CN101806777B - Near surface flaw quantification detection method based on ultrasonic TOFD method - Google Patents

Near surface flaw quantification detection method based on ultrasonic TOFD method Download PDF

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CN101806777B
CN101806777B CN 201010115420 CN201010115420A CN101806777B CN 101806777 B CN101806777 B CN 101806777B CN 201010115420 CN201010115420 CN 201010115420 CN 201010115420 A CN201010115420 A CN 201010115420A CN 101806777 B CN101806777 B CN 101806777B
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detection
method
ultrasonic
flaw
semielliptic
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CN101806777A (en )
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刚铁
周安
姚英学
袁媛
迟大钊
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哈尔滨工业大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a near surface flaw quantification detection method based on an ultrasonic TOFD method, which relates to the field of ultrasonic detection. The invention solves the problems that the B-scan process is greatly influenced by the height and width of the welding seam and the detected objects are restricted in the existing flaw locating method using B-scan. The method comprisesthe following steps: measuring the time delay of the detection system; marking a three-dimensional detection coordinate system on the detected object, arranging two probes, carrying out A-scan on thewelding seam, determining the propagation distance of the flaw wave in the detected object and the positions of the sound incident points of the two ultrasonic probes according to the acquired A-scansignal to acquire an semielliptic equation; moving one of the ultrasonic probes to a new detection point, and repeating the operations above to acquire another semielliptic equation; and solving the two semielliptic equations simultaneously to obtain the coordinates of the intersecting point of the two semielliptic equations, and acquiring the transverse and burial depth position of the flaw end according to the coordinates of the intersecting point. The invention is applicable to the field of ultrasonic detection.

Description

一种基于超声TOFD法的近表面缺陷定量化检测方法 Quantitative Near surface flaw detection method based on ultrasonic TOFD Method

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明属于超声波检测领域,涉及一种基于超声衍射时差法的近表面缺陷定量化检测技术。 [0001] The present invention belongs to the field of ultrasonic inspection, relates to near-surface based on time of flight diffraction method ultrasonic flaw detection technique quantitative.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 超声衍射时差法,简称超声TOFD(Time of Flight Diffraction)法,是一种基于接收缺陷端部的衍射信号对缺陷进行定位定量测量的无损检测手段,适合于大厚度的焊缝结构缺陷的检测。 [0002] The ultrasonic time of flight diffraction method, referred to as ultrasonic TOFD (Time of Flight Diffraction) method, a diffraction signal based on the reception of an end portion of nondestructive testing for defects quantitative measurement positioning means adapted to weld a large thickness of structural defects detection. 采用超声TOFD法存在着对近表面缺陷不敏感的技术问题。 There is employed not sensitive to the near surface defects Technical Problem ultrasonic TOFD method. 为了解决这一问题,论文1 :张锐等,超声衍射一回波渡越时间方法焊缝裂纹原位定量无损估计,机械工程学报,2000,36 (5)力4〜57提出了超声TOFD和脉冲回波相结合的检测方法,该项技术有效提高对近表缺陷的识别,但需要附加检测设备。 To solve this problem, the paper 1: Zhang Rui, etc., a diffraction echo ultrasonic transit time method for non-destructive weld crack situ quantitative estimates of Mechanical Engineering, 2000,36 (5) force 4~57 proposed ultrasound and TOFD combining the pulse-echo method for detecting, identifying the technology to improve the near-surface defects, but requires additional testing equipment. 论文2:Chi Dazhao et al, Background removal and welddefect detection based on energy distribution of image (基于能量分布的图像背景去除和缺陷识别)China Welding, 2007,16 (1) : 14〜18提出了一种基于信号及图像处理的方法,通过滤除与近表面缺陷混叠的侧向波,提取近表面缺陷信号并对其进行定量测量,该方法提高了近表面缺陷的辨识能力,但是当各测点信号中侧向波时基抖动以及能量幅度变化较大时,该方法存在侧向波抑制不完全或损伤近表面缺陷信号的问题。 Paper 2: Chi Dazhao et al, Background removal and welddefect detection based on energy distribution of image (background image based on the energy distribution of defect removal and identification) China Welding, 2007,16 (1): 14~18 proposed based on the signal and image processing method, and the near surface defects by filtering out aliased lateral wave signal extracted defects near the surface and subjected to quantitative measurement, this method improves the ability to identify defects near the surface, but when the measuring point signal when the lateral wave-yl jitter amplitude and the energy change is large, there is a lateral wave or completely suppress surface damage near the defect signal problem with this method. 哈尔滨工业大学在2009年12月17日申请的、申请号为200910311663. 4的发明专利申请《一种基于超声TOFD的近表面缺陷识别方法》中公开的技术方案,在常规TOFD法的基础上,提出了一种纵波二次底面反射法,该方法采用A、B、D三种扫描方式,并且不需采用辅助硬件设施,无需信号及图像处理即可发现被检测体中的近表面缺陷,因此该方法克服了常规TOFD法对近表面缺陷不易于识别的问题。 Harbin Institute of Technology on December 17, 2009 application, Patent Application No. 200910311663.4 invention is "an ultrasound-based near-surface defect identification TOFD method" disclosed in the technical solution based on a conventional TOFD method, We present a longitudinal wave reflection bottom surface of the second method which uses a, B, D three scan mode, and without using an auxiliary hardware, without the signal and image processing to find defects near the surface of the sample, so the method overcomes the problems of the conventional TOFD method in the near-surface defects easily identified. 为了获取准确的缺陷横向位置及埋藏深度位置,该方法一般需在缺陷上方检测面做跨越焊缝的B扫描,在获得的B扫描图像上来判断缺陷的准确位置。 In order to obtain the position and the lateral position of the depth of burial accurate defect, the defect in the above method typically need to do a B-scan across the detection surface of the weld, in the B-scan image is obtained up to judge the exact location of the defect. 但是,B扫描图像的获取要在焊缝余高去除加工后才能进行,当存在焊缝余高的高度较大时,B扫描检测的可达性差或不可达。 However, B-scan image is acquired only after the removal process is higher than the weld, when there is a large weld reinforcement height, poor accessibility B-scan testing or unreachable. 而当焊缝的横向尺寸小时,不满足B 扫描检测所需的空间,因此缺陷在焊缝中的准确位置信息也很难获取。 Hours when the lateral dimension of the weld, B does not satisfy the required scan detection space, thus the defect in the weld is difficult to obtain precise location information.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0003] 本发明为解决现有采用B扫描实现缺陷定位的方法中,所述B扫描的过程受焊缝的高度和宽度的影响比较大,测量对象受限制的问题,提供一种基于超声TOFD法的近表面缺陷定量化检测方法。 [0003] The present invention solves the conventional method using B-scan of Defect located in the B-scan process affects the height and width of the weld by the relatively large object to be measured by the limiting problem, a method based on the ultrasound TOFD method of near surface defects quantitative detection method. 该方法的具体步骤为: Specific steps of the method are:

[0004] 步骤一:根据被检测体的厚度h及两个超声波探头发出的超声波在被检测体中的折射角度θ,调整两个超声波探头之间的距离S,使S满足:S〜4XhXtge,并检测系统的时间延迟、; [0004] Step a: The ultrasonic waves are emitted from the sample thickness h of the ultrasonic probe and two θ being the angle of refraction of the sample, adjusting the distance S between the two ultrasonic probes, so that S satisfies: S~4XhXtge, and detection system time delay;

[0005] 步骤二:在被检测焊缝上标记xyz三维检测坐标系,所述坐标系为直角坐标系, 其中,ζ轴与被检测焊缝的中心线相重合,Χ轴位于被检测焊缝所在表面,并且待检测的缺陷端部位于xy平面上;所述的两个超声波探头位于χ轴上,并且两个超声波探头以原点为中心对称,对被检测体进行A扫描,获取第一列A扫描信号,根据所述A扫描信号与步骤一获得的时间延迟、计算缺陷波在被检测焊缝中的传播距离S1 ;然后以xy平面内的两个超声波探头的声入射点A、B为椭圆的两个焦点,以2¾ = S1作为椭圆的长轴,以 [0005] Step II: in a three-dimensional xyz detected seam mark detection coordinate system, the coordinate system is a Cartesian coordinate system, wherein, the axis [zeta] with the center line coincides with the detection of the weld, the weld is detected axis is [chi] where the surface defect to be detected and an end portion located on the xy plane; said ultrasound probe is located two χ axis, and two of the ultrasonic probe is symmetrical about the origin of the sample for a-scan, get the first column a scan signal, depending on the time of the a-scan signal and the step of obtaining a delay wave propagation distance S1 is calculated defect in the weld is detected; then two acoustic incident point of the ultrasonic probe in the xy plane a, B is two focus of the ellipse to the major axis of the ellipse as 2¾ = S1 to

Figure CN101806777BD00041

作为椭圆的短轴,获得位于xy平面的y轴负半轴的半椭圆的方程式; As the minor axis of the ellipse, a semi-elliptical equation axle positioned negative y-axis of the xy plane;

[0006] 步骤三:保持一个超声波探头位置不动,将另一个超声波探头沿χ轴移至B ' 处,然后再次对被检测体进行A扫描,获取第二列A扫描信号,根据所述A扫描信号与步骤一获得的时间延迟、计算缺陷波在被检测焊缝中的传播距离&,然后以xy平面内的两个超声波探头的声入射点A、B'为椭圆的两个焦点,以2s2 = S2作为椭圆的长轴,以 [0006] Step Three: maintaining a fixed position of the ultrasonic probe, another ultrasonic probe moved along the χ axis B ', the sample is then again for A-scan, the second column A scanning signal acquisition, according to the A time scan signal and the step of obtaining a delay from the calculated propagation defect in the detected waves & weld, then two of the ultrasonic probe in the xy plane insonification points a, B 'for the two foci of the ellipse, to 2s2 = S2 as the major axis of the ellipse to

Figure CN101806777BD00042

作为椭圆的短轴,获得位于xy平面的y轴负半轴的半椭圆的方程 As the minor axis of the ellipse, a semi-elliptic equations axle of negative y-axis of the xy plane located

式; formula;

[0007] 步骤四:将步骤二获得的半椭圆的方程和步骤三获得的半椭圆的方程进行联立求解,获得两个半椭圆的交点坐标(Xl、yi),则缺陷端部D在焊缝中的横向位置为X1,缺陷端部在焊缝中的埋藏深度为^i-Iy1U [0007] Step Four: the semi-elliptic equations semi-elliptical equation obtained in step two and step three simultaneous solution is obtained, to obtain two semi-elliptical intersection coordinates (Xl, yi), an end portion of the defect D in the weld cracks lateral position of X1, the end portion of the buried depth of the defect in the weld is ^ i-Iy1U

[0008] 本发明的有益效果:本发明提出一种仅依据两列A扫描信号的近表面缺陷准确定位方法,采用TOFD纵波二次底面反射的检测方法,根据不同探头位置处获取的A扫描信号中缺陷波的传播时间、探头声入射点和缺陷端部之间的几何关系,准确的定位近表面缺陷端部在焊缝中的横向位置及埋藏深度。 [0008] Advantageous Effects of Invention: The present invention provides a method for accurate positioning based only defects near the surface of the two scan signals A, P-wave detection method TOFD bottom surface of the secondary reflector, according to the A-scan signals acquired at different positions of the probe wave propagation time defects, the geometric relationship between the probe and the acoustic incident point defect ends, accurate positioning near surface defects in the lateral position of the end portion and the burial depth of the weld.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0009] 图1为超声TOFD纵波二次底面反射法的检测声路示意图,其中1表示侧向波的传播路径、2表示一次底面反射波的传播路径、3表示缺陷波的传播路径、4表示二次底面反射波的传播路径,5和6分别表示两个超声波探头,图2为A扫描获得的信号波形图,其中7表示侧向波、8表示一次底面反射波、9表示缺陷波、10表示二次底面反射波;图3为检测系统时间延迟的示意图,图4为本发明方法的原理示意图。 [0009] FIG. 1 is a path detecting acoustic longitudinal wave ultrasonic TOFD method is a schematic diagram of the secondary reflecting bottom surface, wherein a channel represents a lateral wave, 2 represents a bottom surface reflected wave propagation paths, defect 3 represents the wave propagation paths 4 represents the bottom surface of the secondary propagation path of a reflected wave, 5 and 6 show two ultrasound probe, FIG. 2 is a signal waveform diagram obtained by a-scan, where 7 denotes a lateral wave, the reflected wave 8 denotes a bottom surface, indicating that the defective waves 9, 10 It represents the bottom surface of the second reflected wave; FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of the time delay detection system, 4 is a schematic view of the principle of the method of the invention of FIG.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0010] 具体实施方式一:结合图3和图4说明本实施方式,本实施方式所述的一种基于超声TOFD法的近表面缺陷定量化检测方法,它的具体步骤为: [0010] In a particular embodiment: in conjunction with FIGS. 3 and 4 illustrate the embodiment of the present embodiment, the embodiment of the present embodiment of a quantitative method for detecting defects based on the near surface of the ultrasonic TOFD method, it is the specific steps:

[0011] 步骤一:根据被检测体的厚度h及两个超声波探头发出的超声波在被检测体中的折射角度θ,调整两个超声波探头之间的距离S,使S满足:S〜4XhXtge,并检测系统的时间延迟、; [0011] Step a: The ultrasonic waves are emitted from the sample thickness h of the ultrasonic probe and two θ being the angle of refraction of the sample, adjusting the distance S between the two ultrasonic probes, so that S satisfies: S~4XhXtge, and detection system time delay;

[0012] 步骤二:在被检测焊缝上标记xyz三维检测坐标系,所述坐标系为直角坐标系, 其中,ζ轴与被检测焊缝的中心线相重合,X轴位于被检测焊缝所在表面,并且待检测的缺陷端部D位于xy平面上;所述的两个超声波探头位于χ轴上,并且两个超声波探头以原点0为中心对称,对被检测体进行A扫描,获取第一列A扫描信号,根据所述A扫描信号与步骤一获得的时间延迟、计算缺陷波在被检测焊缝中的传播距离S1 ;然后以xy平面内的两个超声波探头的声入射点A、B为椭圆的两个焦点,以2¾ = S1作为椭圆的长轴,以Ibx = I^ja12-(AB/2)1作为椭圆的短轴,获得位于Xy平面的y轴负半轴的半椭圆L1的方程式; [0012] Step II: in a three-dimensional xyz detected seam mark detection coordinate system, the coordinate system is a Cartesian coordinate system, wherein, the axis [zeta] with the center line coincides with the detection of the weld, X axis is detected weld where the surface of the end portion D and the defect to be detected is located on the xy plane; said ultrasound probe is located two χ axis, and two ultrasound probes is symmetrical to the origin 0 of the sample for a-scan, the first acquisition an a-scan signal, depending on the time of the a-scan signal and the step of obtaining a delay wave propagation distance S1 is calculated defect in the weld is detected; then two acoustic incident point of the ultrasonic probe in the xy plane a, B is the two foci of the ellipse to the major axis of the ellipse as 2¾ = S1 to Ibx = I ^ ja12- (AB / 2) 1 as the minor axis of the ellipse, the ellipse obtain a negative half-axle located in the plane y-axis Xy the equation of L1;

[0013] 步骤三:保持一个超声波探头5位置不动,将另一个超声波探头6沿χ轴移至B'处,然后再次对被检测体进行A扫描,获取第二列A扫描信号,根据所述A扫描信号与步骤一获得的时间延迟、计算缺陷波在被检测焊缝中的传播距离&,然后以xy平面内的两个超声波探头的声入射点A、B'为椭圆的两个焦点,以2¾ = S2作为椭圆的长轴,以 [0013] Step Three: holding a position of the ultrasonic probe 5 does not move, the other ultrasonic probe 6 moves along the χ axis B ', the sample is then again for A-scan, the second column A scanning signal acquisition, according to the a time scan signal and said step of obtaining a delay from the calculated propagation defect in the detected waves & weld, then two of the ultrasonic probe in the xy plane insonification points a, B 'is a focus of the ellipse two to 2¾ = S2 as the major axis of the ellipse to

Ib1 = 2^a22-(AB'/2f作为椭圆的短轴,获得位于xy平面的y轴负半轴的半椭圆L2的方程 Ib1 = 2 ^ a22- (AB '/ 2f as the minor axis of the ellipse, semi-ellipse obtained equation L2 axle positioned negative y-axis of the xy plane

式; formula;

[0014] 步骤四:将步骤二获得的半椭圆L1的方程和步骤三获得的半椭圆L2的方程进行联立求解,获得两个半椭圆的交点坐标(Xl、yi),则缺陷端部D在焊缝中的横向位置为X1,缺陷端部D在焊缝中的埋藏深度为2h-1 Y11。 [0014] Step Four: the semi-elliptical semi-elliptical equation L1 L2 equations obtained in step two and step three simultaneous solution is obtained, to obtain two semi-elliptical intersection coordinates (Xl, yi), an end portion of the defect D in the lateral position of the weld is X1, the end portion of the defect in the weld burial depth D of 2h-1 Y11.

[0015] 本实施方式步骤二和步骤三所述的A扫描信号中包含四路声波,第一路声波为侧向波,第二路为一次底面反射波,第三路为缺陷波,第四路为二次底面反射波,其中所述缺陷波和二次底面反射波的传播路径为“W”形。 [0015] A scanning signal of the present embodiment, three steps two and four steps comprising the acoustic wave, the first wave is a lateral acoustic path, a second path to the bottom surface of a reflected wave, the third wave path is defective, the fourth the bottom surface of the secondary path of the reflected wave, wherein the propagation path of the bottom surface of the defect and the secondary wave is a reflected wave "W" shape.

[0016] 本实施方式所述的缺陷波是指一个超声波探头发射出的纵波被检测焊缝底面反射到达被检测焊缝的缺陷端部D处并发生衍射后,再次经被检测焊缝底面反射后被另一个超声波探头接收的波。 [0016] wave defects present embodiment refers to an embodiment of the ultrasonic probe emits longitudinal waves are detected weld defect D of the bottom surface reflection reaches the end portion is detected after the weld and diffracted, reflected by the bottom surface of the weld is detected again another ultrasonic probe after the received wave.

[0017] 本实施方式中步骤二所述的根据所述A扫描信号与步骤一获得的时间延迟、计算缺陷波在被检测焊缝中的传播距离S1W方法为:根据缺陷波的到达时间、及缺陷波在被检测焊缝中的声速V,依据公SS1 = (ti-tJXv获得。 [0017] In the present embodiment, the time of Step 2 to Step A-scan signal with a delay obtained by calculating the defect wave propagation method in the detected distance S1W weld as: defects wave arrival time, and weld defects detected wave speed of sound V, according to well-SS1 = (ti-tJXv obtained.

[0018] 本实施方式中步骤三所述的根据所述A扫描信号与步骤一获得的时间延迟、计算缺陷波在被检测焊缝中的传播距离&的方法为:根据缺陷波的到达时间、及缺陷波在被检测焊缝中的声速V,并依据公式& = (t2-t0) X ν获得。 [0018] According to the present embodiment, the scanning time of the signal A is obtained with a delay step of the three step calculating the propagation distance in the detected defect waves & weld method is: the defect wave arrival time, and a defect is detected in the weld wave sound velocity V, and according to the formula & = (t2-t0) X ν obtained.

[0019] 以下结合图3和图4并通过具体的参数说明本方法: [0019] with reference to FIGS. 3 and 4 and described by the specific parameters of the method:

[0020] 根据被检测体的厚度h及两个超声波探头发出的超声波在被检测体中的折射角度θ,调整两个超声波探头之间的距离S,并且S满足:S〜4XhXtge,并检测系统的时间延迟、;在被检测焊缝上标记xyz检测坐标系,结合图4,ζ轴与被检测焊缝的中心线相重合,χ轴位于被检测焊缝所在表面,并且待检测的缺陷端部D位于xy平面上;沿ζ轴两侧对称布置两个超声波探头于χ轴上,所述两个超声波探头的声入射点分别为A、B,开始A扫描, 获取第一列A扫描信号,根据读取的缺陷波传播时间、及缺陷波在被检测焊缝中的声速v, 并依据公式S1 = U1-O Xv,获得缺陷波在被检测焊缝中的传播距离S1,根据图4所示可知,缺陷波的传播路径为从一个超声波探头5的声入射点开始到另一个超声波探头6的声入射点截止,路径为:AEDFB,则缺陷波的传播距离为=S1 = AE+ED+DF+FB,根据几何计 [0020] The thickness h of the ultrasonic wave emitted from the sample and two of the ultrasonic probe is the refraction angle θ of the sample, adjusting the distance between the two ultrasonic probe S, and S satisfy: S~4XhXtge, and the detection system the time delay; weld mark is detected in the xyz coordinate system is detected, in conjunction with FIG. 4, ζ detected weld axis coincides with the center line, [chi] is detected at the surface of the shaft where the weld, and the end of the defect to be detected portion D is located on the xy plane; ζ symmetrically arranged along two sides of the axis of the ultrasonic probe in the χ axis, the two acoustic incident point of the ultrasonic probe are a, B, a starts scanning, obtaining the first column scan signals a the wave propagation time to read the defect, and a defect is detected in the wave sound velocity v of the weld, and according to the formula S1 = U1-O Xv, wave propagation distance S1 of obtaining defect being detected in the weld, according to FIG. 4 understood, the defect wave propagation path of the ultrasonic probe starts from a point 5 of the incident sound to another sound incidence point of the ultrasonic probe 6 is turned off, the path is: the propagation distance AEDFB, the defect wave is = S1 = AE + ED + DF + FB, according to the geometric meter 算的原理可知,分别将线段AE和BF向y轴负向延伸,相交于点D',则S1 = AD' +D' B, 然后以xy平面内的两个超声波探头的声入射点A、B为椭圆的两个焦点,以2¾ = S1为椭圆 The known principle of calculation, the line segments AE and BF, respectively extending in the y-axis negative, at point D ', then S1 = AD' + D 'B, then two acoustic incident point of the ultrasonic probe in the xy plane A, B is a two foci of the ellipse, oval to 2¾ = S1

的长轴,以均=2如2 _(巡/2)2为椭圆的短轴,获得位于xy平面的半椭圆L1的方程式; Major axis, such as to have 2 _ 2 = (patrol / 2) 2 of the minor axis of the ellipse, located xy L1 obtained semi-elliptical plane equation;

[0021] X2A1Wb12 = 1 y < 0 ;[0022] 保持一个超声波探头5位置不动,将另一个超声波探头6沿χ轴移动至B'处,再次开始A扫描,获取第二列A扫描信号,并根据读取缺陷波的传播时间t2,根据公式& = (t2-t0) Xv,获得缺陷波在被检测焊缝中的传播距离&,根据图4可知,缺陷波的传播路径为从一个超声波探头5的声入射点开始到另一个超声波探头6的声入射点截止,路径为: AEDF' -B',则缺陷波的传播距离31 = AE+ED+DF' +F' B',根据几何计算的原理可知,分别将线段AE和BF'向y轴负向延伸,相交于点D',则& = +DB',然后以xy平面内的两个超声波探头的声入射点A、B'为椭圆的两个焦点,以2¾ = &作为椭圆的长轴, [0021] X2A1Wb12 = 1 y <0; [0022] 5 holding an ultrasound probe position does not move, the other ultrasonic probe 6 to move along the χ axis B ', the A-scan begins again, obtaining the second column A scanning signal, and according to the read defect wave propagation time t2, the according to the formula & = (t2-t0) Xv, obtained in the detected defect wave propagation distance & weld, according to FIG. 4, the defect wave propagation path from the ultrasonic a acoustic probe 5 incident point of the ultrasonic probe starts to another sound incidence point 6 is turned off, the path is: AEDF '-B', the wave propagation distance of the defect 31 = AE + ED + DF '+ F' B ', according to the geometric the calculation principle known, respectively, a line segment AE and BF 'extending in the y-axis negative direction, intersect at point D', is & = + DB ', then two acoustic incident point of the ultrasonic probe in the xy plane a, B' two focus of the ellipse, as to 2¾ = & ellipse major axis,

Figure CN101806777BD00061

作为椭圆的短轴,获得位于xy平面的y轴负半轴的半椭圆L2的方 As a minor axis, the axle is positioned obtain a negative y-axis of the xy plane of the semi-elliptical side L2

程式; Program;

Figure CN101806777BD00062

[0023] 联立获得的两个半椭圆1^和L2的方程, ,λ2 2 2 ' 求解 [0023] The two semi-ellipse obtained by simultaneous equations and L2 ^ 1,, λ2 2 2 'Solution

Figure CN101806777BD00063

获得两个半椭圆的交点D'的坐标(Xl、yi);根据上述两次计算缺陷波的传播距离的过程可知,两个半椭圆的交点D'为缺陷端部D以被焊接物体底面为对称面的镜像对称点,则所述交点D'的横坐标X1即为缺陷端部D在焊缝中的横向位置;而缺陷端部D在焊缝中的埋藏深度为2h-|yiU 'Coordinates (Xl, yi); twice during the propagation distance calculation defect seen from the waves, two semi-elliptical intersection D' to obtain two semi-elliptical intersection D D as a defective end portions is welded to the bottom surface of the object point-symmetrical mirror symmetry plane, then the intersection point D 'of the abscissa X1 is the lateral position of the defect D in the end of the weld; and the burial depth of the defect D in the end portion of the weld 2h- | yiU

[0024] 本实施方式以铝合金板中人工缺陷作为检测对象,在厚度为20. Omm的铝合金板上布置探头,两探头声入射点间距为40. 0mm,获取A扫描信号。 [0024] In the present embodiment, the aluminum alloy sheet artificial defect as a detection target, the probe is disposed in the aluminum alloy plate having a thickness of 20. Omm, and two acoustic probes incidence point spacing 40. 0mm, acquire A-scan signal. 根据铝合金中声速6260m/ s,经过多次测量计算系统延迟为5. 30us ;在被检测体上标定xyz坐标系,坐标系单位为mm。 The sound speed in aluminum 6260m / s, measured after several delay computing system 5. 30us; calibration of the xyz coordinate system on the sample, the coordinate system in mm. 此时缺陷端部在xy坐标平面中的实际坐标为(-8.0,-1. 87)。 At this time, the actual coordinates of defects in the end portion of the xy coordinate plane (-8.0, -1. 87). 采用本发明的方法检测缺陷端部的具体位置的过程为:在ζ轴两侧对称布置探头,两探头入射点间距110. 0mm。 Process of the present invention, the method for detecting the specific position of the end portion of the defect: ζ symmetrically arranged on both sides of the axis of the probe, the probe enters two spacing 110. 0mm. 根据获取A扫描信号中缺陷波的到达时刻为^.71us,计算得声波在被检测体中的传播路程长度为134. Omm0确定xy坐标平面中,以两个超声波探头的声入射点(-55. 0,0)和(55. 0,0)为焦点的半椭圆L1的方程为: The arrival time acquisition A defect scanning signal wave is ^ .71us, calculated from the acoustic wave propagating in the plane of the sample length is determined in the xy coordinates 134. Omm0 to two acoustic incident point of the ultrasonic probe (-55 . 0,0) and (0,0 55.) L1 is focused as a semi-elliptical equation:

[0025] [0025]

[0026] 保持一个超声波探头5位置不变,将另一个超声波探头6移至位置点(65. 0,0) 处,此时两探头入射点间距120.0mm。 [0026] maintain a constant position of the ultrasonic probe 5, the ultrasonic probe 6 moves to another location point (65. 0,0), when the probe enters two spacing 120.0mm. 获取A扫描信号中缺陷波的到达时刻观.10us,计算获得声波在被检测体中的传播距离为142.7mm。 A scanning signal acquiring defect wave arrival time concept .10us, obtained by calculation from the detected acoustic wave is propagated in the body of 142.7mm. 确定坐标系中以两个超声波探头声入射点(-55. 0,0)和(65. 0,0)为焦点的半椭圆L2的方程为: Determining two coordinates of the ultrasonic probe to sound incidence point (-55 0,0) and (0,0 65.) semi-elliptical focus of L2 equation:

[0027] [0028] 联立上述两方程并求解得: 。 [0027] [0028] The above two simultaneous equations and solved to give: . Λ 。 Λ. 其中χ =-7. 8mm为缺陷在被检测体 Where χ = -7. 8mm defect in the sample

中坐标系下的横向位置,2h-|y| = 2. Omm为相应的埋藏深度位置。 The lateral position of the coordinate system, 2h- | y | = 2. Omm burial depth corresponding position.

[0029] 为了避免一次测量结果得不准确性,可经过多次测量取平均值,获得更为可靠的缺陷端部位置。 [0029] In order to avoid a measurement result could not be accurate, may be subjected to multiple measurements averaged to obtain a more reliable defect end position.

[0030] 本实施方式所述的A扫描信号的获取可采用美国物理声学公司(PAC)生产的超声C扫描系统中实现。 [0030] C ultrasound scanning systems can be acquired physical U.S. Acoustics (PAC) produced in the A-scan signals embodiment according to the present embodiment is implemented.

Claims (4)

  1. 1. 一种基于超声TOFD法的近表面缺陷定量化检测方法,其特征是,它的实现方法为: 步骤一:根据被检测体的厚度(h)及两个超声波探头发出的超声波在被检测体中的折射角度θ,调整两个超声波探头之间的距离S,使S满足:S〜4XhXtge,并检测系统的时间延迟tQ ;步骤二:在被检测焊缝上标记xyz三维检测坐标系,所述坐标系为直角坐标系,其中, Z轴与被检测焊缝的中心线相重合,X轴位于被检测焊缝所在表面,并且待检测的缺陷端部(D)位于xy平面上;所述的两个超声波探头位于X轴上,并且两个超声波探头以原点(0)为中心对称,对被检测体进行A扫描,获取第一列A扫描信号,根据所述A扫描信号与步骤一获得的时间延迟、计算缺陷波在被检测焊缝中的传播距离S1 ;然后以xy平面内的两个超声波探头的声入射点A、B为椭圆的两个焦点,以2¾ = S1作为椭圆的长 A quantitative method for detecting defects based on the near surface of the ultrasonic TOFD method, characterized in that its implementation method: Step 1: The ultrasonic waves are emitted from the sample thickness (h) of the ultrasonic probe and detected two the refraction angle [theta] in the body, to adjust the distance between the two ultrasonic probe S, so that S satisfies: S~4XhXtge, time delay and the detection system tQ; step II: in a three-dimensional xyz detected seam mark detection coordinates, the coordinate system is a Cartesian coordinate system, wherein, Z-axis and the centerline of the weld to be detected coincide, X-axis is located at the surface of the weld is detected, and the end portion of the defect to be detected (D) located on the xy plane; the two of said ultrasonic probe located on the X axis, and two ultrasound probe the origin (0) as the center of symmetry, of the sample for a-scan, the first column a scanning signal acquisition, according to the a-scan signal and a step the delay time is obtained, the defect is calculated wave propagation distance S1 in the detected weld; then two acoustic incident point of the ultrasonic probe in the xy plane a, B are two focus of the ellipse to the ellipse as 2¾ = S1 long ,以 To
    Figure CN101806777BC00021
    作为椭圆的短轴,获得位于xy平面的y轴负半轴的半椭圆(L1)的方程式;步骤三:保持一个超声波探头(¾位置不动,将另一个超声波探头(6)沿χ轴移至B '处,然后再次对被检测体进行A扫描,获取第二列A扫描信号,根据所述A扫描信号与步骤一获得的时间延迟、计算缺陷波在被检测焊缝中的传播距离&,然后以xy平面内的两个超声波探头的声入射点A、B'为椭圆的两个焦点,以2¾ = S2作为椭圆的长轴,以 As the minor axis of the ellipse, the equation to obtain a negative axle located xy plane semi-elliptical y-axis (L1) of; Step three: holding one ultrasonic probe (¾ position does not move, the other ultrasonic probe (6) along a shift axis χ to B ', the sample is then again for a-scan, the second column a scanning signal acquisition, according to the delay time of the a-scan signal and a step of obtaining, in the detected propagation distance calculation weld defects & wave and two two focal point of the ultrasound probe in the xy plane insonification points a, B 'of the ellipse to the major axis of the ellipse 2¾ = S2 as to
    Figure CN101806777BC00022
    作为椭圆的短轴,获得位于xy平面的ι轴负半轴的半椭圆(L2)的方程式;步骤四:将步骤二获得的半椭圆(L1)的方程和步骤三获得的半椭圆(L2)的方程进行联立求解,获得两个半椭圆的交点坐标(Xl、yi),则缺陷端部(D)在焊缝中的横向位置为X1,缺陷端部(D)在焊缝中的埋藏深度为^i-Iy1U As a minor axis, the axis lies in the xy plane is obtained ι negative semi-elliptical axle (L2) of the equation; Step four: semi-oval (L1) obtained in step two and step three equations obtained semi-elliptical (L2) simultaneous equations were solved to obtain the coordinates of the intersection of two half ellipses (Xl, yi), an end portion of the defect (D) in the lateral position of the weld is X1, the end portion of the defect (D) buried in the weld depth ^ i-Iy1U
  2. 2.根据权利要求1所述的一种基于超声TOFD法的近表面缺陷定量化检测方法,其特征在于,步骤二所述的计算缺陷波在被检测焊缝中的传播距离S1的方法为:根据缺陷波在被检测焊缝中的传播时间、及缺陷波在被检测焊缝中的声速v,并依据公式S1 = (trt0) Xv 获得。 According to one of the claims 1 near surface defects on the TOFD method of quantitative ultrasound detecting method, characterized in that the method step of calculating the wave propagation distance S1 two defects in the weld is detected: the defect is detected in the wave propagation time of the weld, and the defect is detected wave sound velocity v of the weld, and according to the formula S1 = (trt0) Xv obtained.
  3. 3.根据权利要求1所述的一种基于超声TOFD法的近表面缺陷定量化检测方法,其特征在于,步骤三所述的计算缺陷波在被检测焊缝中的传播距离&的方法为:根据缺陷波在被检测焊缝中的传播时间t2及缺陷波在被检测焊缝中的声速V,并依据公式& = (t2-t0) Xv 获得。 According to one of the claims 1 near surface defects on the TOFD method of quantitative ultrasound detecting method, wherein the step of calculating the third defect detected waves being propagated from the weld & methods are: the defect is detected in the wave propagation time t2 of the weld and weld defects in the detected waves in the sound velocity V, and according to the formula & = (t2-t0) Xv obtained.
  4. 4.根据权利要求1所述的一种基于超声TOFD法的近表面缺陷定量化检测方法,其特征在于,缺陷波是指一个超声波探头发射出的纵波被检测焊缝底面反射到达被检测焊缝的缺陷端部(D)处并发生衍射后,再次经被检测焊缝底面反射后被另一个超声波探头接收的波。 According to one of the claims 1 to quantitative detection method based on near surface defects ultrasonic TOFD method, wherein a defect refers to a wave emitted from the ultrasonic probe detected longitudinal wave is reflected reaches the bottom surface of the weld seam is detected defective end portion (D) at the rear and diffracted again by the bottom surface of the weld is detected after a further ultrasound probe receives the reflected waves.
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