries out acidleach reduction and detoxication 5h in the redox jar; Other is all with embodiment 5.
Embodiment 8
Be with the difference of embodiment 5: in the first step, reducing agent 1 is sodium thiosulfate (Na 2S 2O 3); Other is all with embodiment 5.

Claims (8)

1. chromium residue detoxifying process, with the wet lapping of chromium slag, add water and make the chromium dreg slurry, Separation of Solid and Liquid after the acidleach reduction reaction, separate the filter cake that obtains and be detoxification chromium slag, it is characterized in that: do not changing under the original alkaline environment condition of chromium slag directly to wherein adding reducing agent 1 therewith wet lapping to 100~300 orders, after adding water and making the chromium dreg slurry that concentration is 30~45 Baume degrees, add acid and reducing agent 2 and carry out the acidleach reduction reaction, described reducing agent 1 is a vulcanized sodium, NaHS, sodium thiosulfate or sodium pyrosulfite, the addition of reducing agent 1 is reduced to trivalent chromium and is as the criterion will survey 60~90% of Cr VI total amount in the chromium slag, the addition of acid is 5~6 to be as the criterion with the pH value that can control the chromium dreg slurry, and the addition of reducing agent 2 is lower than the national standard emission request and is as the criterion can control Cr VI final in the detoxification chromium slag and total chrome content.
2. chromium residue detoxifying process as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: reducing agent 1 is vulcanized sodium or sodium pyrosulfite.
3. chromium residue detoxifying process as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: during the acidleach reduction, used acid is the concentrated sulfuric acid.
4. chromium residue detoxifying process as claimed in claim 3 is characterized in that: after the Separation of Solid and Liquid, the filtrate 1 that obtains returns wet lapping and system chromium dreg slurry operation is recycling.
5. chromium residue detoxifying process as claimed in claim 4 is characterized in that: add pH value to 6~9 that alkaline matter is regulated filtrate 1 in filtrate 1, remove wherein salts substances and SO 4 2-After, Separation of Solid and Liquid once more, the filtrate 2 that obtains is returned recycling.
6. chromium residue detoxifying process as claimed in claim 5 is characterized in that: described alkaline matter is NaOH, CaO or Ca (OH) 2
7. chromium residue detoxifying process as claimed in claim 6 is characterized in that: the sulfuric acid mist that the concentrated sulfuric acid adds fashionable generation absorbs with alkali lye or water, and the waste liquid after the absorption returns wet lapping and system chromium dreg slurry operation is recycling.
8. chromium residue detoxifying process as claimed in claim 7 is characterized in that: detoxification chromium slag is cured landfill or is used as roadbed material or is used as cement building material so that general industry is useless admittedly.
CN2010101749086A 2010-04-09 2010-04-28 Chromium residue detoxifying process CN101816829B (en)

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